Pietro Badoglio: Wikis

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Pietro Badoglio


In office
25 July 1943 – 18 June 1944
Monarch Victor Emmanuel III
Preceded by Benito Mussolini
Succeeded by Ivanoe Bonomi

Born September 28, 1871(1871-09-28)
Grazzano Badoglio, Kingdom of Italy
Died November 1, 1956 (aged 85)
Grazzano Badoglio, Italy
Nationality Italian
Political party None (Provisional Military Government)

Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. He was a member of the National Fascist Party and commanded his nation's troops under Italian dictator Benito Mussolini in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War; his efforts gained him the title Duke of Addis Abeba.

On 24 July 1943, as Italy had suffered several setbacks in World War II, Mussolini summoned the Fascist Grand Council, which voted no confidence in Mussolini. The following day Il Duce was removed from government by king Victor Emmanuel III and arrested. Badoglio was named Prime Minister of Italy and while mass confusion in Italy reigned, he eventually signed an armistice with the Allies. When this was made public, it threw Italy into chaos. A civil war took place, and the fascists fought the partisans. The king and Badoglio fled Rome leaving the Italian Army with no orders to follow.

Eventually from Brindisi on 13 October, Badoglio and the Kingdom of Italy declared war against Nazi Germany. Badoglio did not stay as Prime Minister for long however, as world opinion at that stage desired a person with a non-Fascist past to head the government. By 1944, Badoglio was replaced by Ivanoe Bonomi of the Labour Democratic Party.

Contents

Biography

He was born in Grazzano Monferrato (later Grazzano Badoglio) in the province of Asti (Piedmont).

After studying at the military academy in Turin, he served with the Italian Army from 1892, at first as a Lieutenant (Tenente) in artillery, taking part in the campaigns in Eritrea (1896) and Libya (1912), where he distinguished himself at the Battle of Zanzur.

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World War I

At the beginning of Italian participation in World War I, he was a Lieutenant Colonel (Tenente Colonnello); he rose to the rank of General following his handling of the capture of Monte Sabotino in May 1916 and by the late months of 1917 (mostly thanks to his Masonic knowledges, including his superior, General Capello) was named as Vice Chief-of-Staff (Sottocapo di Stato Maggiore) despite being one of the main responsibles in the disaster during the Battle of Caporetto on 24 October 1917. 24 In the years after World War I, in which he held several high ranks in the Italian Army, Badoglio exerted a constant effort in modifying official documents in order to hide his role in the defeat[1].

Interwar period

Post-war, Badoglio was named as a Senator, but also remained in the army with special assignments to Romania and the U.S. in 1920 and 1921. At first, he opposed Benito Mussolini and after 1922 was side-lined as ambassador to Brazil. A change of political heart soon returned him to Italy and a senior role in the army as Chief of Staff from 4 May 1924. On June 25, 1926, Badoglio was promoted to the rank of Marshal of Italy (Maresciallo d'Italia).

Badoglio was the first unique governor of Tripolitania and Cyrenaica (Italian Libya) from 1929 to 1933. During his goveronship, he played a vital part (with Rodolfo Graziani, deputy governor of Cyrenaica) in defeating the Libyan rebels. On 24 January 1932, Badoglio proclaimed the end of Libyan resistance for the first time since the Italian invasion in 1911.

Ethiopian invasion

Badoglio was not in East Africa when Emilio de Bono began the invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. De Bono was the Commander-in-Chief of all Italian military forces invading Ethiopia and he was in direct command of the invasion army on the northern front. Ultimately, the progress of De Bono's invasion was judged to be too slow by Mussolini. As a result, Badoglio, who in the meantime had launched an epistolary campaign against De Bono, replaced the latter in December.

Badoglio was immediately faced with the Ethiopian "Christmas Offensive" and he sought and received approval for the use of mustard gas. He employed it to effectively destroy the Ethiopian armies confronting him on the northern front. Badoglio commanded the Italian invasion army at the First Battle of Tembien, the Battle of Amba Aradam, the Second Battle of Tembien, and the Battle of Shire. On 31 March, Badoglio defeated Emperor Haile Selassie commanding the last Ethiopian army on the northern front at the Battle of Maychew. On 26 April, with no Ethiopian resistance left between his forces and Addis Ababa, Badoglio launched his "March of the Iron Will" to take the Ethiopian capital city and end the war. By 2 May, Haile Selassie had fled the country.

On 5 May 1936, Marshal Badoglio led the victorious Italian troops into Addis Ababa. Mussolini declared King Victor Emmanuel to be the Emperor of Ethiopia, and Ethiopia became part of the Italian Empire. On this occasion, Badoglio was appointed the first Viceroy and Governor General of Ethiopia and ennobled with the victory title of Duke of Addis Abeba.

On 11 June 1936, Rodolfo Graziani replaced Badoglio as Viceroy and Governor General of Ethiopia. Badoglio returned to his duties as the Supreme Chief of the Italian General Staff. According to Time Magazine, Badoglio even joined the Fascist Party in early June.[2]

World War II

Badoglio was not in favour of the Italian-German Pact of Steel and was pessimistic about the chances of Italian success in any European war but he did not oppose the decision of Mussolini and the King to declare war on France and Great Britain. Following the Italian army's poor display in the invasion of Greece in December 1940, he resigned from the General Staff. Badoglio was replaced by Ugo Cavallero.

On 24 July 1943, following the Allied invasion of Sicily, there was a meeting of the Fascist Grand Council. On the following day, in a technical coup d'etat, King Victor Emmanuel dismissed Mussolini as Prime Minister and appointed Badoglio to head the government in his place. Martial law was declared, Mussolini was arrested, and negotiations were covertly opened with the Allies. Publicly, the King and Badoglio claimed that Italy would remain with the Axis. Instead, they were plotting in the background[3].

On September 3, General Giuseppe Castellano signed the Italian armistice with the Allies in Cassibile on behalf of Badoglio. On September 8, the armistice document was published by the Allies. It was published before Badoglio could communicate news of the switch to the Italian armed forces. The units of the Royal Army, Royal Navy, and Royal Air Force were generally surprised by the switch and unprepared for German actions to disarm them.In the early hors of September 9, Badoglio, King Victor Emmanuel, some military ministries, and the Chief of the General Staff escaped to Pescara and Brindisi seeking Allied protection.

On 23 September, the longer version of the armistice was signed in Malta. The Badoglio government officially declared war on Germany on October 13. Badoglio did not head the government for long. Following the German rescue of Mussolini, the liberation of Rome, and increasingly strong opposition, he was replaced by Ivanoe Bonomi and other committed anti-Fascists. Badoglio was never tried for war crimes by the Allies primarily because he helped them during the invasion of Italy[citation needed].

See also

References

  1. ^ Quirico, Domenico (2006). "I vinti". Generali. Mondadori. 
  2. ^ Time Magazine, Guard Changed
  3. ^ Quirico, Domenico (2006). "I vinti". Generali. Mondadori. 

References and sources

  • Italian Defence Minister website official biography of Pietro Badoglio as Chief of the General Staff [1]

External references

Political offices
Preceded by
Benito Mussolini
Prime Minister of Italy
1943–1944
Succeeded by
Ivanoe Bonomi
Preceded by
Raffaele Guariglia
Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs
1944
Succeeded by
Ivanoe Bonomi
Preceded by
Benito Mussolini
Head of the Fascist Grand Council
1943
Succeeded by
End Title
Government offices
Preceded by
New Title
Viceroy and Governor-General of Italian East Africa
9 May 1936 - 11 June 1936
Succeeded by
Rodolfo Graziani
Italian nobility
Preceded by
New Title
Duke of Addis Abeba
1936–1956
Succeeded by
Pietro Badoglio, 2nd Duke of Addis Abeba

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

By this act, all ties with the dreadful past are broken, and my government will be proud to be able to march with you on to the inevitable victory.

Pietro Badoglio (September 28, 1871November 1, 1956) was an Italian soldier and politician. He was a member of the National Fascist Party and fought alongside his nation's troops under Benito Mussolini in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War; his efforts gained him the title Duke of Addis Abeba. He eventually signed an armistice with the Allies. Eventually from Malta on October 13, Badoglio and the Kingdom of Italy declared war against Nazi Germany. Badoglio did not stay as Prime Minister for long however, as world opinion at that stage desired a person with a non-Fascist past to head the government. By 1944, Badoglio was replaced by Ivanoe Bonomi of the Labour Democratic Party. He was never tried for war crimes by the allies because he helped them in the invasion of Italy.

Sourced

  • If I announce the armistice and the Americans don't send sufficient reinforcements and don't land near Rome, the Germans will seize the city and put in a puppet fascist government.
    • Quoted in "A Special Mission" - Page 9 - by Dan Kurzman - Political Science - 2007
  • There is no doubt that Jacomoni and Visconti Prasca have a large share of the responsibility in the Albanian affair, but the real blame must be sought elsewhere. It lies entirely with the Duce's command. This is a command that he, the Duce, cannot hold. Let him leave everything to us, and when things go wrong let him punish those responsible.
    • To Pavolini. Quoted in " Albania in the Twentieth Century: A History" - Page 68 - by Owen Pearson - 2006
  • Militarily it was impossible to invade with the dispositions we had made. We had only seven divisions in Albania. Two of them were necessary to hold the Albanian population from going into revolt. Two others were in reserve. That left us three divisions with which to undertake an offensive. Against us, the Greeks disposed of fifteen divisions. We might have been able to undertake an offensive had those figures been reversed.
    • Quoted in "We Cannot Escape History" - Page 85 - by John Thompson Whitaker - Europe - 1943
  • I think if we call in the experts we can draw up the full scheme, with the rallying points arranged.
    • Quoted in "Twenty Angels Over Rome: The Story of Fascist Italy's Fall" - Page 72 - by Richard McMillan - 1945
  • By this act, all ties with the dreadful past are broken, and my government will be proud to be able to march with you on to the inevitable victory.
    • In a letter to General Eisenhower. Quoted in "World War II" - by Michael Armitage, Lord Lewin, Terry Charman - History - 2004 - Page 19
  • Sir, give me a single battalion of the Royal Carabineers and I will drive these upstarts into the sea.
    • Quoted in "The Civilizing Mission" - Page 232 - by A. J. Barker - 1968
  • The Germans will make a few scattered attacks, then go away. The Romans will enjoy a fine September.
    • Quoted in "Italy Betrayed" - by Peter Tompkins - Page 218
  • When Mussolini decided on war he did not take my advice or that of any other Army chief. In August 1939 the Duce had not been so sure about the invincibility of the Germans, and he told us that he had sought to persuade Hitler not to act.
    • Quoted in "Twenty Angels Over Rome: The Story of Fascist Italy's Fall" - Page 70 - by Richard McMillan - 1945
  • Il soldato è come il monaco, per cui l'ordine si chiama obbedienza.
    • The soldier is like the monk, for whom order is called obedience.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio‎" - Page 140 - by Silvio Bertoldi - 1967
  • Io ho conquistato all'Italia un impero e Mussolini l'ha buttato via.
    • I have conquered an empire for Italy and Mussolini has thrown it away.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio Risponde‎" - Page 243 - by Vanna Vailati - Italy - 1958
  • Non sono mai stato un generale ribelle e l'ho dimostrato sino all'ultimo.
    • I've never been a rebel general and I've proven that until the end.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio Risponde‎" - by Vanna Vailati - Italy - 1958
  • (A Mussolini) Vostra Eccellenza può contare ora e sempre sulla mia completa e assoluta devozione.
    • (To Mussolini) His Excellence can count, now and forever, on my complete and absolute devotion.
    • Quoted in "Rodolfo Graziani: L'uomo"‎ - Page 78 - by Giovanni Battista Madìa, Emilio Faldella, Titta Madia - 1955
  • Io i miei nemici li strangolo lentamente col guanto di velluto.
    • I slowly strangle my enemies with a velvet glove.
    • Quoted in "Italienisch-ostafrika(1936-1941)"‎ - Page 18 - by Stefan Plenk - 2008
  • Non posso abbandonarmi a voli di fantasia perché ciò è contrario alla mia natura.
    • I can't let myself fly with my fantasy because it is against my nature.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio Risponde‎" - Page 225 - by Vanna Vailati - Italy - 1958
Translation help is needed for these.
  • Io sono un militare e non so nulla di correnti politiche.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio: Un militare al potere"‎ - Page 228 - by Giovanni De Luna - 1974
  • Se orgoglio ho io, è quello di aver sempre servito fedelmente e con devozione illimitata voi, Duce.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio: duca di Caporetto"‎ - Page 14 - by Carlo De Biase - 1965
  • C'è un veleno che corrode le dittature: l'incenso. La rovina delle dittature sono i ras osannanti.
    • Quoted in "Badoglio"‎ - Page 148 - by Silvio Bertoldi - 1967

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