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Pituitary gland
Gray1180.png
.Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary gland is protected by a bony structure called the sella turcica (also known as turkish saddle) of the sphenoid bone.^ The pituitary gland is a small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain, nestled in a bony structure called the sella turcica.
  • The Pituitary Gland - Advanced Version 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.becomehealthynow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pituitary gland lies just above the sphenoid bone.
  • Pituitary Tumors Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland is NOT in the brain and pituitary tissue is different from brain tissue.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

Gray1181.png
Median sagittal through the hypophysis of an adult monkey. Semidiagrammatic.
Latin hypophysis, glandula pituitaria
Gray's subject #275 1275
Artery superior hypophyseal artery, infundibular artery, prechiasmal artery, inferior hypophyseal artery, capsular artery, artery of the inferior cavernous sinus[1]
Precursor neural and oral ectoderm, including Rathke's pouch
MeSH Pituitary+Gland
Dorlands/Elsevier Pituitary gland
.The pituitary gland, or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 g (0.02 oz.^ The pituitary gland is a small oval endocrine gland that lies at the base of the brain, nestled in a bony structure called the sella turcica.
  • The Pituitary Gland - Advanced Version 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.becomehealthynow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pituitary Cyst: Any endocrine gland may develop a cyst.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ We'll start with the pituitary gland, widely referred to as the "Master gland" because its hormonal secretions have as their target organs other endocrine glands.

). .It is a protrusion off the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain, and rests in a small, bony cavity (sella turcica) covered by a dural fold (diaphragma sellae).^ It is found at the bottom of the brain, below the hypothalamus.

^ It sits in a small pocket of bone in the base of the skull called the pituitary fossa, also known as the sella turcica , or Turkish saddle, because of the resemblance.
  • FAQ - Pituitary - Knowledge Base - Faq | Pituitary Network Association 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pituitary.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Large pituitary adenomas eventually erode the sella, clinoid processes, diaphragma sellae, optic nerves and chiasm, and even the cavernous sinuses, nasal sinuses, or brain.
  • PITUITARY DISEASE 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: Academic]

.The pituitary fossa, in which the pituitary gland sits, is situated in the sphenoid bone in the middle cranial fossa at the base of the brain.^ The thyroid works in conjunction with the pituitary gland at the base of the brain.
  • What are Causes of Thyroid Disorders and Symptoms of Thyroid Disorders - Natural Thyroid Disorder Remedies 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pituitary gland lies just above the sphenoid bone.
  • Pituitary Tumors Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland is NOT in the brain and pituitary tissue is different from brain tissue.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

It is considered a master gland. .The pituitary gland secretes hormones regulating homeostasis, including tropic hormones that stimulate other endocrine glands.^ Excess pituitary hormone secretion .

^ The pituitary gland hormones control many other glands in the body.
  • Pituitary Tumors Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The pituitary gland is a part of the brain as well as part of the ENDOCRINE (hormone) system.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

.It is functionally connected to the hypothalamus by the median eminence.^ It is a dependent part of the median eminence of the hypothalamus.

^ The pars distalis is vascularized by hypophysial portal vessels that arise from the capillary beds in the median eminence of the hypothalamus (Murakami et al.

^ The superior hypophyseal arteries supply the floor of the hypothalamus, the median eminence.
  • The Pituitary Gland 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.med.mun.ca [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Sections

.Located at the base of the brain, the pituitary is composed of two lobes: the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) and the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis).^ The POSTERIOR (BACK) LOBE is the smaller of the two lobes of the pituitary gland.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The NEUROHYPOPHYSIS ("posterior pituitary") is composed of the axons of hypothalamic neurons.
  • PITUITARY DISEASE 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pathguy.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pituitary Gland has several anatomical parts, including an Anterior (front) Lobe , a Posterior (rear) Lobe , as well as, an Intermediate portion and a "Stalk" , which connects the Pituitary Gland to the overlying Brain structure, called the "Hypothalamus" .
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Nervous System Tumors - Benign: Pituitary Tumors 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

.The pituitary is functionally linked to the hypothalamus by the pituitary stalk, whereby hypothalamic releasing factors are released and, in turn, stimulate the release of pituitary hormones.^ Those hormones—the hypothalamic releasing factors —target the cells of the pituitary and no others.

^ The HYPOTHALAMUS produces releasing-factor hormones which have the solitary function to control the pituitary gland's production of a particular hormone.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

.Although the pituitary gland is known as the master endocrine gland, both of its lobes are under the control of the hypothalamus.^ The pituitary gland itself is regulated by another gland in the brain, known as the hypothalamus.
  • What are Causes of Thyroid Disorders and Symptoms of Thyroid Disorders - Natural Thyroid Disorder Remedies 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.nativeremedies.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sarcoidosis can also affect the pituitary gland and hypothalamus.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Hypothalamus , which controls the pituitary by sending messages, is situated immediately above the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary Foundation - The Pituitary Gland Its Disorders & Hormones Explained 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pituitary.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Anterior pituitary (Adenohypophysis)

.The anterior pituitary synthesizes and secretes important endocrine hormones, such as ACTH, TSH, PRL, GH, endorphins, FSH, and LH.^ Pituitary tumour (growth hormone secreting) .
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone; GH, growth hormone; PRL, prolactin; TSH, thyroid-stimulating hormone.

^ Excess pituitary hormone secretion .

.These hormones are released from the anterior pituitary under the influence of the hypothalamus.^ These are under the influence of the hormones produced by the pituitary gland.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary is controlled by the production of hormones by the hypothalamus.
  • The Pituitary Gland - Advanced Version 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.becomehealthynow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

.Hypothalamic hormones are secreted to the anterior lobe by way of a special capillary system, called the hypothalamic-hypophyseal portal system.^ The capillaries in the hypophyseal portal system are fenestrated improving the delivery of hormones to the adenohypophyseal cells.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Box 7.4 Hormone secretions of the anterior lobe of the pituitary (more...
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Nerve cells in the hypothalamus secrete neurohormones that, via a system of hypophyseal portal vessels in the median eminence, act on the endocrine cells of the anterior lobe to stimulate or inhibit their synthesis and secretion.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The anterior pituitary is divided into anatomical regions known as the pars tuberalis, pars intermedia, and pars distalis.^ The cells of the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis ( i.e.

^ The pars intermedia grades into the pars tuberalis without a definite boundary.

^ Anatomically, the pituitary has 2 main parts posterior, or neurohypophysis and anterior, or adenohypophysis (the pars distalis, pars intermedia, and pars tuberalis).

.It develops from a depression in the dorsal wall of the pharynx (stomodial part) known as Rathke's pouch.^ The evagination is known as Rathke's pouch ( Boxes 3.21 and Box 7.2 ) and it is eventually pinched off from the oral cavity and becomes separated by the sphenoid bone of the skull.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Rathkes pouch eventually forms the pituitary gland and normally closes early in fetal development.
  • Pituitary Foundation - The Pituitary Gland Its Disorders & Hormones Explained 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pituitary.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anatomical abnormalities asssociated with the Rathke's pouch include a craniopharyngeal canal , from the anterior part of the fossa hypophyseos of the sphenoid bone to the under surface of the skull.

Posterior pituitary (Neurohypophysis)

The posterior pituitary stores and releases:
.Oxytocin is one of the few hormones to create a positive feedback loop.^ Control of hormone production is monitored continuously and regulated using feedback loops.
  • The Pituitary Gland - Advanced Version 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.becomehealthynow.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, uterine contractions stimulate the release of oxytocin from the posterior pituitary, which, in turn, increases uterine contractions.^ Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Growth hormone (GH) Prolactin Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) About 75% of pituitary tumors release hormones.

^ In the event that sodium concentration is too high, then the special sensing area of the hypothalamus will direct the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland to release MORE antidiuretic hormone.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Thus, for example, after a hemorrhage AVP secretion is stimulated and water is retained, increasing blood volume.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

This positive feedback loop continues throughout labor.

Intermediate lobe

There is also an intermediate lobe in many animals. For instance, in fish, it is believed to control physiological color change. .In adult humans, it is just a thin layer of cells between the anterior and posterior pituitary.^ ANTI-DIURETIC HORMONE (ADH): Antidiuretic Hormone is produced by cells located in the back (posterior) lobe of the pituitary gland (Figure 4).
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You are now familiar with the production of PROLACTIN by a particular cell type in the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Figure 1: Click to Enlarge The pituitary gland weighs about 0.5 to 1 g and is divided into anterior and posterior lobes.

.The intermediate lobe produces melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), although this function is often (imprecisely) attributed to the anterior pituitary.^ Box 7.4 Hormone secretions of the anterior lobe of the pituitary (more...
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

^ In some animals, but not in humans, cells in this area form an anatomically distinct intermediate lobe and secrete a hormone (melanocyte-stimulating hormone, MSH) that stimulates melanocytes in the skin and, thus, alters skin color (see Box 4.30 ).
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Variations among vertebrates

.The pituitary gland is found in all vertebrates, but its structure varies between different groups.^ The pituitary gland is NOT in the brain and pituitary tissue is different from brain tissue.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The F test was done to know if there was a difference between the five intrasellar pressure median groups.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The cell type that is most numerous of any of the different kinds of cells is the "ordinary pituitary gland cell" (known as the "true chromophobe"cell).
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

.The division of the pituitary described above is typical of mammals, and is also true, to varying degrees, of all tetrapods.^ Prolactinomas are pituitary adenomas that secret prolactin in varying degrees and account for about 30% to 40% of all pituitary adenomas.

.However, only in mammals does the posterior pituitary have a compact shape.^ The expression of Pit-1 has been demonstrated recently in the human placenta ( 16 ); however, it was not reported whether this tissue expresses multiple splice variants, as does the pituitary gland.
  • Pit-1/Growth Hormone Factor 1 Splice Variant Expression in the Rhesus Monkey Pituitary Gland and the Rhesus and Human Placenta -- Schanke et al. 82 (3): 800 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That is, not only does the brain control the pituitary gland: it directly controls other targets by releasing specific blood-borne hormones.

^ However, because the pituitary is an important hormonal gland, this does not mean they are harmless.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]

.In lungfishes it is a relatively flat sheet of tissue lying above the anterior pituitary, and in amphibians, reptiles and birds, it becomes increasingly well developed.^ A family of POU-domain and Pit-1 tissue-specific transcription factors in pituitary and neuroendocrine development.
  • Pit-1/Growth Hormone Factor 1 Splice Variant Expression in the Rhesus Monkey Pituitary Gland and the Rhesus and Human Placenta -- Schanke et al. 82 (3): 800 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ [Abstract/ Free  Full Text] Voss JW, Rosenfeld MG. 1992 Anterior pituitary development: short tales from dwarf mice.
  • Pit-1/Growth Hormone Factor 1 Splice Variant Expression in the Rhesus Monkey Pituitary Gland and the Rhesus and Human Placenta -- Schanke et al. 82 (3): 800 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This pouch normally closes in fetal development, but a remnant often persists as a cleft (indentation or gap) that lies between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary Disorders - a knol by Pejman 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The intermediate lobe is generally not well developed in tetrapods, and is entirely absent in birds.[2]
Apart from lungfishes, the structure of the pituitary in fish is generally different from that in tetrapods. .In general, the intermediate lobe tends to be well developed, and may equal the remainder of the anterior pituitary in size.^ Most pituitary tumors are located in the anterior pituitary lobe and are usually noncancerous (benign).

^ Other benefits may include improvements in bone density, cardiac function, lipid profile, and general sense of well-being.

^ Pituitary Cyst: Any endocrine gland may develop a cyst.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

.The posterior lobe typically forms a sheet of tissue at the base of the pituitary stalk, and in most cases sends irregular finger-like projection into the tissue of the anterior pituitary, which lies directly beneath it.^ The pituitary tumor lies directly in view in most cases.
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Downloads & Information Library: PITUITARY GLAND TUMORS 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pituitary Gland has several anatomical parts, including an Anterior (front) Lobe , a Posterior (rear) Lobe , as well as, an Intermediate portion and a "Stalk" , which connects the Pituitary Gland to the overlying Brain structure, called the "Hypothalamus" .
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Nervous System Tumors - Benign: Pituitary Tumors 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

.The anterior pituitary is typically divided into two regions, a more anterior rostral portion and a posterior proximal portion, but the boundary between the two is often not clearly marked.^ Structurally, the pituitary gland is divided into a larger anterior (front) region (termed the adenohypophysis) and a smaller posterior (back) region (termed the neurohypophysis).
  • Pituitary Disorders - a knol by Pejman 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The cleft-like remnant of Rathke's pouch demarcates the boundary between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This pouch normally closes in fetal development, but a remnant often persists as a cleft (indentation or gap) that lies between the anterior and posterior lobes of the pituitary gland.
  • Pituitary Disorders - a knol by Pejman 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC knol.google.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In elasmobranchs there is an additional, ventral lobe beneath the anterior pituitary proper.^ There are also diseases in which there is a deficiency of a single anterior pituitary hormone.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most pituitary tumors are located in the anterior pituitary lobe and are usually noncancerous (benign).

^ However, extensive destruction of the anterior lobe leading to clinically evident anterior pituitary insufficiency is not common ( 16 , 18 ).
  • Tumors Metastatic to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review -- Komninos et al. 89 (2): 574 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.The arrangement in lampreys, which are amongst the most primitive of all fish, may indicate how the pituitary originally evolved in ancestral vertebrates.^ Impingement on the chiasm or its branches by a pituitary tumor may result in visual field defects; the most common is bitemporal hemianopsia ( Fig.

^ The tall record holders documented in the Guinness Book of Records are in all likelihood (for the most part undiagnosed) pituitary giants.
  • The pituitary gland -- Endocrinology -- NCBI Bookshelf 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent advances in molecular biology have confirmed that most pituitary adenomas are monoclonal in origin.

.Here, the posterior pituitary is a simple flat sheet of tissue at the base of the brain, and there is no pituitary stalk.^ The pituitary gland is NOT in the brain and pituitary tissue is different from brain tissue.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pituitary Gland has several anatomical parts, including an Anterior (front) Lobe , a Posterior (rear) Lobe , as well as, an Intermediate portion and a "Stalk" , which connects the Pituitary Gland to the overlying Brain structure, called the "Hypothalamus" .
  • Neurosurgical Consultants: Nervous System Tumors - Benign: Pituitary Tumors 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.neurosurgerydallas.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

.Rathke's pouch remains open to the outside, close to the nasal openings.^ The cat is one of the species in which the residual lumen of Rathke's pouch (Martin H. Rathke, 1793-1860, a German anatomist and pathologist) remains open.

^ The Rathkes pouch eventually forms the pituitary gland and normally closes early in fetal development.
  • Pituitary Foundation - The Pituitary Gland Its Disorders & Hormones Explained 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.pituitary.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Closely associated with the pouch are three distinct clusters of glandular tissue, corresponding to the intermediate lobe, and the rostral and proximal portions of the anterior pituitary.^ The ANTERIOR (FRONT) LOBE is the largest portion.
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^ Most pituitary tumors are located in the anterior pituitary lobe and are usually noncancerous (benign).

^ However, extensive destruction of the anterior lobe leading to clinically evident anterior pituitary insufficiency is not common ( 16 , 18 ).
  • Tumors Metastatic to the Pituitary Gland: Case Report and Literature Review -- Komninos et al. 89 (2): 574 -- Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC jcem.endojournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.These various parts are separated by meningial membranes, suggesting that the pituitary of other vertebrates may have formed from the fusion of a number of separate, but closely associated, glands.^ The cancer may come back in the pituitary gland or in other parts of the body.
  • Pituitary Tumors Treatment, Masonic Cancer Center, University of Minnesota 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC www.cancer.umn.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It may be located within the pituitary gland or above the pituitary gland.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ As with other functioning pituitary tumors these can also cause symptoms due to the tumor size.
  • http://pituitary-tumor.com/ 17 January 2010 4:57 UTC pituitary-tumor.com [Source type: Academic]

[2]
.Most fish also possess a urophysis, a neural secretory gland very similar in form to the posterior pituitary, but located in the tail and associated with the spinal cord.^ It may be located within the pituitary gland or above the pituitary gland.
  • Frequently Asked Questions About Pituitary Tumors / Cushing's Help and Support 18 September 2009 12:23 UTC www.cushings-help.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Antidiuretic hormone (ADH, vasopressin) is produced by the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus and travel in the axons through the pituitary stalk to the posterior pituitary gland.

^ Most pituitary tumors are located in the anterior pituitary lobe and are usually noncancerous (benign).

This may have a function in osmoregulation.[2]

Functions

The pituitary hormones help control some of the following body processes:

Additional images

See also

References

  1. ^ Gibo H, Hokama M, Kyoshima K, Kobayashi S (1993). "[Arteries to the pituitary]". Nippon Rinsho 51 (10): 2550–4. PMID 8254920. 
  2. ^ a b c d Romer, Alfred Sherwood; Parsons, Thomas S. (1977). The Vertebrate Body. Philadelphia, PA: Holt-Saunders International. pp. 549-550. ISBN 0-03-910284-X. 

External links


Simple English

The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain between the eyes, and is an important part of the endocrine system. The gland is attached to the hypothalamus and gives out hormones such as antidiuretic hormone (ADH), oxytocin, and prolactin. It controls: Growth, Blood pressure, and sex organs.


Endocrine system
Adrenal gland - Corpus luteum - Hypothalamus - Ovaries - Pancreas - Parathyroid gland - Pineal gland - Pituitary gland - Testes - Thyroid gland - Hormone



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