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Pierre Lévy (Tunis, 1956) is a French media scholar, most notable for the "collective intelligence" concept he introduced in a 1994 book[1], anticipating discussions that became popular in the 2000's, such as Wikipedia, wikinomics and the power of diffuse collaboration.

He currently is Professor in the Department of Communications at the University of Ottawa. From 1993 to 1998 he was Professor at the University of Paris VIII. Professor Levy studies the concept of collective intelligence and knowledge-based societies. He is a world-leading thinker on “cyberculture”. In 2004 he was elected as a member of the Royal Society of Canada. His recent works are focused on the development of an Information Economy Meta Language (IEML) based on semiotic concepts. IEML aims to provide a semantic coordinate system for the addressing of concepts on the Internet.

He is one of the major philosophers working on the implications of cyberspace and digital communications. As soon as 1990 (before the web) he published a book about the merging of digital networks and hypertextual communication. Henry Jenkins, amongst others, cites him as an important influence on theories of online collective intelligence. Lévy's 1995 book, Qu'est-ce que le virtuel? (translated as Becoming Virtual: Reality in the Digital Age) develops philosopher Gilles Deleuze's conception of "the virtual" as a dimension of reality that subsists with the actual but is irreducible to it.


His principal work, published in French in 1994 and translated into English, is entitled Collective Intelligence: Mankind's Emerging World in Cyberspace ISBN 0-7382-0261-4 (Perseus, 1999).

Main publications:

  • La machine univers. La Decouverte, Paris 1987

- In Portugal, Instituto Piaget, Lisboa, 1995

- In Brazil, Artmed, Porto Alegre, 1998

  • Les technologies de l'intelligence. La Découverte, Paris 1990

- In Italy, Ombre Corte, Verona, 2000

- In Portugal, Instituto Piaget, Lisboa, 1993

- In Brazil, Editora 34, Rio, 1993

- In Argentina, Edicial, Buenos Aires, 2000

- In Korea, Chul Hak Kwa Hyun Sil Sa, Séoul, 2000

  • L'idéographie dynamique. Vers une imagination artificielle ?. La Découverte, Paris 1992

- in Portugal, Instituto Piaget, Lisbonne, 1994

- In Brazil, Loyola, São Paulo, 1998

  • De la programmation considérée comme un des beaux-arts. La Découverte, Paris 1992
  • Les arbres de connaissances. Découverte, Paris 1992 (with Michel Authier)

- In Brazil, Escuta, São Paulo, 1995

- In Italy, Feltrinelli, Milan, 2000

- In Portugal, Editions Instituto Piaget, Lisbonne, 1999

  • L'intelligence collective. Pour une anthropologie du cyberespace. La Découverte, Paris 1994

- In Italy, Feltrinelli, Milan, 1996

- In Portugal, Editions Instituto Piaget, Lisbonne,1997

- In Germany, Bollmann Verlag, Mannheim, 1997

- In the USA, Perseus Books, Cambridge Mass., 1999

- In Brazil, Loyola, São Paulo, 1998

- Korea, Moonhak-kwa-jisung-sa, Seoul, 2001

  • Qu'est-ce que le virtuel ?. La Découverte, Paris 1995

- In Brazil, Editora 34, São Paulo, 1996

- In Italy, Cortina Editora, Milano, 1997

- in Spain chez Paidos (Barcelone) en 1997

- In the USA, Plenum Press (NY), 1998

- In Greece, Kritiki Publishing, Athens, 1999

- In Korea, Kungree, Séoul, 2000

- In Japan, Kyoto, 2006.

  • Cyberculture. Editions Jacob, Paris 1997

- In Portugal, Instituto Piaget, Lisboa, 1998

- In Catalogna, Universitat Oberta de Catalunya / Proa, Barcelona, 1998

- In Italy, Feltrinelli, Milano, 1999

- In Brazil, Editora 34, São Paulo, 1999

- In the USA, Minnesota U.P., 2001

- In Chile, Dolmen Ediciones, Santiago de Chile, 2001

- In Korea, Moonye Publishing, Seoul, 2000

- In Czech Republic, Univerzita Karlova v Praze - Nakladatelstvi Karolinum, Praha, 2000

  • World Philosophie (le marché, le cyberespace, la conscience). Editions Jacob, Paris 2000

- In Brazil, Editora 34, São Paulo, 2001

- In Portugal, Instituto Piaget, Lisboa, 2001

- In Korea, Thinking Tree, Seoul, 2003

  • Cyberdémocratie. Essai de philosophie politique. Editions Jacob, Paris 2002

- In Spain, Editorial UOC, Barcelona, 2004

- In Italy, Mimesis Edizioni, Sesto S. Giovanni, 2008


  1. ^ L'intelligence collective. Pour une anthropologie du cyberspace, Paris, La Découverte, 1994 (ISBN 2-7071-2693-4)

External links



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