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Plaid Cymru
English name The Party of Wales
Leader Ieuan Wyn Jones
Chairperson John Dixon
President Dafydd Iwan
Chief Executive Gwenllian Lansdown
Honorary President Dafydd Wigley
Vice President Jill Evans
Founded 5 August 1925 (1925-08-05)
Headquarters Tŷ Gwynfor, Marine chambers, Anson Court, Atlantic Wharf
Cardiff CF10 4AL
Wales
Youth wing Cymru X
Ideology Democratic socialism
Social democracy
Welsh independence
Welsh nationalism
Political position Centre-Left
International affiliation None
European affiliation European Free Alliance
European Parliament Group The Greens–European Free Alliance
Official colours Yellow
House of Commons
European Parliament
National Assembly for Wales
Local government in Wales[1]
Website
www.plaidcymru.org
Politics of Wales
Political parties
Elections

Plaid Cymru (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈplaɪd ˈkəmrɨ] English: The Party of Wales; often referred to simply as Plaid) is a political party in Wales. It advocates the establishment of an independent Welsh state within the European Union.

Plaid Cymru was formed in 1925 and won its first seat in 1966. Plaid Cymru has 1 of 4 Welsh seats in the European Parliament, 3 of 40 Welsh seats in the UK Parliament, 14 of 60 seats in the National Assembly for Wales, where it is the junior partner in the coalition government with the Welsh Labour Party and 205 of 1,264 principal local authority councilors.[2] According to accounts filed with the Electoral Commission for the year of 2004, the party has an income and expenditure of about £500,000.[3]

Contents

Platform

Plaid Cymru has five stated aims.[4]

  1. To promote the constitutional advancement of Wales with a view to attaining Full National Status for Wales within the European Union.
  2. To ensure economic prosperity, social justice and the health of the natural environment, based on decentralist socialism.
  3. To build a national community based on equal citizenship, respect for different traditions and cultures and the equal worth of all individuals, whatever their race, nationality, gender, colour, creed, sexuality, age, ability or social background.
  4. To create a bilingual society by promoting the revival of the Welsh language.
  5. To promote Wales's contribution to the global community and to attain membership of the United Nations.

In September 2008, a senior Plaid Cymru AM spelled out her party’s continuing support for an independent Wales. The Welsh Minister for Rural Affairs Elin Jones kicked off PC’s annual conference by pledging to uphold the goal of making Wales an EU member state. She told the delegates in Aberystwyth that the party would continue its commitment to independence under the coalition with Labour.[5]

History

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Beginnings

While both the Labour and Liberal parties of the early 20th century had accommodated demands for Welsh Home Rule, no political party existed for the purposes of establishing a Welsh Government. Plaid Genedlaethol Cymru (English: National Party of Wales) was formed on 5 August 1925, by members of Byddin Ymreolwyr Cymru (English: The Welsh Home Rule Army) and Y Mudiad Cymreig (English: The Welsh Movement). Initially, home rule for Wales was not an explicit aim of the new movement; keeping Wales Welsh-speaking took primacy, with the aim of making Welsh the only official language of Wales.[6]

Nevertheless, at the General Election of 1929 the party contested its first Parliamentary constituency in Caernarfonshire, polling 609 votes, or 1.6% of the vote for that seat. The party would contest few such elections in its early years, a product partly of its early ambivalence towards participating in Westminster politics. Indeed the candidate Lewis Valentine, the party’s first President, offered himself in Caernarfonshire on a platform of demonstrating Welsh people's rejection of English dominion.[7]

1930s

By 1932 the aims of self-government and Welsh representation at the League of Nations had been added to that of preserving Welsh language and culture. However, this move, and the party's early attempts to develop an economic critique, did not lead to the broadening of its appeal beyond that of an intellectual and socially conservative Welsh language pressure group.[8] The alleged sympathetic views of the party's leading members (including President Saunders Lewis) towards Europe's totalitarian regimes compromised its early appeal further.[9]

In 1936 Lewis, David John Williams and Lewis Valentine attacked and set fire to the newly constructed RAF Penyberth air base on the Llŷn peninsula in Gwynedd in protest at its siting in the Welsh-speaking heartland. The leaders’ treatment, including the trial judge's dismissal of the use of Welsh and their subsequent imprisonment in Wormwood Scrubs became a cause célèbre, heightening the profile of the party dramatically and seeing its membership double to nearly 2,000 by 1939.[10]

1940s

Penyberth, and Plaid Cymru’s neutral stance during the Second World War prompted concerns within the UK Government that it might be used by Germany to insert spies or carry out other covert operations.[11] In fact, the party adopted a neutral standpoint and urged (with only limited success) conscientious objection to war service.[12]

In 1943 Saunders Lewis contested the University of Wales Parliamentary seat at a by-election, gaining 1,330 votes, or 22%. At the 1945 General Election, with party membership at around 2,500 Plaid Cymru contested 7 seats, as many as it had in the preceding 20 years, including constituencies in south Wales for the first time. At this time Gwynfor Evans was elected President.

1950s

Gwynfor Evans’ Presidency coincided with the maturation of Plaid Cymru (as it began to refer to itself at this time) into a more recognisable political party. Its share of the vote increased from 0.7% in the 1951 General Election, to 3.1% in 1955 and 5.2% in 1959. At this latter General Election, the party contested a majority of Welsh seats for the first time. Proposals to drown the village of Capel Celyn in the Tryweryn valley in Gwynedd in 1957 to supply the city of Liverpool with water played a part in Plaid Cymru's growth. The fact that the Parliamentary bill authorising the drowning went through without support from any Welsh MPs showed that the MPs' votes in Westminster were not enough to avert such bills from passing.[13]

1960s

Support for the party declined slightly in the early 1960s, particularly as support for the Liberal Party began to stabilise from its long-term decline. In 1962 Saunders Lewis gave a radio talk entitled Tynged yr Iaith (The fate of the language) in which he predicted the extinction of the Welsh language unless action was taken. This led to the formation of Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg (the Welsh Language Society) the same year.[14]

Labour’s return to power in 1964 and the creation of the post of Secretary of State for Wales appeared to represent a continuation of the incremental evolution of a distinctive Welsh polity, following the Conservative Party government's appointment of a Minister of Welsh Affairs in the mid 1950s and the establishment of Cardiff as Wales’s capital in 1955 .

However, in 1966, less than four months after coming third in the constituency of Carmarthen, Gwynfor Evans sensationally captured the seat from Labour at a by-election. This was followed by two further by-elections in Rhondda West in 1967 and Caerphilly in 1968 in which the party achieved massive swings of 30% and 40% respectively, coming within a whisker of victory. The results were caused partly by an anti-Labour backlash. Expectations in coal mining communities that the Wilson government would halt the long-term decline in their industry had been dashed by a significant downward revision of coal production estimates.[15] However - in Carmarthen particularly - Plaid Cymru also successfully depicted Labour's policies as a threat to the viability of small Welsh communities.[16]

1970s

In the 1970 General Election Plaid Cymru contested every seat in Wales for the first time and its vote share surged from 4.5% in 1966 to 11.5%. Gwynfor Evans, however, lost Carmarthen to Labour, lost again by three votes in February 1974, but regained the seat in October 1974, by which time the party had gained a further two MPs, representing the constituencies of Caernarfon and Merionethshire.

Plaid Cymru’s emergence (along with the Scottish National Party) prompted the Wilson government to establish the Kilbrandon Commission on the constitution. The subsequent proposals for a Welsh Assembly were, however, heavily defeated in a referendum in 1979. Despite Plaid Cymru's ambivalence toward home rule (as opposed to outright independence) the referendum result led many in the party to question its direction.[17]

At the 1979 General Election the party’s vote share declined from 10.8% to 8.1% and Carmarthen was again lost to Labour.

1980s

Caernarfon MP, Dafydd Wigley succeeded Gwynfor Evans as President in succession in 1981, inheriting a party whose morale was at an all-time low. In 1981 the party adopted "community socialism" as a constitutional aim. While the party embarked on a wide-ranging review of its priorities and goals, Gwynfor Evans fought a successful campaign (including the threat of a hunger strike) to oblige the Conservative Government to fulfill its promise to establish S4C, a Welsh-language television station.[18] In 1984 Dafydd Elis-Thomas was elected President, defeating Dafydd Iwan, a move that saw the party shift to the left. Ieuan Wyn Jones (now Plaid Cymru leader) captured Ynys Môn from the Conservatives in 1987. In 1989 Dafydd Wigley once again assumed the Presidency of the party.

1990s

In the 1992 General Election, the party added a fourth MP, Cynog Dafis, on a Plaid-Green Party ticket, gaining Ceredigion and Pembroke North from the Liberal Democrats. The party’s vote share recovered to 9.9% by the 1997 General Election.

In 1997 following the election of a Labour government committed to devolution for Wales a further referendum was narrowly won, establishing the National Assembly for Wales. Plaid Cymru became the main opposition to the ruling Labour Party, with 17 seats to Labour's 28. In doing so, it appeared to have broken out of its rural Welsh-speaking heartland, and captured traditionally strong Labour areas in industrial south Wales.

Plaid Cymru in the Assembly era

First Welsh Assembly, 1999–2003

In the 1999 election Plaid Cymru gained seats in traditional Labour areas such as in the Rhondda, Islwyn and Llanelli, achieving by far its highest share of the vote in any Wales-wide election. While Plaid Cymru regarded itself as the natural beneficiary of devolution, others attributed its performance in large part to the travails of the Labour Party, whose nomination for Assembly First Secretary, Ron Davies, was forced to stand down in an alleged sex scandal. The ensuing leadership battle, won by Alun Michael, did much to damage Labour, and thus aided Plaid Cymru, whose leader was the more popular and higher profile Dafydd Wigley. The UK Labour national leadership was seen to interfere in the contest and deny the popular Rhodri Morgan victory.[19] Less than two months later, in elections to the European parliamnent, Labour support slumped further, and Plaid Cymru came within 2.5% of achieving the largest share of the vote in Wales. Under the new system of proportional representation, the party also gained two MEPs.

Plaid Cymru then developed political problems of its own. Dafydd Wigley resigned, citing health problems but amid rumours of a plot against him.[20] His successor, Ieuan Wyn Jones, struggled to impose his authority, particularly over controversial remarks made by a senior councilor, Seimon Glyn.[21] At the same time, Labour leader and First Minister Alun Michael was replaced by Rhodri Morgan.

In the 2001 General Election, Plaid Cymru lost Wyn Jones' former seat of Ynys Môn to Albert Owen, but gained Carmarthen East and Dinefwr, where Adam Price was elected. Notwithstanding these mixed results, the party recorded its highest ever vote share in a General Election, 14.3%

Second Welsh Assembly, 2003–2007

The Assembly elections of May 2003 saw the party's representation drop from 17 to 12, with the gains of the 1999 election falling again to Labour and the party's share of the vote declining to 21%. Plaid Cymru narrowly remained the second-largest party in the National Assembly ahead of the Conservatives, Liberal Democrats and Forward Wales.

On 15 September 2003 folk-singer and county councilor Dafydd Iwan was elected Plaid Cymru's new President. Ieuan Wyn Jones, who had resigned from his dual role as President and Assembly group leader following the losses in the 2003 Assembly election, was re-elected in the latter role. Elfyn Llwyd remained the Plaid Cymru leader in the Westminster Parliament. Under Iwan's Presidency the party formally adopted a policy of independence for Wales in Europe.

The 2004 local election saw the party lose control of the two south Wales councils it gained in 1999, Rhondda Cynon Taff and Caerphilly, while retaining its stronghold of Gwynedd in the north west. However, the results led the party to claim a greater number of ethnic minority councilors than all the other political parties in Wales combined,[22] along with gains in authorities such as Cardiff and Swansea, where Plaid Cymru representation had been minimal. In the European Parliamentary elections of the same year, the party's vote share fell to 17.4%, and the reduction in the number of Welsh MEPs saw its representation reduced to one.

Old logo (above) and new logo (below)

In the General Election of 5 May 2005, Plaid Cymru lost the Ceredigion seat to the Liberal Democrats, the result was a disappointment to Plaid, who had hoped to gain Ynys Môn. Overall therefore, the party's Parliamentary representation fell to three seats, the lowest level for Plaid Cymru since 1992. The party's share of the vote fell to 12.6%.[23]

In 2006, the party voted constitutional changes to formally designate the party's leader in the assembly as its overall leader, with Ieuan Wyn Jones being restored to the full leadership and Dafydd Iwan becoming head of the voluntary wing of the party. 2006 also saw the party unveil a radical change of image, opting to use "Plaid" as the party's name, although "Plaid Cymru - The Party of Wales" would remain the official title. The party's colours were changed to yellow from the traditional green and red, while the party logo was changed from the 'triban' (three peaks) used since 1933 to a yellow Welsh poppy (Meconopsis cambrica).

Third Welsh Assembly, 2007–present

In the Welsh Assembly election of 3 May 2007, Plaid Cymru increased its number of seats from 12 to 15, regaining Llanelli, gaining one additional list seat and winning the newly created constituency of Aberconwy. The 2007 election also saw Plaid Cymru's Mohammad Asghar become the first ethnic minority candidate elected to the Welsh Assembly.[24] The Party's share of the vote increased to 22.4%.

After weeks of negotiations involving all four parties in the Assembly, Plaid Cymru and Labour agreed to form a coalition government. Their agreed "One Wales" programme included a commitment for both parties to campaign for a 'Yes' vote in a referendum on full law-making powers for the Assembly, to be held at a time of the Welsh Assembly Government's choosing.[25] Ieuan Wyn Jones was subsequently confirmed as Deputy First Minister of Wales[26] and Economy and Transport Minister. His Deputy, Rhodri Glyn Thomas was appointed Heritage Minister with Ceredigion AM Elin Jones appointed to the Rural Affairs brief in the new 10 member Cabinet.

Party leadership

Plaid Cymru leadership

Name
and Portrait
Party Office Constituency
(if any)
Notes
1 Ieuan Wyn Jones.jpg
Ieuan Wyn Jones
Party Leader
since 2006
and AM Group Leader
AM for Ynys Môn Deputy First Minister of Wales
A 2006 party reorganisation
designated the group leader in the
Assembly as overall party leader.
2 Dafydd Wigley.jpg
Dafydd Wigley
Honorary
Party President
From 2001
Former Party President
3 Dafydd-Iwan-Portrait by-Aberdare-Blog.jpg
Dafydd Iwan
Party President
Since 2003
4 Jill Evans by Aberdare Blog.jpg
Jill Evans MEP
Vice President MEP for Wales Member of the European Parliament
5 Elfyn Llwyd.jpg
Elfyn Llwyd
UK Parliament
Group Leader
MP Meirionnydd Nant Conwy
6 Gwenllian Lansdown Chief Executive [27] Riverside, Cardiff County Councillor for Riverside on Cardiff Council [28]

Electoral performance

European Parliament Elections

Year Percentage of vote in Wales Seats won
1979 11.7% 0 (of 4)
1984 12.2% 0 (of 4)
1989 12.9% 0 (of 4)
1994 17.1% 0 (of 5)
1999 29.6% 2 (of 5)
2004 17.1% 1 (of 4)
2009 18.5% 1 (of 4)

UK General Elections

Year Percentage of vote in Wales Seats won
1929 < 0.1% 0 (of 36)
1931 0.2% 0 (of 36)
1935 0.3% 0 (of 36)
1945 1.2% 0 (of 36)
1950 1.2% 0 (of 36)
1951 0.7% 0 (of 36)
1955 3.1% 0 (of 36)
1959 5.2% 0 (of 36)
1964 4.8% 0 (of 36)
1966 4.3% 0 (of 36)
1970 11.5% 0 (of 36)
1974 (Feb) 10.8% 2 (of 36)
1974 (Oct) 10.8% 3 (of 36)
1979 8.1% 2 (of 36)
1983 7.8% 2 (of 38)
1987 7.3% 3 (of 38)
1992* 9% 4 (of 38)
1997 9.9% 4 (of 40)
2001 14.3% 4 (of 40)
2005 12.6% 3 (of 40)
  • One seat contested on a joint Plaid Cymru/Green Party ticket

Welsh Assembly Elections

Year Percentage of vote (constituency) Percentage of vote (regional) Seats won (constituency) Seats won (regional)
1999 28.4% 30.6% 9 (of 40) 8 (of 20)
2003 21.2% 19.7% 5 (of 40) 7 (of 20)
2007 22.4% 21.0% 7 (of 40) 8 (of 20)

European Free Alliance

Name
and Portrait
Party Office Constituency
(if any)
Notes
Jill Evans by Aberdare Blog.jpg
Jill Evans
EU Parliament
Group Leader
Wales in the EU

Plaid retains close links with the Scottish National Party, with both parties' MPs co-operating closely with one another. They work as a single group within Westminster, and were involved in joint campaigning during the 2005 General Election campaign. Both Plaid and the SNP are part of the European Free Alliance party in the European Parliament, a nationalist and regionalist bloc of parties. The EFA works with the European Green Party in order to form a joint group in the European Parliament: the The Greens–European Free Alliance.

See also

References

  1. ^ http://www.gwydir.demon.co.uk/uklocalgov/makeup.htm
  2. ^ "Elections 2008: Councils A-Z". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2008-05-28. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/bsp/hi/elections/local_council/08/html/region_99999.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  3. ^ Electoral Commission: 2004 accounts
  4. ^ Constitution: Plaid Cymru website. Retrieved 15 Dec 2009.
  5. ^ http://www.thisissouthwales.co.uk/news/Plaid-Cymru-want-independent-Wales/article-320673-detail/article.html
  6. ^ Butt-Phillip, A, The Welsh Question, (1975), University of Wales Press
  7. ^ McAllister, L, Plaid Cymru: The Emergence of a Political Party, (2001), Seren
  8. ^ McAllister, L, Plaid Cymru: The Emergence of a Political Party, (2001), Seren “The tentative moves towards elaborating and broadening Plaid's policy portfolio did not allow it to shake off its early identity as a language movement or a cultural pressure group." See also Butt-Phillip, A, The Welsh Question, (1975), University of Wales Press. "It is clear that the Welsh Nationalist Party was at the outset essentially intellectual and moral in outlook and socially conservative.
  9. ^ Morgan, K O, Welsh Devolution: the Past and the Future in Scotland and Wales: Nations Again? (Ed. Taylor, B and Thomson, K), (1999), University of Wales Press. Williams, G A When Was Wales?, (1985), Penguin. Davies J, A History of Wales, (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin. Davies, D H, The Welsh Nationalist Party 1925-1945, (1983), St. Martin's Press. Morgan, K O, Rebirth of a Nation, (1981), OUP.
  10. ^ Butt-Phillip, A, The Welsh Question, (1975), University of Wales Press
  11. ^ Inspector Williams the Spy Catcher: South Wales Police Website. Retrieved 29 September 2006.
  12. ^ Davies, J, A History of Wales, (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin "Saunders Lewis...hoped that a substantial number of Welshmen would refuse to be conscripted on the grounds that they were Welsh. He was disappointed by their response."
  13. ^ Davies, J, A History of Wales, (1990, rev. 2007), Penguin
  14. ^ Morgan, K O, Rebirth of a Nation, (1981), OUP
  15. ^ Francis, H and Smith, D, The Fed: A History of the South Wales Miners in the Twentieth Century, (1980), University of Wales
  16. ^ Tanner, D, Facing the New Challenge: Labour and Politics 1970 - 2000 in The Labour Party in Wales 1900-2000 (Ed. Tanner, D, Williams, C and Hopkin, D), (2000), University of Wales Press
  17. ^ McAllister, L, Plaid Cymru: The Emergence of a Political Party, (2001), Seren
  18. ^ "Plaid pioneer Gwynfor Evans dies". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2005-04-21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/2002565.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "Mr Evans changed the face of British politics when he became Plaid's first MP in the 1966 Carmarthen by-election. Fourteen years later he threatened to starve himself to death in the cause of Welsh language television, leading to the foundation of S4C." 
  19. ^ "Morgan is more popular - Michael". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 1999-02-17. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/281166.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "Mr Michael, who has Prime Minister Tony Blair's backing, has been widely predicted to come first due to the form of electoral system used. An electoral college composed of three groups - politicians, trade unions and party members - will determined the winner. Large unions such as AEEU that have made their choice after a ballot of a small number of delegates are backing Mr Michael, but Mr Morgan has won every union member vote, including the shopworkers' union Usdaw on Tuesday night. Mr Morgan, a left-wing backbencher, has also repeatedly topped opinion polls taken among Labour Party members in Wales." 
  20. ^ "'Wigley downfall' plot denied". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2000-07-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/832595.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "Mr Wigley's announcement that he was to give up the presidency of Plaid Cymru in May came as a shock. Although he had been in hospital undergoing heart surgery, he was expected to resume his career. Some AMs said privately that he had taken on too much - being an MP, AM, party president and also group leader in the National Assembly. But there was also the suggestion that there was a conspiracy to oust him." 
  21. ^ "Moderate with a hard act to follow". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2003-04-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/2905677.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "But Mr Jones was soon facing questions about his credentials for the job. Seimon Glyn, until then a fairly obscure Plaid Cymru councilor from Gwynedd, had made controversial comments on BBC Radio Wales about inward migration into Welsh-speaking communities. The issue was raised when Mr Jones appeared on the BBC's Question Time in Caernarfon, and he was criticised for his response, in which he at first denied that Mr Glyn had referred to English as a foreign language. There were more problems when Plaid's then chief executive said that Mr Jones was on a learning curve in the job." 
  22. ^ Elfyn Llwyd - Plaid Cymru parliamentary leader ePolitix interview, ePolitix, 6 September 2006
  23. ^ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/shared/vote2005/html/region_10.stm Election 2005 results, Wales, BBC News, 1 June 2005, Retrieved 6 February 2007
  24. ^ "First ethnic minority AM elected". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2007-05-04. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/6622925.stm. Retrieved 2007-05-06. "The assembly has its first ethnic minority member with the election of Plaid Cymru's Mohammad Asghar on the regional list. Mr Asghar, who was second on the Plaid list, was the fourth and final AM to be elected in South Wales East." 
  25. ^ "Details of Labour-Plaid agreement". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2007-06-27. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/6246428.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "On the sensitive issue of giving the Welsh assembly full law-making powers, a referendum on the issue is promised "as soon as practicable, at or before the end of the assembly term (in 2011)". According to the document "both parties will then take account of the success of the bedding down of the use of the new legislative powers (which came in after last May's election) already available and, by monitoring the state of public opinion, will need to assess the levels of support for full law-making powers necessary to trigger the referendum"." 
  26. ^ "Jones confirmed as deputy leader". BBC News (bbc.co.uk). 2007-07-11. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/wales/6290480.stm. Retrieved 2008-07-31. "Plaid Cymru leader Ieuan Wyn Jones said it was a "great honour" to become the Welsh assembly's deputy first minister. He is Plaid's first government minister in the party's 82 year history. In accepting the post as part of the coalition deal with Labour, Mr Jones said it was an "historic statement" personally and for his party." 
  27. ^ "Plaid Appoint New Chief Executive:Plaid Cymru - the Party of Wales". Plaid Cymru website. Plaid Cymru. 10 September 2007. http://www.plaidcymru.org/content.php?nID=14;ID=301;lID=1. Retrieved 15 February 2009. 
  28. ^ "Cardiff - Home, Councillor Gwenllian Landsdowne Riverside". Cardiff Council website. Cardiff Council. 29 January 2010. http://www.cardiff.gov.uk/content.asp?nav=2872%2C4274&parent_directory_id=2865&id=1211. Retrieved 15 February 2009. 

External links

This audio file was created from a revision dated 2005-07-12, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. (Audio help)
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Simple English

Plaid Cymru (plaɪd ˈkəmri) is Welsh for The Party of Wales. It is often simply called Plaid. It is a political party in the United Kingdom which wants an independent Free Welsh state within the European Union.


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