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Plants
Fossil range:
Early Cambrian to recent, but see text, 520–0 Ma
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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]
Divisions
Land plants (embryophytes)
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. .The scientific study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350,000 extant species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies.^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lay people sometimes try to put ideas about the group of plants we’ve studied in depth for years.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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.As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below).^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
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Green plants, sometimes called Viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.

Contents

Definition

.Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food).^ All things in moderation and live and let live.
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^ How many generations from now to the present, how many living individuals between now an then?
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^ The DNA is similar, yes, because ALL DNA in living things is similar.
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In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). .Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.^ My point was that it isn’t all that difficult for (me) to get something published as what would be loosely defined a paper s.l., including original observations and citations.
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.However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Current definitions of Plantae

When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:
Name(s) Scope Description
Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. Plantae sensu strictissimo As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below.
Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta Plantae sensu stricto Comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). .Viridiplantae encompasses a group of organisms that possess chlorophyll a and b, have plastids that are bound by only two membranes, are capable of storing starch, and have cellulose in their cell walls.^ C.S. Lewis said ultimately there will only be two groups of people.
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It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article.
Archaeplastida, Plastida or Primoplantae Plantae sensu lato Comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.
.Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as multicellularity, cellulose, and photosynthesis.^ The term junk DNA is another that tends to be misunderstood outside of the scientific community.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are not, unless you are going to take the term THEORY out of its scientific context and redefine it, with the negative consequences lo has indicated.
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.[2] [3] Many of the classification controversies involve organisms that are rarely encountered and are of minimal apparent economic significance, but are crucial in developing an understanding of the evolution of modern flora.^ I don’t understand why evolution is so controversial with so many religious people.
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^ It is, as you say, a medieval pall upon the essential progress of modern civilization, with regard to cultural evolution and technological development as well as *ethical* maturation.
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^ In fact, man is the only organism with a developed enough mental capacity to have moved on from incredibly slow Darwinian evolution to incredibly rapid cultural evolution.
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Algae

.Most algae are no longer classified within the Kingdom Plantae.^ Most likely we will have stayed within our Class (Mammalia) so of course we wont be Insects, Reptiles or Birds, but we may no longer be Homo Sapiens.
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^ True, once the Kingdom is revealed, faith will no longer be necessary.
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^ It is most likely used to help focus sounds in animals, but it no longer has a function in humans.
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[4][5] The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis, each of which arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors. Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green, red, and brown algae. .Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms.^ Now if you want to compare to todays standards, the chicken egg (or a single cell/sperm/egg) would have come first before the actual chicken (a multiple celled organism).
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^ If it doesn’t, then can we “know” that the first life forms were single cell organisms?
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The two groups of green algae are the closest relatives of land plants (embryophytes). The first of these groups is the Charophyta (desmids and stoneworts), from which the embryophytes developed.[6][7 ][8] The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae,Chlorophyta, and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. .With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch.^ There is a green hill far away outside a city wall, where our dear lord was crucified, who died to save us all.
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They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.
The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. .All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida.^ You are an alien investigator obliged to classify those three groups into two related sets according to *superior capacity*.
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In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokonts, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.

Fungi

Fungi were previously included in the plant kingdom, but are now seen to be more closely related to animals. .Unlike embryophytes and algae which are generally photosynthetic, fungi are often saprotrophs: obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials.^ If you didn’t have this bacteria, your food wouldn’t be broken down and your body couldn’t absorb the nutrients.
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.Most fungi are formed by microscopic structures called hyphae, which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei.^ So far as we know, most of the universe is as unconscious of its own existence, form and spacing as your nails or the hair on your head or your blood cells are aware of you or their part in your existence.
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^ Animalia are those of a multicellular form with specialized eukaryotic cells; have their own means of locomotion.
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Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar, are the reproductive structures of fungi. They are not related to any of the photosynthetic groups, but are close relatives of animals. Therefore, the fungi are in a kingdom of their own.

Diversity

About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. .As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering plants, 16,000 bryophytes, 11,000 ferns and 8,000 green algae.^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
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Diversity of living plant divisions
Informal group Division name Common name No. of living species
Green algae Chlorophyta green algae (chlorophytes) 3,800 [9]
Charophyta green algae (desmids & charophytes) 4,000 - 6,000 [10]
Bryophytes Marchantiophyta liverworts 6,000 - 8,000 [11]
Anthocerotophyta hornworts 100 - 200 [12]
Bryophyta mosses 12,000 [13]
Pteridophytes Lycopodiophyta club mosses 1,200 [5]
Pteridophyta ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails 11,000 [5]
Seed plants Cycadophyta cycads 160 [14]
Ginkgophyta ginkgo 1 [15]
Pinophyta conifers 630 [5]
Gnetophyta gnetophytes 70 [5]
Magnoliophyta flowering plants 258,650 [16]
.
The naming of plants is governed by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (see cultivated plant taxonomy).
^ On the other hand if I wish to publish a new species of plant, either as an integral aspect of a wider coverage, or as a separate paper, I have to follow the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (revised every 5 years) and would also be wise to take note of their recommendations.
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Phylogeny

A proposed phylogeny of the Plantae after Kenrick and Crane[17] is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al.[18] The Prasinophyceae may be a paraphyletic basal group to all green plants.


Prasinophyceae (micromonads)


Streptobionta

Embryophytes

Stomatophytes

Polysporangiates

Tracheophytes
Eutracheophytes
Euphyllophytina
Lignophytia

Spermatophytes (seed plants)




Pteridophyta


Pteridopsida (true ferns)




Equisetopsida (horsetails)


Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues)






Lycophytina

















Bryophyta (mosses)


Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)




Marchantiophyta (liverworts)








Chlorophyta


Trebouxiophyceae (Pleurastrophyceae)









Embryophytes

The plants that are likely most familiar to us are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes. They include the vascular plants, plants with full systems of leaves, stems, and roots. .They also include a few of their close relatives, often called bryophytes, of which mosses and liverworts are the most common.^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
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.All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food.^ I will say that of all the people whom I have raised these topics of question and discussion with, yours has been the most reasoned and informed set of responses.
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^ Under all these circumstances, and provided I have followed the rest of the ICBN rules to the T, my new plant must be listed and registered as valid.
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^ If we had all these great uses for all these things: tails, plantaris muscles, pointy ears, pheremone detectors, etc., why the heck did we lose them?
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About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. .Plants are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.^ So roughly 300 years to evolve a plant species by hybridisation in this case.
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^ So it’s understandable that some people will take offense at the thought of having evolved from a lower form of life, or “animal”.
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^ This thread prompted me to wonder whether the sense of humour is a redundant organ in decline throughout the species, or an evolving, advanced function.
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Bryophytes first appeared during the early Paleozoic. .They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation tolerant.^ TONS of them in some places -some governments go on periodic “cleaning” campaigns where they poison as many as they can, but they never all go away.
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^ They” survived because “they” were able to reach a sufficient amount of foliage, and the males were bigger because males of this species tend to be bigger than females.
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^ They are the only human populations on Earth known to have been able to withstand water next to major areas of uncovered skin at near freezing point for prolonged periods.
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Most species of bryophyte remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. The sporophyte is short-lived and remains dependent on its parent gametophyte.
Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments. .They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes.^ They, in turn, may set off a new spasm of adaptation and add to the overall number of extinctions.
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These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate individual, while the gametophyte remains small.
.The first primitive seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous, with further evolution through the Permian and Triassic periods.^ Explain to me, if you now believe in evolution, and see the OBVIOUS similarities to humans and chimps, both physically and in our genetic makeup, where or what exactly you think humans evolved from?
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In these the gametophyte stage is completely reduced, and the sporophyte begins life inside an enclosure called a seed, which develops while on the parent plant, and with fertilisation by means of pollen grains. .Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions.^ Some human populations have now all but completely stopped growing wisdom teeth, while others have almost 100% likelihood of developing them.
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^ As long as we ‘need’ it in some way or other, it will obviously not disappear completely.
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Early seed plants are referred to as gymnosperms (naked seeds), as the seed embryo is not enclosed in a protective structure at pollination, with the pollen landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes. The angiosperms, comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous. .These differ in that the seed embryo (angiosperm) is enclosed, so the pollen has to grow a tube to penetrate the protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today.^ Seeing as a species is a group of individuals that can interbreed to give viable offspring, as soon as a mutation prevents that then they are a different species.
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Fossils

A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park.
Plant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide.
The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. .Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.^ To bad Darwin invented it before it was known the fossil record would show no transitory species of higher orders…NONE! To bad he invented this theory before the incredible complexity of single cells was known.
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The oldest known fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. .The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris.^ I couldn’t believe it the first time I saw it.
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^ Anyone who must believe Genesis literally has taken on the task of discrediting practically all modern science, not just evolution.
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^ I find it hard to believe that so many steps of human and animal evolution have survived this long anyway.
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This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds.
The Coal measures are a major source of Paleozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Forest at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions.
The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found.
.Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion.^ I do applaud you for at least throwing up some alternate theories – much more than most people opposed to evolution do!
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^ There’s so much more there on the debates between evolutionists that the general public and most students are never exposed to.
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^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. .Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents.^ This issue could be illustrated by the fact that has often been stated: all of the fossil materials found would fit on a billiard table or a writing table.
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^ Besides, those fossils have been found thousands of kilometers from each other on locations on the Continent of the Old World.
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.Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the Southern Hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory.^ Those who cavalierly reject the Theory of Evolution, as not adequately supported by facts, seem quite to forget that their own theory is supported by no facts at all.” .
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^ In fact there is a large enough mountain of evidence to stand quite safely on the side of evolutionary theory and support it as true.
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^ FACT: The Theory of Evolution offers all components of a scientific theory: - it offers mechanisms (replication, variation, selection, DNA); - it is supported by evidence (fossils, DNA); - it is observable (ring species, Lenski experiment, vestigial traits, etc.
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Structure, growth, and development

Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. .Through a process known as photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars.^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
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^ While its original use is still speculated on, most scientists agree with Darwin’s suggestion that it once helped to process the cellulose found in the leaf-rich diet that we once had.
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Parasitic plants, on the other hand, use the resources of its host to grow. .These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant.^ If you truly do have these advanced degrees, you should know that geneticly determined components cannot be affected by their use or dis-use in regard to transmission to offspring.
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^ Multiple uses would require multiple structures and these would still be readable in “junk” DNA .
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^ Howeever, we do know humans have always used traditional belief structures of one form or another to try to obstruct progress.
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.Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well.^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
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^ These other “theories” you speak of have they been through this process as well?
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Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other crucial elemental nutrients. .Epiphytic and lithophytic plants often depend on rainwater or other sources for nutrients and carnivorous plants supplement their nutrient requirements with insect prey that they capture.^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
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^ However, since they are supposedly not preying on one another the while, nothing is allowed for sustenance requirements whilst afloat.
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^ Early humans ate a lot of plants – and they needed to eat them quickly enough that they could eat a sufficient amount in one day to get all of the nutrients they needed.
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For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots for respiration. .However, some plants grow as submerged aquatics, using oxygen dissolved in the surrounding water, and a few specialized vascular plants, such as mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions.^ Some current theories surrounding probiotics mention the place of the appendix as a central repository for useful bacteria in the body.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

Factors affecting growth

.The genotype of a plant affects its growth, for example selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.^ It still continues to evolve, often through a series of recognisable stages, from pioneer to climax, but ever more slowly with time and maturity, like anything alive.
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^ The other day I couldn’t find a supprt stick I needed for a plant in my garden.
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[19]
Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plants growth.
Biotic factors are also capable of affecting plant growth. Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual produces normal growth. Optimal plant growth can be hampered by grazing animals, suboptimal soil composition, lack of mycorrhizal fungi, and attacks by insects or plant diseases, including those caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes.[19]
.Simple plants like algae may have short life spans as individuals, but their populations are commonly seasonal.^ Sit at the controls of evolution and, “Wow, look, it’s so simple, I can fly it just like these dumbos who’ve spent their life at it.
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.Other plants may be organized according to their seasonal growth pattern: annual plants live and reproduce within one growing season, biennial plants live for two growing seasons and usually reproduce in second year, and perennial plants live for many growing seasons and continue to reproduce once they are mature.^ God said that they could live in a garden of paradise as long as they didn’t eat from one tree, the result of eating from this tree is that they would definatly die.
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^ Scientists are not the only ones who will continually search; they simply have their path to search and their methods of searching.
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^ The intellectually hypocritical and insincere, many of whom, sadly, claim to be religious, whose main concern is to torpedo important aspects of others’ lives by any means.
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.These designations often depend on climate and other environmental factors; plants that are annual in alpine or temperate regions can be biennial or perennial in warmer climates.^ Take away the lab induced environmental factors and the adaptation would likely go back the other way.
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Among the vascular plants, perennials include both evergreens that keep their leaves the entire year, and deciduous plants which lose their leaves for some part of it. .In temperate and boreal climates, they generally lose their leaves during the winter; many tropical plants lose their leaves during the dry season.^ Indeed, I imagine you may well lose many who accept evolution and Christianity as perfectly compatible (whether or not they are).
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The growth rate of plants is extremely variable. Some mosses grow less than 0.001 millimeters per hour (mm/h), while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h. .Some climbing species, such as kudzu, which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5 mm/h.^ Both sides need to grow up and realize that you can disagree strongly with somebody without acting like a total tool bag.
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^ I’m so damn tired of being ridiculed as ignorant and stupid and “don’t read books” and “need to grow up” etc.
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Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose is common). LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing.[20]

Plant cell

Plant cell structure
.Plant cells are typically distinguished by their large water-filled central vacuole, chloroplasts, and rigid cell walls that are made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin.^ We lack the digestive equipment to handle large amounts of cellulose 4 extra teeth just wouldn’t make up for the yards and yards of intestine we are missing.
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Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late stages of cytokinesis. .Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types.^ Through time, cells evolved into multiple cells creating a multiple celled organism.
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^ FACT…so show me just 1 undeniabe case where somthing comes fom nothing…let alone 1 animal into an entirly different 1 .
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^ The point I’m trying to make is that evolution is just Gods process for making the finished product…..Man,animals,plants, etc.
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Totipotent meristematic cells can differentiate into vascular, storage, protective (e.g. epidermal layer), or reproductive tissues, with more primitive plants lacking some tissue types.[21]

Physiology

Photosynthesis

.Plants are photosynthetic, which means that they manufacture their own food molecules using energy obtained from light.^ Just because the ancient Hebrews didn’t have electric light doesn’t mean they don’t know about symbolism.
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^ I merely use its principles in our own highly focussed line of inquiry, where they make absolute and perfect sense of what we observe.
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^ Intelligence does indeed have a genetic component, but if a parent does not use their own ‘allowance’ as it were, they will not pass on a diminished potential to their children.
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The primary mechanism plants have for capturing light energy is the pigment chlorophyll. .All green plants contain two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.^ Interpretations of biological Evidence comparing animals, humans, plant, and microscopic life forms that would purport to show a common designer of all life.
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The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae.

Internal distribution

Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. .The xylem moves water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem provides the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves.^ Under all these circumstances, and provided I have followed the rest of the ICBN rules to the T, my new plant must be listed and registered as valid.
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[21]

Ecology

The photosynthesis conducted by land plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which as a result is now 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web in those ecosystems. Many animals rely on plants for shelter as well as oxygen and food.
Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria, making plants an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plant roots play an essential role in soil development and prevention of soil erosion.

Distribution

Plants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.)
Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests.

Ecological relationships

The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Numerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.
The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.
.Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll.^ BUT, there are non-Christian scientific objections to biological Darwinism presented here (to various degrees — some reject a small part, some object all, some see a harmony between evolution and Christianity, some merely want more study.
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^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
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^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants.
.Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them.^ Guess my point here is that while I know that vestigial does not mean functionless, many others do not grasp this truth.
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^ The intellectually hypocritical and insincere, many of whom, sadly, claim to be religious, whose main concern is to torpedo important aspects of others’ lives by any means.
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Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Hemiepiphytes like the strangler fig begin as epiphytes but eventually set their own roots and overpower and kill their host. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata, complex aquatic food webs.[22]
.Approximately 630 plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and sundew (Drosera species).^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus.[23]

Importance

Potato plant. Potatoes spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 1400s and early 1500s and have since become an important field crop.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill.
A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.
.The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany; some consider economic botany to focus on modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany focuses on indigenous plants cultivated and used by native peoples.^ Lay people sometimes try to put ideas about the group of plants we’ve studied in depth for years.
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^ Some great people on this thread have been very generous in considering and responding to my posts (lo and Anon, and yes apparently you Randall).
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Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.

Food

Much of human nutrition depends on land plants, either directly or indirectly.
Human nutrition depends to a large extent on cereals, especially maize (or corn), wheat and rice. Other staple crops include potato, cassava, and legumes. Human food also includes vegetables, spices, and certain fruits, nuts, herbs, and edible flowers.
Beverages produced from plants include coffee, tea, wine, beer and alcohol.
Sugar is obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beet.
Cooking oils and margarine come from maize, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, olive and others.
Food additives include gum arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin.
Livestock animals including cows, pigs, sheep, and goats are all herbivores; and feed primarily or entirely on cereal plants, particularly grasses.

Nonfood products

Wood is used for buildings, furniture, paper, cardboard, musical instruments and sports equipment. Cloth is often made from cotton, flax or synthetic fibers derived from cellulose, such as rayon and acetate. Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and many other biofuels. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels derived from plants. Medicines derived from plants include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. .There are hundreds of herbal supplements such as ginkgo, Echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort.^ Even though one could assume that there would be convincing evidence from a time span of hundreds of thousands of years, no such evidence has been found.
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Pesticides derived from plants include nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins. Drugs obtained from plants include opium, cocaine and marijuana. Poisons from plants include ricin, hemlock and curare. Plants are the source of many natural products such as fibers, essential oils, dyes, pigments, waxes, tannins, latex, gums, resins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products derived from plants include soaps, paints, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, turpentine, rubber, varnish, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks, chewing gum and hemp rope. Plants are also a primary source of basic chemicals for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. These chemicals are used in a vast variety of studies and experiments.

Aesthetic uses

.Thousands of plant species are cultivated for aesthetic purposes as well as to provide shade, modify temperatures, reduce wind, abate noise, provide privacy, and prevent soil erosion.^ The whole purpose of human existence could easily be to provide a defense system for a planet, to prevent other rocks from hitting our rock.
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.People use cut flowers, dried flowers and houseplants indoors or in greenhouses.^ IMO the story was never as cut and dry as some people may believe.
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In outdoor gardens, lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous perennials and bedding plants are used. Images of plants are often used in art, architecture, humor, language, and photography and on textiles, money, stamps, flags and coats of arms. Living plant art forms include topiary, bonsai, ikebana and espalier. Ornamental plants have sometimes changed the course of history, as in tulipomania. Plants are the basis of a multi-billion dollar per year tourism industry which includes travel to arboretums, botanical gardens, historic gardens, national parks, tulip festivals, rainforests, forests with colorful autumn leaves and the National Cherry Blossom Festival. Venus Flytrap, sensitive plant and resurrection plant are examples of plants sold as novelties.

Scientific and cultural uses

Tree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a record of past climates. .Basic biological research has often been done with plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics.^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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.Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support.^ Early humans ate a lot of plants – and they needed to eat them quickly enough that they could eat a sufficient amount in one day to get all of the nutrients they needed.
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^ Some day we may have a better theory to descibe life.
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Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Numerous world records are held by plants. .Plants are often used as memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays.^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. .The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants.^ Every one of them wants to be the one that discovers a new species of something or find proof of a continous time line.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium.

Negative effects

Weeds are plants that grow where people do not want them. People have spread plants beyond their native ranges and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species. Invasive plants cause billions of dollars in crop losses annually by displacing crop plants, they increase the cost of production and the use of chemical means to control them affects the environment.
Plants may cause harm to people and animals. Plants that produce windblown pollen invoke allergic reactions in people who suffer from hay fever. A wide variety of plants are poisonous to people and/or animals. Several plants cause skin irritations when touched, such as poison ivy. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals, which are extracted and ingested or smoked, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and opium. .Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may also be harmful or fatal to people[24][25].^ IMO the story was never as cut and dry as some people may believe.
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^ Some have estimated based on genetic similarity that all people may be as closely related as no more than 50th cousin.
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^ Scientists are ambitious and ruthless people, always looking for some chink in existing *armour* or a new hint that will bring them fame and perhaps even a Nobel.
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Both illegal and legal drugs derived from plants may have negative effects on the economy, affecting worker productivity and law enforcement costs.[26][27] .Some plants cause allergic reactions in people and animals when ingested, while other plants cause food intolerances that negatively affect health.^ Randall – at least my medications don’t cause me to make fart noises when I’m rolling around in bed, unlike some people I could mention.
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^ This would be an illogical appeal to authority: other educated people don’t believe, and the fact that some do says nothing about the validity of the beliefs themselves.
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^ It is this organ that allows some animals to track others for sex and to know of potential dangers.
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See also

References

  1. ^ Haeckel G (1866). Generale Morphologie der Organismen. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer. pp. vol.1: i–xxxii, 1–574, pls I–II; vol. 2: i–clx, 1–462, pls I–VIII.  
  2. ^ "plant[2 - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary"]. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plant%5B2%5D. Retrieved 2009-03-25.  
  3. ^ "plant (life form) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/463192/plant. Retrieved 2009-03-25.  
  4. ^ Margulis, L. (1974). "Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells". Evolutionary Biology 7: 45–78.  
  5. ^ a b c d e Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, & Susan E. Eichhorn, 2005. Biology of Plants, 7th edition. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  6. ^ Bremer, K. (1985). "Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification". Cladistics 1: 369–385. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1985.tb00434.x.  
  7. ^ Mishler, Brent D.; S. P. Churchill (1985). "Transition to a land flora: phylogenetic relationships of the green algae and bryophytes". Cladistics 1: 305–328. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1985.tb00431.x.  
  8. ^ Mishler, Brent D.; Louise A. Lewis; Mark A. Buchheim; Karen S. Renzaglia; D. J. Garbary; Carl F. Delwiche; F. W. Zechman; T. S. Kantz; & Ron L. Chapman (1994). "Phylogenetic relationships of the "green algae" and "bryophytes"". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81: 451–483. doi:10.2307/2399900.  
  9. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. pages 343, 350, 392, 413, 425, 439, & 448 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  10. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. pages 457, 463, & 476. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  11. ^ Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. & Stotler, Raymond E., 2000. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 21 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  12. ^ Schuster, Rudolf M., The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume VI, pages 712-713. (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1992). ISBN 0-914-86821-7.
  13. ^ Goffinet, Bernard; William R. Buck (2004). "Systematics of the Bryophyta (Mosses): From molecules to a revised classification". Monographs in Systematic Botany (Missouri Botanical Garden Press) 98: 205–239.  
  14. ^ Gifford, Ernest M. & Adriance S. Foster, 1988. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, 3rd edition, page 358. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1946-0.
  15. ^ Taylor, Thomas N. & Edith L. Taylor, 1993. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, page 636. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall). ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  16. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:Summary Statistics
  17. ^ Kenrick, Paul & Peter R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press). ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  18. ^ Smith, Alan R., Kathleen M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider, & Paul G. Wolf. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55(3): 705-731.
  19. ^ a b Robbins, W.W., Weier, T.E., et al., Botany:Plant Science, 3rd edition , Wiley International, New York, 1965.
  20. ^ Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., & Tunnacliffe, A. (2005). "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal 388 (Part 1): 151 – 157. doi:10.1042/BJ20041931. PMID 15631617. Archived from the original on 2009-08-03. http://www.webcitation.org/5il9QhYT0.  
  21. ^ a b Campbell, Reece, Biology, 7th edition, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2005.
  22. ^ Howard Frank, Bromeliad Phytotelmata, October 2000
  23. ^ Barthlott, W., S. Porembski, R. Seine, and I. Theisen. 2007. The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Biology and Cultivation. Timber Press: Portland, Oregon.
  24. ^ "cocaine/crack". http://www.urban75.com/Drugs/drugcoke.html.  
  25. ^ "Deaths related to cocaine". http://ar2005.emcdda.europa.eu/en/page050-en.html.  
  26. ^ "Illegal drugs drain $160 billion a year from American economy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20080215071055/http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/NEWS/press02/012302.html.  
  27. ^ "The social cost of illegal drug consumption in Spain". http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/add/2002/00000097/00000009/art00012.  

Further reading

General
  • Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion - Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
  • Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  • Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  • Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). .The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.^ O…and pet peeve…we have enough evidence through molecular biology and associated techniques to prove evolution and relatedness of species WITHOUT the fossil record!
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    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  • Trewavas, A. (2003). Aspects of Plant Intelligence, Annals of Botany 92: 1-20.
Species estimates and counts
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). IUCN Red List [1].
  • Prance, G. T. (2001). Discovering the Plant World. Taxon 50: 345-359.

External links

.
Botanical and vegetation databases
.

Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010
(Redirected to Adrian R.Plant article)

From Wikispecies

Adrian R.Plant (Plant)
Entomologist, United Kingdom

Simple English

Plants
Fossil range: Cambrian to Recent
File:Diversity of plants image version
Diversity of plants
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866
Divisions

Plants are one of five big groups (kingdoms) of living things. They are autotrophic eukaryotes, which means they have complex cells, and make their own food. Usually they can not move (not counting growth).

Plants include familiar types such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. The scientific study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350,000 extant species of plants. Fungi and non-green algae are not classed as plants.

Most plants grow in the ground, with stems above, and roots below. Water and some nutrients come from the roots. The evaporation of water from pores in the leaves pulls water through the plant. This is called transpiration.

A plant needs sunlight, carbon dioxide, minerals and water to make food. A green substance in plants called chlorophyll traps the energy from the Sun needed to make food. Chlorophyll is mostly found in leaves, inside plastids, which are inside the leaf cells. The leaf can be thought of as a food factory. Leaves of plants vary in shape and size, but they are always the plant organ best suited to capture solar energy. Once the food is made in the leaf, it is transported to the other parts of the plant such as stems and roots. [1][2]

The word "plant" can also mean to put something in the ground. For example, farmers plant seeds in the ground.

Contents

Types of plants

Non-vascular plants

Vascular plants

  • Pteridophyta: the ferns
    • Pteridopsida: the typical ferns
    • Sphenopsida: the horsetails
    • Marattiopsida: a divergent group of ferns
    • Psilotopsida: sister-group to all other ferns

Seed plants

  • Gymnosperms: the conifers
    • Pinophyta: the pines
    • Cycadophyta: the Cycads
    • Ginkgophyta: the Ginkgos
    • Gnetophyta: sister group to the Angiosperms

The plant food factory

File:Plagiomnium affine
Chloroplasts visible in the cells of Plagiomnium affine

At least some plant cells contain photosynthetic organelles (plastids) which enable them to make food for themselves. With sunlight, water, and carbon dioxide, the plastids make sugars, the basic molecules needed by the plant. Free oxygen (O2) is produced as a by-product of photosynthesis.[3]

Later, in the cell cytoplasm, the sugars may be turned into amino acids for proteins, nucleotides for DNA and RNA, and carbohydrates such as starch. This process needs certain minerals: nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, iron and magnesium.[4]

Plant nutrients

Plant nutrition is the study of the chemical elements that are necessary for plant growth.

Macronutrients:

Micronutrients (trace elements) include:

Roots and water

The roots of plants perform two main functions. First, they anchor the plant to the ground. Second, they absorb water and various nutrients dissolved in water from the soil. Plants use the water to make food. The water also provides the plant with support. Plants that lack water become very limp and their stems cannot support their leaves. Plants which specialise in desert areas are called xerophytes.

Water is transported from the roots to the rest of the plant through special vessels in the plant. When the water reaches the leaves, some of it evaporates into the air. Many plants need the help of fungi to make their roots work properly. This plant/fungi symbiosis is called mycorrhiza. Rhizobia bacteria in root nodules help some plants get nitrogen.[5]

Flowering plant reproduction

Flowers and pollination

Flowers are the reproductive organ only of flowering plants (Angiosperms). The petals of a flower are often brightly colored and scented to attract insects and other pollinators. The stamen is the male part of the plant. It is composed of the filament (a stalk) that holds the anther, which produces the pollen. Pollen is needed for plants to produce seeds. The carpel is the female part of the flower. The top part of the carpel contains the stigma. The style is the neck of the carpel. The ovary is the swollen area at the bottom of the carpel. The ovary produces the seeds. The sepal is a leaf that protects a flower as a bud.

The process by which pollen gets transferred from one flower to another flower is called pollination. This transfer can happen in different ways. Insects such as bees are attracted to bright, scented flowers. When bees go into the flower to gather nectar, the spiky pollen sticks to their back legs. The sticky stigma on another flower catches the pollen when the bee lands or flies nearby it. Some flowers use the wind to carry pollen. Their dangling stamens produce lots of pollen that is light enough to be carried by the wind. The stigmas of these flowers are feathery and hang outside the flower to catch the pollen as it falls.[6]

Seed travellers

A plant produces many spores or seeds. Lower plants such as moss and ferns produce spores. The seed plants are the Gymnosperms and Angiosperms. If all the seeds fell to the ground besides the plant, the area might become overcrowded. There might not be enough water and minerals for all the seeds. Seeds usually have some way to get to new places. Some seeds can be dispersed by the wind or by water. Seeds inside juicy fruits are dispersed after being eaten. Sometimes, seeds stick to animals and are dispersed that way.[7]

Related pages

Other websites

References

Look up Plantae in Wikispecies, a directory of species
  1. Asimov, Isaac 1968. Photosynthesis. Basic Books, New York, London. ISBN 0-465-05703-9.
  2. Intermediate Learn Science, grades 5-6, by Mike Evans and Linda Ellis
  3. Smith A.L. 1997. Oxford dictionary of biochemistry and molecular biology. Oxford University Press. p508 ISBN 0-19-854768-4. "Photosynthesis -- the synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, esp. carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than the oxidation of chemical compounds".
  4. Rabinowitch E. and Govindjee 1969. Photosynthesis. Wiley, London. ISBN 0-471-70424-5
  5. Mauseth, James D. 2003. Botany: an introduction to plant biology. Jones & Bartlett, Boston.
  6. Pous, Dinora. Science and plants. Blue Planet.
  7. Fenner, Michael and Thompson, Ken 2005. The ecology of seeds. Cambridge. ISBN 978-0-521-65368-8
bjn:Tumbuhanfrr:Plaantenrue:Ростлины


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 09, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Plant, which are similar to those in the above article.








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