Pictish stones: Wikis

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Replica of the Class II Hilton of Cadboll Stone at the original location; the remains of the original are in the Museum of Scotland.

Pictish stones are monumental stelae found in Scotland, mostly north of the Clyde-Forth line. These stones are the most visible remaining evidence of the Picts and are thought to date from the 6th to 9th centuries.

Contents

Purpose and meaning

The Kirkyard stone c800AD, Aberlemno

The purpose and meaning of the stones are only slightly understood. The stones may have served as personal memorials, with symbols for clans, lineages or kindreds. Some such as the Eassie Stone depict ancient ceremonies and rituals.[1] A small number of pictish stones have been found in association with burials, but these were not likely their original locations. The stones may also have marked tribal or lineage territories.

The symbols may be a kind of pictographic system of writing and the earliest symbols have been suggested as a system of constellations unique to the Picts.[2] There are about 35 different symbols on the stones. These include abstract symbols which have been assigned arbitrary descriptive names by researchers (such as crescent and V-rod, double disc and Z-rod) or outline pictures of animals (such as the adder, salmon, wolf, stag, eagle and the mythical Pictish Beast). There are also representations of everyday objects such as the mirror and comb, which could have been used by high-status males. The symbols are almost always arranged in pairs or sets of pairs, sometimes with the mirror and comb below, hence the thinking they could represent lineage or kindred (such as two parents/clans).

The symbols may rarely be found on jewelry, such as silver plaques from the Norrie's Law hoard found in Fife in the early 19th century. However, very little Pictish metalwork has survived in comparison to neighbouring cultures). The symbols are also sometimes found on other movable objects like small stone discs and bones mostly from the Northern Isles. Simple or early forms of the symbols are carved on the walls of coastal caves at East Wemyss, Fife and Covesea, Moray.

Classification

Aberlemno Serpent Stone, Class I Pictish Stone

In The Early Christian Monuments of Scotland (1903) J Romilly Allen and Joseph Anderson first classified Pictish stones into three groups. Critics have noted weaknesses in this system but it is widely known and still used in the field.

  • Class 1 — unworked stones with symbols only incised. There is no cross on either side. Class 1 stones date back to the 6th, 7th and 8th centuries.
  • Class 2 — stones of more or less rectangular shape with a large cross and symbol(s) on one or both sides. The symbols, as well as Christian motifs, are carved in relief and the cross with its surroundings is filled with designs. Class 2 stones date from the 8th and 9th centuries.
  • Class 3 — these stones feature no Pictish symbols. The stones can be cross-slabs, recumbent gravemarkers, free-standing crosses, and composite stone shrines. They originate in the 8th or 9th century.

Sites

Class III Pictish stone in Dunblane Cathedral
The Nigg Stone, 790-799 AD, Class II, shows a Pictish harp, beasts and warriors in a 19th century illustration, minus the top section.

Only a few stones still stand at their original sites; most have been moved to museums or other protected sites. Some of the more notable individual examples and collections are listed below (Note that listing is no guarantee of unrestricted access, since some lie on private land).

  • The Craw Stane, a six-foot-high Class I stone on top of a hill near Rhynie. A salmon and Pictish Beast are carved on the south-facing side.
  • Dunblane Cathedral, Dunblane — this Class III stone was found in the foundations of Dunblane Cathedral during restoration. It can be found inside the Cathedral.
  • Eassie Stone, stands in the ruined church at Eassie
  • Perth Museum, Perth — collection of 3 Pictish stones, St Madoes 1, Inchyra and Gellyburn.
  • Inverness Museum, Castle Wynd, Inverness — collection of 8 Class 1 stones, including the Ardross Wolf and Deer's Head (two of the finest surviving animal symbols, probably originally parts of the same slab), and a fragment that matches a piece in Dunrobin Castle.
  • Knocknagael Boar Stone, Highland Council HQ, Glenurquhart St, Inverness — Class 1 stone to be seen through a large window. Found at Knocknagael on the outskirts of Inverness.
  • Groam House Museum, Rosemarkie — collection of fragments of Pictish stones and a Class II cross-slab. The museum also has a collection of photographs of Pictish stones in Scotland.
  • Churchyard Stone, Strathpeffer — Class I stone
  • Clach a'Mheirlich, Rosskeen — Class I stone in a field.[3]
  • Shandwick Stone, Shandwick — Class II cross-slab protected by glass shelter.[4]
  • Tarbat Discovery Centre, Portmahomack — large collection of excavated fragments and information about the Picts.
  • Nigg Stone, Nigg inside the former parish church — Class II cross-slab. A fragment of it can be found in Tain Museum
  • Tain and District Museum, Tain — Class I stone in the yard and fragments from Edderton churchyard and Nigg in the museum.
  • Sharp Stone (Clach Biorach), Edderton — Class I stone in a field (probable original position), viewable from the roadside.
  • Kincardine Old Church, Ardgay — coffin-shaped monument.
The Class I Strathpeffer Eagle Stone
The Class III Camus Stone, near Carnoustie

See also

Line notes

  1. ^ C. Michael Hogan, Eassie Stone, The Megalithic Portal, editor: Andy Burnham, 2007
  2. ^ Martin,H.C. (2007). The Lost Language of the Stars. Saint André de Valborgne: Virevolte. ISBN 978-2-9530732-0-1.
  3. ^ Ellen MacNamara, The Pictish Stones of Easter Ross, Tain, 2003
  4. ^ Dougla Scott, The Stones of the Pictish Peninsulas, Hilton Trust, 2004

External links

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