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Pig
A domestic sow and her piglet.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Subclass: Theria
Infraclass: Eutheria
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Suidae
Subfamily: Suinae
Genus: Sus
Linnaeus, 1758
Species
Pigs are a genus of even-toed ungulates within the family Suidae. .The name hog most commonly refers to the domestic pig (Sus domestica) in everyday parlance, but technically encompasses several distinct species, including the wild boar.^ All swine commonly used in research and testing are Sus scrofa domestics, whether they are farm or miniature breeds.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Swine is a collective noun generally used to describe pigs as a group rather than an individual, however it may often be implied in a pejorative manner to any living being expressing pig-like behaviour.^ The characteristics that have led to the use of swine over other species for these models are related to the anatomic and physiologic characteristics described above.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the brain development of swine a nd the similar topical, histologic and vascular anatomy make them useful as general mammalian models.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ However, blood vessels and the atria in swine tend to be more friable than other species, especially in neonates.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.With around 2 billion on the planet, domestic pigs are also by far the most numerous pig species.^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[1][2] Pigs are omnivores, and despite their reputation for gluttony, they are generally social and very intelligent animals.

Contents

Description and behavior

.A pig has a snout for a nose, small eyes, and a small tail, which may be curly, kinked, or straight.^ Influenza viruses may also be spread when a person touches respiratory droplets on another person or an object and then touches their own mouth, nose, or eyes (or someone else’s mouth, nose, or eyes) before washing their hands.
  • Influenza A H1N1 - Medpedia 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC wiki.medpedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Walter or Whoever May Help, I have been researching pig farming and I am interested in beginning to raise pigs on a very very small scale.
  • Sugar Mountain Farm: Boar Meat 10 February 2010 12:26 UTC sugarmtnfarm.com [Source type: General]

It has a thick body, short legs, and coarse hair. There are four toes on each foot, with the two large middle toes used for walking.[3]
Breeding occurs throughout the year in the tropics, but births peak around rainy seasons. .A female pig can become pregnant at around 8-18 months of age.^ (And, they had not been around any female pigs.
  • Sugar Mountain Farm: Boar Meat 10 February 2010 12:26 UTC sugarmtnfarm.com [Source type: General]

^ An additional 400 milligrams is recommended for children between 11 and 18 years of age and for pregnant or lactating women.
  • 85.07.08: The Calcium Cycle 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pigs raised for meat in North America are usually slaughtered at about 6 months of age, when they are still juveniles.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

She will then go into estrus every 21 days if not bred. .Male pigs become sexually active at 8-10 months of age.^ Frädrich (1974) reported that European wild boar (males) usually cannot mate until they are 4 to 5 years old due to competition with other males, even though they reach sexual maturity at 8 to 10 months.
  • Great Smoky Mountains NP: Status of the European Wild Boar Project (Proposed Research) 3 February 2010 19:11 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pigs raised for meat in North America are usually slaughtered at about 6 months of age, when they are still juveniles.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The juvenile males may then join a small "bachelor" group with other young adults before becoming more solitary as they age.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] .A litter of piglets typically contains between 6 and 12 piglets.^ Domestic farm breeds have larger litters, usually of 8-12 pigs, than miniature pigs which typically have litters of 4-6.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5] After the young are weaned, two or more families may come together until the next mating season.
Pigs do not have functional sweat glands,[6] so pigs cool themselves using water or mud during hot weather. They also use mud as a form of sunscreen to protect their skin from sunburn. Mud also provides protection against flies and parasites.[5]
Domesticated pigs are commonly raised as livestock by farmers for meat (called pork), as well as for leather. Their bristly hairs are also used for brushes. .Some breeds of pig, such as the Asian pot-bellied pig, are kept as pets.^ The Vietnamese pot-bellied pig: Anesthetic friend or foe?
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Veterinary Care of Pot-Bellied Pet Pigs , Orange, CA: All Publishing Co.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Diet and foraging

.Pigs are omnivores, which means that they consume both plants and animals.^ Although pigs subsist primarily on plant matter, [60] , [61] , [62] they are omnivores and supplement their diets with earthworms, insects, amphibians, reptiles, and rodents, and can consume carrion and may engage in scavenger behavior as well.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If animals eat contaminated plants or animals, most of the lead that they eat will pass through their bodies.
  • Public Health Statement for Lead - Encyclopedia of Earth 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Carnivores or omnivores can get their calcium from animals or, in the latter case, also from plants.
  • 85.07.08: The Calcium Cycle 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pigs will scavenge and have been known to eat any kind of food, including dead insects, worms, tree bark, rotting carcasses, garbage, and even other pigs.^ Eating a wide variety of foods, including five servings of fruits and vegetables daily and plenty of whole grains, helps to ensure an adequate intake of magnesium.
  • Bodybuilding.com - Magnesium Information and Product Listing! Magnesium FAQ! 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bodybuilding.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have known since I was a young boy that any time the food we eat is not allowed to digest fully either because of an upset stomach or diarrhea...
  • Potassium | LIVESTRONG.COM 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ As an example, ascorbic acid is never isolated in nature, but occurs in food molecularly bonded to other food elements including bioflavonoids, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids and known as vitamin C. .
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the wild, they are foraging animals, primarily eating leaves, grasses, roots, fruits and flowers. Occasionally while in captivity, pigs may eat their own young if they become severely stressed.
.A typical pig has a large head with a long snout which is strengthened by a special prenasal bone and by a disk of cartilage in the tip.^ The brain is relatively large with structures typical of those of other species.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[4] .The snout is used to dig into the soil to find food and is a very sensitive sense organ.^ Like a cat's whiskers, a pig's snout provides the animal with heightened senses to navigate and interact with the environment, and is especially designed for rooting in the ground in search of food.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Magnesium citrate can be very laxative, but some people find this useful if they have chronic constipation.

^ In addition to being useful as a fine and powerful tool for manipulating objects, the extensive innervation in the snout provides pigs with an extremely well-developed sense of smell.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

Pigs have a full set of 44 teeth. The canine teeth, called tusks, grow continuously and are sharpened by the lowers and uppers rubbing against each other.[4]
Pigs that are allowed to forage may be watched by swineherds. Because of their foraging abilities and excellent sense of smell, they are used to find truffles in many European countries.

Species

The Pygmy Hog is now in the monotypic genus Porcula again.[16]

Domestic pigs

Swedish pigfarmer with piglet. Early 20th century
Pigs have been domesticated since ancient times in the Old World. .Archeological evidence suggests that pigs were being managed in the wild in a way similar to the way they are managed by some modern New Guineans from wild boar as early as 13,000–12,700 BP in the Near East in the Tigris Basin.^ Nitrous oxide constricts epicardial coronary arteries in pigs: evidence suggesting inhibitory effects on the endothelium.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Remains of pigs have been dated to earlier than 11,400 BP in Cyprus that must have been introduced from the mainland which suggests domestication in the adjacent mainland by then.^ Domestic farm breeds have larger litters, usually of 8-12 pigs, than miniature pigs which typically have litters of 4-6.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[18] A separate domestication also occurred in China.[19].
Pigs were brought to southeastern North America from Europe by Hernando de Soto and other early Spanish explorers. Pigs are particularly valued in China and on certain oceanic islands, where their self-sufficiency allows them to be turned loose, although the practice is not without its drawbacks (see Environmental impact).
The domestic pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) is usually given the scientific name Sus scrofa, although some authors call it S. domesticus, reserving S. scrofa for the wild boar. It was domesticated approximately 5,000 to 7,000 years ago. Their coats are coarse and bristly. They are born brownish colored and tend to turn more grayish colored with age. The upper canines form sharp distinctive tusks that curve outward and upward. Compared to other artiodactyles, their head is relatively long, pointed, and free of warts. .Their head and body length ranges from 900-1,800 mm and can weigh 50-350 kg.^ Domestic breeds typically reach 100 kg by 4 months of age and miniature breeds typically range from 25-50 kg at the same age.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Pigs are intelligent and can be trained to perform numerous simple tasks and tricks. .Recently, they have enjoyed a measure of popularity as house pets, particularly the dwarf breeds.^ We had a conversation with a trucking company recently and they spoke of measures that they have put in place to reduce fuel consumption.

^ Into the Wild Rex Rabbit: Guide to the Standard Rex and the Mini Rex The Rex Rabbit is quite a common and popular rabbit breed for pet keepers.

^ They are slow to develop and for this reason shark population numbers have been decreasing rapidly due to the recent popularity of shark fin soup.
  • FISH, a quick course on Ichthyology 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC www.marinebiology.org [Source type: Original source]

Cultural references to pigs

Pigs are frequently referenced in culture and are a popular topic for idioms and famous quotes.

Pigs in religion

Painting of Saint Anthony with pig in background by Piero di Cosimo c. 1480
  • In Nordic Mythology, Gullinbursti ("Gold-Bristle" or "Gold-Mane") was Freyr's golden boar, created by the dwarves Brokk and Sindri as part of a challenge. His shining fur is said to fill the sky, trees, and sea with light.
  • In ancient Egypt pigs were associated with Set, the rival to the sun god Horus. When Set fell into disfavor with the Egyptians, swineherds were forbidden to enter temples. According to Herodotus, swineherds were a kind of separate sect or caste, which only married among themselves. .Egyptians regarded pigs as unworthy sacrifices to their gods other than the Moon and Dionysus, to whom pigs were offered on the day of the full Moon.^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Herodotus states that, though he knew the reason why Egyptians abominated swine at their other feasts but they sacrificed them at this one; however, it was to him "not a seemly one for me to tell".[20]
  • In Hinduism the god Vishnu took the form of a boar varaha in order to save the Earth from a demon who had dragged it to the bottom of the sea.
  • In ancient Greece, a sow was an appropriate sacrifice to Demeter and had been her favorite animal since she had been the Great Goddess of archaic times.^ Swine can not replace all other large animal models in biomedical research, however, they are at least as similar to humans for many types of studies which use species such as ruminants and dogs.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ They also develop pressure overload hypertrophy following banding of the great vessels of the heart like other species (Swindle, 1998) .
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ However, blood vessels and the atria in swine tend to be more friable than other species, especially in neonates.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Initiates at the Eleusinian Mysteries began by sacrificing a pig.
  • The pig is one of the 12-year cycle of animals which appear in the Chinese zodiac related to the Chinese calendar.^ NETVET Swine Links http://netvet.wustl.edu/pigs.htm    Veterinary and animal related.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Believers in Chinese astrology associate each animal with certain personality traits (see: Pig (zodiac)).
  • In keeping with Leviticus 11:7, the dietary laws of Judaism (Kashrut, adj. .Kosher) forbid, among other kinds of meat, the eating of pork in any form, considering the pig to be an unclean animal (see taboo food and drink).^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    From the strict reading to the relevant Torah passage, pork is as forbidden as the flesh of any other unclean animal, no more and no less; in practice, however, abhorrence of pork is far stronger and emotional in traditional Jewish culture than that of other forbidden foods.
  • The eating of pork is also prohibited in Islam (see Haraam), among Seventh-day Adventists and some other Christian denominations.
  • In Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and other older Christian groups, pigs are associated with Saint Anthony the Great, the patron saint of swineherds.
  • In Haitian Vodou, Ezili Dantor, the lwa of motherhood, is associated with the black Creole Pig of Haiti, her favorite animal sacrifice.

Environmental impacts

.Domestic pigs that have escaped from farms or were allowed to forage in the wild, and in some cases wild boars which were introduced as prey for hunting, have given rise to large populations of feral pigs in North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, Hawaii, and other areas where pigs are not native.^ Domestic farm breeds have larger litters, usually of 8-12 pigs, than miniature pigs which typically have litters of 4-6.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In: Manipulating Pig Production VII , proceedings of the seventh Biennial Conference of the Australasian Pig Science Association (APSA), Adelaide, South Australia, pp.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Accidental or deliberate releases of pigs into countries or environments where they are an alien species have caused extensive environmental change. Their omnivorous diet, aggressive behaviour, and their feeding method of rooting in the ground all combine to severely alter ecosystems unused to pigs. .Pigs will even eat small animals and destroy nests of ground nesting birds.^ Like a cat's whiskers, a pig's snout provides the animal with heightened senses to navigate and interact with the environment, and is especially designed for rooting in the ground in search of food.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The wild hogs prey on ground-nesting birds and small mammals and compete for food with native animals.
  • N.J. clears feral-pig hunt in southern Gloucester County - NJ.com 16 September 2009 22:53 UTC www.nj.com [Source type: General]

^ Highly social animals, pigs live in small, matriarchal groups, known as sounders, usually comprised of 2-6 sows and their young.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

[4] The Invasive Species Specialist Group lists feral pigs on the list of the world's 100 worst invasive species and says:[21]
Feral pigs (razorbacks) in Florida
.Feral pigs like other introduced mammals are major drivers of extinction and ecosystem change.^ There is likely to be a genetic component and other dietary, behavioral and hormonal factors also play a major part.
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC jctonic.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They have been introduced into many parts of the world, and will damage crops and home gardens as well as potentially spreading disease.^ Although virtually eliminated in North America and Western Europe because milk is fortified with vitamin D, it still occurs in many parts of the world.

^ Speaking in 4 languages, Pope Benedict XVI stepped into his place in history, on Sunday, for all the world to greet him and wish him well.
  • Sugar Bush Squirrel - International Superstar - Supermodel & Military Hero 13 January 2010 17:21 UTC www.sugarbushsquirrel.com [Source type: General]

^ These recommendations are prudent measures which can limit the spread of many communicable diseases, including influenza.
  • Swine Flu Updates - Travel Guard. More than travel insurance 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC travelguard.com [Source type: News]

.They uproot large areas of land, eliminating native vegetation and spreading weeds.^ They have high radon emanation due to large surface area, and high permeability due to cracking when dry.

.This results in habitat alteration, a change in plant succession and composition and a decrease in native fauna dependent on the original habitat.^ The process includes restoring the land to its approximate original appearance by restoring topsoil and planting native grasses and ground covers.

^ Other investigators have been unable to confirm these initial results of chromium supplementation on changes in body composition.
  • Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutriture and physical activity -- Lukaski 72 (2): 585S -- American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 16 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.ajcn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants actually have the ability to decrease the toxicity of compounds by changing their biochemical forms [13].
  • Calcium 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC goldrust.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Health issues

.Pigs harbour a range of parasites and diseases that can be transmitted to humans.^ Serum and intestinal isotype antibody responses and correlates of protective immunity to human rotavirus in a gnotobiotic pig model of disease.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

These include trichinosis, Taenia solium, cysticercosis, and brucellosis. Pigs are also known to host large concentrations of parasitic ascarid worms in their digestive tract.[22] The presence of these diseases and parasites is one of the reasons why pork meat should always be well cooked or cured before eating. Some religious groups that consider pork unclean refer to these issues as support for their views.[23]
Pigs are susceptible to bronchitis and pneumonia. .They have small lungs in relation to body size; for this reason, bronchitis or pneumonia can kill a pig quickly.^ Lung mechanics with relation to pulmonary haemodynamics, gas exchange and extravascular lung water in mechanically ventilated endotoxaemic pigs.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[24] .There is concern that pigs may allow animal viruses such as influenza or Ebola Reston to infect humans more easily.^ The spontaneously hypercholesterolemic pig as an animal model of human hypercholesterolemia.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Conduction system rates decrease as the animal matures, but in general are more rapid than for humans of equivalent maturity (Gardner & Johnson, 1988) ; (Stanton & Mersmann, 1986) .
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Some strains of influenza are endemic in pigs (see Swine influenza), and pigs also can acquire human influenza.^ Bronchoalveolar interferon-alpha, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1, and inflammation during acute influenza in pigs: a possible model for humans?
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Pigs can be aggressive and pig-induced injuries are relatively common in areas where pigs are reared or where they form part of the wild or feral fauna.^ The time course of cardioprotection induced by GR79236, a selective adenosine A1-receptor agonist, in myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury in the pig.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

[25]

See also

References

  1. ^ Production, Supply and Distribution Online Query, United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service
  2. ^ Swine Summary Selected Countries, United States Department of Agriculture, Foreign Agricultural Service, (total number is Production (Pig Crop) plus Total Beginning Stocks
  3. ^ Feral Pig / Hog / Pig / Wild Boar Hunting
  4. ^ a b c d ADW: Sus scrofa: Information
  5. ^ a b Pigs (2006)
  6. ^ Managing Heat Stress In Outdoor Pigs
  7. ^ Huet, 1888
  8. ^ Müller, 1838
  9. ^ Heude, 1892
  10. ^ Heude, 1888
  11. ^ Müller & Schlegel, 1843
  12. ^ Groves, 1997
  13. ^ Nehring, 1886
  14. ^ a b Linnaeus, 1758
  15. ^ Müller, 1840
  16. ^ Funk, Stephan M., Sunil Kumar Verma, Greger Larson, Kasturi Prasad, Lalji Singh, Goutam Narayan and John E. Fa (2007). The pygmy hog is a unique genus: 19th century taxonomists got it right first time round. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, Volume 45, Pages 427-436
  17. ^ Rosenberg M, Nesbitt R, Redding RW, Peasnall BL (1998). Hallan Cemi, pig husbandry, and post-Pleistocene adaptations along the Taurus-Zagros Arc (Turkey). Paleorient, 24(1):25–41.
  18. ^ Vigne JD, Zazzo A, Saliège JF, Poplin F, Guilaine J, Simmons A. (2009). Pre-Neolithic wild boar management and introduction to Cyprus more than 11,400 years ago. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106:16135–16138. PMID 19706455 doi:10.1073/pnas.0905015106
  19. ^ Giuffra E, Kijas JM, Amarger V, Carlborg O, Jeon JT, Andersson L. (200). The origin of the domestic pig: independent domestication and subsequent introgression. Genetics. 154(4):1785-91. PMID 10747069
  20. ^ Sacrifice Goats, female or male.
  21. ^ Ecology of Sus scrofa, Global Invasive Species Database, The Invasive Species Specialist Group
  22. ^ Pig Health
  23. ^ Marie Parsons. "Pigs in Ancient Egypt"
  24. ^ Pros and Cons of Potbellied Pigs
  25. ^ McClung, Robert M., "The New Book of Knowledge: Pigs"

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Pigs article)

From Wikiquote

I am fond of pigs. .Dogs look up to us.^ Things are not looking up for the US economy - Gerard Jackson - Brookes News .
  • 24hGold - Revue de Presse 27 January 2010 23:57 UTC www.24hgold.com [Source type: News]

^ As we cooed over him and he looked up at us with his big, watery eyes, we had no idea how this little bundle of fur was about to change our lives.

^ The Pointer girl held that maybe it is just a young, very small dog that needs affection and will eventually grow up and become just like us.

Cats look down on us. Pigs treat us as equals._Winston Churchill
.Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family.^ The collared peccary ( Pecari tajacu ), who are native to the southwestern United States, closely resemble pigs although they belong to the family Tayassuidae.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pigs belong to the family Suidae, which includes the warthog ( Phacochoerus ) and bushpig ( Potamochoerus ) of Africa, the babirusa ( Babyrousa ) of Indonesia and the Eurasian wild boar ( Sus scrofa ), who is the ancestor of all domestic pigs.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The family Suidae also includes about 12 separate species of wild pig, most also classified in the genus Sus .

.They have been domesticated and raised as livestock by some peoples for meat (called pork) as well as for leather.^ Carrots, broccoli and sesame seeds, organically-grown well, are some of the richest plant foods in calcium, yet they do not have anything near the calcium levels that people are trying to take in through supplements.
  • Calcium, Pearlcium, Pearl, Sea Calcium, EZorb, Coral Calcium, Deficiency 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.reallywell.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pigs raised for meat in North America are usually slaughtered at about 6 months of age, when they are still juveniles.
  • Pigs: The Underestimated Animal | The Humane Society of the United States 18 September 2009 12:012 UTC www.hsus.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the people with disabilities who might be considered at risk for becoming infected or not realizing they are ill include those who: .
  • Swine Flu - Quick Reference 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.uhc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sourced

.
  • Pig, n. An animal (Porcus omnivorus) closely allied to the human race by the splendor and vivacity of its appetite, which, however, is inferior in scope, for it sticks at pig.^ The spontaneously hypercholesterolemic pig as an animal model of human hypercholesterolemia.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Historically, when humans have become infected, it is a result of close contact with infected pigs (but not consumption of pork).
    • H1N1 Influenza (Swine Flu): eMedicine Infectious Diseases 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC emedicine.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

  • Never try to teach a pig to sing. .You waste your time and you annoy the pig.^ Thank you for your time.
    • WebMD News Watch: Dr. Smith's Swine Flu Q&A 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC blogs.webmd.com [Source type: General]

    ^ That is where you spend most of your time.
    • Radon, radon testing, radon mitigation, radon measurement, radon information, New Jersey radon, what is radon, what if I have radon, information, Causes lung cancer, NJ radon 15 January 2010 23:47 UTC accurateinspections.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But, rather than waste my time trying to explain to you what this software is/does, I may as well show you with a video screenshot: .
    • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

    .
  • If wishes were wings, pigs would fly.^ We knew you would love it!
    • MMS - Fixed Oil 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC www.thesage.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If you keep the fish hungry they should eagerly eat the mixture before the antibiotic dissipates.
    • Fish Disease and Treatment 27 January 2010 23:53 UTC animal-world.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If you are keeping your female guppies along with the males, chances are they would get pregnant about once every 30 days.

    • Wheel of Time VI: p. .233.
  • In The Land of the Pig, The Butcher Is King
    • Meat Loaf: Bat out of Hell III.
  • Me pinguem et nitidum bene curata cute vises, ...Epicuri de grege porcum.
  • Translated: You may see me, fat and shining, with well-cared for hide,—...a hog from Epicurus' herd.^ While I'm not going to eat meat ever, I will diligently take my supplements from here on out - I may even try that suggestion mentioned earlier about organic molasses too!

    ^ If you use medication, you may see technical evaluations and cautions of drugs at the bottom of this site.
    • Rheumatoid Arthritis (maybe gout also) as a Potassium Deficiency 13 January 2010 21:34 UTC members.tripod.com [Source type: Academic]

    ^ But, rather than waste my time trying to explain to you what this software is/does, I may as well show you with a video screenshot: .
    • The Motor Oil Bible eBook 1 February 2010 3:34 UTC motoroilbible.com [Source type: General]

    • Horace, Epistolæ, lib. i. iv. 15, 16.

Unsourced

  • Never wrestle with a pig. .You'll both get dirty, but the pig will like it.
  • The chicken is involved but the pig is committed.
  • There are a lot of women who live with pot-bellied pigs.^ We'll have 2 live events for you.
    • Lead Supreme 3.0 14 January 2010 19:52 UTC leadsupreme.com [Source type: General]

    ^ After I test it and know for sure whether there is any titanium involved, I'll publish the details.
    • Facts, pictures, stories about the element Titanium in the Periodic Table 9 January 2010 0:56 UTC www.theodoregray.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Lots of familiar faces there; ( Matt Brakeville ), Carl Buchanan, (Cannandale), and some new guys who just upgraded from the 5's, ( Carson Christen).

    _Catherine .Zeta-Jones
  • Studying cows, pigs and chickens can help an actor develop his character.^ The membrane in hens' eggs that helps chicken embryos get enough oxygen and calcium for development.
    • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hypophysectomy and hypophysial stalk transection in the pig: Technique and application to studies of ovarian follicular development.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .There are a lot of things I learned from animals.^ Fortunately there are a lot of nutritional supplements as well as other things we can do to not fall victim to Swine Flu.
    • Swine Flu Symptoms | Twirlit 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.twirlit.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    One was that they couldn't hiss or boo me. _James Dean
  • Don't give cherries to pigs or advice to fools_Irish Sayings
  • If pigs could vote, the man with the slop bucket would be elected swineherd every time, no matter how much slaughtering he did on the side_Orson Scott
  • Young pigs grunt as as old pigs grunted before them_Danish Proverb
  • Never trust a pig selling pork sandwiches_Tom Robbins-Another Roadside Attraction

External links

Wikipedia
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Look up pig in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Pig
by Rudyard Kipling
From Plain Tales from the Hills (1888)
Go, stalk the red deer o'er the heather
  Ride, follow the fox if you can!
But, for pleasure and profit together,
  Allow me the hunting of Man,--
The chase of the Human, the search for the Soul
  To its ruin,--the hunting of Man.

                                                       The Old Shikarri.

I believe the difference began in the matter of a horse, with a twist in his temper, whom Pinecoffin sold to Nafferton and by whom Nafferton was nearly slain. .There may have been other causes of offence; the horse was the official stalking-horse.^ Exposure to high levels of cadmium may cause certain cancers and other health problems.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Carcinoid tumors may spread to the liver or other sites in the body, and they may secrete substances such as serotonin or prostaglandins, causing carcinoid syndrome.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Nafferton was very angry; but Pinecoffin laughed and said that he had never guaranteed the beast's manners. Nafferton laughed, too, though he vowed that he would write off his fall against Pinecoffin if he waited five years. Now, a Dalesman from beyond Skipton will forgive an injury when the Strid lets a man live; but a South Devon man is as soft as a Dartmoor bog. You can see from their names that Nafferton had the race-advantage of Pinecoffin. He was a peculiar man, and his notions of humor were cruel. He taught me a new and fascinating form of shikar. He hounded Pinecoffin from Mithankot to Jagadri, and from Gurgaon to Abbottabad up and across the Punjab, a large province and in places remarkably dry. He said that he had no intention of allowing Assistant Commissioners to "sell him pups," in the shape of ramping, screaming countrybreds, without making their lives a burden to them.
Most Assistant Commissioners develop a bent for some special work after their first hot weather in the country. The boys with digestions hope to write their names large on the Frontier and struggle for dreary places like Bannu and Kohat. The bilious ones climb into the Secretariat. Which is very bad for the liver. .Others are bitten with a mania for District work, Ghuznivide coins or Persian poetry; while some, who come of farmers' stock, find that the smell of the Earth after the Rains gets into their blood, and calls them to "develop the resources of the Province."^ A type of cell that makes neurohormones (chemicals that are made by nerve cells and used to send signals to other cells) and releases them into the blood.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

These men are enthusiasts. Pinecoffin belonged to their class. He knew a great many facts bearing on the cost of bullocks and temporary wells, and opium-scrapers, and what happens if you burn too much rubbish on a field, in the hope of enriching used-up soil. All the Pinecoffins come of a landholding breed, and so the land only took back her own again. Unfortunately--most unfortunately for Pinecoffin--he was a Civilian, as well as a farmer. Nafferton watched him, and thought about the horse. Nafferton said:--"See me chase that boy till he drops!" I said:--"You can't get your knife into an Assistant Commissioner." Nafferton told me that I did not understand the administration of the Province.
Our Government is rather peculiar. It gushes on the agricultural and general information side, and will supply a moderately respectable man with all sorts of "economic statistics," if he speaks to it prettily. For instance, you are interested in gold- washing in the sands of the Sutlej. You pull the string, and find that it wakes up half a dozen Departments, and finally communicates, say, with a friend of yours in the Telegraph, who once wrote some notes on the customs of the gold-washers when he was on construction-work in their part of the Empire. He may or may not be pleased at being ordered to write out everything he knows for your benefit. This depends on his temperament. The bigger man you are, the more information and the greater trouble can you raise.
Nafferton was not a big man; but he had the reputation of being very earnest." An "earnest" man can do much with a Government. There was an earnest man who once nearly wrecked . . . but all India knows THAT story. I am not sure what real "earnestness" is. A very fair imitation can be manufactured by neglecting to dress decently, by mooning about in a dreamy, misty sort of way, by taking office-work home after staying in office till seven, and by receiving crowds of native gentlemen on Sundays. That is one sort of "earnestness."
Nafferton cast about for a peg whereon to hang his earnestness, and for a string that would communicate with Pinecoffin. He found both. They were Pig. Nafferton became an earnest inquirer after Pig. He informed the Government that he had a scheme whereby a very large percentage of the British Army in India could be fed, at a very large saving, on Pig. Then he hinted that Pinecoffin might supply him with the "varied information necessary to the proper inception of the scheme." So the Government wrote on the back of the letter:-- "Instruct Mr. Pinecoffin to furnish Mr. Nafferton with any information in his power." Government is very prone to writing things on the backs of letters which, later, lead to trouble and confusion.
Nafferton had not the faintest interest in Pig, but he knew that Pinecoffin would flounce into the trap. Pinecoffin was delighted at being consulted about Pig. The Indian Pig is not exactly an important factor in agricultural life; but Nafferton explained to Pinecoffin that there was room for improvement, and corresponded direct with that young man.
You may think that there is not much to be evolved from Pig. It all depends how you set to work. Pinecoffin being a Civilian and wishing to do things thoroughly, began with an essay on the Primitive Pig, the Mythology of the Pig, and the Dravidian Pig. Nafferton filed that information--twenty-seven foolscap sheets--and wanted to know about the distribution of the Pig in the Punjab, and how it stood the Plains in the hot weather. From this point onwards, remember that I am giving you only the barest outlines of the affair--the guy-ropes, as it were, of the web that Nafferton spun round Pinecoffin.
.Pinecoffin made a colored Pig-population map, and collected observations on the comparative longevity of the Pig (a) in the sub- montane tracts of the Himalayas, and (b) in the Rechna Doab.^ US Pig Gene Mapping Coordination Program http://www.animalgenome.org/pig/    Links provided to swine gene databases, swine gene maps, and species comparative gene maps.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Nafferton filed that, and asked what sort of people looked after Pig. This started an ethnological excursus on swineherds, and drew from Pinecoffin long tables showing the proportion per thousand of the caste in the Derajat. Nafferton filed that bundle, and explained that the figures which he wanted referred to the Cis- Sutlej states, where he understood that Pigs were very fine and large, and where he proposed to start a Piggery. By this time, Government had quite forgotten their instructions to Mr. Pinecoffin. .They were like the gentlemen, in Keats' poem, who turned well-oiled wheels to skin other people.^ They also develop pressure overload hypertrophy following banding of the great vessels of the heart like other species (Swindle, 1998) .
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

But Pinecoffin was just entering into the spirit of the Pig-hunt, as Nafferton well knew he would do. He had a fair amount of work of his own to clear away; but he sat up of nights reducing Pig to five places of decimals for the honor of his Service. He was not going to appear ignorant of so easy a subject as Pig.
Then Government sent him on special duty to Kohat, to "inquire into" the big-seven-foot, iron-shod spades of that District. People had been killing each other with those peaceful tools; and Government wished to know "whether a modified form of agricultural implement could not, tentatively and as a temporary measure, be introduced among the agricultural population without needlessly or unduly exasperating the existing religious sentiments of the peasantry."
Between those spades and Nafferton's Pig, Pinecoffin was rather heavily burdened.
Nafferton now began to take up "(a) The food-supply of the indigenous Pig, with a view to the improvement of its capacities as a flesh-former. (b) The acclimatization of the exotic Pig, maintaining its distinctive peculiarities." Pinecoffin replied exhaustively that the exotic Pig would become merged in the indigenous type; and quoted horse-breeding statistics to prove this. The side-issue was debated, at great length on Pinecoffin's side, till Nafferton owned that he had been in the wrong, and moved the previous question. When Pinecoffin had quite written himself out about flesh-formers, and fibrins, and glucose and the nitrogenous constituents of maize and lucerne, Nafferton raised the question of expense. By this time Pinecoffin, who had been transferred from Kohat, had developed a Pig theory of his own, which he stated in thirty-three folio pages--all carefully filed by Nafferton. Who asked for more.
These things took ten months, and Pinecoffin's interest in the potential Piggery seemed to die down after he had stated his own views. But Nafferton bombarded him with letters on "the Imperial aspect of the scheme, as tending to officialize the sale of pork, and thereby calculated to give offence to the Mahomedan population of Upper India." He guessed that Pinecoffin would want some broad, free-hand work after his niggling, stippling, decimal details. Pinecoffin handled the latest development of the case in masterly style, and proved that no "popular ebullition of excitement was to be apprehended." Nafferton said that there was nothing like Civilian insight in matters of this kind, and lured him up a bye- path--"the possible profits to accrue to the Government from the sale of hog-bristles." There is an extensive literature of hog- bristles, and the shoe, brush, and colorman's trades recognize more varieties of bristles than you would think possible. After Pinecoffin had wondered a little at Nafferton's rage for information, he sent back a monograph, fifty-one pages, on "Products of the Pig." This led him, under Nafferton's tender handling, straight to the Cawnpore factories, the trade in hog-skin for saddles--and thence to the tanners. .Pinecoffin wrote that pomegranate-seed was the best cure for hog-skin, and suggested--for the past fourteen months had wearied him--that Nafferton should "raise his pigs before he tanned them."^ Pathophysiology of skin flaps raised on expanded pig skin.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

Nafferton went back to the second section of his fifth question. How could the exotic Pig be brought to give as much pork as it did in the West and yet "assume the essentially hirsute characteristics of its oriental congener?" Pinecoffin felt dazed, for he had forgotten what he had written sixteen month's before, and fancied that he was about to reopen the entire question. He was too far involved in the hideous tangle to retreat, and, in a weak moment, he wrote:--"Consult my first letter." Which related to the Dravidian Pig. As a matter of fact, Pinecoffin had still to reach the acclimatization stage; having gone off on a side-issue on the merging of types.
THEN Nafferton really unmasked his batteries! .He complained to the Government, in stately language, of "the paucity of help accorded to me in my earnest attempts to start a potentially remunerative industry, and the flippancy with which my requests for information are treated by a gentleman whose pseudo-scholarly attainments should at lest have taught him the primary differences between the Dravidian and the Berkshire variety of the genus Sus.^ When reproducing studies between laboratories, caution should be taken in comparing hemodynamics between different breeds.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

If I am to understand that the letter to which he refers me contains his serious views on the acclimatization of a valuable, though possibly uncleanly, animal, I am reluctantly compelled to believe," etc., etc.
There was a new man at the head of the Department of Castigation. The wretched Pinecoffin was told that the Service was made for the Country, and not the Country for the Service, and that he had better begin to supply information about Pigs.
Pinecoffin answered insanely that he had written everything that could be written about Pig, and that some furlough was due to him.
Nafferton got a copy of that letter, and sent it, with the essay on the Dravidian Pig, to a down-country paper, which printed both in full. The essay was rather highflown; but if the Editor had seen the stacks of paper, in Pinecoffin's handwriting, on Nafferton's table, he would not have been so sarcastic about the "nebulous discursiveness and blatant self-sufficiency of the modern Competition-wallah, and his utter inability to grasp the practical issues of a practical question." Many friends cut out these remarks and sent them to Pinecoffin.
I have already stated that Pinecoffin came of a soft stock. This last stroke frightened and shook him. He could not understand it; but he felt he had been, somehow, shamelessly betrayed by Nafferton. He realized that he had wrapped himself up in the Pigskin without need, and that he could not well set himself right with his Government. All his acquaintances asked after his "nebulous discursiveness" or his "blatant self-sufficiency," and this made him miserable.
He took a train and went to Nafferton, whom he had not seen since the Pig business began. He also took the cutting from the paper, and blustered feebly and called Nafferton names, and then died down to a watery, weak protest of the "I-say-it's-too-bad-you-know" order.
Nafferton was very sympathetic.
"I'm afraid I've given you a good deal of trouble, haven't I?" said he.
"Trouble!" whimpered Pinecoffin; "I don't mind the trouble so much, though that was bad enough; but what I resent is this showing up in print. It will stick to me like a burr all through my service. And I DID do my best for your interminable swine. It's too bad of you, on my soul it is!"
"I don't know," said Nafferton; "have you ever been stuck with a horse? It isn't the money I mind, though that is bad enough; but what I resent is the chaff that follows, especially from the boy who stuck me. But I think we'll cry quite now."
Pinecoffin found nothing to say save bad words; and Nafferton smiled ever so sweetly, and asked him to dinner.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PIG (a word of obscure origin, connected with the Low Ger. and Dut. word of the same meaning, .bigge), a common name given to the domesticated swine of agricultural use.^ Swine, Sus scrofa domestics, are widely used in research and testing.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All swine commonly used in research and testing are Sus scrofa domestics, whether they are farm or miniature breeds.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

(For the zoology, see Swine.) British breeds of pigs are classified as black, white and red. In some places, notably Wales and Gloucester, a remnant of a spotted breed lingers; and a large proportion of common pigs, often parti-coloured, are mongrels. .The white breeds are liable to sun-scald, and black pigs (like black men) are much better adapted than white to exposure in strong sunlight, conforming to the rule that animals in the tropics have black skins.^ The pig as an experimental animal in plastic surgery research for the study of skin flaps, myocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kerrigan, CL, RG Zelt, JG Thomson & E Diano : The pig as an experimental animal in plastic surgery research for the study of skin flaps, myocutaneous flaps and fasciocutaneous flaps.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The Large Whites may have in the skin a few blue spots which grow white hair.^ Substances that attach to CD134 on the surface of T cells (a type of white blood cell) may help the T cells grow and kill more cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The head is long, light in the jowl, and wide between the eyes, with long thin ears inclined slightly forward and fringed with long fine hair.^ A thin layer of tissue that is part of the middle layer of the wall of the eye, between the sclera (white outer layer of the eye) and the retina (the inner layer of nerve tissue at the back of the eye).
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The neck is long, but not coarse, the ribs are deep, the loin wide and level, the tail set high, and the legs straight and set well outside the carcase.^ It usually starts in the pelvis (between the hip bones), the shoulder, the ribs, or at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The whole body, including the back of the neck, is covered with straight silky hair, which denotes quality and lean meat.^ Put back the meat, cover the pan and cook in a low oven (330 deg.
  • North American Import & Export Blog » Blog Archive » 70 Professional Wild Boar Recipes 10 February 2010 12:26 UTC nafood.com [Source type: General]

^ Ingredients Wild Boar Shoulder or Neck meat 16 oz Pork Butt 50/50 lean to fat 8 oz Olive oil 1.5 oz.
  • North American Import & Export Blog » Blog Archive » 70 Professional Wild Boar Recipes 10 February 2010 12:26 UTC nafood.com [Source type: General]

Pigs of this breed are very prolific, and they may be grown to enormous weights - over 11 cwt. alive.
The Middle Whites are built on a smaller scale than the Large Whites. They are shorter in the heads and legs, and fuller at the jowl, thicker and more compact in the body. .The sows are quite as prolific as those of the Large White breed, and, as their produce matures earlier, they are much in demand for breeding porkers.^ A slowly progressing cancer that starts in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of white blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The fallopian tubes of an adult female are the same diameter as those of humans, however they are much longer.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Small White pigs are beautifully proportioned. .The head and legs are very short, and the body short, thick and wide; the jowl is heavy, the ears pricked, and the thin skin laden with long silky, wavy, but not curly, hair, whilst the tail is very fine.^ A shunt (a long, thin tube) is placed in a ventricle of the brain and threaded under the skin to another part of the body, usually the abdomen.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

A deficiency of lean meat is a common characteristic of the breed, which is almost extinct.
The above three breeds were designated Yorkshire Whites, and are still so named at times. .The Middle White, formed by crossing the large and the small breeds, is not so symmetrical as the parent stocks, and the type is not uniform.^ A milky-white fluid that forms in the small intestine during digestion.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A slowly progressing cancer that starts in blood-forming tissues such as the bone marrow, and causes large numbers of white blood cells to be produced and enter the blood stream.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Lincolnshire Curly Coated or Boston pig is a local breed of great size and capacity for producing pork. It is very hardy and prolific, but somewhat coarse in the bone. It has an abundance of long curly hair, a short face and a straight nose, and the ears, not too long and heavy, fall over the face. It crosses well with the Large White, the Large Black and the Berkshire.
The Large Black breed, which vies with the Large White breed for size, and is probably its superior as a bacon pig, has only since 1900 received national show-yard recognition; but there is ample evidence that, with its characteristic whole black colour with a mealy hue, length, fine hair and lop ear, the Large Black existed in the south of England for generations. It has been continuously and carefully bred in Cornwall, Devon, Essex and Suffolk, and from these centres it has rapidly spread all over the country. Large Blacks are exceedingly docile, and the ears, hanging well forward over the eyes, contribute materially to a quietness of habit which renders them peculiarly adapted to field grazing. On account of their hardiness and disposition to early maturity they have proved valuable for crossing purposes. The Large Black Pig Society was incorporated in 1899.
BERKSHIRE BOAR.
LARGE WHITE SOW.
Missing image
Pig-1.jpg
The Berkshire is a black pig with a pinkish skin, and a little white on the nose, forehead, pasterns, and tip to the tail. It has a moderately short head with heavy jowl, a deep, compact carcase, and wide, low and well-developed hind-quarters, with heavy hams. The skin carries an abundance of fine hair. The Berkshire is an early-maturity breed which has been somewhat Middle White Boar.
Missing image
Pig-2.jpg
Small White Boar.
Missing image
Pig-3.jpg
Large Black Sow. Tamworth Boar.
English Breeds Of Pig, from photographs of F. Babbage. The comparative sizes of the animals are indicated by xxi. 594. the scale of reproduction of the photographs.
inbred, and is not so hardy and prolific as most breeds. The boars cross well with common stock. It merits the most credit in raising the quality of Irish pigs. In America it is in the front rank for numbers and quality as a lard-hog. There it often grows to be a larger and finer animal than it is in England.
The Small Black or Black Suffolk was produced from the old Essex pig by crossing with the Neapolitan. It resembles the Small White, except that the skin is coal-black in colour, and the coat of hair is not usually profuse. .The Small Black, moreover, is rather longer, and stands somewhat higher, whilst it yields more lean meat than the Small White.^ The number of mature and immature abnormal white blood cells in the bone marrow and blood is higher than normal, but lower than in the accelerated or blast phase.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

It matures early and is quick to fatten.
The Tamworth is one of the oldest breeds of pigs. It is hardy, active and prolific, and nearly related to the wild boar. The colour is red or chestnut, with at times darkish spots on the skin. .The head, body and legs are long, and the ribs deep and flat.^ It usually starts in the pelvis (between the hip bones), the shoulder, the ribs, or at the ends of the long bones of the arms and legs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Originally a local breed in the districts around the Staffordshire town from which it takes its name, it is now extensively bred, and highly valued as a bacon pig. (W. FR.; R. W.) In America nearly all the breeds may be classified as lardhogs. Bacon-pigs fed on Indian corn degenerate into lardhogs, run down in size and become too small in the bone and less prolific by inbreeding.
The Poland-China, the most popular breed in the United States, is thus degenerating. .It is a black pig like the Berkshire, but has short lop-ears, a more pointed, straight nose, a more compact body, and more white markings.^ A tough, flexible tissue that lines joints and gives structure to the nose, ears, larynx, and other parts of the body.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is a breed of mixed blood, and is believed to have originated from the "Big China" pig - a large white hog with sandy spots, taken to Ohio in 1816, and blended with Irish graziers in 1839, and with a breed known as Bayfields, as well as with Berkshires.^ The Pig Journal on CD http://www.thepigsite.com/books/b195/pig-journal-on-cd-volumes-1-59    Originally known as the Proceedings of the UK Pig Veterinary Society.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

In Iowa the Berkshire is a combined lard and bacon pig in high favour.
.The Duroc Jersey or Duroc, of a red or cherry-red colour - not sandy or dark - is the most popular pig in Nebraska and equal to any other in Iowa.^ The kidneys of the pig are more like humans in anatomy and function than most other species of animals.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

It is a large prolific lard-hog, easily making 300 lb in eight months. It has gained rapidly in popularity since the beginning of this century, and is spreading to other centres.
The Chester White, named from Chester county, Pennsylvania, is one of the four leading breeds of lard-hogs in America. It is of mixed origin and bears a strong family resemblance to the Lincolnshire curly-coated pig. The early English ancestors, the breed of which is not on record in America, were most probably of Lincoln origin. The sow is a prolific breeder and good mother, weighing, when mature but not fat, 450 lb - the boar averaging 600 lb, and barrows at six to eight months 350 lb. At Vermont Station, in a 127 days' test, Chester Whites made an average gain of 1.36 lb and dressed 84.5% carcase, and they can gain fully 1 lb of live weight for 3 lb of grain consumed.

Management

The brood sow should be lengthy and of a prolific strain, known to milk well. She is moderately fed and put to a boar of her own age when large enough, i.e. seven to eight months old. She remains in a state of oestrum for about three days, and if not pregnant comes in heat again in three weeks. Breeding swine, male and female, run most of their time at pasture and receive a liberal allowance of green food or raw roots. The period of gestation is sixteen weeks. Six to eight pigs are reared of the first litter, and ten to twelve afterwards. Many brood sows are fattened to greatest profit after the second or third litter. .Two litters are produced in one year, as pigs are usually weaned at two months old, and the sow will take the boar at from three days to a week after the pigs are removed, according to condition.^ The gestation period of 112-114 days allows sows to have up to three litters per year.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Local and general anesthetic effects on behavior and performance of two and seven week old castrated and uncastrated piglets.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The sudden and unexpected death of a healthy child who is younger than one year old, usually during sleep.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 10 February 2010 12:52 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

A convenient sty to hold five or six pigs has a southern aspect, and consists of a covered compartment and outer court, each to ft. square. When the animals are fed outside the inner court is kept clean and dry, and there the pigs lie. The labouring man's pig is his bank, and is fed on scraps, small potatoes and waste products. In connexion with cheese dairies pigs are largely fed on sour whey thickened with mixed meal produced from any or all of the grains or pulses, the choice depending upon the market price. Food may with advantage be cooked for very young pigs; but, with the exception of potatoes, which should never be given raw, roots and meals are best given uncooked. Meal mixed with pulped roots for a few hours improves in digestibility, and a sprinkling of salt is an improvement. Meal derived from leguminous seeds makes the flesh firm and improves the quality. Fattening pigs are fed three times a day and supplied with coal-ashes or a few handfuls of earth. Of the fatted live weight of a pig 83% is butcher's carcase, and 91% of the increase from 100 to 200 lb is carcase. From 3 to 5 lb of meal consumed results in an increase of i lb of live weight in a pig, which is the most economical meat producer on a farm. Concentrated and digestible foods give best results, a pig has a small stomach. Fjord's Danish experiments show that for fattening pigs i lb of ryeor barley-meal is equivalent to 6 lb of skim-milk or 12 lb of whey, and i lb of meal equivalent to 8 lb of mangolds or 4 lb of potatoes.
.LITERATURE.-J. Coleman, Pigs of Great Britain (1877);; Sanders Spencer, Pigs: Breeds and Management (1905); G. M. Rommel, The Hog Industry (1904; Bull..^ Pig Health Website http://www.PIGHEALTH.COM/    Searchable website which includes information on pig health, swine welfare, hogs management, pork safety, etc.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

No. .47, U.S.A. Bureau of Animal Industry); J. Long, The Book of the Pig (1906); F. D. Coburn, Swine Husbandry (1904); R. Wallace, Farm Live Stock of Great Britain (4th ed., 1907); Douglas Encyclopaedia (1906); C. S. Plumb, Types and Breeds of Farm Animals (1906) the Herd Books of the Breed Societies, and Reports of the Agricultural Departments of Great Britain, Canada and the United States.^ All swine commonly used in research and testing are Sus scrofa domestics, whether they are farm or miniature breeds.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Hemodynamic parameters of anesthetized pigs: A comparative study of farm piglets and Gottingen and Yucatan miniature swine.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most of the animals are small domestic farm breeds, but miniature swine such as the Yucatan, Hanford and Gottingen are widely used for chronic studies where the significant growth of the domestic breeds would be an issue.
  • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

(R. W.)


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010
(Redirected to pig article)

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Contents

English

Etymology

Middle English pigge "pig, young pig" from Old English *picga "young pig" (attested only in compounds). Akin to Old English picgbrēad "mast, pig's food". Of uncertain origin and relation.

Pronunciation

Noun

Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa)
Singular
pig
Plural
pigs
pig (plural pigs)
.
  1. Any of several mammals of the genus Sus, having cloven hooves, bristles and a nose adapted for digging; especially the domesticated farm animal Sus scrofa.^ Swine, Sus scrofa domestics, are widely used in research and testing.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ All swine commonly used in research and testing are Sus scrofa domestics, whether they are farm or miniature breeds.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    • The farmer kept a pen with two pigs that he fed from table scraps and field waste.
    .
  2. (specifically) A young swine, a piglet.
  3. (uncountable) The edible meat of such an animal; pork.^ Review of Swine Genetics in the U.S. http://www.nsif.com/Conferences/1995/review.htm    Article by Larry D. Young, USDA-ARS, U.S. Meat Animal Research Center Clay Center, Nebraska.
    • "Information resources on swine in biomedical research " 2 February 2010 16:45 UTC www.nal.usda.gov [Source type: Academic]

    • Some religions prohibit their adherents from eating pig.
  4. Someone who overeats or eats rapidly and noisily.
    • You gluttonous pig! Now that you've eaten all the cupcakes, there will be none for the party!
  5. A nasty or disgusting person.
    • She considered him a pig as he invariably stared at her bosom when they talked.
  6. A dirty or slovenly person.
    • He was a pig and his apartment a pigpen; take-away containers and pizza boxes in a long, moldy stream lined his counter tops.
  7. (British, US, AUS, derogatory slang) A police officer.
    • The protester shouted, “Don't give in to the pigs!” as he was arrested.
  8. (informal) A difficult problem.
    • Hrm...this one's a real pig: I've been banging my head against the wall over it for hours!
  9. (countable and uncountable) A block of cast metal.
    • The conveyor carried the pigs from the smelter to the freight cars.
    • After the ill-advised trade, the investor was stuck with worthless options for 10,000 tons of iron pig.
  10. The mold in which a block of metal is cast.
    • The pig was cracked, and molten metal was oozing from the side.
  11. (engineering) A device for cleaning or inspecting the inside of an oil or gas pipeline, or for separating different substances within the pipeline. Named for the pig-like squealing noise made by their progress.
    • Unfortunately, the pig sent to clear the obstruction got lodged in a tight bend, adding to the problem.
  12. (British) a pigeon.

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Help:How to check translations.

Derived terms

Verb

Infinitive
to pig
Third person singular
pigs
Simple past
pigged
Past participle
pigged
Present participle
pigging
to pig (third-person singular simple present pigs, present participle pigging, simple past and past participle pigged)
  1. (of swine) to give birth.
    • The black sow pigged at seven this morning.
  2. To eat greedily (also pig out), or in a noisy or dirty fashion.
    • They were pigging on the free food at the bar.

Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse pík.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /pig/, [pʰiɡ̊]
  • Homophones: pik

Noun

pig c. (singular definite piggen, plural indefinite pigge)
  1. spike
  2. barb
  3. spine (needle-like structure)
  4. quill (needle-like structure)
  5. prickle (a small, sharp pointed object, such as a thorn)

Inflection


Scots

Noun

pig (plural pigs)
Singular
pig
Plural
pigs
  1. pig
  2. pot, jar, earthenware

Derived terms

  • pig-hoose
  • pirlie pig
  • uilie-pig
  • whisky pig

Torres Strait Creole

Etymology

From English pig.

Noun

pig
  1. pig

Synonyms


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 21, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Pig, which are similar to those in the above article.








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