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Plantago (Plantains)
Greater Plantain (Plantago major)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Lamiales
Family: Plantaginaceae
Genus: Plantago
L.
Subgenus

There are 5 subgenera in Plantago.
Plantago
Coronopus
Bougeria
Psyllium
Littorella

Plantago is a genus of about 200 species of small, inconspicuous plants commonly called plantains. They share this name with the very dissimilar plantain, a kind of banana. Most are herbaceous plants, though a few are subshrubs growing to 60 cm (23.5 in) tall. The leaves are sessile, but have a narrow part near the stem which is a pseudo-petiole. They have three or five parallel veins that diverge in the wider part of the leaf. Leaves are broad or narrow, depending on the species. The inflorescences are borne on stalks typically 5-40 cm (2.25-15.75 in) tall, and can be a short cone or a long spike, with numerous tiny wind-pollinated flowers.

Plantains are used as food plants by the larvae of some species of Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on plantains.

They are found all over the world, including America, Asia, Australia, New Zealand, Africa and Europe. Many species in the genus are cosmopolitan weeds. They are found in many different habitats, most commonly in wet areas like seepages or bogs. They can also be found in alpine and semi-alpine or coastal areas. The cosmopolitan weeds can be frequently seen at the side of roads.

Contents

Uses

Plantago species have been used since prehistoric times as herbal remedies. The herb is astringent, anti-toxic, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-histamine, as well as demulcent, expectorant, styptic and diuretic. Externally, a poultice of the leaves is useful for insect bites, poison-ivy rashes, minor sores, and boils. In folklore it is even claimed to be able to cure snakebite. Internally, it is used for coughs and bronchitis, as a tea, tincture, or syrup. The broad-leaved varieties are sometimes used as a leaf vegetable for salads, green sauce, et cetera.

Plantain seed husks expand and become mucilaginous when wet, especially those of P. psyllium, which is used in common over-the-counter bulk laxative and fiber supplement products such as Metamucil. P. psyllium seed is useful for constipation, irritable bowel syndrome, dietary fiber supplementation, and diverticular disease. Recent research is also showing it to be promising in lowering cholesterol and controlling diabetes. Plantain has been consumed as human food since prehistory. For example, archaeological recovery along California's Central Coast has demonstrated use of this species as a food since the Millingstone Horizon.[1]

Psyllium supplements are typically used in powder form, along with adequate amounts of fluids. A dose of at least 7 grams daily taken with adequate amounts of fluid (water, juice) is used by some for management of elevated cholesterol. There are a number of psyllium products used for constipation. The usual dose is about 3.5 grams twice a day. Psyllium is also a component of several ready-to-eat cereals.

In India, mucilage from Desert Indianwheat (Plantago ovata) is obtained by grinding off the husk. The mucilage is sold as Isabgol, a laxative which is used to control irregular bowel syndrome and constipation. It is also used in cereals as a treatment of mild to moderate hypercholesterolemia and for reducing blood glucose. It has been used as an indigenous Ayurvedic and Unani medicine for a whole range of bowel problems.

As Old English Wegbrade the plantago is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. In Romania and Bulgaria, leaves from Plantago major are used as a folk remedy to preventing infection on cuts and scratches because of its antiseptic properties. In Slovenia and other Central European regions, the leaves were traditionally used topically as a cure for blisters resulting from friction (such as caused by tight shoes etc.).

There may also be a use for plantains in the abatement of enteric methane from ruminants[2], as the natural compounds present (e.g. condensed tannins; ~14g/kg DM), affect the acetate-propionate ratio in the rumen which is a primary mechanism by which methanogenesis is restricted[3]. Currently this is not a viable option in any significant scale due to agronomic difficulties.

Species

The boundaries of the genus Plantago have been fairly stable, with the main question being whether to include Bougueria (one species from the Andes) and Littorella (2–3 species of aquatic plants).[4]

There are about 200 species of Plantago, including:

  • Plantago afra
  • Plantago africana
  • Plantago aitchisonii
  • Plantago alpina
  • Plantago amplexicaulis
  • Plantago arborescens
  • Plantago arenaria - Branched Plantain
  • Plantago argentea
  • Plantago asiatica
  • Plantago aucklandica
  • Plantago bigelovii
  • Plantago canescens
  • Plantago coreana
  • Plantago cordata
  • Plantago coronopus - Buckshorn Plantain
  • Plantago cornuti
  • Plantago cretica
  • Plantago cynops
  • Plantago erecta
  • Plantago eripoda
  • Plantago elongata
  • Plantago erosa
  • Plantago fernandezia
  • Plantago fischeri
  • Plantago gentianoides
  • Plantago glabrifolia
  • Plantago palmata
  • Plantago patagonica
  • Plantago polysperma
  • Plantago princeps
  • Plantago pusilla
  • Plantago psyllium - Sand Plantain, French or Dark Psyllium
  • Plantago raoulii
  • Plantago rapensis
  • Plantago remota
  • Plantago reniformis
  • Plantago robusta
  • Plantago rugelii - Blackseed Plantain
  • Plantago rupicola
  • Plantago schneideri
  • Plantago sempervirens
  • Plantago sparsiflora
  • Plantago subulata
  • Plantago spathulata
  • Plantago tanalensis
  • Plantago taqueti
  • Plantago tenuiflora
  • Plantago triandra
  • Plantago triantha
  • Plantago tweedyi

Gallery

References

  1. ^ C.Michael Hogan (2008) Morro Creek, ed. by A. Burnham
  2. ^ Ramírez-Restrepo, C. and T. Barry (2005) 'Alternative temperate forages containing secondary compounds for improving sustainable productivity in grazing ruminants', Animal Feed Science and Technology, 120(3-4), 179-201.
  3. ^ Lourenço, M., G. Van Ranst, B. Vlaeminck, S. De Smet, and V. Fievez (2008) 'Influence of different dietary forages on the fatty acid composition of rumen digesta as well as ruminant meat and milk', Animal Feed Science and Technology, 145(1-4), 418-437.
  4. ^ Albach, D. C., Meudt, H. M. & Oxelman, B. 2005. Piecing together the "new" Plantaginaceae. American Journal of Botany 92: 297–315.
  • Cho, Y.; Mower, J. P., Qiu, Y.-L. & Palmer, J. D. (2004). Mitochondrial substitution rates are extraodinarily elevated and variable in a genus of flowering plants. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science 101: 17741-17746
  • Dagar, J. C.; Kumar, Y. & Tomar, O. S. (2006). Cultivation of medicinal isabgol (Plantago ovata) in alkali soils in semiarid regions of northern India. Land Degradation and Development 17: 275-283
  • Rahn, K. (1996). A phylogenetic study of the Plantaginaceae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 120: 145-198
  • Rønsted, N.; Chase, M. W.; Albach, D. C. & Bello, M. A. (2002). Phylogenetic relationships within Plantago (Plantaginaceae): evidence from nuclear ribosomal ITS and plastid TrnL-F sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 139: 323-338

External links

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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

Translingual

Proper noun

Plantago

  1. (botany) A genus, within tribe Plantagineae, that includes the common weed plantain.

Hyponyms

  • subgenera: Coronopus, Bougeria, Psyllium, Littorella

See also


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Asterids
Cladus: Euasterids I
Ordo: Lamiales
Familia: Plantaginaceae
Tribus: Plantagineae
Genus: Plantago
Subgenera: P. subg. Bougueria - P. subg. Coronopus - P. subg. Littorella - P. subg. Plantago - P. subg. Psyllium

Name

Plantago L.

Vernacular names

日本語: オオバコ属
Русский: Подорожник
Türkçe: Sinirli ot, Sinir otu

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