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For other uses, see: Partition function for Interacting RNAs (piRNA) and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA).
Pirna
Pirna nam k zamku DSCN2668.JPG
Coat of arms of Pirna
Pirna is located in Germany
Pirna
Coordinates 50°57′44″N 13°56′25″E / 50.96222°N 13.94028°E / 50.96222; 13.94028
Administration
Country Germany
State Saxony
Admin. region Dresden
District Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
Municipal assoc. Pirna
Town subdivisions 16
Mayor Markus Ulbig (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 53.01 km2 (20.47 sq mi)
Elevation 109-340 m
Population 39,751  (31 December 2006)
 - Density 750 /km2 (1,942 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate PIR
Postal codes 01781–01796
Area code 03501
Website www.pirna.de
Location of the town of Pirna within Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district
Map

Pirna is a city in the Free State of Saxony, Germany, capital of the administrative district Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge. The city's population is over 40,000. Pirna is located near Dresden and is an important district town as well as a Große Kreisstadt. It is also known for the gassing of about 15,000 disabled people in Schloss Sonnenstein between June 1940 and August 1941, killings which ceased after pressure was exerted on the authorities by the local population. Today, a small plaque at the base of Sonnenstein Castle remembers the dead.

Contents

Geography

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Geographical location

Pirna is located near the Elbsandsteingebirge in the Elbe valley, where the nearby rivers Wesenitz, in the north, and Gottleuba to the south, flow into the Elbe. Pirna is also called Tor zur Sächsischen Schweiz (gate to the Saxon Switzerland). The Sächsische Weinstraße, which goes from Pirna over Pillnitz, Dresden, and Meißen to Diesbar-Seußlitz, was dedicated in 1992. In August 2002, the city suffered great damage in the widespread flooding in Europe at the time.

Neighbouring municipalities

Pirna is located southeast of Dresden. Neighbouring municipalities are Bad Gottleuba-Berggießhübel (city), Bahretal, Dohma, Dohna (city), Dürrröhrsdorf-Dittersbach, Heidenau (city), Königstein (city), Lohmen, Stadt Wehlen (city), and Struppen.

History

Stone Age

Tools made of flint from the late Paleolithic (about 12,000-8000 BC), at the end of the last ice age, are evidence for the earliest human settlement in the area. Later on, people belonging to the Linear Pottery culture, who farmed grain and cattle, lived here during the Neolithic (5,500-4,000 BC) because of a good climate and Loess. Around 600 A.D. a Slavic group called the Sorbs, who were fishermen and farmers, succeeded the Germanic tribes in the Elbe Valley, who had lived in the area for a couple of centuries from the 4th century BC on. The name Pirna derives from the Sorbian phrase, na pernem, meaning on the hard (stone). The representation of a pear tree in the coat of arms was a later, fanciful, German-language notion about the town's name ("pear" is Birne in German, which sounds rather like "Pirna").

Pirna and Schloss Sonnenstein, by Bernardo Bellotto (Canaletto)

Middle Ages

With the conquest of the Slavic communities and the founding of the Mark by the Germans (Heinrich I founded the castle of Meißen in 929), settlement in the Pirna area is again verifiable. The castle in Pirna, which was mentioned for the first time in 1269, probably already existed in the 11th century. In the context of the second Eastern German colonization the city was founded by Markgraf Heinrich der Erlauchte von Meißen).

The streets are aligned from east to west and from north to south forming a chessboardlike system. Only the streets east of the church are not in this shape because of the nearby Burgberg. In 1233, Pirna was mentioned for the first time in a document. In 1293, the king of Bohemia bought the city and the castle from the Bishop of Meißen. Thus Pirna belonged to Bohemia until 1405.

Modern times

In 1502, the construction of the new church was begun under Meister Peter Ulrich von Pirna. With the introduction of the Reformation into Saxony in 1539, Anton Lauterbach, a friend of Martin Luther's, became pastor and superintendent. In 1544 the strategically important castle was upgraded to a fortress by Moritz von Sachsen. Three years later it withstood the siege by elector Johann Friedrich von Sachsen in the Schmalkaldic War.

On April 23, 1639, the city was invaded by Swedish troops under the commander in chief of the Swedish army Johan Banér. During the futile five-month siege of the fortress the city was greatly devastated. About 600 people were murdered (Pirnarisches Elend, lit. Misery of Pirna). In around 1670, the Festung Sonnenstein (fortress) was built with modern military insights. Only the powerful stonework still exists today. In 1707, Pirna had debts that related to the Great Northern War of more than 100,000 Thalern.

Prussian Pirna

On August 29, 1756, the small Saxon army fled before the Prussians, who had invaded without declaring war, to the levels between Festung Königstein and Schloss Sonnenstein and capitulated there on October 16, two days after Schloss Sonnenstein surrendered. In 1758, Austrian troops and the Imperial Army besieged the fortress.

Napoleonic Pirna

Manufacturing plants opened in 1774 in Pirna. In 1811 in Sonnenstein, the physician Ernst Gottlob Pienitz opened a mental hospital. But on September 14, 1813, French troops occupied Sonnenstein, forcing the evacuation of 275 patients, seizing supplies and tearing the roof trusses out to remove the threat of fire. In September 1813, emperor Napoleon temporarily lived at the Marienhaus at the market. Until Dresden's surrender on November 11 the French defended the fortress. Only in February did the hospital for the mentally ill open again.

See also: Schloss Sonnenstein, Margraviate of Meißen, Kings of Saxony, History of Bohemia, History of Saxony, History of Germany

Industrial revolution, Imperial Germany and the Weimar Republic

In 1837, steamship travel began on the upper Elbe. A few years later, a railway line connecting Dresden and Pirna opened. Pirna became an industrial city in 1862 with the building of factories. Mechanical engineering, glass, cellulose and rayon production also expanded. In 1875, the sandstone Elbbrücke (bridge on the Elbe) was completed. During the First World War Pirna became a garrison and the engineer battalions 12 and 5 of the Royal Saxon field artillery regiment No. 64 were billeted on Rottwerndorfer Straße. In 1922/23, the city absorbed several municipalities including Posta, Niedervogelgesang, Obervogelgesang, Copitz, Hinterjessen, Neundorf, Zuschendorf, Rottwerndorf and Zehista. The population then totalled 30,000 inhabitants.

Holocaust

World War II - From early 1940, until end of June 1942 a part of Sonnenstein castle in Pirna was converted into a euthanasia killing center. A gas chamber and crematorium were installed in the cellar of the former men's sanitary (building C 16). A high brick-wall on two sides of the complex shielded it from outside while a high hoarding was erected on the other sides. Four buildings were located inside the shielding. They were used for offices, living rooms for the personnel etc. Sleeping quarters for the "burners" (men who burned the bodies) were provided for in the attic of building C 16. It is possible that other sections of the buildings were also used by T4.

From end of June 1940 until September 1942 approximately 15,000 persons were killed in the scope of the euthanasia program and the Sonderbehandlung 14f13. The staff consisted of about 100 persons. One third of them were ordered to the extermination camps in occupied Poland, because of their experiences in deception, killing, gassing and burning innocent people.

There they were trained by the killing groups who mounted the killing machinery in the later camps like Treblinka from TishBeAv 1942 and the others. This was kept unrecognised until 1989 in Germany, but after that there was created a Stiftung in order to have a remembrance of that catastrophe being built which was erected on June 2000. [1]

During August / September 1942 the Sonnenstein killing center was liquidated and incriminating installations such as gas chamber installations and crematorium ovens dismantled. From October 1942 the buildings were used as a military hospital.

Amalgamations

The cities that were amalgamated with Pirna are:

Population

Change of Population (from 1960, all figures for December 31):

1834 until 1946

  • 1834 - 5,556
  • 1875 - 10,581
  • 1880 - 11,670
  • 1933 - 33,656
  • 1939 - 36,325
  • 1946 - 37,426 1

1950 until 1997

  • 1950 - 38,676 2
  • 1960 - 41,111
  • 1981 - 48,387
  • 1984 - 47,601
  • 1995 - 39,194
  • 1997 - 38,673

1998 until 2003

  • 1998 - 42,728
  • 1999 - 42,553
  • 2000 - 42,108
  • 2001 - 41,432
  • 2002 - 40,853
  • 2003 - 40,593

1 October 29
2 August 31

Dialect

The main dialect spoken in Pirna is the Saxon dialect group called : Südostmeißnische, which is one of the five Meißenisch group of dialects.

City partnership

Pirna is bound with Baienfurt and Reutlingen, both in Baden-Württemberg, in city friendships.

Culture and sites of interest

Museums

  • Pirna museum = Stadtmuseum Pirna, located at 2 Klosterhof
  • Botanical collections and Landschloss Pirna - Zuschendorf
  • DDR Museum - museum devoted to East Germany memorabilia
  • Richard Wagner Museum Graupa

Music

  • Neue Elbland Philharmonie with 60 musicians and about 160 concerts every year.
  • Pirnaer Jazznacht, which in 2004 took place for the fifth time.

Persons

  • Johann Tetzel (1465 - 1519)
  • Ioannes Sommerus (1542 - 1574) - Transylvanian theologian and chronicler
  • Theophilus Jacobäer (1591 - 1659) - pharmacist, "rescuer" in the Thirty Years' War (de)
  • Johann Siegmund von Liebenau (1607 - 1671) - captain and Commander-in-Chief of fortresses in Saxony (de)
  • Dr. Ernst Gottlob Pienitz (1777 - 1853) - Psychatric reformer (de)
  • Carl Wilhelm Häcker, aka Carl William Häcker (1819 - 1886) - pioneer of photography[1]
  • William Adolph Haußner (1819 - 1849) - physician and city delegate, revolutionist from 1848-49[2]
  • Friedrich August Greif (1830 - 1905) - founder of the Greif endowment[2]
  • Anna Marie Geibelt (1838 - 1923) (de)
  • Gertrud Eysoldt (1870 - 1955) - actress and director (de)
  • Hugo Küttner (1880 - 1945) - entrepreneur (de)
  • Siegfried Rädel (1893 - 1943) - communist city delegate
  • Eva Schulze-Knabe (1907 - 1976) - painter
  • Oskar Speck (1855 - 1922), founder of the city scientific historiography in Pirna (de)
  • Hermann Rosa (1911, Pirna - 1981, Munich), a sculptor and architect

See also

References

External links

(in German):


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PIRNA, a town in the kingdom of Saxony, on the left bank of the Elbe, II m. above Dresden, and on the railway to Bodenbach and Prague. Pop. (1905), 19,220. The town is regularly built, with promenades covering the site of the old fortifications; the most notable edifices are the fine Gothic parish church, built in the 16th century and restored in 1890, and the old town-hall. Excellent sandstone is found on both banks of the Elbe. There are manufactures of glass, machinery, cigars, pottery and enamelled goods; and there is a trade in grain, fruit and timber, mainly carried on by river, and a little shipbuilding. Pirna, originally a Slavonic settlement, was for many years in the alternate possession of Bohemia and Meissen, but it became permanently united with the latter, and thus with Saxony, in 1405. The Sonnenstein, a fortress on a commanding eminence above the town, was erected in the 16th century on the site of an older castle by the elector of Saxony, Augustus I. It was once considered the most important fortress on the Elbe, and successfully withstood the Swedes in 163 9, but it was captured and dismantled by the Prussians in 1758, and in 1813 was occupied by the French.

See R. Hofmann, Zur Geschichte der Stadt Pirna (Pirna, 1891); E. Kiingel, Fiihrer durch Pirna (Pirna, 1889); the Urkundenbuch der Steidle Dresden and Pirna, edited by C. F. von Posern-Klett (Leipzig, 1875); and the publications of the Verein far Geschichte der Stadt Pirna (Pirna, 1897 seq.).


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Simple English

Pirna

Pirna
Coordinates 50°47′44″N 13°56′25″E / 50.79556°N 13.94028°E / 50.79556; 13.94028
Administration
Country Germany
State Saxony
Admin. region Dresden
District Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge
Town subdivisions 16 Stadtbezirke
Lord Mayor Markus Ulbig (CDU)
Basic statistics
Area 53.02 km2 (20.47 sq mi)
Elevation 109-340 m
Population 39,030  (31 December 2009)
 - Density 736 /km2 (1,907 /sq mi)
Other information
Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)
Licence plate PIR
Postal codes 01781-01796
Area code 03501
Website www.pirna.de
Location of the town of Pirna within Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge district

Pirna is a Große Kreisstadt in the rural district of Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge in the Free State of Saxony, Germany.

Contents

Geografie

Pirna is located at the beginn of the Elbtalkessel, where the Wesenitz and the Gottleuba flow in the Elbe. In the south of Pirna is the Osterzgebirge. Pirna is named Tor zur Sächsischen Schweiz (door to the Sächsische Schweiz).

Neighbourtowns

Direct in the north of Pirna is the capital of Saxony, Dresden. Furthermore are Bad Gottleuba-Berggießhübel, Bahretal, Dohma, Dohna, Dürrröhrsdorf-Dittersbach, Heidenau, Lohmen, Stadt Wehlen and Struppen. All these towns are in the rural districts Sächsische Schweiz-Osterzgebirge.

History

Stone Age

First relicts of human settlers are from the last ice age. In the neolithic age lived in this region farmers. In the 6th century settled in Pirna the Sorbs.

Middle Age

File:Canaletto (I)
Old market of Pirna

With the foundation of the Mark Meißen in the 10th century it is possible to re-prove a settlement in the area of Pirna. In the 12th century the castle of Prina would be built. Henry III, Margrave of Meissen give the townrights to Pirna. The Elbe was in this time a important river for the trade. In 1233 the town get first time documentary mentioned. Wenceslaus II of Bohemia bought the town in 1293 and so the towns was bohemian until 1405. In 1307 a convent was founded.

Population Development

The population development of Pirna since 1300. Since 1960 the population is counted at December. 31.[1]

til 1899

  • 1300 - 1,500
  • 1550 - 3,538
  • 1801 - 4,397
  • 1834 - 5,556
  • 1871 - 8,905
  • 1875 - 10,581
  • 1880 - 11,670
  • 1890 - 13,852

1900 til 1989

  • 1910 - 19,525
  • 1925 - 30,460
  • 1933 - 33,656
  • 1939 - 36,325
  • 1946 - 37,426 1
  • 1950 - 38,676 2
  • 1960 - 41,111
  • 1981 - 48,387
  • 1984 - 47,601

since 1990

  • 1995 - 39,194
  • 1998 - 42,728
  • 2000 - 42,108
  • 2002 - 40,853
  • 2004 - 40,259
  • 2005 - 40,110
  • 2006 - 39,751
  • 2007 - 39,438

Notes

  1. Statistisches Landesamt Sachsen statistics

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