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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Planets in science fiction are fictional planets that appear in various media, especially those of the science fiction genre, as story-settings or depicted locations.[1]

History

Contents

Before Galileo turned his telescope to the heavens, the planets of the Solar System were not recognized as potential locations or worlds.[citation needed] They were visible to observers merely as bright points of light, only distinguishable from stars by their motion.

In the system of Claudius Ptolemy (fl. c. 150), the Alexandrian astronomer whose works were the basis of all European astronomy throughout the Middle Ages and Renaissance, the planets were lights set into a series of transparent spheres turning around the Earth, which was the center of the one and only universe.[2] Dante (1265-1321), in his Paradiso,[3] describes the ascent of his narrator through the spheres of the Moon, the planets from Mercury to Saturn, and thence to the sphere of the fixed stars and the heavens of the angels. Dante implies that the light of the planets is a combination of light imparted by Divine will and the radiance of the blessed souls that inhabit the spheres. These planets are, however, entirely ethereal; they have light but no physical form and no geography.

Ludovico Ariosto, in his epic Orlando Furioso (1513),[4] jestingly sent his hero to a Moon where everything lost on Earth eventually turns up; but it was not until Galileo discovered (1609-1610) that the Moon had surface features, and that the other planets could, at least, be resolved into disks,[5] that the concept that the planets were real physical bodies came to be taken seriously. In 1543, Nicolaus Copernicus had already posited that the planets orbited the Sun as the Earth does; combined, these two concepts led to the thought that the planets might be "worlds" similar to the Earth.[6] Public expression of such concepts could be dangerous, however; Giordano Bruno was martyred in 1600 for, among other things, imagining an infinite number of other worlds, and claiming that "Innumerable suns exist; innumerable Earths revolve about these suns ... Living beings inhabit these worlds" in De l'infinito universo e mondi ("Concerning the Infinite Universe and Worlds", 1584).[7]

At the time, such speculation was of a rather rarefied sort, and was limited to astronomers like Christiaan Huygens who wrote a book, Cosmotheoros (1698)[8] considering the possibility of life on other planets; or to philosophers like Campanella, who wrote in defense of Galileo. The concept of life on distant planets was not, however, much utilized in fiction. The most popular target of 17th century "science fiction" was the Moon ("visited" in fiction by Kepler,[9] Godwin,[10] Cyrano,[11] and Defoe).[12] Oddly, none of these fictions made use of the lunar maps contemporaneously created by Hevelius, Riccioli and others.

It was quite some time before such "extraordinary voyages" went beyond the lunar sphere. Eberhard Kindermann sent an airship to the planets in 1744 in Die Geschwinde Reise auf dem Lufft-schiff nach der obern Welt ("The Airship's Speedy Journey to the Upper World");[13] while a traveller from the star Sirius passes inward through the Solar System, stopping at various planets in Voltaire's Micromégas (1752);[14] followed by another outward voyage in Marie-Anne de Roumier-Robert's Voyage de Milord Céton dans les Sept Planètes ("Lord Seton's Voyage Among the Seven Planets", 1765).[15] These stories were generally unscientific and tended towards the satirical rather than the purely entertaining; their subject-matter was probably inspired by the popular writings of Fontenelle, notably his Entretiens sur la pluralité des mondes ("Conversations on the Multiplicity of Worlds", 1686).[16]

With the rapid developments in the magnifying and resolving power of telescopes in the course of the 19th century, it finally became possible to distinguish surface features on other planets and even to draw maps of some of them, notably Mars. In 1877, Asaph Hall reported two moons of Mars and Giovanni Schiaparelli found the surface of Mars to be adorned with continents, seas, and channels, and a very suitable habitat for life. From the beginning of the 1880s, fictions – some more, some less scientific – involving travels to and from Mars began to be produced in great quantities, even though the observations of Percival Lowell required reassessment of Mars as a more marginal desert planet.[17] Mars remained a favored destination for fictional travellers down to the early 1960s (see Mars in fiction). Since probes revealed the absence of any indications of intelligent life on Mars, the science fictional Mars has changed to a possible future home for the human race, e.g. through terraforming.

Venus was never quite so popular as Mars, probably because it obdurately refused to display any surface features (it is covered with sulfuric acid clouds only dimly translucent to visible light), making any statement about its nature disturbingly speculative. In 1918, chemist Svante Arrhenius, deciding that Venus' cloud cover was necessarily water, decreed in The Destinies of the Stars that "A very great part of the surface of Venus is no doubt covered with swamps" and compared Venus' humidity to the tropical rain forests of the Congo.[18] Venus thus became, until the early 1960s, a place for science fiction writers to place all manner of unusual life forms, from quasi-dinosaurs to intelligent carnivorous plants, and where hostile interactions with Venusian natives were reminiscent of European colonial projects in Africa and Asia (see Venus in fiction). In fact Venus's surface is hot enough to melt lead, and it is extremely hostile to life.

Various other planets of the Solar System were used as settings for science fiction stories in the first half of the 20th century; but dissatisfaction with the limits imposed by science led many writers early on to forsake the Solar System for fictional planets around distant stars. As increasing knowledge of the Solar System made the prospects of life in the vicinity of Earth marginal at best, the extrasolar planet has become almost the only venue for contemporary science fiction.

In many works of science fiction, planets are only described casually, as points of origin and departure, or as interchangeable backdrops for space battles. This is particularly true of space opera. In other works, the planet takes center stage as the primary scene of events, and particular attention is paid to its environment and any culture that may exist on it. Adventure stories that stick to a single, well-described planet are sometimes called planetary romances; some of these planets are not very realistic and are effectively fantasy worlds.

Planets may be treated in different ways depending both on the interests of the author and the genre he or she is writing in. In some stories, a planet is mainly considered as an object in space: the interest of the fiction depends upon its astronomical characteristics, such as its mass, its geological composition, its atmosphere, how many moons it has and what size they are, how close it is to its sun (or suns) and how hot they are. Such considerations are found prominently though not exclusively in the hard science fiction genre.

In other stories, a planet is considered as a world or setting. Such a planet will be described from the point of view of a person dwelling on it, rather than from the point of view of an outside observer: the fiction may describe its geography, its history, and the social and cultural characteristics of its civilizations. Since authors usually adopt human protagonists, such planets are typically described as very hospitable to human life and, other than in geography, nearly indistinguishable from Earth; Brian Stableford calls such planets "Earth-Clones".[19] Conversely some fictional worlds are never more than marginally habitable, which has a profound effect on societies that developed or moved there. Numerous examples of this are to be found in the Known Space stories of Larry Niven.

While some authors choose to treat a planet in depth, considering it to have a wide diversity of geography, climate, politics and culture, others prefer to characterize their planets by some single global characteristic. Many of these uniform settings have become stereotypes, used in a variety of science fictional works. Such stereotypes include: the planet covered by a single city; the planet whose surface is entirely desert; the planet covered by ocean, with no landmasses; the planet on which it is perpetually winter; the planet that is self-aware; and the planet which has been artificially constructed.

Other planets appear in humorous or comical settings, sometimes spoofing more conventional science fiction. Such planets are often described with no pretense to scientific accuracy; their strange characteristics are primarily intended to amuse.

For the Star Trek universe, a detailed planetary classification system has been devised; it is not actually used by scientists.

Planet lists

For planets from specific fictional milieux, use the following lists and categories:

Literature

Comics

Film and television

Animation

Computer/video games

Other games

Other

Alphabetical list

Contains planets not found in the preceding lists.

A

  • Aldébaran-4 — From the ongoing series of graphic novels "Les Mondes d'Aldébaran" by Léo.
  • Amel — Amel is a planet in the Frank Herbert novel The Godmakers, where all the religions of the universe co-exist with no conflict, under the Ecumenical Truce.
  • Antar — The home planet of the alien-human hybrids who are the main characters in the TV show "Roswell" and the book series "Roswell High".
  • Athena — A planet in Tom Godwin's Space Prison (aka The Survivors) and The Space Barbarians, claimed by the Gern Empire and colonized by Terran slave labor before being liberated by the Ragnarokans.
  • Aegis VII - The setting for the video games Dead Space and Dead Space: Extraction.

B

  • Ballybran — A planet in Anne McCaffrey's Crystal Singer series. Ballybran is a toxic world where the inhabitants must form a symbiotic relationship with a spore in order to survive.
  • Belzagor — A planet colonized by Earth, whose natives are the elephant-like nildoror, in Downward to the Earth by Robert Silverberg.
  • Big Planet — An enormous but not very dense planet, settled by Earth colonists and divided into a large number of colorful social groupings, in the novels Big Planet and Showboat World by Jack Vance.
  • Botany — An Earth-like agricultural world to which prisoners and slaves are transported in the Catteni Series by Anne McCaffrey.

C

  • Chiron — A planet (usually called "Planet") orbiting the star Alpha Centauri in the computer game Sid Meier's Alpha Centauri.

D

E

F

  • Far Away — A planet in Peter F. Hamilton's Commonwealth Saga which has been sterilized by a solar flare and is characterized by a triangle of stratospheric mountains. The alien known as the Starflyer originated here when a ship called the Marie Celeste crashed on Far Away.

G

  • G889 — A planet 22 light-years from Earth in the television series Earth 2.
  • Gehenna — The planet in C. J. Cherryh's novel Forty Thousand in Gehenna and home of the Caliban.
  • Gorta — A planet circling Proxima Centauri, home of the hostile alien Furons in the video game Destroy All Humans!.

H

  • Halvmörk — A twilight planet in Harry Harrison's novel Wheelworld.
  • Helliconia — A planet orbiting a binary star in the trilogy of the same name by Brian Aldiss. On Helliconia, with a 3,000-year "Great Year", civilizations rise and fall with the change of seasons.
  • He — A planet sent out of its orbit by spindizzys in James Blish's novels Earthman Come Home (1955) and The Triumph of Time (1958); collected in Cities in Flight (1970)[20]
  • Hydros — A water-covered planet, whose population lives only on artificial floating islands, in Robert Silverberg's novel The Face of the Waters.
  • Hocotate — The home planet of Olimar, the main character in Pikmin and Pikmin 2.
  • Helghan - a planet of Alpha Centauri with a very hostile environment in the Killzone video game series.

I

  • Ishtar — A planet in orbit around three suns, whose northern hemisphere undergoes catastrophic heating every thousand years as it draws near to one of them. From Poul Anderson's novel Fire Time.
  • Iszm — A planet in Jack Vance's novel The Houses of Iszm, a world on which bioengineering of plants is the dominant technology form (as opposed to mechanical engineering on Earth). Houses on Iszm are trees with room-sized pods; all furnishings are integrated as part of the growth.

J

  • Jean — A "colony planet" that is the setting for Mark Stanley's webcomic Freefall.

K

  • Kharak — A desert planet in the game Homeworld, destroyed by an enemy race after space travel is developed.
  • K-PAX — A utopian planet in the novel and film of the same name, which is quite possibly the delusional invention of a madman who claims to be from the planet.
  • Krankor — The home planet of the supervillain Phantom in the Japanese television series Planet Prince.

L

  • La Maetelle — A dying planet whose orbit changes drastically once in a millennium; the home of Queen Promethium and her daughters in the manga and anime of Leiji Matsumoto.
  • Lagash — A planet in the story Nightfall by Isaac Asimov, in a globular cluster, and in a system with six suns. The orbit of the planet is such that all sides of it are almost always illuminated by at least one sun; only once in every 2,049 years is Lagash oriented in such a way that one of the suns is eclipsed by a dark companion body. Only at such times are the stars visible from Lagash's surface. In the novel developed from the short story, the planet was called Kalgash.
  • Land and Overland — Twin planets revolving about a common center of gravity, sharing a common atmosphere and connected by an hourglass-shaped atmospheric tunnel. The setting for Bob Shaw's The Ragged Astronauts, The Wooden Spaceships and The Fugitive Worlds. Travel between the two planets occurs by hot air balloon.
  • Lithia — A planet peopled by an alien species with a well-developed natural ethics but no form of religion, in James Blish's novel A Case of Conscience.
  • Lumen — The Planet of Light in the British puppet TV series Space Patrol.
  • LV-426, or Acheron — The planet on which the derelict ship and its deadly cargo are found in the movies Alien and Aliens.
  • LV-1201 — Planet in the Aliens vs. Predator 2 video game.

M

  • Mejare and Tarak — Warring planets in the anime Vandread. Mejare is populated entirely by women, Tarak entirely by men.
  • Merseia — Planet that becomes the center of an interstellar empire in Poul Anderson's Technic History.
  • Metaluna — A war-torn planet visited in the '50s B-movie cult classic This Island Earth.
  • Minerva — Earthlike planet occupying the orbit of Mars in the alternate universe of Harry Turtledove's A World of Difference.
  • Miron - The homeworld of Bleep, Blink, and Twink in the British children's series Bleep and Booster.
  • Mor-Tax, Morthrai and Qar'To — Planets named in the television series War of the Worlds. Mor-Tax, a planet orbiting a dying star in the Pleiades, is a paradise planet, the homeworld of the aliens invading Earth. Morthrai, first mentioned in the second season, may be another name for Mor-Tax. Qar'To is another planet in the same system as Mor-Tax, inhabited by a different species.

N

  • Nacre — A planet populated primarily by fungi, including an intelligent variety; from Piers Anthony's novels Omnivore, Orn and OX.
  • New Terra — In the computer game Outpost 2, New Terra is the world chosen by humanity as its last hope for survival, colonized by the last survivors of Earth in starship Conestoga.
  • Nihil — An additional planet of Earth's solar system; due to a flaw in space, the planet is invisible except at close range, although it can see most of the other planets. The inhabitants attempt to conquer Earth during the 30th century. From the novel Beyond the Spectrum by Martin Thomas.

O

  • Omega — A prison planet where one the only way to get ahead in society - or survive - is by committing murder and other crimes. From Robert Sheckley's The Status Civilization.
  • Orthe — A post-holocaust planet that has reverted to a quasi-medieval way of life, in Mary Gentle's Golden Witchbreed and Ancient Light.

P

  • Pandarve — A living, sentient planet, considered to be a goddess, in the Storm comic book.
  • Pandora - A so-called "treasure planet" featured as the setting of the 2009 video game Borderlands.
  • Perdide — A planet that serves for much of the setting of the 1982 French animated science fiction movie Les Maîtres du Temps (Time Masters), by Rene Laloux.
  • Pern — A planet pelted by a deadly spore (called Thread), capable of eating anything but rock and metal, for periods of fifty years every two to four centuries in Anne McCaffrey's Dragonriders of Pern novels. The people of Pern live in caves and ride genetically-engineered flying reptiles ("dragons") capable of incinerating the spore in midair.
  • Petaybee — A living planet, becoming sentient, in Anne McCaffrey and Elizabeth Ann Scarborough's Petaybee Series.
  • Pharagos — A fantasy planet in the Dungeons & Dragons role-playing game.
  • Placet — A planet that revolves in a figure-8 orbit around the twin suns Argyle I and Argyle II, and is subject to several different spatio-temporal anomalies in Fredric Brown's Placet is a Crazy Place.
  • Planet X — an inhabited planet of unknown location in the Tom Swift, Jr. juvenile "Tom Swift and the Visitor from Planet X" (1961).
  • Planet X — a free-roaming planet in the TV series Transformers: Cybertron
  • Planet X — Only remaining source of the shaving cream atom in the cartoon Duck Dodgers in the 24½th Century
  • Planet X — synthetic planetoid in the arcade game Escape from the Planet of the Robot Monsters
  • Polyphemus and Pandora — A gas giant and its inhabited moon in the film Avatar (2009).
  • Prysmos — A planet orbiting three stars in the cartoon Visionaries: Knights of the Magical Light.
  • Pyrrus — An inhabitable planet whose ecosystem, consisting of psychic plants and animals, seems to be unremittingly hostile to human life. From Harry Harrison's Deathworld trilogy.

R

  • Ragnarok — A planet in Tom Godwin's Space Prison (aka The Survivors) and The Space Barbarians. Ragnarok's inhabitants suffered from high gravity, temperature extremes, Hell Fever, unfriendly wildlife such as prowlers and unicorns, and a dearth of natural resources.
  • Regis III — A planet populated by evolving machines in Stanisław Lem's novel The Invincible.
  • Reverie — A planet with extreme social division between the haves and have-nots, in Bruce Sterling's The Artificial Kid.
  • Riverworld — The title planet of Philip José Farmer's Riverworld series, where all humans in history are reincarnated along a spiral river.
  • Rocheworld — A pair of twin planets that almost touch in the book of that name by Robert Forward.
  • Rubanis — A megalopolitan planet plagued by constant traffic congestion, appearing in several volumes of the French comic book series Valérian and Laureline, particularly in The Circles of Power.
  • Reach - A human colony in the Epsilon Eridani System in the Halo video game series.

S

T

  • Takis — The home planet of Dr. Tachyon.
  • Targ — The planet on which the computer game Mercenary and its sequels take place.
  • Thalassa — A watery planet colonized by Earth, and revisited by a ship travelling to the planet Sagan 2 in Arthur C. Clarke's novel The Songs of Distant Earth.
  • Thra — The world of The Dark Crystal.
  • Thundera — Home planet of the ThunderCats.
  • Tiamat — An oceanic planet whose sun orbits a black hole, socially divided into two moieties (Summer and Winter), ruled by a queen with abrupt changes in social conditions every 150 years. From Joan D. Vinge’s The Snow Queen.
  • Tirol — The homeworld of the Robotech Masters in the anime Robotech.
  • Titan — The setting of the Fighting Fantasy gamebooks; not to be confused with the Saturnian satellite Titan.
  • Tormance — A planet orbiting Arcturus in David Lindsay's novel, A Voyage to Arcturus.
  • Tralfamadore — A planet populated by the phlegmatic Tralfamadorians in the works of Kurt Vonnegut.
  • Troas — An Earthlike planet featured in the stories "Sucker Bait" by Isaac Asimov and "Question and Answer" by Poul Anderson.
  • Tschai — The sole planet of Carina 4269, 212 light-years from Earth, slightly larger than Terra and populated by three alien races, one sentient native species and various human races, as described in "Planet of Adventure" by Jack Vance.
  • Twinsun — A planet lit by two fixed suns, both fixed relative to it, in the Little Big Adventure computer games. Twinsun has three climates: the poles are hot and desert, the equator is cold and Arctic, and between them lie temperate lands.

V

W

  • Water-O — The water-covered planet from the cartoon series TigerSharks.
  • Worlorn - A wandering planet that is the setting for George R. R. Martin's novel Dying of the Light.
  • Wormwood — In the role playing game Rifts, a chaotic planet in another plane. Wormwood is alive, and its inhabitants can draw on its life force.

Z

  • Zahir — A hollow planet appearing in the comic book series Valérian and Laureline.
  • Zeelich — A planet covered by a thick layer of gas clouds above a sea of lava in the computer game Little Big Adventure 2. Vegetation and civilisation occur only on mountains rising above the cloud layer.
  • Zyrgon — A planet ruled by the galactic "Law-Enforcers" in novels by Robin Klein, adapted as a television series.

Other lists

Parallel Earths

These planets are identical or nearly identical to Earth physically, but have a history that differs to some degree from that of our Earth.

Planets of the Solar System

Artificial planets

Some writers, scientists and artists have speculated about artificial worlds or planet-equivalents; these planets include:

Fantastic planets

Some invented planets have physically impossible shapes, and may be regarded as fantasy worlds:

Comic planets

These planets are not so much carefully constructed worlds as they are humorous backgrounds or gag references in various comedy shows and games:

  • Arazon — A prison planet featured in the comic novel Bikini Planet by David S. Garnett. It is colliquially known as "Clink".
  • Druidia — Home of the Druids, ruled by King Roland and Princess Vespa in the movie Spaceballs.
  • Freleng — Zadavia's and Optimatus' homeworld in the animated series Loonatics Unleashed. The name is an homage to animator Friz Freleng.
  • Gordon — A planet visited in the British Claymation series Rex the Runt. All the inhabitants of the planet are sapient plant-pots who are all called Gordon, with the exception of one named John. The planet is referenced frequently but is never actually seen.
  • Hideaway — An "entertainment planet" appearing in the comic novel Bikini Planet by David S. Garnett, and briefly in the precursor novel Stargonauts.
  • Htrae — A version of Earth in which everything is backwards, in the scifi television comedy Red Dwarf.
  • Jupiter Two — A planet mentioned by name in Spaceballs. It is mentioned as being close to Druidia, but it is not actually shown on-screen.
  • Koozebane — A mysterious planet full of weird aliens, encountered several times in the television puppet comedy The Muppet Show.
  • Marklar — A planet that appeared in four episodes of the animated television series South Park, most prominently in Starvin' Marvin in Space, where all nouns are replaced by the word 'Marklar'.
  • Melmac — The home planet of the alien Gordon Shumway in the television comedy ALF.
  • Ork — The home planet of the humanoid alien Mork in the television situation comedy Mork & Mindy.
  • Planet X — The women-only planet of Queen Zombina in the parodic musical Zombies from The Beyond (1995).
  • Pop Star — A planet in the Kirby series of video games. It is star-shaped and has a sun and moon that revolves around it.
  • Remulak — The home planet of the aliens in the comedy sketches (and movie) The Coneheads.
  • Rigel 7 — The home planet of drooling aliens Kang and Kodos on the animated comedy The Simpsons.
  • Rimmerworld — A planet populated by millions of clones of Arnold Rimmer who had spent six hundred years alone on this planet, creating clones of himself in a failed attempt to create a girlfriend. From Red Dwarf.
  • Shroob planet — The (assumed) homeworld of the alien Shroobs in the video game Mario & Luigi: Partners in Time.
  • Skyron — Planet in the Andromeda Galaxy, home of immense blancmanges, in a Monty Python's Flying Circus comedy sketch.
  • Spaceball — Planet of the Spaceballs, ruled by President Skroob in the movie Spaceballs, where it has a heavily polluted atmosphere.
  • Sushi — A metafictional planet mentioned in Ed, Edd n Eddy, mentioned as the setting for the (fictional) horror film I Was a Teenage Appetiser from Planet Sushi: The Second Coming.
  • Thargoidia — The homeworld of the Thargoids in the Captain Kremmen series by Kenny Everett. The city of Gortadia is the planetary capital city.
  • Thribb — A planet seen in an episode of Rex the Runt. The planet itself is merely an asteroid with a lecture hall at its north pole, and the inhabitants all resemble the Easter Island Statues.
  • Vega - In the film Spaceballs, the spaceship Eagle-5 crash-lands on the desert-moon of Vega after running out of fuel.
  • X — Planet X was the source of Alludium Phosdex, the shaving cream atom, in the 1953 animated short comedy film Duck Dodgers in the 24 1/2th Century.
  • Xenon — The home planet of Roger Wilco, janitor, in the humorous computer game series Space Quest.
  • Yugopotamia — A comic "opposite" planet mentioned in the animated comedy The Fairly Oddparents.

Books

  • Comins, Neil F.. What If the Moon Didn't Exist. 
  • Gillette, Stephen. World-Building. Writer's Digest Books. 
  • Stableford, Brian. The Dictionary of Science Fiction Places. 

See also

Similar fictions

References

  1. ^ Mann, George (2001). The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. Robinson. ISBN 1841191779. 
  2. ^ Ptolomaeus, Claudius (1984). Ptolemy's Almagest. New York: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0387912207. 
  3. ^ Dante, Alighieri (2001). Paradiso. New York: Signet. ISBN 0451528050. 
  4. ^ Ariosto, Ludovico (1974). Orlando Furioso. London: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0192125761. 
  5. ^ Galilei, Galileo (1987). Sidereus Nuncius. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226279022. 
  6. ^ Copernicus, Nicolaus (1995). De revolutionibus orbium caelestium. Amherst: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573920355. 
  7. ^ Singer, Dorothea Waley (1968). Giordano Bruno, his life and thought. New York: Greenwood Press. 
  8. ^ "Cosmotheoros (1698)". http://www.phys.uu.nl/~huygens/cosmotheoros_en. Retrieved 2006-06-28. 
  9. ^ Kepler, Johannes (2003). Somnium. Mineola: Dover Publications. ISBN 0486432823. 
  10. ^ Godwin, Francis (1995). The Man in the Moon. Ottawa: Dovehouse Editions. ISBN 1895537428. 
  11. ^ Cyrano de Bergerac, Savinien (1965). Other worlds; the comical history of the states and empires of the moon and the sun. London: Oxford University Press. 
  12. ^ Defoe, Daniel (2001). The consolidator. New York: AMS Press. ISBN 0404635393. 
  13. ^ Kindermann, Eberhard (1923). Die geschwinde reise auf dem lufft-schiff nach der obern welt. Berlin: Dr. Otto. 
  14. ^ Voltaire (1995). Candide: and other writings. New York: Barnes & Noble. ISBN 156619704X. 
  15. ^ http://gallica.bnf.fr/scripts/catalog.php?CT=N081800
  16. ^ Fontenelle, Bernard le Bovier de (1990). Conversations on the plurality of worlds. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520063619. 
  17. ^ Lowell, Percival (1895). Mars. Boston: Houghton Mifflin and company. 
  18. ^ Arrhenius, Svante (1918). The destinies of the stars. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons. 
  19. ^ Stableford, Brian (1999). The Dictionary of science fiction places. New York: Wonderland Press. ISBN 0684849585. 
  20. ^ Blish, James. Cities in Flight (New York: Avon, 1970







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