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Plants
Fossil range:
Early Cambrian to recent, but see text, 520–0 Ma
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Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
(unranked): Archaeplastida
Kingdom: Plantae
Haeckel, 1866[1]
Divisions
Land plants (embryophytes)
Plants are living organisms belonging to the kingdom Plantae. They include familiar organisms such as trees, herbs, bushes, grasses, vines, ferns, mosses, and green algae. .The scientific study of plants, known as botany, has identified about 350,000 extant species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies.^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lay people sometimes try to put ideas about the group of plants we’ve studied in depth for years.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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.As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below).^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
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Green plants, sometimes called Viridiplantae, obtain most of their energy from sunlight via a process called photosynthesis.

Contents

Definition

.Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food).^ All things in moderation and live and let live.
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^ How many generations from now to the present, how many living individuals between now an then?
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^ The DNA is similar, yes, because ALL DNA in living things is similar.
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In Linnaeus' system, these became the Kingdoms Vegetabilia (later Metaphyta or Plantae) and Animalia (also called Metazoa). .Since then, it has become clear that the Plantae as originally defined included several unrelated groups, and the fungi and several groups of algae were removed to new kingdoms.^ My point was that it isn’t all that difficult for (me) to get something published as what would be loosely defined a paper s.l., including original observations and citations.
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.However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Current definitions of Plantae

When the name Plantae or plants is applied to a specific taxon, it is usually referring to one of three concepts. From smallest to largest in inclusiveness, these three groupings are:
Name(s) Scope Description
Land plants, also known as Embryophyta or Metaphyta. Plantae sensu strictissimo As the narrowest of plant categories, this is further delineated below.
Green plants - also known as Viridiplantae, Viridiphyta or Chlorobionta Plantae sensu stricto Comprise the above Embryophytes, Charophyta (i.e., primitive stoneworts), and Chlorophyta (i.e., green algae such as sea lettuce). .Viridiplantae encompasses a group of organisms that possess chlorophyll a and b, have plastids that are bound by only two membranes, are capable of storing starch, and have cellulose in their cell walls.^ C.S. Lewis said ultimately there will only be two groups of people.
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It is this clade which is mainly the subject of this article.
Archaeplastida, Plastida or Primoplantae Plantae sensu lato Comprises the green plants above, as well as Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta (simple glaucophyte algae). As the broadest plant clade, this comprises most of the eukaryotes that eons ago acquired their chloroplasts directly by engulfing cyanobacteria.
.Outside of formal scientific contexts, the term "plant" implies an association with certain traits, such as multicellularity, cellulose, and photosynthesis.^ The term junk DNA is another that tends to be misunderstood outside of the scientific community.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There are not, unless you are going to take the term THEORY out of its scientific context and redefine it, with the negative consequences lo has indicated.
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.[2] [3] Many of the classification controversies involve organisms that are rarely encountered and are of minimal apparent economic significance, but are crucial in developing an understanding of the evolution of modern flora.^ I don’t understand why evolution is so controversial with so many religious people.
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^ It is, as you say, a medieval pall upon the essential progress of modern civilization, with regard to cultural evolution and technological development as well as *ethical* maturation.
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^ In fact, man is the only organism with a developed enough mental capacity to have moved on from incredibly slow Darwinian evolution to incredibly rapid cultural evolution.
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Algae

.Most algae are no longer classified within the Kingdom Plantae.^ Most likely we will have stayed within our Class (Mammalia) so of course we wont be Insects, Reptiles or Birds, but we may no longer be Homo Sapiens.
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^ True, once the Kingdom is revealed, faith will no longer be necessary.
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^ It is most likely used to help focus sounds in animals, but it no longer has a function in humans.
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[4][5] The algae comprise several different groups of organisms that produce energy through photosynthesis, each of which arose independently from separate non-photosynthetic ancestors. Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds, multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green, red, and brown algae. .Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms.^ Now if you want to compare to todays standards, the chicken egg (or a single cell/sperm/egg) would have come first before the actual chicken (a multiple celled organism).
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^ If it doesn’t, then can we “know” that the first life forms were single cell organisms?
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The two groups of green algae are the closest relatives of land plants (embryophytes). The first of these groups is the Charophyta (desmids and stoneworts), from which the embryophytes developed.[6][7 ][8] The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae,Chlorophyta, and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae. The Kingdom Plantae is often taken to mean this monophyletic grouping. .With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose, have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b, and store food in the form of starch.^ There is a green hill far away outside a city wall, where our dear lord was crucified, who died to save us all.
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They undergo closed mitosis without centrioles, and typically have mitochondria with flat cristae.
The chloroplasts of green plants are surrounded by two membranes, suggesting they originated directly from endosymbiotic cyanobacteria. The same is true of two additional groups of algae: the Rhodophyta (red algae) and Glaucophyta. .All three groups together are generally believed to have a common origin, and so are classified together in the taxon Archaeplastida.^ You are an alien investigator obliged to classify those three groups into two related sets according to *superior capacity*.
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In contrast, most other algae (e.g. heterokonts, haptophytes, dinoflagellates, and euglenids) have chloroplasts with three or four surrounding membranes. They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.

Fungi

Fungi were previously included in the plant kingdom, but are now seen to be more closely related to animals. .Unlike embryophytes and algae which are generally photosynthetic, fungi are often saprotrophs: obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials.^ If you didn’t have this bacteria, your food wouldn’t be broken down and your body couldn’t absorb the nutrients.
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.Most fungi are formed by microscopic structures called hyphae, which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei.^ So far as we know, most of the universe is as unconscious of its own existence, form and spacing as your nails or the hair on your head or your blood cells are aware of you or their part in your existence.
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^ Animalia are those of a multicellular form with specialized eukaryotic cells; have their own means of locomotion.
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Fruiting bodies, of which mushrooms are most familiar, are the reproductive structures of fungi. They are not related to any of the photosynthetic groups, but are close relatives of animals. Therefore, the fungi are in a kingdom of their own.

Diversity

About 350,000 species of plants, defined as seed plants, bryophytes, ferns and fern allies, are estimated to exist currently. .As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering plants, 16,000 bryophytes, 11,000 ferns and 8,000 green algae.^ Wilson cites some 1,413,000 known spsecies, but a grand total of life on earth as somewhere between 10 and 100 million species.
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Diversity of living plant divisions
Informal group Division name Common name No. of living species
Green algae Chlorophyta green algae (chlorophytes) 3,800 [9]
Charophyta green algae (desmids & charophytes) 4,000 - 6,000 [10]
Bryophytes Marchantiophyta liverworts 6,000 - 8,000 [11]
Anthocerotophyta hornworts 100 - 200 [12]
Bryophyta mosses 12,000 [13]
Pteridophytes Lycopodiophyta club mosses 1,200 [5]
Pteridophyta ferns, whisk ferns & horsetails 11,000 [5]
Seed plants Cycadophyta cycads 160 [14]
Ginkgophyta ginkgo 1 [15]
Pinophyta conifers 630 [5]
Gnetophyta gnetophytes 70 [5]
Magnoliophyta flowering plants 258,650 [16]
.
The naming of plants is governed by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature and International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants (see cultivated plant taxonomy).
^ On the other hand if I wish to publish a new species of plant, either as an integral aspect of a wider coverage, or as a separate paper, I have to follow the rules of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (revised every 5 years) and would also be wise to take note of their recommendations.
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Phylogeny

A proposed phylogeny of the Plantae after Kenrick and Crane[17] is as follows, with modification to the Pteridophyta from Smith et al.[18] The Prasinophyceae may be a paraphyletic basal group to all green plants.


Prasinophyceae (micromonads)


Streptobionta

Embryophytes

Stomatophytes

Polysporangiates

Tracheophytes
Eutracheophytes
Euphyllophytina
Lignophytia

Spermatophytes (seed plants)




Pteridophyta


Pteridopsida (true ferns)




Equisetopsida (horsetails)


Psilotopsida (whisk ferns & adders'-tongues)






Lycophytina

















Bryophyta (mosses)


Anthocerotophyta (hornworts)




Marchantiophyta (liverworts)








Chlorophyta


Trebouxiophyceae (Pleurastrophyceae)









Embryophytes

The plants that are likely most familiar to us are the multicellular land plants, called embryophytes. They include the vascular plants, plants with full systems of leaves, stems, and roots. .They also include a few of their close relatives, often called bryophytes, of which mosses and liverworts are the most common.^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
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.All of these plants have eukaryotic cells with cell walls composed of cellulose, and most obtain their energy through photosynthesis, using light and carbon dioxide to synthesize food.^ I will say that of all the people whom I have raised these topics of question and discussion with, yours has been the most reasoned and informed set of responses.
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^ Under all these circumstances, and provided I have followed the rest of the ICBN rules to the T, my new plant must be listed and registered as valid.
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^ If we had all these great uses for all these things: tails, plantaris muscles, pointy ears, pheremone detectors, etc., why the heck did we lose them?
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About three hundred plant species do not photosynthesize but are parasites on other species of photosynthetic plants. .Plants are distinguished from green algae, which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.^ So roughly 300 years to evolve a plant species by hybridisation in this case.
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^ So it’s understandable that some people will take offense at the thought of having evolved from a lower form of life, or “animal”.
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^ This thread prompted me to wonder whether the sense of humour is a redundant organ in decline throughout the species, or an evolving, advanced function.
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Bryophytes first appeared during the early Paleozoic. .They can only survive where moisture is available for significant periods, although some species are desiccation tolerant.^ TONS of them in some places -some governments go on periodic “cleaning” campaigns where they poison as many as they can, but they never all go away.
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^ They” survived because “they” were able to reach a sufficient amount of foliage, and the males were bigger because males of this species tend to be bigger than females.
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^ They are the only human populations on Earth known to have been able to withstand water next to major areas of uncovered skin at near freezing point for prolonged periods.
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Most species of bryophyte remain small throughout their life-cycle. This involves an alternation between two generations: a haploid stage, called the gametophyte, and a diploid stage, called the sporophyte. The sporophyte is short-lived and remains dependent on its parent gametophyte.
Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments. .They have a number of adaptations that allowed them to overcome the limitations of the bryophytes.^ They, in turn, may set off a new spasm of adaptation and add to the overall number of extinctions.
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These include a cuticle resistant to desiccation, and vascular tissues which transport water throughout the organism. In most the sporophyte acts as a separate individual, while the gametophyte remains small.
.The first primitive seed plants, Pteridosperms (seed ferns) and Cordaites, both groups now extinct, appeared in the late Devonian and diversified through the Carboniferous, with further evolution through the Permian and Triassic periods.^ Explain to me, if you now believe in evolution, and see the OBVIOUS similarities to humans and chimps, both physically and in our genetic makeup, where or what exactly you think humans evolved from?
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In these the gametophyte stage is completely reduced, and the sporophyte begins life inside an enclosure called a seed, which develops while on the parent plant, and with fertilisation by means of pollen grains. .Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions.^ Some human populations have now all but completely stopped growing wisdom teeth, while others have almost 100% likelihood of developing them.
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^ As long as we ‘need’ it in some way or other, it will obviously not disappear completely.
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Early seed plants are referred to as gymnosperms (naked seeds), as the seed embryo is not enclosed in a protective structure at pollination, with the pollen landing directly on the embryo. Four surviving groups remain widespread now, particularly the conifers, which are dominant trees in several biomes. The angiosperms, comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous. .These differ in that the seed embryo (angiosperm) is enclosed, so the pollen has to grow a tube to penetrate the protective seed coat; they are the predominant group of flora in most biomes today.^ Seeing as a species is a group of individuals that can interbreed to give viable offspring, as soon as a mutation prevents that then they are a different species.
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Fossils

A petrified log in Petrified Forest National Park.
Plant fossils include roots, wood, leaves, seeds, fruit, pollen, spores, phytoliths, and amber (the fossilized resin produced by some plants). Fossil land plants are recorded in terrestrial, lacustrine, fluvial and nearshore marine sediments. Pollen, spores and algae (dinoflagellates and acritarchs) are used for dating sedimentary rock sequences. The remains of fossil plants are not as common as fossil animals, although plant fossils are locally abundant in many regions worldwide.
The earliest fossils clearly assignable to Kingdom Plantae are fossil green algae from the Cambrian. These fossils resemble calcified multicellular members of the Dasycladales. .Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.^ To bad Darwin invented it before it was known the fossil record would show no transitory species of higher orders…NONE! To bad he invented this theory before the incredible complexity of single cells was known.
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The oldest known fossils of embryophytes date from the Ordovician, though such fossils are fragmentary. By the Silurian, fossils of whole plants are preserved, including the lycophyte Baragwanathia longifolia. From the Devonian, detailed fossils of rhyniophytes have been found. Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue. .The Devonian period also saw the evolution of what many believe to be the first modern tree, Archaeopteris.^ I couldn’t believe it the first time I saw it.
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^ Anyone who must believe Genesis literally has taken on the task of discrediting practically all modern science, not just evolution.
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^ I find it hard to believe that so many steps of human and animal evolution have survived this long anyway.
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This fern-like tree combined a woody trunk with the fronds of a fern, but produced no seeds.
The Coal measures are a major source of Paleozoic plant fossils, with many groups of plants in existence at this time. The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal. In the Fossil Forest at Victoria Park in Glasgow, Scotland, the stumps of Lepidodendron trees are found in their original growth positions.
The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots, stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras. Sequoia and its allies, magnolia, oak, and palms are often found.
.Petrified wood is common in some parts of the world, and is most frequently found in arid or desert areas where it is more readily exposed by erosion.^ I do applaud you for at least throwing up some alternate theories – much more than most people opposed to evolution do!
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^ There’s so much more there on the debates between evolutionists that the general public and most students are never exposed to.
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^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Petrified wood is often heavily silicified (the organic material replaced by silicon dioxide), and the impregnated tissue is often preserved in fine detail. Such specimens may be cut and polished using lapidary equipment. .Fossil forests of petrified wood have been found in all continents.^ This issue could be illustrated by the fact that has often been stated: all of the fossil materials found would fit on a billiard table or a writing table.
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^ Besides, those fossils have been found thousands of kilometers from each other on locations on the Continent of the Old World.
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.Fossils of seed ferns such as Glossopteris are widely distributed throughout several continents of the Southern Hemisphere, a fact that gave support to Alfred Wegener's early ideas regarding Continental drift theory.^ Those who cavalierly reject the Theory of Evolution, as not adequately supported by facts, seem quite to forget that their own theory is supported by no facts at all.” .
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^ In fact there is a large enough mountain of evidence to stand quite safely on the side of evolutionary theory and support it as true.
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^ FACT: The Theory of Evolution offers all components of a scientific theory: - it offers mechanisms (replication, variation, selection, DNA); - it is supported by evidence (fossils, DNA); - it is observable (ring species, Lenski experiment, vestigial traits, etc.
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Structure, growth, and development

Most of the solid material in a plant is taken from the atmosphere. .Through a process known as photosynthesis, most plants use the energy in sunlight to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, plus water, into simple sugars.^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
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^ While its original use is still speculated on, most scientists agree with Darwin’s suggestion that it once helped to process the cellulose found in the leaf-rich diet that we once had.
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Parasitic plants, on the other hand, use the resources of its host to grow. .These sugars are then used as building blocks and form the main structural component of the plant.^ If you truly do have these advanced degrees, you should know that geneticly determined components cannot be affected by their use or dis-use in regard to transmission to offspring.
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^ Multiple uses would require multiple structures and these would still be readable in “junk” DNA .
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^ Howeever, we do know humans have always used traditional belief structures of one form or another to try to obstruct progress.
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.Chlorophyll, a green-colored, magnesium-containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves, and often in other plant parts as well.^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
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^ These other “theories” you speak of have they been through this process as well?
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Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus, and other crucial elemental nutrients. .Epiphytic and lithophytic plants often depend on rainwater or other sources for nutrients and carnivorous plants supplement their nutrient requirements with insect prey that they capture.^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
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^ However, since they are supposedly not preying on one another the while, nothing is allowed for sustenance requirements whilst afloat.
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^ Early humans ate a lot of plants – and they needed to eat them quickly enough that they could eat a sufficient amount in one day to get all of the nutrients they needed.
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For the majority of plants to grow successfully they also require oxygen in the atmosphere and around their roots for respiration. .However, some plants grow as submerged aquatics, using oxygen dissolved in the surrounding water, and a few specialized vascular plants, such as mangroves, can grow with their roots in anoxic conditions.^ Some current theories surrounding probiotics mention the place of the appendix as a central repository for useful bacteria in the body.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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The leaf is usually the primary site of photosynthesis in plants.

Factors affecting growth

.The genotype of a plant affects its growth, for example selected varieties of wheat grow rapidly, maturing within 110 days, whereas others, in the same environmental conditions, grow more slowly and mature within 155 days.^ It still continues to evolve, often through a series of recognisable stages, from pioneer to climax, but ever more slowly with time and maturity, like anything alive.
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^ The other day I couldn’t find a supprt stick I needed for a plant in my garden.
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[19]
Growth is also determined by environmental factors, such as temperature, available water, available light, and available nutrients in the soil. Any change in the availability of these external conditions will be reflected in the plants growth.
Biotic factors are also capable of affecting plant growth. Plants compete with other plants for space, water, light and nutrients. Plants can be so crowded that no single individual produces normal growth. Optimal plant growth can be hampered by grazing animals, suboptimal soil composition, lack of mycorrhizal fungi, and attacks by insects or plant diseases, including those caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, and nematodes.[19]
.Simple plants like algae may have short life spans as individuals, but their populations are commonly seasonal.^ Sit at the controls of evolution and, “Wow, look, it’s so simple, I can fly it just like these dumbos who’ve spent their life at it.
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.Other plants may be organized according to their seasonal growth pattern: annual plants live and reproduce within one growing season, biennial plants live for two growing seasons and usually reproduce in second year, and perennial plants live for many growing seasons and continue to reproduce once they are mature.^ God said that they could live in a garden of paradise as long as they didn’t eat from one tree, the result of eating from this tree is that they would definatly die.
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^ Scientists are not the only ones who will continually search; they simply have their path to search and their methods of searching.
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^ The intellectually hypocritical and insincere, many of whom, sadly, claim to be religious, whose main concern is to torpedo important aspects of others’ lives by any means.
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.These designations often depend on climate and other environmental factors; plants that are annual in alpine or temperate regions can be biennial or perennial in warmer climates.^ Take away the lab induced environmental factors and the adaptation would likely go back the other way.
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Among the vascular plants, perennials include both evergreens that keep their leaves the entire year, and deciduous plants which lose their leaves for some part of it. .In temperate and boreal climates, they generally lose their leaves during the winter; many tropical plants lose their leaves during the dry season.^ Indeed, I imagine you may well lose many who accept evolution and Christianity as perfectly compatible (whether or not they are).
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The growth rate of plants is extremely variable. Some mosses grow less than 0.001 millimeters per hour (mm/h), while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h. .Some climbing species, such as kudzu, which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5 mm/h.^ Both sides need to grow up and realize that you can disagree strongly with somebody without acting like a total tool bag.
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^ I’m so damn tired of being ridiculed as ignorant and stupid and “don’t read books” and “need to grow up” etc.
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Plants protect themselves from frost and dehydration stress with antifreeze proteins, heat-shock proteins and sugars (sucrose is common). LEA (Late Embryogenesis Abundant) protein expression is induced by stresses and protects other proteins from aggregation as a result of desiccation and freezing.[20]

Plant cell

Plant cell structure
.Plant cells are typically distinguished by their large water-filled central vacuole, chloroplasts, and rigid cell walls that are made up of cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectin.^ We lack the digestive equipment to handle large amounts of cellulose 4 extra teeth just wouldn’t make up for the yards and yards of intestine we are missing.
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Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late stages of cytokinesis. .Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types.^ Through time, cells evolved into multiple cells creating a multiple celled organism.
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^ FACT…so show me just 1 undeniabe case where somthing comes fom nothing…let alone 1 animal into an entirly different 1 .
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^ The point I’m trying to make is that evolution is just Gods process for making the finished product…..Man,animals,plants, etc.
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Totipotent meristematic cells can differentiate into vascular, storage, protective (e.g. epidermal layer), or reproductive tissues, with more primitive plants lacking some tissue types.[21]

Physiology

Photosynthesis

.Plants are photosynthetic, which means that they manufacture their own food molecules using energy obtained from light.^ Just because the ancient Hebrews didn’t have electric light doesn’t mean they don’t know about symbolism.
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^ I merely use its principles in our own highly focussed line of inquiry, where they make absolute and perfect sense of what we observe.
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^ Intelligence does indeed have a genetic component, but if a parent does not use their own ‘allowance’ as it were, they will not pass on a diminished potential to their children.
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The primary mechanism plants have for capturing light energy is the pigment chlorophyll. .All green plants contain two forms of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.^ Interpretations of biological Evidence comparing animals, humans, plant, and microscopic life forms that would purport to show a common designer of all life.
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The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae.

Internal distribution

Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem. They also have roots for taking up water and minerals. .The xylem moves water and minerals from the root to the rest of the plant, and the phloem provides the roots with sugars and other nutrient produced by the leaves.^ Under all these circumstances, and provided I have followed the rest of the ICBN rules to the T, my new plant must be listed and registered as valid.
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[21]

Ecology

The photosynthesis conducted by land plants and algae is the ultimate source of energy and organic material in nearly all ecosystems. Photosynthesis radically changed the composition of the early Earth's atmosphere, which as a result is now 21% oxygen. Animals and most other organisms are aerobic, relying on oxygen; those that do not are confined to relatively rare anaerobic environments. Plants are the primary producers in most terrestrial ecosystems and form the basis of the food web in those ecosystems. Many animals rely on plants for shelter as well as oxygen and food.
Land plants are key components of the water cycle and several other biogeochemical cycles. Some plants have coevolved with nitrogen fixing bacteria, making plants an important part of the nitrogen cycle. Plant roots play an essential role in soil development and prevention of soil erosion.

Distribution

Plants are distributed worldwide in varying numbers. While they inhabit a multitude of biomes and ecoregions, few can be found beyond the tundras at the northernmost regions of continental shelves. At the southern extremes, plants have adapted tenaciously to the prevailing conditions. (See Antarctic flora.)
Plants are often the dominant physical and structural component of habitats where they occur. Many of the Earth's biomes are named for the type of vegetation because plants are the dominant organisms in those biomes, such as grasslands and forests.

Ecological relationships

The Venus flytrap, a species of carnivorous plant.
Numerous animals have coevolved with plants. Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar. Many animals disperse seeds, often by eating fruit and passing the seeds in their feces. Myrmecophytes are plants that have coevolved with ants. The plant provides a home, and sometimes food, for the ants. In exchange, the ants defend the plant from herbivores and sometimes competing plants. Ant wastes provide organic fertilizer.
The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza. The fungi help the plants gain water and mineral nutrients from the soil, while the plant gives the fungi carbohydrates manufactured in photosynthesis. Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins. The fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) does tremendous economic damage to the cattle industry in the U.S.
.Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll.^ BUT, there are non-Christian scientific objections to biological Darwinism presented here (to various degrees — some reject a small part, some object all, some see a harmony between evolution and Christianity, some merely want more study.
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^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
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^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
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Some plants, known as myco-heterotrophs, parasitize mycorrhizal fungi, and hence act as epiparasites on other plants.
.Many plants are epiphytes, meaning they grow on other plants, usually trees, without parasitizing them.^ Guess my point here is that while I know that vestigial does not mean functionless, many others do not grasp this truth.
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^ The intellectually hypocritical and insincere, many of whom, sadly, claim to be religious, whose main concern is to torpedo important aspects of others’ lives by any means.
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Epiphytes may indirectly harm their host plant by intercepting mineral nutrients and light that the host would otherwise receive. The weight of large numbers of epiphytes may break tree limbs. Hemiepiphytes like the strangler fig begin as epiphytes but eventually set their own roots and overpower and kill their host. Many orchids, bromeliads, ferns and mosses often grow as epiphytes. Bromeliad epiphytes accumulate water in leaf axils to form phytotelmata, complex aquatic food webs.[22]
.Approximately 630 plants are carnivorous, such as the Venus Flytrap (Dionaea muscipula) and sundew (Drosera species).^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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They trap small animals and digest them to obtain mineral nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus.[23]

Importance

Potato plant. Potatoes spread to the rest of the world after European contact with the Americas in the late 1400s and early 1500s and have since become an important field crop.
Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill.
A section of a Yew branch showing 27 annual growth rings, pale sapwood and dark heartwood, and pith (centre dark spot). The dark radial lines are small knots.
.The study of plant uses by people is termed economic botany or ethnobotany; some consider economic botany to focus on modern cultivated plants, while ethnobotany focuses on indigenous plants cultivated and used by native peoples.^ Lay people sometimes try to put ideas about the group of plants we’ve studied in depth for years.
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^ Some great people on this thread have been very generous in considering and responding to my posts (lo and Anon, and yes apparently you Randall).
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Human cultivation of plants is part of agriculture, which is the basis of human civilization. Plant agriculture is subdivided into agronomy, horticulture and forestry.

Food

Much of human nutrition depends on land plants, either directly or indirectly.
Human nutrition depends to a large extent on cereals, especially maize (or corn), wheat and rice. Other staple crops include potato, cassava, and legumes. Human food also includes vegetables, spices, and certain fruits, nuts, herbs, and edible flowers.
Beverages produced from plants include coffee, tea, wine, beer and alcohol.
Sugar is obtained mainly from sugar cane and sugar beet.
Cooking oils and margarine come from maize, soybean, rapeseed, safflower, sunflower, olive and others.
Food additives include gum arabic, guar gum, locust bean gum, starch and pectin.
Livestock animals including cows, pigs, sheep, and goats are all herbivores; and feed primarily or entirely on cereal plants, particularly grasses.

Nonfood products

Wood is used for buildings, furniture, paper, cardboard, musical instruments and sports equipment. Cloth is often made from cotton, flax or synthetic fibers derived from cellulose, such as rayon and acetate. Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and many other biofuels. Coal and petroleum are fossil fuels derived from plants. Medicines derived from plants include aspirin, taxol, morphine, quinine, reserpine, colchicine, digitalis and vincristine. .There are hundreds of herbal supplements such as ginkgo, Echinacea, feverfew, and Saint John's wort.^ Even though one could assume that there would be convincing evidence from a time span of hundreds of thousands of years, no such evidence has been found.
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Pesticides derived from plants include nicotine, rotenone, strychnine and pyrethrins. Drugs obtained from plants include opium, cocaine and marijuana. Poisons from plants include ricin, hemlock and curare. Plants are the source of many natural products such as fibers, essential oils, dyes, pigments, waxes, tannins, latex, gums, resins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products derived from plants include soaps, paints, shampoos, perfumes, cosmetics, turpentine, rubber, varnish, lubricants, linoleum, plastics, inks, chewing gum and hemp rope. Plants are also a primary source of basic chemicals for the industrial synthesis of a vast array of organic chemicals. These chemicals are used in a vast variety of studies and experiments.

Aesthetic uses

.Thousands of plant species are cultivated for aesthetic purposes as well as to provide shade, modify temperatures, reduce wind, abate noise, provide privacy, and prevent soil erosion.^ The whole purpose of human existence could easily be to provide a defense system for a planet, to prevent other rocks from hitting our rock.
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.People use cut flowers, dried flowers and houseplants indoors or in greenhouses.^ IMO the story was never as cut and dry as some people may believe.
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In outdoor gardens, lawn grasses, shade trees, ornamental trees, shrubs, vines, herbaceous perennials and bedding plants are used. Images of plants are often used in art, architecture, humor, language, and photography and on textiles, money, stamps, flags and coats of arms. Living plant art forms include topiary, bonsai, ikebana and espalier. Ornamental plants have sometimes changed the course of history, as in tulipomania. Plants are the basis of a multi-billion dollar per year tourism industry which includes travel to arboretums, botanical gardens, historic gardens, national parks, tulip festivals, rainforests, forests with colorful autumn leaves and the National Cherry Blossom Festival. Venus Flytrap, sensitive plant and resurrection plant are examples of plants sold as novelties.

Scientific and cultural uses

Tree rings are an important method of dating in archeology and serve as a record of past climates. .Basic biological research has often been done with plants, such as the pea plants used to derive Gregor Mendel's laws of genetics.^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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.Space stations or space colonies may one day rely on plants for life support.^ Early humans ate a lot of plants – and they needed to eat them quickly enough that they could eat a sufficient amount in one day to get all of the nutrients they needed.
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^ Some day we may have a better theory to descibe life.
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Plants are used as national and state emblems, including state trees and state flowers. Ancient trees are revered and many are famous. Numerous world records are held by plants. .Plants are often used as memorials, gifts and to mark special occasions such as births, deaths, weddings and holidays.^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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Plants figure prominently in mythology, religion and literature. .The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants.^ Every one of them wants to be the one that discovers a new species of something or find proof of a continous time line.
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^ One such hybrid is S. cambrensis, which is now quite stable morphologically and corresponds in every way to the criteria used to define a plant species.
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Gardening is the most popular leisure activity in the U.S. Working with plants or horticulture therapy is beneficial for rehabilitating people with disabilities. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals which are extracted and ingested, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), and opium.

Negative effects

Weeds are plants that grow where people do not want them. People have spread plants beyond their native ranges and some of these introduced plants become invasive, damaging existing ecosystems by displacing native species. Invasive plants cause billions of dollars in crop losses annually by displacing crop plants, they increase the cost of production and the use of chemical means to control them affects the environment.
Plants may cause harm to people and animals. Plants that produce windblown pollen invoke allergic reactions in people who suffer from hay fever. A wide variety of plants are poisonous to people and/or animals. Several plants cause skin irritations when touched, such as poison ivy. Certain plants contain psychotropic chemicals, which are extracted and ingested or smoked, including tobacco, cannabis (marijuana), cocaine and opium. .Smoking causes damage to health or even death, while some drugs may also be harmful or fatal to people[24][25].^ IMO the story was never as cut and dry as some people may believe.
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^ Some have estimated based on genetic similarity that all people may be as closely related as no more than 50th cousin.
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^ Scientists are ambitious and ruthless people, always looking for some chink in existing *armour* or a new hint that will bring them fame and perhaps even a Nobel.
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Both illegal and legal drugs derived from plants may have negative effects on the economy, affecting worker productivity and law enforcement costs.[26][27] .Some plants cause allergic reactions in people and animals when ingested, while other plants cause food intolerances that negatively affect health.^ Randall – at least my medications don’t cause me to make fart noises when I’m rolling around in bed, unlike some people I could mention.
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^ This would be an illogical appeal to authority: other educated people don’t believe, and the fact that some do says nothing about the validity of the beliefs themselves.
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^ It is this organ that allows some animals to track others for sex and to know of potential dangers.
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See also

References

  1. ^ Haeckel G (1866). Generale Morphologie der Organismen. Berlin: Verlag von Georg Reimer. pp. vol.1: i–xxxii, 1–574, pls I–II; vol. 2: i–clx, 1–462, pls I–VIII.  
  2. ^ "plant[2 - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary"]. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/plant%5B2%5D. Retrieved 2009-03-25.  
  3. ^ "plant (life form) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia". http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/463192/plant. Retrieved 2009-03-25.  
  4. ^ Margulis, L. (1974). "Five-kingdom classification and the origin and evolution of cells". Evolutionary Biology 7: 45–78.  
  5. ^ a b c d e Raven, Peter H., Ray F. Evert, & Susan E. Eichhorn, 2005. Biology of Plants, 7th edition. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  6. ^ Bremer, K. (1985). "Summary of green plant phylogeny and classification". Cladistics 1: 369–385. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1985.tb00434.x.  
  7. ^ Mishler, Brent D.; S. P. Churchill (1985). "Transition to a land flora: phylogenetic relationships of the green algae and bryophytes". Cladistics 1: 305–328. doi:10.1111/j.1096-0031.1985.tb00431.x.  
  8. ^ Mishler, Brent D.; Louise A. Lewis; Mark A. Buchheim; Karen S. Renzaglia; D. J. Garbary; Carl F. Delwiche; F. W. Zechman; T. S. Kantz; & Ron L. Chapman (1994). "Phylogenetic relationships of the "green algae" and "bryophytes"". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 81: 451–483. doi:10.2307/2399900.  
  9. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. pages 343, 350, 392, 413, 425, 439, & 448 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  10. ^ Van den Hoek, C., D. G. Mann, & H. M. Jahns, 1995. Algae: An Introduction to Phycology. pages 457, 463, & 476. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-30419-9
  11. ^ Crandall-Stotler, Barbara. & Stotler, Raymond E., 2000. "Morphology and classification of the Marchantiophyta". page 21 in A. Jonathan Shaw & Bernard Goffinet (Eds.), Bryophyte Biology. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). ISBN 0-521-66097-1
  12. ^ Schuster, Rudolf M., The Hepaticae and Anthocerotae of North America, volume VI, pages 712-713. (Chicago: Field Museum of Natural History, 1992). ISBN 0-914-86821-7.
  13. ^ Goffinet, Bernard; William R. Buck (2004). "Systematics of the Bryophyta (Mosses): From molecules to a revised classification". Monographs in Systematic Botany (Missouri Botanical Garden Press) 98: 205–239.  
  14. ^ Gifford, Ernest M. & Adriance S. Foster, 1988. Morphology and Evolution of Vascular Plants, 3rd edition, page 358. (New York: W. H. Freeman and Company). ISBN 0-7167-1946-0.
  15. ^ Taylor, Thomas N. & Edith L. Taylor, 1993. The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, page 636. (New Jersey: Prentice-Hall). ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  16. ^ International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species:Summary Statistics
  17. ^ Kenrick, Paul & Peter R. Crane. 1997. The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. (Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press). ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  18. ^ Smith, Alan R., Kathleen M. Pryer, E. Schuettpelz, P. Korall, H. Schneider, & Paul G. Wolf. (2006). "A classification for extant ferns". Taxon 55(3): 705-731.
  19. ^ a b Robbins, W.W., Weier, T.E., et al., Botany:Plant Science, 3rd edition , Wiley International, New York, 1965.
  20. ^ Goyal, K., Walton, L. J., & Tunnacliffe, A. (2005). "LEA proteins prevent protein aggregation due to water stress". Biochemical Journal 388 (Part 1): 151 – 157. doi:10.1042/BJ20041931. PMID 15631617. Archived from the original on 2009-08-03. http://www.webcitation.org/5il9QhYT0.  
  21. ^ a b Campbell, Reece, Biology, 7th edition, Pearson/Benjamin Cummings, 2005.
  22. ^ Howard Frank, Bromeliad Phytotelmata, October 2000
  23. ^ Barthlott, W., S. Porembski, R. Seine, and I. Theisen. 2007. The Curious World of Carnivorous Plants: A Comprehensive Guide to Their Biology and Cultivation. Timber Press: Portland, Oregon.
  24. ^ "cocaine/crack". http://www.urban75.com/Drugs/drugcoke.html.  
  25. ^ "Deaths related to cocaine". http://ar2005.emcdda.europa.eu/en/page050-en.html.  
  26. ^ "Illegal drugs drain $160 billion a year from American economy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20080215071055/http://www.whitehousedrugpolicy.gov/NEWS/press02/012302.html.  
  27. ^ "The social cost of illegal drug consumption in Spain". http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/bsc/add/2002/00000097/00000009/art00012.  

Further reading

General
  • Evans, L. T. (1998). Feeding the Ten Billion - Plants and Population Growth. Cambridge University Press. Paperback, 247 pages. ISBN 0-521-64685-5.
  • Kenrick, Paul & Crane, Peter R. (1997). The Origin and Early Diversification of Land Plants: A Cladistic Study. Washington, D. C.: Smithsonian Institution Press. ISBN 1-56098-730-8.
  • Raven, Peter H., Evert, Ray F., & Eichhorn, Susan E. (2005). Biology of Plants (7th ed.). New York: W. H. Freeman and Company. ISBN 0-7167-1007-2.
  • Taylor, Thomas N. & Taylor, Edith L. (1993). .The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants.^ O…and pet peeve…we have enough evidence through molecular biology and associated techniques to prove evolution and relatedness of species WITHOUT the fossil record!
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    Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-651589-4.
  • Trewavas, A. (2003). Aspects of Plant Intelligence, Annals of Botany 92: 1-20.
Species estimates and counts
  • International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Species Survival Commission (2004). IUCN Red List [1].
  • Prance, G. T. (2001). Discovering the Plant World. Taxon 50: 345-359.

External links

.
Botanical and vegetation databases
.

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotes about plants
  • "The flower is the poetry of reproduction. It is an example of the eternal seductiveness of life." ~ Jean Giraudoux, The Enchanted (1933)
  • "I think that I shall never see/ A poem lovely as a tree." ~ Joyce Kilmer, Trees and Other Poems (1914)
  • "There is that in the glance of a flower which may at times control the greatest of creation's braggart lords." ~ John Muir, A Thousand-Mile Walk to the Gulf (1916)
  • "To me the meanest flower that blows can give/ Thoughts that do often lie too deep for tears." ~ William Wordsworth, Ode: Intimations of Immortality from Recollections of Early Childhood (1803)
  • "Trees are the earth's endless effort to speak to the listening heaven." ~ Rabindranath Tagore, Fireflies (1928)
  • "Us sing and dance, make faces and give flower bouquets, trying to be loved. You ever notice that trees do everything to git attention we do, except walk?" ~ Alice Walker, The Color Purple (1982)
  • "A woodland in full color is awesome as a forest fire, in magnitude at least, but a single tree is like a dancing tongue of flame to warm the heart." ~ Hal Borland, Sundial of the Seasons (1964)
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

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Please help develop this page
This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. .If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.^ How much proof do you need….
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You almost need a microscope to see the smut.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Randall, how do you know that I “grossly misread the point and intent of the article” when I made no comment about it and suggested instead that it had valid points to add to this discussion?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects.^ Great list to start off with =D But as soon as I saw it I knew you’d get the blah blah god created us…something or other.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’ve been wanting to add a comment since I started reading this list, but I kept needing to stop and do other things (life, you know…).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Plants" as an educational resource.^ And since you don’t seem to be aware of this fact, then it is hardly accurate to say that your differing opinion is “based on an educated, informed mindset.” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ SOURCE of this ridiculous idea that “adaptation is a always a loss of genetic information.” you can find details on my question about this at #419.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So before you hold such strong opinions on a subject I suggest you educate yourself on it a little more.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.
Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Plants at Wikipedia.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PLANTS. .In the most generally used sense, a plant is a member of the lower or vegetable order of living organized things; the term is also popularly applied to the smaller herbaceous plants, thus excluding trees and shrubs.^ Some are herbaceous while others are shrubs or trees.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Papaveraceae These plants are generally herbaceous.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Does a similar thing apply to trees?
  • New Scientist Last Word Blog - New Scientist 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.newscientist.com [Source type: General]

.The early use of the word is for a twig, shoot, cutting or sapling, which was the meaniiig of Lat.^ If the variety is a new and choice one, the blind shoots, or those that have not formed flower buds, are often used for making cuttings.
  • greenhouse gardening - greenhouse management - landscape plans | Bercle George 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenhousemanagement101.com [Source type: General]

planta (for plancta, the root being that seen in planus, flat, cf. Gr. irXariis, broad; pianta thus meant a spreading shoot or sucker). .Other meanings of plant are derived from the verb to plant (Lat.^ Vascular tissue, remember, is the means by which plants move water and nutrients from the soil to the leaf and sugars and other synthesized organic molecules from the leaf throughout the plant.
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of apomorphies , or derived characteristics .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does this mean that you can then feed, or not worry about, your reptile eating other plants on this list?
  • Edible and Harmful Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.anapsid.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

plantare, to fix in position or place). .It is thus used of the fixtures, machinery, apparatus necessary for the carrying on of an in.dustry or business, and in colloquial or slang use, of a swindle, a carefully arranged plot or trap laid or fixed to deceive; cf.^ Also, the land , building s, machinery , apparatus , and fixture s used by an industry.
  • Plant@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

also PLANTATION. .In the following sections the botanical sense of the word is followed, the term being used generally as opposed to animals.^ Botanical Glossary - Glossary of commonly used botanical terms and their definitions.
  • NPIN: Native Plant Database 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.wildflower.org [Source type: General]

^ The descriptions in this section should be botanical in nature and should be in terms of the art of the plant.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

CLAssIFICATIoN o~ PLANTS
.Some account of the history of plant classification and the development of a natural system in which an attempt is made to show the actual relationships of plants, is given in the article BOTANY.^ Vascular plants have a specialized conductive system known as vascular bundles, a group of specialized cells made up of xylem and phloem.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Characteristics A triazole plant growth regulator having the effects of growth control sprouts promotion root system development...
  • Plant Growth Regulators, Plant Growth Regulators Manufacturers & Suppliers 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So plants have plastids, almost all photosynthesize (some parasitic plants have given it up, although they still have plastids and can be identified as plants), and almost all are terrestrial.
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The plant world falls into two great divisions, the higher or flowering plants (Phanerogams), characterized by the formation of a seed, and the lower or flowerless plants (Cryptogams), in which no seed is formed but the plants are disseminated by means of unicellular bodies termed spores.^ Seeds Grow into Plants .
  • Plant Lessons, Printables, & Resources (K-12) - TeacherVision.com 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.teachervision.fen.com [Source type: General]

^ We will divide flowering plants into two classes: Class Liliopsida and Class Magnoliopsida .
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ House Plant Seeds from around the World .
  • 2010 Exotic Plant and Garden Seed Catalog 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.seedman.com [Source type: General]

.The term Cryptogam is archaic, implying a hidden method of reproduction as compared with the obvious method represented by the flower of the Phanerogam; with the aid of a good microscope it is, however, easier to follow the process of fertilization.^ Compare each flowers method of pollination.

^ The following symbols are used to represent other flower parts.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Consider how the flowers you studied ensure that pollen grains reach the stigma, which is a necessary process for fertilization.

in many .Cryptogams than in the flowering plants.^ Non-flowering plants are called cryptogams.
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Each part of a plant (roots, leaves, flowers, and so on) requires more than 24 hours to test.
  • Wilderness Survival: Survival use of Plants - Edibility of Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.wilderness-survival.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These two great divisions are moreover of unequal value, for the Cryptogams comprise several groups differing from each other by characters as marked as those which separate some of them from the Phanerogams.^ They sure appear to be both a plant and an animal as two separate organisms .Appears one can't live without the other but definitely different than an "organ" Froggy How about mildew or Virus ??
  • Is algae a plant? - Botany Forum - GardenWeb 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.gardenweb.com [Source type: General]

^ So these three divisions lack this valuable tissue and must rely on cell-to-cell communication and diffusion to move these things about.
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The difference in the vascular system of the two groups is of practical interest to the horticulturist because certain herbicides are specific to either monocots or dicots.
  • AZ Master Gardener Manual: Plant Parts and Functions 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC ag.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The following groups or sub-kingdoms are those which are now generally recognized:
I. Thallophyta.
Cryptogams -~ II. Bryophyta.
- LIII. Pteridophyta.
Phanerogams or IV. Spermatophyta.
.Thallophyta are the most lowly organized plants and include a great variety of forms, the vegetative portion of which consists of a single cell or a number of cells forming a more or less branched thallus.^ In the growth of plants, each cell multiplies itself and more cells are formed.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most plant s require consistently moist but not wet soil.… More .
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ However, these are single-celled forms.
  • Palaeos Eukarya: Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are characterized by the absence of that differentiation of the body into root, stem and leaf which is so marked a feature in the higher plants, and by the simplicity of their internal structure.^ Through another bacterial process called nitrification, the ammonia is converted into nitrites and nitrates, thereby making the vital element nitrogen readily available to the roots of higher plants.

^ Small plants and shallow root systems compensate for the thin layer of soil, and small leaves minimize the amount of water lost through the leaf surface.
  • Polar Plants -- Science Content Knowledge 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC beyondpenguins.nsdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When we think of the word "plants" we typically picture trees, bushes, grasses, and ferns - so-called "vascular plants" because of their full systems of leaves, stems, and roots.
  • Polar Plants -- Science Content Knowledge 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC beyondpenguins.nsdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both sexual and asexual reproduction occur, but there is usually no definite succession of the two modes, marking that alternation of sexual generation (gametophyte) and asexual generation (sporophyte) which characterizes the higher groups.^ Asexual + sexual reproduction .
  • Kingdom Plantae: Non-vascular Plants 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC kconline.kaskaskia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A haploid gametophyte generation produces and alternates with a diploid sporophyte generation.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polypodiaceae There are no flowers nor seeds, and reproduction is accomplished (in part) by the release of spores from chambers called sporangia on the backs of specially-modified fertile leaves.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The group has until recent years been regarded as comprising three classes distinguished by well-marked physiological featuresthe Algae (including the Seaweeds) which contain chlorophyll, the Fungi which have no chlorophyll and therefore lead a saprophytic or parasitic mode of life, and the Lichens which are composite organisms consisting of an alga and a fungus living together in a mutual parasitism (symbiosis); Bacteria were regarded as a section of Fungi.^ Algae and macro fungi are regarded as plants, but bacteria are not.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Lichens are a symbiotic association of a fungus and an alga.
  • Polar Plants -- Science Content Knowledge 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC beyondpenguins.nsdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This group of compounds has received a great deal of attention in recent years, since it was suggested that the consumption of tannin-containing beverages, especially green teas and red wines, can cure or prevent a variety of ills ( 198 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Such a system of classification, although convenient, is not the most natural one, and a sketch of the system which better expresses the relationships between the various subdivisions is given here.^ Whatsoever can cast a Shadow, must be a most wondrous thing to relay; as nature's very own offspring, the young ones grow towards their final goal.
  • TheoryOfEverything : Message: Disclosure Project and Global Synergy 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC tech.groups.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bio Viricide shell Nature has given various internal antibody- a mechanism to protect them from various diseases and insects.Viggi Agro Products has identified certain plants,which possesses such properties, which can control vectors of virus.

^ Nature’s editors were right in 2004 to predict, in effect, that RealClimate.org would be a breakthrough in the relationship between science and society.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has however been deemed advisable to retain the older groups for purpose of treatment in this work, and articles will be found under the headings ALGAE, FUNGI, BACTERIA, and LIcHENs.^ Lichens and Fungi Although not truly a plant, lichens are plant-like colonies of mutualistic fungi and algae existing in a symbiotic relationship.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Algae and macro fungi are regarded as plants, but bacteria are not.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Despite cold temperatures, permafrost, and short growing seasons, vascular and nonvascular plants, algae, fungi, and lichens are found in both the Arctic and Antarctic regions.
  • Polar Plants -- Science Content Knowledge 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC beyondpenguins.nsdl.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The study of phylogeny has suggested fourteen classes arranged in the following sequence: (1) Bacteria; (2) Cyanophyceae (Blue-green algae); (3) Flagellatae; (4) Myxomycetes (Slime-fungi); (5) Pendineae; (6) Conjugatae; (7) Diatomaceae (Diatoms); (8) Fleteroconteae; (9) Chlorophyceae (Green Algae); (10) Characeae (Stoneworts); (II) Rhodophyceae (Red Algae); (12) Eumycetes (Fungi);
(13) Phycomycetes (Algal fungi); (I 4) Phaeophyceae (Brown Algae). .Bacteria (see BACTERIOLOGY) and Cyanophyceae (see ALGAE), which are often grouped together as Schizophyta, are from points of view of both structure and reproduction extremely simple organisms, and stand apart from the remaining groups, which are presumed to have originated directly or indirectly from the Flagellatae, a group of unicellular aquatic organisms combining animal and plant characteristics which may be regarded as the starting-point of unicellular Thallophytes on the one hand and of the Protozoa on the other.^ Algae and macro fungi are regarded as plants, but bacteria are not.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ On the other hand, animals may behave in a surprisingly human way.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plants have numerous, often complex interactions with other organisms.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.Thus simple forms included in the Heteroconteae, Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae show an obvious connection with the Flagellatae; the Peridineae may be regarded as a further developed branch; the Conjugatae and Diatomaceae cannot be directly connected; the origin of the Rhodophyceae is also obscure; while the Characeae are an advanced and isolated group (see ALGAE).^ Thus, it makes perfectly good phylogenetic sense to speak of algal chloroplasts; and it is reasonable to call their hosts and prokaryotic free-living forms algae .
  • Palaeos Eukarya: Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pistil may be simple or compound, depending on the number of carpels which are united to form it.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Green Algae - the Chlorophyta and Charophyta - include a number of mostly aquatic forms, including some unicellauar and primitive colonial forms.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Mycetozoa or Myxomycetes are a saprophytic group without chlorophyll, of simple structure and isolated position. .The algal fungi, Phycomycetes, are obviously derived from the Green Algae, while the remaining Fungi, the Eumycetes, appear to have sprung from the same stock as the Rhodophyceae (see FUNGI).^ However, the green algae's plastids are closely related to plant plastids, so it appears that Plants and green algae share a common ancestor (there is other data to support this, but we don't need it here).
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When this happens quality of goods appears to remain the same and we are all grateful, or diminish.
  • March 2007 - Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.100words.com [Source type: General]

^ The other 2 key alternative positions as sister to red or green algae were rejected by the AU test ( P = 0.012 and P = 0.0002, respectively; see table 2 ).
  • Phylogeny of Nuclear-Encoded Plastid-Targeted Proteins Supports an Early Divergence of Glaucophytes within Plantae -- Reyes-Prieto and Bhattacharya 24 (11): 2358 -- Molecular Biology and Evolution 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC mbe.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

Owing to the similarity of structure and mode of life it is convenient to treat the Lichens (q.v.) as a distinct class, while recognizing that the component fungus and alga are representatives of their own classes.
.The Bryophyta and Pteridophyta have sprung from the higher Thallophyta, and together form the larger group Archegoniatae, so-called from the form of the organ (archegonium) in which the egg-cell is developed.^ The cuttings made as soon as the buds have formed and the wood has lost its succulent nature, will root quicker, and a much larger per cent of them will form roots, or "strike," as it is called.
  • greenhouse gardening - greenhouse management - landscape plans | Bercle George 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenhousemanagement101.com [Source type: General]

^ Plants are multi-celled organisms that evolved from a group of algae called Green Algae.
  • Is algae a plant? - Botany Forum - GardenWeb 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.gardenweb.com [Source type: General]

^ II. Embryophytes: Zygote develops into multicellular embryo within the female sex organ (archegonium) or within an embryo sac.

.The Archegoniatae are characterized by a well-marked alternation of gametophyte and sporophyte generations; the former bears the sexual organs which are of characteristic structure and known as antheridia (male) and archegonia (female) respectively; the fertilized egg-cell on germination gives rise to the spore-bearing generation, and the spores on germination give rise directly or indirectly to a second gametophyte.^ The ovum is fertilized within the female organ.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The female organs each produce one egg.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A haploid gametophyte generation produces and alternates with a diploid sporophyte generation.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Mosses and Liverworts (see BRYOPHYTA) include forms with a more or less leaf-like thallus, such as many of the liverworts, and forms in which the plant shows a differentiation into a stem bearing remarkably simple leaves, as in the true mosses.^ Plants bear alternate leaves with stipules .
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Mosses and Hornworts (division Bryophyta) These plants have no roots, leaves, or stems.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nonvascular plants include liverworts, hornworts, and mosses.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have no true roots, and their structure is purely cellular or conducting bundles of a very simple structure are present.^ They also lack true roots, anchoring themselves instead with filamentous rhizoids.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ Some plants live in fresh water or float on its surface and a very few have invaded the oceans but only at the very edge where they can remain rooted and still get sunlight.
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Ferns and Fern Allies (division Pteridophyta) Ferns are non-flowering plants characterized by leaf-like structures called fronds and true roots originating from a rhizome.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The independent plant which is generally attached to the soil by hair-like structures is the sexual generation, the sporophyte is a stalked or sessile capsule which remains always attached to the gametophyte from which it derives the whole or part of its nourishment.^ Sporophyte generation is dominant, The gametophyte is independent of the sporophyte although very small.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gametophyte is tiny, green and independent of the sporophyte plant.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, introduced plants are likely to invade or become noxious because they lack co-evolved competitors and natural enemies to control their populations.
  • Landscaping for Bluebirds 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Ferns and fern-like plants (see PTERIDOP1IYTA) have on the other hand a well developed independent sporophyte which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root with highly organized internal structure including true vascular bundles.^ With true roots and stems as well.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With true stems, but with rhizoids in place of roots.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants with long stems like Hygrophila and Rotala that have shallow roots.

.In general structure they approach the Phanerogams with which they form collectively the Vascular Plants as contrasted with the Cellular PlantsThallophyta and Bryophyta.^ They are not general plant eaters.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, introduced plants are likely to invade or become noxious because they lack co-evolved competitors and natural enemies to control their populations.
  • Landscaping for Bluebirds 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Self-supporting plants always contain chlorophyll, and subsist on air and moisture and the matter dissolved in moisture, and as a general rule they excrete oxygen, and use the carbonic acid to combine with water and form the material for their tissues.
  • Plant@Everything2.com 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The gametophyte is a small thalloid structure which shows varying degrees of independence affording an interesting transition to the next group.^ Sporophyte generation is dominant, The gametophyte is independent of the sporophyte although very small.
  • Kingdom Plantae 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC blue.utb.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Crayon rubbings can be produced to show an interesting relief pattern of the leaf structure.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sper,nelo phyla are characterized by an extreme reduction of the gametophyte generation. .The sporophyte is the plant which is differentiated into stem, leaf and root, which show a wonderful variety 01 form; the internal structure also shows increased complexity and variety as compared with the other group of vascular plants, the Pteridophyta.^ Plants are typically grouped into families based on similarities in their structures.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Millions of years of photsynthetic activity by plants and their ancestors probably helped to oxygenate the air, creating the conditions that allowed other life forms (like people!
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ Vascular plants have a specialized conductive system known as vascular bundles, a group of specialized cells made up of xylem and phloem.
  • Animals and Plants of the Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.nbii.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The spores, as in the heterosporous Pteridophyta, are of two kindsmicrospores (pollen grains) borne in microsporangia (pollen sacs) on special leaves (sporophylls) known as stamens, and macrospores (embryo-sac) borne in macrosporangia (ovules) on sporophylls known as carpels.^ Polypodiaceae There are no flowers nor seeds, and reproduction is accomplished (in part) by the release of spores from chambers called sporangia on the backs of specially-modified fertile leaves.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The gametophye phase is reduced to a 7-celled, egg-bearing embryo sac within the ovule, and a germinated pollen grain and sperm-bearing pollen tube.

^ Context: The stamen on a flower consists of a four-chambered sac called the anther in which pollen is produced.

.The fertile leaves or sporophylls are generally aggregated on special shoots to form rioweN which may contain one or both kinds The microspores are set free from the sporangiurn and carried generally by wind or insect agency to the vicinity of the macrospore, which never leaves the ovule.^ Polypodiaceae There are no flowers nor seeds, and reproduction is accomplished (in part) by the release of spores from chambers called sporangia on the backs of specially-modified fertile leaves.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ What structures of the pollen grains suggest that they are carried by wind rather than insects?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chewing sticks come from different species of plants, and within one stick the chemically active component may be heterogeneous ( 5 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The male gametophyte is represented by one or few cells and, except in a few primitive forms where the male cell still retains the motile character as in the Pteridophyta, is carried passively to the macrospore in a development of the pollen grain, the pollen tube.^ Each microspore divides to form a two-celled microgametophyte or male gametophyte.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What structures of the pollen grains suggest that they are carried by wind rather than insects?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most plants, the sporophyte is the dominant form, and the gametophyte generation is reduced to merely an ovum and a pollen grain/tube.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.The Spermatophyta are thus land plants par excellence and have, with the few exceptions cited, lost all trace of an aquatic ancestry.^ Botanists agree that all green land plants (flowering plants, gymnosperms, ferns & fern allies, & bryophytes) had a common ancestor, and that that common ancestor was some kind of green algae.
  • Is algae a plant? - Botany Forum - GardenWeb 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.gardenweb.com [Source type: General]

^ After a few months, you could be propagating all your own plants and have surplus to give to your family and friends.

^ Thus, the removal rate for all chemicals per plant may be near the average.
  • Can House Plants Solve Indoor Air Quality Problems? 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.practicalasthma.net [Source type: Academic]

.Aquatic plants occur among seed plants but these are readaptations of land plants to an aquatic environment.^ G. Are these seed producing plants?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are these seed producing plants?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But botanists disagree on whether we should reserve the term "plant" for only the things that came onto land to live, or include their aquatic ancestors in the group.
  • Is algae a plant? - Botany Forum - GardenWeb 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC forums.gardenweb.com [Source type: General]

.After fertilization the female cell, now called the oospore, divides and part of it develops into the embryo (new sporophyte), which remains dormant for a time still protected by the ovule which has developed to become the seed.^ The ovary contains ovules, which develop into seeds when fertilized by the sperm in pollen.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polypodiaceae There are no flowers nor seeds, and reproduction is accomplished (in part) by the release of spores from chambers called sporangia on the backs of specially-modified fertile leaves.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ I hesitated then to call myself a photographer (and still do), but I at least now have suitable equipment to aid in my progress toward that eventual goal.

.The seed is a new structure characteristic of this group, which is therefore often referred to as the Seed-plants.^ You may also be expected to sight-identify new, unfamiliar plants to family based on their characteristics.
  • Plant Families 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC biology.clc.uc.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The flowering plants are distinguished from other seed plants by a series of apomorphies , or derived characteristics .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The seed is set free from the parent plant and serves as the means of dissemination (see FLOWER; POLLINATION; FRUIT, and SEED).^ Plants and Seeds Grades 1-3 This lesson will allow students to learn about that different kinds of plants form different amounts of seeds, some plants form only a few seeds, while others form many seeds, and that the fruit is the part of a flowering plant that contains seeds.

^ Plant Growth , Development, flowering, fruiting, maturation are governed by nutritional factors and also in small by certain chem...
  • Plant Growth, Plant Growth Manufacturers & Suppliers - Page 4 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the very end of the Devonian seed-bearing (gymnosperm) plants appeared for the first time, breaking free of the dependence on moisture that limits spore-bearing (pteridophyte) plants.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Spermatophyta fall into two classes, Gymncsperms (q.v.^ We will divide flowering plants into two classes: Class Liliopsida and Class Magnoliopsida .
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

) and .Angiosperms; the former are the more primitive group, appearing earlier in geological time and showing more resemblance in the course of their life-history to the Pteridophyta.^ The angiosperms , comprising the flowering plants, were the last major group of plants to appear, emerging from within the gymnosperms during the Jurassic and diversifying rapidly during the Cretaceous .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are somewhat more dependable than the annuals, making a good show in about half of the years and peaking some time in March.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recently discovered fossil group, the Pteridospermae (see PALAEOBOTANY) have characters intermediate between the Ptendophyta and the more primitive seedplants.^ As someone who works with fungi, I should mention here that recently discovered plant fossils indicate that fungi may have played a role in the origin of plants.
  • the Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Evidence that plant-like genes in Chlamydia species reflect an ancestral relationship between Chlamydiaceae, cyanobacteria, and the chloroplast.
  • Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In GY~~1NospERMsso-called because the ovules (and seeds) are borne on an open sporophyll or carpelthe microsporophylls and macrosporophylls are not as a rule associated in the same shoot and are generally arranged in cone-like structures; one or two small prothallial cells are formed in the germination of the microspore; the male cells are in some older members of the group motile though usually passive.^ Each microspore divides to form a two-celled microgametophyte or male gametophyte.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The traps of fungi come in two general types: constricting rings (active traps) and adhesive structures (passive traps).
  • Carnivorous Plants Online - Botanical Society of America 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.botany.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seeds borne on the surface of woody scales, the overlapping scales forming a cone; includes pine ( Pinus ), fir ( Abies ), spruce ( Picea ), hemlock ( Tsuga ), larch ( Larix ), juniper ( Juniperus ), and cypress ( Cupressus ); also includes the tallest (redwood) and most massive (giant sequoia) living organisms; some species (especially pines) require fire for seed germination and regeneration.

.The ovule is not enclosed in an ovary, and the usually solitary macrospore becomes filled with a prothallus, in the upper part of which are formed several rudimentary archegonia.^ Context: After being pollinated, many of the small ovules in the flowers ovary will become seeds, which, when planted, can grow into new flowering plants.

^ The following parts should be included in this discussion: pistil, stigma, ovary, ovule, stamen, anther, petal, and sepal.

.The fertilized egg-cell (oospore) forms a filamentous structure, the proernbryo, from a restricted basal portion of which one or more embryos develop, one only as a rule reaching maturity.^ During the sunlit day, more carbon dioxide is consumed than is released in respiration, but at night photosynthesis ceases and the plant respires only carbon dioxide, returning a portion of its carbon to the atmosphere.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I only developed 3 of them and one of the removed ones still has a huge gap.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The gametophye phase is reduced to a 7-celled, egg-bearing embryo sac within the ovule, and a germinated pollen grain and sperm-bearing pollen tube.

.The embryo consists of an axis bearing two or more cotyledons and ending below in a radicle; it lies in a generally copious food-storing tissue (endosperm) which is the remains of the female prothallus.^ The cotyledons store reserve food for the embryo plant.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VIII. Observe a prepared slide of a corn seed and identify the following: embryo, testa (seed coat), cotyledon, coleoptile, and radicle.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since seeds contain energy stores to nourish the germinating embryo, seeds themselves are also nutritious food for mammals and birds.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The plant has a well-developed main root (tap-root) and a single or branched leafy stem which is provided with a means of secondary increase in thickness.^ The black & white figure shows the increasing terrestrial plant root depth penetration with time during the Devonian, leading to increasing soil depth and weathering.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Characteristics A triazole plant growth regulator having the effects of growth control sprouts promotion root system development...
  • Plant Growth Regulators, Plant Growth Regulators Manufacturers & Suppliers 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Along with these developments came the development of advanced root systems and the production of soils, increased weathering, and huge ecological feedback.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The leaves are generally tough-skinned and last for more than one season.^ That the plant has not been enabled to the public, i.e., by description in a printed publication in this country more than one year before the application for patent with an offer to sale; or by release or sale of the plant more than one year prior to application for patent.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Each part of a plant (roots, leaves, flowers, and so on) requires more than 24 hours to test.
  • Wilderness Survival: Survival use of Plants - Edibility of Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.wilderness-survival.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One notable occurrence happened in September 1999 when more than 90% of the 4,000 acres of water in Lake Jackson (Tallahassee) drained underground.
  • Florida Lakes - Plant Management in Florida Waters 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC plants.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The ANGIOSFERMS, which are much the larger class, derive their name from the fact that the carpel or carpels form a closed chamber, the ovary, in which the ovules are developedassociated with this is the development of a receptive or stigmatic surface on which the pollen grain is deposited.^ The cuttings made as soon as the buds have formed and the wood has lost its succulent nature, will root quicker, and a much larger per cent of them will form roots, or "strike," as it is called.
  • greenhouse gardening - greenhouse management - landscape plans | Bercle George 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenhousemanagement101.com [Source type: General]

^ In most plants, the sporophyte is the dominant form, and the gametophyte generation is reduced to merely an ovum and a pollen grain/tube.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ The gametophye phase is reduced to a 7-celled, egg-bearing embryo sac within the ovule, and a germinated pollen grain and sperm-bearing pollen tube.

.The sporophylls (stamens and carpels) are generally associated with other leaves, known as the perianth, to form a flower; these subsidiary leaves are protective and attractive in function and their development is correlated with the transport of pollen by insect agency (see ANGI0sPERM5; POLLINATION, and FLOWER).^ The pollen-transporting agent is frequently an insect or other flying animal.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other WAYNE'S WORD articles about amazing and little-known flowering plants can easily be found using the Index .

^ Many animals pollinate flowers in exchange for food in the form of pollen or nectar .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The male gametophyte is sometimes represented by a transitory prothallial cell; ,the two male cells are carried passively down into the ovary and into the mouth of the ovule by means of the pollen-tube.^ Each microspore divides to form a two-celled microgametophyte or male gametophyte.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most plants, the sporophyte is the dominant form, and the gametophyte generation is reduced to merely an ovum and a pollen grain/tube.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ Do they mean by carbon sequestering pumping it down into caves and just sort of hope it stays there?
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The female gametophyte is extremely reduced; there is a sexual apparatus of naked cells, one of which is the egg-cell which, after fusion with a male cell, divides to form a large siispensorial cell and a terminal embryo.^ The female organs each produce one egg.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In most plants, the sporophyte is the dominant form, and the gametophyte generation is reduced to merely an ovum and a pollen grain/tube.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ The gametophye phase is reduced to a 7-celled, egg-bearing embryo sac within the ovule, and a germinated pollen grain and sperm-bearing pollen tube.

.Endosperm is formed as the result of the fusion of the second male cell with the so-called definitive nucleus of the embryo-sac (see ANGlOSPERMS).^ Each microspore divides to form a two-celled microgametophyte or male gametophyte.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The gametophye phase is reduced to a 7-celled, egg-bearing embryo sac within the ovule, and a germinated pollen grain and sperm-bearing pollen tube.

^ Definition: The outgrowth of the ovary of a plant that encloses an embryo sac; the part of the plant that is pollinated and grows into seeds.

.The embryo consists of an axis bearing one (Monocotyledons) or two (Dicotyledons) cotyledons, which protect the stem bud (plumule) of the future plant, and ending below in a radicle.^ Dicotyledon is a type of flowering plant that has two cotyledons (seed leaves).
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the difference between a monocotyledon and a dicotyledon plant?
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the very end of the Devonian seed-bearing (gymnosperm) plants appeared for the first time, breaking free of the dependence on moisture that limits spore-bearing (pteridophyte) plants.
  • Palaeos Plants: Chlorobionta 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.palaeos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The seed is enclosed when ripe in the fruit, a development of the ovary as a result of fertilization of the egg-cell.^ Seeds enclosed within ripened ovary (fruit).

^ Definition: A class of vascular plants having seeds enclosed in an ovary.

^ Fertilized ova develop into seeds, which are the sexual propagules of flowering plants.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(A. B. R.)
ANATOMY OF PLANTS
.The term Anatomy, originally employed in biological science to denote a description of the facts of structure revealed on cutting up an organism, whether with or without the aid of lenses for the purposes of magnification, is restricted in the present article, in accordance with a common modern use, to those facts of internal structure not concerned with the constitution of the individual cell, the structural unit of which the plant is composed.^ Label the simple plant anatomy diagram using the glossary of plant terms.

^ Plant Cell Label the plant cell diagram using the glossary of plant cell terms.

^ Label the plant anatomy diagram using the glossary of plant terms.

.An account of the structure of plants naturally begins with the cell which is the proximate unit of organic structure.^ Initial screenings of plants for possible antimicrobial activities typically begin by using crude aqueous or alcohol extractions and can be followed by various organic extraction methods.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The grade 5 units dealing with Resources and Plant Structure and Function are extensions of the study of plants at a higher conceptual level.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viggi Agro Products Manufacturing of plant growth regulators, agricultural chemicals, agricultural fertilizers, organic agricultural fertilizers, bio agricultural fertilizers and natural agricultural fertilizers.
  • Plant Growth Regulators - Plant Growth Regulators Manufacturers,Plant Growth Regulators Suppliers & Exporters 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC dir.indiamart.com [Source type: Academic]

.The cell is essentially an individualized mass of protoplasm containing a differentiated protoplasmic body, called a nucleus.^ Since they are essentially lichenized fungi containing symbiotic algal or cyanobacteria cells, they are best treated within the fungal classes Ascomycetes and Basiodiomycetes.

.But all cells which are permanent tissue-elements of the plantbody possess, in addition, a more or less rigid limiting membrane or cell-wall, consisting primarily of cellulose or some allied substance.^ Plant cell structure Main article: Plant cell Plant cells are typically distinguished by their large water-filled central vacuole , chloroplasts , and rigid cell walls that are comprised of cellulose , hemicellulose , and pectin .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green plants as defined here includes a broad assemblage of photosynthetic organisms that all contain chlorophylls a and b, store their photosynthetic products as starch inside the double-membrane-bounded chloroplasts in which it is produced, and have cell walls made of cellulose (Raven et al., 1992).
  • Green plants 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Calcium (Ca) – helps form the structural parts of the plants (it is a major element in cell walls).
  • Gardening BC - Nutrients and healthy plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.gardeningbc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is the cell-walls which connect the different cells of a tissue (see below), and it is upon their characters (thickness, sculpture and constitution) that the qualities of the tissue largely depend.^ Asexually reproducing Basidiomycota (discussed below) can be recognized as members of this phylum by gross similarity to others, by the formation of a distinctive anatomical feature (the clamp connection - see below), cell wall components, and definitively by phylogenetic molecular analysis of DNA sequence data.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Draw and label a wet mount in the space below: cell wall, terminal vacuole, nucleus, CaSO 4 crystals.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In many cases, indeed, after the completion w~:chf. ~ B~
ni. n/i ccl.
~ ct .FIG. 1.Examples of the differentiation of the cells of plants.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Just as in animals, plant cells differentiate and develop into multiple cell types.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A, Cell (individual) of the unicellular Green Alga Pleurococcus, as an example of an undifferentiated autonomous assimilating cell.^ Some general biology textbook authors place the microscopic, unicellular green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Protista, and place the larger, multicellular (macroscopic) green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Plantae.

^ Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

pr., .Cell protoplasm; n., nucleus; chi., chloroplast; c.w., cell-wall.^ Draw and label a wet mount in the space below: cell wall, terminal vacuole, nucleus, CaSO 4 crystals.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be able to identify the following on a prepared slide: cell wall, nucleus (if visible), and terminal vacuole.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.B, Plant of the primitive Siphoneous Green Alga Protosiphon botryoides.^ As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering plants , 16,000 bryophytes , 11,000 ferns and 8,000 green algae .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with the red algae and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) they form the Archaeplastida .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The primitive cell sends colorless tubelets (rhizoids, rh.) into the mud on which it grows. The subaerial part is tubular or ovoid, and contains the chloroplast (clil.). There are several nuclei.
.C, Base of the multicellular filamentous Green Alga Chaetomorpha aes-ea.^ Observe prepared slides of the filamentous green alga, Ulothrix.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observe prepared slides (and wet mounts if available) of the filamentous green algae, Spirogyra , both vegetative, and in conjugation.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some general biology textbook authors place the microscopic, unicellular green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Protista, and place the larger, multicellular (macroscopic) green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Plantae.

.The basal cell has less chlorophyll than the others, and is expanded and fixed firmly to the rock on which the plant grows by the basal surface, rh, thus forming a rudimentary rhizoid.^ Tunguska 1908: A mysterious event resulted herbs and other plants grow four times the rate of similar species....
  • Plant Growth, Plant Growth Manufacturers & Suppliers - Page 4 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some mosses grow less than 0.001 millimeters per hour (mm/h), while most trees grow 0.025-0.250 mm/h.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other than the afore-mentioned case, I have not come across any convincing experiments showing that plant growth is affected by music.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.D, Part of branched filamentous thallus of the multicellular Green Alga Oedocladium.^ Observe prepared slides of the filamentous green alga, Ulothrix.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Observe prepared slides (and wet mounts if available) of the filamentous green algae, Spirogyra , both vegetative, and in conjugation.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some general biology textbook authors place the microscopic, unicellular green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Protista, and place the larger, multicellular (macroscopic) green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Plantae.

cr. ax., Green axis creeping on the surface of damp soil; rh., colorless rhizoids penetrating the soil; asc. ax., ascending axes of green cells.
E, Vertical section of frond of the complicated Siphoneous Green Alga Halimeda. The substance of the frond is made up by a single much-branched tube, with interwoven branches. cond. med., Longitudinally running comparatively colorless central (medullary) branches, which conduct food substances and support the (ass. con.) green assimilating cortical branches, which are the ends of branches from the medulla and fit tightly together, forming the continuous surface of the plant.
.F, Section through the surface tissue of the Brown Alga Cutleria multifida, showing the surface layer of assimilating cells densely packed with phaeoplasts.^ These slides are sections through the moss sprigs, showing the gametangia.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The layers below have progressively fewer of these, the central cells being quite colorless.
.G, Section showing thick-walled cells of the cortex in a Brown Alga (seaweed).^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds , multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green , red , and brown algae .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blue-green Algae: If you have this you will seem real thick blue-green, violet or black brown algae on the bottom of your tank and all over everything.

Simple pits (p.) enable conduction to take place readily from one to another.
H, Two adjacent cells (leptoids) of a food-conducting strand in Fucus (a Brown seaweed). The wall between them is perforated, giving passage to coarse strands of protoplasm.
I, End of hydroid of the thalloid Liverwort Blyttia, showing the thick lignified wall penetrated by simple pits. -
of the cell-wall .(which is secreted by the living cell-body) the protoplasm dies, and a tissue in which this has occurred consists solely of the dead framework of cell-walls, enclosing in the cavities, originally occupied by the protoplasm, simply water or air.^ After being dissolved in water, they are transported from the roots to the leaves in vascular tissue that is continuous throughout the body of the plant.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fluid oozes from the blood vessels and lymphatics (edema) and cell death and necrosis (breakdown) of skin tissue occurs.

^ Each living thing, animal or plant, consists of living cells.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In such cases the characters of the adult tissue clearly depend solely upon the characters of the cell-walls, and it is usual in plant-anatomy to speak of the wall with its enclosed cavity as the cell, and the contained protoplasm or other substances, if present, as cell-contents.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Some other nutrients can be supplied by products such as Flourish (which will provide iron), Plant Tabs or in the case of trace elements, Wonder Shells (which is what I use along with Flourish Excel and the Sanders Floramat).
  • Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care; Substrate, Ferts, CO2, and Lighting. 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen , phosphorus , and other crucial elemental nutrients .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is in accordance with the original use of the term cell, which was applied in the 1 7th century to the cavities of plant-tissues on the analogy of the cells of honeycomb.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The term "pteridophyte " has traditionally been used to describe all seedless vascular plants , making it synonymous with "ferns and fern allies ".
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of course, plants have been used for centuries to treat infections and other illnesses in humans in aboriginal groups, but controlled clinical studies are scarce.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The use of the term to mean the individualized nucleated mass of living protoplasm, which, whether with or without a limiting membrane, primitively forms the proximate histological element of the body of every organism, dates from the second quarter of the i9th century.^ Wow this so amazing , evolution i believe is occuring every second of our lives were just taking time to recognise it.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plants store energy for long-term use in the form of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of sugar molecules.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We may have to face that we cannot live as large in the short term as we are used to.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For a more detailed description of the cell see CYTOLOGY and the section on Cytology of Plants below).^ The Plant Hormone That Promotes Dormancy in Plants & Seeds plant hormones are molecules within a plant that send signals to various cells throughout… More .
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ This means that the plant cells absorb more nutrients Seed Treatment: with a seed soak of 100-250 PPM solution for a maximum of 72 hours.

^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all but the very simplest forms the plant-body is built up of a number of these cells, associated in more or less definite ways.^ These are the simplest plants on earth.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ In the growth of plants, each cell multiplies itself and more cells are formed.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This means that the plant cells absorb more nutrients Seed Treatment: with a seed soak of 100-250 PPM solution for a maximum of 72 hours.

In the higher (more complicated) plants the cells differ very much among themselves, and the body is composed of definite systems of these units, each system with its own characteristic structure, depending partly on the characters of the component cells and partly)~ I ill N~V O~V~
S.. _________
.FIG. ia.Examples of the differentiation of the tissue of plants.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

J, End of hydroid of the Moss Mnium, showing particularly thin oblique end-wall. No pits.
K, Optical section of two adjacent leptoids of the Moss Polytrichum juniperinum. The leptoids are living and nucleated. They bulge in the neighborhood of the very thin cross-wall. Note resemblance toHandR.
L, Optical section of cell of parenchyma in the same moss. Embedded in the protoplasm are a number of starch grains.
M, Part of elongated stereid of a Moss. .Note thick walls and oblique slit-like pits with opposite inclination on the two sides of the cell seen in surface view.^ T-cells patrol our circulatory system looking for invading cells and viruses, inspecting surface membranes like security guards checking I.D. cards.

^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probable targets in the microbial cell are surface-exposed adhesins, cell wall polypeptides, and membrane-bound enzymes.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.N, One side of the end of hydroid (tracheid) of a Pteridophyte (fern), with scalariform pits.^ The study of ferns and other pteridophytes is called pteridology, and one who studies ferns and other pteridophytes is called a pteridologist.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

0, Optical section of two adjacent leptoids (sieve-tube segments) of Pteridophyte, with sieve plates (s. p1.) on oblique end-wall and side-walls.
.P, Part of spiral hydroid (tracheid) of Phanerogam (Flowering Plant).^ Large Poster: Plant Flower Parts (b/w) .
  • Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC abcteach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sort the plant parts: flower, stem, leaf, fruit.
  • Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC abcteach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wind-pollinated plants make no investment in attracting animals; their flowers lack fragrance or showy parts.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Q, Three segments of a pitted vessel of Phanerogam.
.R, Optical section of leptoid (sieve-tube segment) of Phanerogam, with two proteid (companion) cells.^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

s. p1., sieve-plate.
S, Optical section of part of thick-walled stereid of Phanerogam, with almost obliterated cavity and narrow slit-like oblique pits.
T, Part of vertical section through blade of typical leaf of Phanerogam. u.e., Upper epidermal cells, with (c) cuticle. (p) Assimilating (palisade) cells. sp., Assimilating (spongy) cells with large lacunae. i.e., Lower epidermis, with st., stoma.
U, Absorbing cell, with process (root-hair) from piliferous layer of root of Phanerogam.
\. Endodermal cell of Phanerogam, with suberized central band on radial and transverse walls.
on the method of association. .Such a system is called a tissuesystem, the word tissue being employed for any collection of cells with common structural, developmental, or functional characters to which it may be conveniently applied.^ After they know the names and function of each part, and can give definitions in their own words, they may match the pictures and labels to the definition cards using their own words.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Primary structure and inhibition of protein synthesis in eukaryotic cell-free system of a novel thionin, gamma-hordothionin, from barley endosperm.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Main article: Vascular tissue Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The word is derived from the general resemblance of the texture of plant substance to that of a textile fabric, and dates from a period when the fundamental constitution of plant substance from individual cells was not yet discovered.^ For alcoholic extractions, plant parts are dried, ground to a fine texture, and then soaked in methanol or ethanol for extended periods.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Detailed descriptions of individual plant-derived medications can be found in the first edition of the Physician’s Desk Reference for Herbal Medicines , published by Medical Economics Company in 1998.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Long before the development of synthetic organic insecticides, natural substances derived from plants were successfully employed in pest control.
  • How does light affect plant growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is convenient here to define the two chief types of cell-form which characterize tissues of the higher plants.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Each microspore divides to form a two-celled microgametophyte or male gametophyte.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term parenchyma is applied to tissues whose cells are isodiametric or cylin.drical in shape, prosenchyma tissues consisting of long narrow cells, with pointed ends.^ Plants store energy for long-term use in the form of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of sugar molecules.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.We may now proceed to a systematic account of the anatomy of the different groups of plants, beginning with the simplest, and passing to the more complicated forms.^ Chewing sticks come from different species of plants, and within one stick the chemically active component may be heterogeneous ( 5 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Screening plant extracts for activity against protozoa and helminths can be more complicated than screening for activity against bacteria, fungi, or viruses.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The seeds of bird fruits are typically small and hard; they pass through birds guts undamaged and may be deposited many miles from the parent plant.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thallophyta.The simplest members of both the Algae and the Fungi (q.v.^ Note: An alternations of generations occurs in members of the algae, fungi and plant kingdoms.

^ Algae is part of the plant world known as Thallophyta, they share this part of the world with fungi.

) .(the two divisions of the Thailophyta, which is the lowest of the four great groups into which the plant-kingdom is divided) have their bodies each composed of a single cell.^ The four Divisions in this group are seedless vascular plants.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ They are divided into two groups, hydrolyzable and condensed tannins.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta , also known as Filicophyta .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Algae such a cell consists essentially of: (1) a mass of protoplasm provided with (2) a nucleus and (3) an assimilating apparatus consisting of a colored protoplasmic body, called a chromatophore, the pigment of which in the pure green forms is chlorophyll, and which may then be called a cliloroplast.^ They include familiar organisms such as trees , herbs , bushes , grasses , vines , ferns , mosses , and green algae .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Together with the red algae and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) they form the Archaeplastida .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the land plants (bryophytes and tracheophytes ), green algae contain chlorophylls a and b , and store food as starch in their plastids .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The whole of these living structures are covered externally by the dead cell-membrane (fig.^ Once urushiol binds to the protein of skin cell membranes, these creams would have little effect on the subsequent immune response.

^ These oils are secondary metabolites that are highly enriched in compounds based on an isoprene structure (Fig.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ [Note: Some immunology textbooks refer to these clones of T-cells, with urushiol receptor sites on their membranes, as "helper T-cells."

I A). .It is from such a living and assimilating cell, performing as it does all the vital functions of a green plant, that, according to current theory, all the different cell-forms of a higher plant have been differentiated in the course of descent.^ The other functions of our bio fertilizers in liquid form include: improves crop quality and ensures higher yield, easy to apply, can be mixed with fertilizers or pesticides, can be stored for longer period, variation in temperature does not affect the product and are derived biologically and is non toxic to all living things.

^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Besides harnessing solar energy, plants perform a second vital function: they produce oxygen.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

.Among the Green Algae the differentiation of cells is comparatively slight.^ Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many forms, even when multicellular, have all their cells identical in structure and function, and are often spoken of as physiologically unicellular.^ The complex respiratory pathway of scores of individual chemical reactions is nearly identical in all life forms: bacteria, mushrooms, saguaros, coyotes, and even in the highest life forms such as toads.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all beef available in the U.S. is finished in a feedlot, even many grass-fed beef brands.
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cells Cell and are commonly joined end to end in simple or branched Tissue filaments. Such differentiation as exists in the higher Different Iatypes mainly takes two directions. In the fixed forms tioninAlg~. the cell or cells which attach - the plant to the substratum often have a peculiar form, containing chlorophyll aod constituting a rudimentary fixing organ or rhizoid (fig. 1 C). .In certain types living on clamp soil, the rhizoids penetrate the substratum, and in addition to fixing the plant absorb food substances (dissolved salts) from the substratum (fig.^ Furthermore, only certain areas ever have mass displays; soil type and vegetation cover are important factors.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to succulents that can take up water only from nearly saturated soil, drought tolerant plants can absorb water from much drier soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I B and D).
The second type of differentiation is that between supporting axis and assimilating appendages. .The cells of the axis are commonly stouter and have much less chlorophyll than those of the appendages (Draparnaldia).^ That being said, I think marijuana is a much less destructive drug than alcohol and cigarette tobacco, both to the person using it and to the people around them.
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.singingnews.com [Source type: General]
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.wtln.com [Source type: General]

^ The fishhook barrel cactus, Ferocactus wislizeni , is much larger than the pincushion and less dependent on rain; it flowers throughout August and September.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Try and become a little less bigoted to those who believe in something greater than themselves – you might become a better person for it.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.This differentiation is parallel with that between stem and leaf of the higher plants.^ Sort the plant parts: flower, stem, leaf, fruit.
  • Plants 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC abcteach.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experiments can be done that give the lessons for the needs of the plant, the functions of the root, the stem, the leaf, flowers and seed.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Light intensity influences the manufacture of plant food, stem length, leaf color, and flowering.

.In the group of the Siphoneae both these types of differentiation may exist in the single, long, branched, tube-like and multinucleate cell (coenocyte) which here forms the plant-body.^ Millions of years of photsynthetic activity by plants and their ancestors probably helped to oxygenate the air, creating the conditions that allowed other life forms (like people!
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ In most plants, the sporophyte is the dominant form, and the gametophyte generation is reduced to merely an ovum and a pollen grain/tube.
  • Diversity of Life Web Index 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.geocities.com [Source type: General]

^ A mechanism that is likely to be particularly common for adding information is gene duplication, in which a long stretch of DNA is copied, followed by point mutations that change one or both of the copies.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Protosiphon (fig. I B) is an example parallel with Oedocladiurn; Bryopsis, with Draparnaldia. .In Caulerpa the imitation of a higher plant by the differentiation of fixing, supporting and assimilating organs (root, stem and leaf) from different branches of the single cell is strikingly complete.^ Examples include the tissue culture of diverse genotypes of a chimera to separate the different genotypes, or the application of colchicine to plant cells to double chromosome numbers.
  • Patents Guidance, Tools & Manuals 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.uspto.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The fossilized remains of conifer and angiosperm roots , stems and branches may be locally abundant in lake and inshore sedimentary rocks from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Siphoneous family of Codzaceae the branches of the primitive cell become considerably interwoven one with another, so that a dense tissue-like structure is often produced.^ If one cocks-up on reincarnation first time round, is it possible to have another stab, like taking the driving test again?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of you are acting like someone just shot your mother, grandmother, and [offensive reference to another family member self-censored].
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You may also observe akinetes, which are larger, usually oval, dense, cells that are environmentally resistant spore-like cells.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this we get a further differentiation between the central tubes (branches of the primitive cell), which run in a longitudinal direction through the body, possess little or no chlorophyll, and no doubt serve to conduct food substances from one region to another, and the peripheral ones, *hich are directed perpendicularly to the surface of the body, ending blindly there, contain abundant chlorophyll, and are the assimilating organs (fig.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No one comes to the Father except through Me.” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

1 E).
None of the existing Red Seaweeds (Rhodophyceae) has a unicellular body. .The thallus in all cases consists of a branched filament of cells placed end to end, as in many of the Green Algae.^ TONS of them in some places -some governments go on periodic “cleaning” campaigns where they poison as many as they can, but they never all go away.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some general biology textbook authors place the microscopic, unicellular green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Protista, and place the larger, multicellular (macroscopic) green algae (Division Chlorophyta) in the Kingdom Plantae.

^ Earlier Precambrian fossils are known which resemble single-cell green algae, but definitive identity with that group of algae is uncertain.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Each branch grows simply by the transverse division of its apical cell. .The branches may be quite free or they may be united laterally to form a solid body of more or less firm and compact consistency.^ So, take those two web sites for what they are, no more, no less.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, mix the first layer with the solid fertilizer, (remember - less is more) and place that in the tank.

^ Alternatively, tannins may be formed by polymerization of quinone units ( 76 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This may have a radial stem-like organization, a central cell-thread giving off from every side a number of short sometimes unicellular branches, which together form a cortex round the central thread, the whole structure having a cylindrical form which only branches when one of the short cell-branches from the central thread grows out beyond the general surface and forms in its turn a new central thread, from whose cells arise new short branches.^ Some fruits (like Holly) may look ripe, but cold weather (one or more freeze thaw cycles) is needed to convert the starches to sugars.
  • Landscaping for Bluebirds 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T-cells patrol our circulatory system looking for invading cells and viruses, inspecting surface membranes like security guards checking I.D. cards.

^ The presence of a Felsenstein's zone is indicative of an extremely difficult phylogenetic endeavor, as the short internal branches are unlikely to bear many informative changes that, in turn, are likely to be erased on the very long terminal edges.
  • Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial ADP-ATP carriers: The Plantae/Fungi/Metazoa trichotomy revisited — PNAS 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

.Or the thallus may have a leaf-like form, the branches from the central threads which form the midrib growing out mainly in one plane and forming a lamina, extended right and left of the midrib.^ And six branches going out of the sides thereof; three branches of the candlestick out of the one side thereof, and three branches of the candlestick out of the other side thereof: --- Ex 37:18 .

^ You have no right to governmental protection from offense, and if you don’t like what I have to say you may choose to ignore it.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whatever his fans may think of him, there are a lot of people out there that just don’t like him.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Numerous variations and modifications of these forms exist. .In all cases, while the internal threads which bear the cortical branches consist of elongated cells with few chromatophores, and no doubt serve mainly for conduction of food substances, the superficial cells of the branches themselves are packed with chromatophores and form the chief assimilating tissue of the plant.^ A phylum of simple plants possessing no vascular tissue and rudimentary rootlike organs ( rhizoids ).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About Vascular Plants Vascular plants contain tissues that transport water and nutrients to all parts of the… More .
  • Plants | Gardening Tips | Garden Guides 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.gardenguides.com [Source type: General]

^ Members of the kingdom Protoctista are not animals, which develop from an embryo called a blastula; they are not plants, which develop from an embryo that is not a blastula but is retained in the mother's tissue; they are not fungi which develop from spores and lack cilia and flagella (called undulipodia) at all stages of development; they are not monerans, which have prokaryotic cells.

.In the bulky forms colorless branches frequently grow out from some of the cortical cells, and, pushing among the already-formed threads in a longitudinal direction, serve to strengthen the thallus by weaving its original threads together.^ This occurs very rarely with some slower growing plants, more frequently with others.

^ Germinate some bean seeds using the same method as in activity 3, but arrange the seeds so that they are oriented in different directions before they start to grow.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After you fill out the form below, you will be directed to make a payment through Pay Pal.

.The cells belonging to any given thread may be recognized at an early stage of growth, because each cell is connected with its neighbors belonging to the same thread by two depressions or pits, one at each end.^ The side chain may be saturated or unsaturated with one, two, or three double bonds (Dawson, 1954, 1956).

^ Approximately one teaspoon or two grams of anthrax may contain up to 20 billion spores.

^ Because the two species of western poison oak often exhibit a viny growth form, they are listed as subspecies of eastern poison ivy by some authors.

The common wall separating the pits of the two adjoining cells is pierced by strands of protoplasm. The whole structure, consisting of the two pits and the wall between is known as a genetic pit. .Other pits, connecting cells not belonging to the same branch, are, however, formed at a later stage.^ However, animals in the same Genus can be “evolved” into other animals very easily.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Frequently plants (and animals) are similar to each other in outward appearance because their ancestors have adapted to the same environmental challenges by evolving similar forms or structures.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many of the lower forms of Brown Seaweeds (Phoeophyceae) have a thallus consisting of simple or branched cell threads, as in the green and red forms.^ Together with the red algae and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) they form the Archaeplastida .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds , multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green , red , and brown algae .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The lateral union of the branches to form a solid thallus is not, however, so common, nor is it carried to so high a pitch of elaboration as in the Rhodophyceae. In a few of the lower forms (Sphacelariaceae), and in the, higher forms which possess a solid thallus, often of very large size, the plant-body is no longer formed entirely of branched cell-threads, but consists of what is called a true parenchymatous tissue, i.e. a solid mass of cells, formed by cell division in all directions of space. In the Laminariaceae this tissue is formed by cell division at what is called an -intercalary growing point, i.e. a meristematic (cell-dividing) region occupying the whole of a certain transverse zone of the thallus, and cutting off new cells to add to the permanent tissue on both sides. .In the Fucaceae, on the other hand, there is a single prismatic apical cell situated at the bottom of a groove at the growing apex of the thallus, which cuts off cells from its sides to add to the peripheral, and from its base to add to the central permanent cells.^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since then, there's been a waiting list (which I'm on) for steaks, though other cuts are available.
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ Extend this into Health by discussing whether or not there is a need to cut hair once it grows long.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The whole of the tissue of the plant is formed by the division of this apical cell.^ Cytokinins Cytokinins are also known as plant harmones because they stimulate cell division (i.e cytokinesis).

^ Tannins may be formed by condensations of flavan derivatives which have been transported to woody tissues of plants.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Early fossils of these ancient plants show the individual cells within the plant tissue.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In whatever way the tissues are originally formed, however, the main features of their differentiation are the same. .According to a law which, as we have seen, applies also to the green and red forms, the superficial cells are packed with chromatophores and form the assimilating tissue (fig.^ According to Lynn Margulis, K.V. Schwartz and M. Dolan (1994), the cells of all Protoctista originally formed by bacterial symbioses (symbiogenesis).

^ In the multi-cellular form it can also make your water look green but it is very noticeable in that the cells are attached to one another and form long stringy tufts of green yuk.

I, F). .In these brown types with bodies of considerable thickness (Laminariaceae and Fucaceae), there is, however, a further differentiation of the internal tissues.^ These are usually sold as bulbs as there are true lilys that have leaves that vary from green to brown to shades of red.
  • Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care; Substrate, Ferts, CO2, and Lighting. 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cells immediately subjacent to the superficial assimilating layer form a colorless, or nearly colorless, parenchymatous cortex, which acts as a food storage tissue (fig. 1, G), and surrounds a central medulla of elongated conducting cells. .The latter are often swollen at the ends, so that the cross-wall separating two successive cells has a larger surface than if the cells were of uniform width along their entire length.^ Petals, stamens, and other structures can be counted and their lengths and widths measured (and these are usually less variable than the dimensions of leaves).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Probable targets in the microbial cell are surface-exposed adhesins, cell wall polypeptides, and membrane-bound enzymes.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cells of this type are often called trumpet-hyphae (though they have no connection with the hyphae of Fungi), and in some genera of Laminariaceae those at the periphery of the medulla simulate the sieve-tubes of the higher plants in a striking degree, even (like these latter) developing the peculiar substance callose on or in the perforated cross-walls or sieve-plates.^ Some of those seeds can be planted in the spring.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically, Basidiomycota are filamentous fungi composed of hyphae (except for those forming yeasts), and reproducing sexually via the formation of specialized club-shaped end cells called basidia that normally bear external meiospores (usually four).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is happening is that algae are much better equipped than higher plants to compete in conditions of low nutrients, however the addition of these nutrients allows much better competition.
  • Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care; Substrate, Ferts, CO2, and Lighting. 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A specialized conducting tissue of this kind, used mainly for transmitting organic substances, is always developed in plants where the region of assimilative activity is local in the plant-body, as it is in practically all the higher plants.^ A quick biological tonic for all crops, developed with a view to give an all round development, which includes complete all round development of a crop by regulating metabolic activities from root to the leaves through the compete life cycle of a plant.

^ Initial screenings of plants for possible antimicrobial activities typically begin by using crude aqueous or alcohol extractions and can be followed by various organic extraction methods.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The term "pteridophyte " has traditionally been used to describe all seedless vascular plants , making it synonymous with "ferns and fern allies ".
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is the case in the Fucaceae, and in a very marked degree in the Laminariaceae in question, where the assimilative frond is borne at the end of an extremely long supporting and conducting stipe. .A similar state of things exists in some of the more highly differentiated Red, Seaweeds.^ Rolo Tomasi (160) – One thing I’ve learned is that evolving creatures tend to become more and more dissimilar than similar.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ DNA & RNA exists locked in some stable “created” state.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And one more thing I would like to say to some people: Be open-minded!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The tissue developed to meet the demands for conduction in such cases always shows some of the characters described.^ Some books still recommend antipruritic (anti-itch) agents such as calamine lotion for mild cases.

It is known as leptom, each constituent cell being a leptoid (fig. I, H). .In addition to the cell types described, it is a very common occurrence in these bulky forms for rhizoid-like branches of the cells to grow out, mostly from the cells at the periphery of the medulla, and grow down between the cells, strengthening the whole tissue, as in the Rhodophyceae.^ These authors also point out that researchers must distinguish between merely toxic effects of agents on host cells and true antiviral properties of the plant extracts.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Eriogonum strictum Common Names Blue Mountain buckwheat, strict buckwheat Family Buckwheat Flower Color White-pale pink Plant Type Shrub Short Description Very low growing.

^ This form of algae is very common to the cryptocoryne species of plants, and several others imported from Southeast Asia.

This process may result in a considerable thickening of the thallus. .In many Laminariaceae the thallus also grows regularly in thickness by division of its surface layer, adding to the subjacent permanent tissue and thus forming a secondary meristem.^ Some climbing species, such as kudzu , which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5&# 160;mm/h.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The simpler Fungi, like the simpler Green Algae, consist of single cells or simple or branched cell-threads, but among the higher kinds a massive body is often formed, particuTissue t~Jf larly in con nexion with the formation of spores, and ,er~n,~,onthiS may exhibit considerable tissue-differentiation.^ Algae, protozoan, or fungi-like Protist?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Black dot algae) It also appears like bunches of thread known as beard algae, or small clusters or tufts known as black brush algae.

^ Together with the red algae and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) they form the Archaeplastida .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A characteristic feature of the fungal vegetative plantbody (mycelium) is its formation from independent coenocytic tubes or cell-threads. .These branch, and may be packed or interwoven to form a very solid structure; but each grows in length independently of the others and retains its own individuality, though its growth in those types with a definite external form is of course correlated with that of its neighbors and is subject to the laws governing the general form of the body.^ The argument in Hank’s abstract means the type of plant that can access and utilize extra CO2 are generally those that are adapted to disturbed areas or adapted to rapidly changing conditions.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The way you form the words and the harsh nature of certain words linked with the poetic lilt of the general lexicon is great – definitely makes you feel better!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Petals, stamens, and other structures can be counted and their lengths and widths measured (and these are usually less variable than the dimensions of leaves).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such an independent coenocytic branch or cell-thread is called a hypha.^ Most fungi are formed by microscopic st ructures called hyphae , which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar modes of growth occur among the Siphoneous Green Algae and also among the Red Seaweeds.^ Together with the red algae and Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants) they form the Archaeplastida .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are not close relatives of the green plants, presumably acquiring chloroplasts separately from ingested or symbiotic green and red algae.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Monophyly of primary photosynthetic eukaryotes: green plants, red algae, and glaucophytes.
  • Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • PLoS ONE: Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.A solid fungal body may usually be seen to consist of separate hyphae, but in some cases these are so bent and closely interwoven that an appearance like that of ordinary parenchymatous tissue is obtained in section, the structure being called pseudo parenchyrna.^ What are these structures called?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These frustules show a wide diversity in form, some quite beautiful and ornate, but usually consist of two asymmetrical sides with a split between them, hence the group name.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I’m not usually one to comment on these type of forums but this topic in general is rather close to my heart.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

By the formation of numerous cross-walls the resemblance to parenchyma is increased. .The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.^ Remember there is very little difference in a tank full of algae and one in which the algae is completely invisible.

^ You have already begun to record differences between the classes, and this trend will continue throughout the remainder of the laboratory.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Results are very different when analyses are repeated without Trypanosoma (43 sequences, 250 amino acids): the monophyly of [Plantae + Fungi] is increased to 92%.
  • Molecular phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial ADP-ATP carriers: The Plantae/Fungi/Metazoa trichotomy revisited — PNAS 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

.In many forms its hyphae are particularly thick-walled, and may strikingly resemble the epidermis of a vascular plant.^ Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most conspicuous among the algae are the seaweeds , multicellular algae that may roughly resemble terrestrial plants, but are classified among the green , red , and brown algae .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most fungi are formed by microscopic st ructures called hyphae , which may or may not be divided into cells but contain eukaryotic nuclei .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.^ In several cases, especially for taxonomists in developing countries, recent taxonomic literature including the codes themselves are unavailable.
  • Bi 2005 20 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Difference in taxonomic hierarchies Several examples were found where the taxonomic hierarchy of organisms followed in India did not match that used by ITIS. This is especially true in case of some fishes, nematodes and insects.
  • Bi 2005 20 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Each of these algal groups also includes various microscopic and single-celled organisms.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The formation of a massive body naturally involves the localization of the absorptive region, and the function of absorption (which in the simpler forms is carried out by the whole of the vegetative part of the mycelium penetrating a solid or immersed in a liquid substratum) is subserved by the outgrowth of the hyphae of the surface-layer of that region into rhizoids, which, like those of the Algae living on soil, resemble the root-hairs of the higher plants.^ Through another bacterial process called nitrification, the ammonia is converted into nitrites and nitrates, thereby making the vital element nitrogen readily available to the roots of higher plants.

^ What is happening is that algae are much better equipped than higher plants to compete in conditions of low nutrients, however the addition of these nutrients allows much better competition.
  • Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care; Substrate, Ferts, CO2, and Lighting. 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I live in a very, very, very rural part of Arkansas, and we don’t get alot of fancy schmancy plants like they do on the coasts, so if WE can get it, I am pretty sure you can get it other places as well.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The internal tissue of the body of the solid higher Fungi, particularly the elongated stalks (stipes) of the fructifications of the Agarics, consists of hyphae running in a longitudinal direction, which no doubt serve for the conduction of organic food substances, just as do the trumpet-hyphae, similar in appearance, though not in origin, of the higher Brown Seaweeds.^ Do we have any examples of body parts or things that we know without a doubt that early humans had that we no longer have?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alderspring Alderspring no doubt doesn't want to give the appearance of spamming, so I might mention that an Alderspring ribeye won a taste competition written up in Slate magazine.
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

.(In one genus (Lactarius) milk-tubes, recalling the laticiferous tubes of many vascular plants, are found.^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bulbs are available through many manufacturers and are not necessarily limited to the ones found in your local fish store.

^ Also, many of the alternative names listed for the nightshade plant are for a different plant (Atropa belladonna) than the one pictured (Solanum dulcamara).
  • 16 Most Fatal Killer Poisonous Plants | WebEcoist 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC webecoist.com [Source type: General]

) .These elongated hyphae are frequently thick-walled, and in some cases form a central strand, which may serve to resist longitudinal pulling strains.^ Now, whether we as a society can adapt to using these kinds of plants if this turns out to be the case – as some seem to think we should do – is an open question.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although making changes in taxonomic hierarchy is technically possible in case of the electronic datasets, each change needs to be validated by the taxonomic community as some taxa may or may not be conforming to that change.
  • Bi 2005 20 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.myplick.com [Source type: Academic]

^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

This is particularly marked in certain lichens of shrubby habit. The internal tissues, either consisting of obvious hyphae or of pseudoparenchyma, may also serve as a storehouse of plastic food substances.
.Looking back over the progress of form and tissue-differentiation in the Thallophyta, we find that, starting from the simplest unicellular forms with no external differentiation of the body, we can trace an increase in complexity of organization everywhere determined by the principles of the division of physiological labor and of the adaptation of the organism to the needs of its environment.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because everything stated in this list appears to be things that we still have on/in our bodies that we no longer really need.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Floral structures also form complex patterns that are more readily traceable as plants evolve.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the first place there is a differentiation of fixing organs, which in forms living on.^ Pathogenic Bacteria There are numerous pathogenic forms of bacteria that live parasitically inside a living host.

a soft nutrient substratum penetrate it and become absorbing organs. .Secondly, in the Algae, which build up their own food from inorganic materials, we have a differentiation.^ Unlike embryophytes and algae which are generally photosynthetic, fungi are often saprotrophs : obtaining food by breaking down and absorbing surrounding materials.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact is, we create our own wonder world by cultural evolutionary build-up, and I find this just as magical as anyone else does.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

of supporting axes from assimilating appendages, and as the body increases in size and becomes a solid mass of cells or interwoven threads, a corresponding differentiation of a superficial assimilative system from the deep-lying parts. In both Algae and Fungi the latter are primarily supporting and food-conducting, and in. some bulky Brown Seaweeds, where assimilation is strongly localized, some of the deep cells are highly specialized for the latter function. .In the higher forms a storage and a mechanically-strengthening system may also be developed, and in some aerial Fungi an external protective tissue.^ Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some climbing species, such as kudzu , which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5&# 160;mm/h.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These bacteria are especially interesting because the chemiosmotic mechanism for generating ATP does not require an electron transport system as in other photosynthetic bacteria and higher plants.

The hyphal mode of growth, i.e. the formation. of the thallus, whatever its external form, by branched, continuous or septate, coenocytic tubes (Siphoneae and Fungi), or by simple or branched cell-threads (Red and many Green Algae), in both cases growing mainly or entirely at the apex of each branch, is almost universal in. the group, the exceptions being met with almost entirely among the higher .Brown Seaweeds, in which is found parenchyma produced by the segmentation of an apical cell of the whole shoot, or by cell division in some other type of meristem.^ Other plants produce large quantities of seeds and rely on camouflage or burial in the soil to conceal some of them from hungry animals.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mosquito Plant, being a genetically altered hybrid can be found ANYWHERE, I just bought some the other day at my local nursery.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bryophyta.The Bryophyta (Hepaticae) and Mosses (Musci)], the first group of mainly terrestrial plants, exhibit considerably more advanced tissue differentiation, in response to the greater complexity in the conditions of life on.^ Formerly, this phylum also included the liverworts and hornworts , now regarded as separate phyla ( see Hepatophyta ; Anthocerophyta ) and the mosses were classified as a class ( Musci ) of the Bryophyta.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Floral structures also form complex patterns that are more readily traceable as plants evolve.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The sister group to the combined embryophytes and charophytes is the other group of green algae,Chlorophyta , and this more inclusive group is collectively referred to as the green plants or Viridiplantae.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

land. .In a general way this greater complexity may be said to consist (I) in the restriction of regular absorption of water to those parts of the plant-body embedded in the soil, (2) in the evaporation of water from the parts exposed to the air (transpiration).^ The argument in Hank’s abstract means the type of plant that can access and utilize extra CO2 are generally those that are adapted to disturbed areas or adapted to rapidly changing conditions.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C4 plants use carbon dioxide more efficiently (by bypassing photorespiration) and lose less water through transpiration (water evaporated from inside plants) per unit of carbohydrate made.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants using CAM lose about one-tenth as much water per unit of carbohydrate synthesized as do those using standard C3 photosynthesis.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But these two principles do not find their full expression till we come, in the ascending series, to the Vascular Plants.^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are these vascular or avascular plants and are veins observable?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Are these vascular or avascular plants and are veins observable?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Bryophytes water is still absorbed, not only from the soil but also largely from rain, dew, &c., through the general surface of the subaerial body (thallus), or in the more differentiated forms through the leaves.^ When rainwater reaches the ground and flows through the soil, hardness-forming substances mix with the water in varying degrees.

^ NOTE: It's important to have water movement in your tank, still water is not good for aquarium plants, just make sure that it is not over agitating the surface of the water.

^ It still continues to evolve, often through a series of recognisable stages, from pioneer to climax, but ever more slowly with time and maturity, like anything alive.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The lowest Hepaticae have an extremely simple vegetative structure, little more advanced than that found in some of the higher Green Algae and very much simpler than in the large Red and Brown Seaweeds.^ Evolution encompasses much more than that.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter of these pigments is not found in red or brown algae.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VERY much more quickly than we do.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The plant-body (thallus) is always small and normally lives in very damp air, so that the demands of terrestrial life are at a minimum.^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If I cut off my left hand, I would live a healthy and normal life, with little major difficulty.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some time back a very good and intelligent friend and I were lamenting the cock ups humanity was making of the small planet we live on.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

It always consists of true parenchyma, and is entirely formed by the cutting off of segments from an apical cell.
A sufficient description of the thallus of the liverworts will be found in the article BRYOIHYTA. We may note the universal Li occurrence on the lower surface of the thallus of fixing ver and absorbing rhizoids in accordance with the terrestrial Worts. life on soil (cf. Oedocladium among the Green Algae).
.The Marchantiaceae (see article BRYOPHYTA) show considerable tissue-differentiation, possessing a distinct assimilative system of cells, consisting of branched cell threads packed with chloroplasts and arising from the basal cells of large cavities in the upper part of the thallus.^ Evidence in the article: 10 instances of human organs/parts which appear to show evidence of once greater form/function.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence in the article: 10 instances of specific human organs/parts which appear to show evidence of once greater form/function.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Inhibitory activity of cranberry juice on adherence of type 1 and type P fimbriated Escherichia coli to eucaryotic cells.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

These cavities are completely roofed by a layer of cells; in the centre of the roof is a pore surrounded by a ring of special cells. .The whole arrangement has a strong resemblance to the lacunae, mesophyll and stomata, which form the assimilative and transpiring (water-evaporating) apparatus in the leaves of flowering plants.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C4 plants use carbon dioxide more efficiently (by bypassing photorespiration) and lose less water through transpiration (water evaporated from inside plants) per unit of carbohydrate made.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dropping leaves reduces the surface area of the plant and thus reduces transpiration.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The frondose (thalloid) Jungermanniales show no such differentiation of an assimilating tissue, though the upper cells of the thallus usually have more chlorophyll than the rest.^ Theyre simply waiting for rain in their own way, and are usually not suffering or dying any more than a napping dog is near death .
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It's no more of a gateway to harder drugs than milk is a gateway to alcoholism.
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.singingnews.com [Source type: General]
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.wtln.com [Source type: General]

^ They are somewhat more dependable than the annuals, making a good show in about half of the years and peaking some time in March.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In three generaBlyttia, Symphyogyna and Hymenophytum there are one or more strands or bundles consisting of long thickwalled fibre-like (prosenchymatous) cells, pointed at the ends and running longitudinally through the thick midrib.^ Plants defend themselves from the cold by developing very thin pointed leaves, like needles, covered with a thick film which protects them from the cold.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Our findings paint a more complex picture of gene origin than can easily be explained by endosymbiotic gene transfer from an organelle-like point source.
  • PLoS ONE: Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This three-way partnership between the host, the cyanobacterial plastid ancestor, and an environmental Chlamydia-like cell was thought to have played a fundamental role in plastid evolution [22] .
  • Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • PLoS ONE: Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

The walls of these cells are strongly lignified (i.e. consist of woody substance) and are irregularly but thickly studded with simple pits (see CYTOLOGY), which are usually arranged in spirals running round the cells, and are often elongated in the direction of the spiral (fig. I, I). .These cells are not living in the adult state, though they sometimes contain the disorganized remains of protoplasm.^ The first living things were probably single celled creatures who replicated through a process called Mitosis; that is, they cloned themselves.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes these latter "ferns" are called "fern allies" because they belong to different orders; i.e.

.They serve to conduct water through the thallus, the assimilating parts of which are in these forms often raised above the soil and are comparatively remote from the rhizoid-bearing (water-absorbing) region.^ Mosses show a marked alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms ( gametophytes ) and spore-bearing forms ( sporophytes ): they possess erect or prostrate leafy stems ( the gametophyte generation , which is haploid ); these give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules (the sporophyte generation, which is diploid ), the latter being dependent on the former for water and nutrients.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the top of the poster, they could tape a few heads of wheat to serve as a reminder of the source of all these products.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such differentiated water-conducting cells we call hydroids, the tissue they form hydrom.^ Carbon dioxide + hydrogen sulfide react with bacteriochlorophyll and sunlight to form carbohydrate (such as glucose) + water + sulphur.

^ Members of the kingdom Protoctista are not animals, which develop from an embryo called a blastula; they are not plants, which develop from an embryo that is not a blastula but is retained in the mother's tissue; they are not fungi which develop from spores and lack cilia and flagella (called undulipodia) at all stages of development; they are not monerans, which have prokaryotic cells.

^ The first living things were probably single celled creatures who replicated through a process called Mitosis; that is, they cloned themselves.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The sporogonium of the liverworts is in the simpler forms simply a spore-capstile with arrangements for the development, protection and distribution of the spores. .As such its consideration falls outside the scheme of this article, but in one small and peculiar group of these plants, the Anthoceroteae, a distinct assimilating and transpiring system is found in the wall of the very long cylindrical capsule, clearly rendering the sporo-.^ Arundo donax --- reed, rush And behold a wall on the outside of the house round about, and in the man's hand a measuring reed of six cubits long by the cubit and an hand breadth: so he measured the breadth of the building, one reed; and the height, one reed.

^ A fern is any one of a group of about 20,000 of plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta , also known as Filicophyta .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MATERIALS: Some aquatic plants, a large cylindrical glass container, a large funnel, a test tube full of water, water, a long match.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

gonium largely independent of the supply of elaborated organic food from the thallus of the mother plant (the gametophyte). .A richly chlorophyllous tissue ,with numerous intercellular spaces communicates with the exterior by stomata, strikingly similar to those of the vascular plants (see below).^ So those who believe in evolution but no God still believe you can see the Great Wall of China frim space….that explains alot!!” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A phylum of simple plants possessing no vascular tissue and rudimentary rootlike organs ( rhizoids ).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So those who believe in evolution but no God still believe you can see the Great Wall of China frim space….that explains alot!!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the axis of such a sporogonium were prolonged downwards into the soil to form a fixing and absorptive root, the whole structure would become a physiologically independent plant, exhibiting in many though by no means all respects the leading features of the sporophyte or ordinary vegetative and spore-bearing individual in Ptericlophytes and Phanerogams.^ Spores produced on a club-shaped structure called a basidium; includes smut fungi, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs and bracket fungi; some species contain toxic and hallucinogenic alkaloids; the mycelia of many species form an intricate symbiotic, mycorrhizal relationship with the roots of forest trees.

^ Various forms of parasitism are also fairly common among plants, from the semi-parasitic mistletoe that merely takes some nutrients from its host, but still has photosynthetic leaves, to the fully parasitic broomrape and toothwort that acquire all their nutrients through connections to the roots of other plants, and so have no chlorophyll .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These facts, among others, have led to the theory, plausible in some respects, of the origin of this sporophyte by descent from an Anthoceros-like sporogonium (see PTERIDOPHYTA).^ After reading the other comments and seeing it repeated over and over that evolution is practically a fact, I would think that it would be easy.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I dont see any of that, the only thing I see is a cheapshot by some punk hiding behind a keyboard who, like many other people, thinks that by trying to sound sophisticated that they are actually saying something intelligent when they are not.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Makes complete sense if we’re using something that was originally used for some other purpose.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

But in the Bryophytes the spore gonium never becomes a sporophyte producing leaves and roots, and always remains dependent upon the gametophyte for its water and mineral food, and the facts give us no warrant for asserting homology (i.e. morphological identity) between the differentiated tissues of an Anthocerotean sporogonium and those of the sporophyte in the higher plants. .Opposed to the thalloid forms are the group of leafy Liverworts (Acrogynae), whose plant-body consists of a thin supporting stem bearing leaves.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other plants have leaves or stems with vertical orientations; two common examples are jojoba and prickly pear cactus.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of plants.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The latter are plates of green tissue one cell thick, while the stem consists of uniform more or less elongated cylindrical cells. .The base of the stem bears numerous cell-filaments (rhizoids) which fix the plant to the substratum upon which it is growing.^ These members are assigned to Ascomycota based upon morphological and/or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, and in particular by phylogenetic comparisons of DNA sequences.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most Cyanobacteria bear heterocysts , which are larger, round or oval cells, that are clear, and fix nitrogen.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Mosses the plant-body (gametophyte) is always separable into a radially organized, supporting and conducting axis (stem)
M and thin, flat, assimilating, and transpiring appendages osses. (leaves). .To the base of the stem are attached a number of branched cell-threads (rhizoids) which ramify in the soil, fixing the plant and absorbing water from soil.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants usually rely on soil primarily for support and water (in quantitative terms), but also obtain compounds of nitrogen , phosphorus , and other crucial elemental nutrients .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A great plant for removing excess nutrients in the water, new leaves unfurl from the base of the plant into lacy fronds.
  • Freshwater Aquarium Plant Care; Substrate, Ferts, CO2, and Lighting. 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.americanaquariumproducts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.IFor the histology of the comparatively simple but in many respects aberrant Bog-mosses (Sphagnaceae), see BRYOPHYTA.] The stems of the other mosses resemble one another in their main histological features.^ Formerly, this phylum also included the liverworts and hornworts , now regarded as separate phyla ( see Hepatophyta ; Anthocerophyta ) and the mosses were classified as a class ( Musci ) of the Bryophyta.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have the students compare how the seeds are different from one another.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You see: "mood altering" is one thing, "mind altering" is another.
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.singingnews.com [Source type: General]
  • Cannabis Prohibition Discussion 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC forums.wtln.com [Source type: General]

.In a few cases there is a special surface or epidermal layer, but usually all the outer layers of the stem are composed of brown, thick-walled, lignified, prosenchymatous, fibre-like cells forming a peripheral stereom (mechanical or supporting tissue) which forms the outer cortex.^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Second, as is usually the case with evolution, there seems to be a constant attempt to suggest that if there is evolution, there can be no God.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Few rains penetrate deeper than this, and at greater depths there is little oxygen to support root respiration.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This passes gradually into the thinner-walled parenchyma of the inner cortex. .The whole of the cortex, stereom and parenchyma alike, is commonly living, and its cells often contain starch.^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The centre of the stem in the forms living on soil is occupied by a strand of narrow elongated hydroids, which differ from those of the liverworts in being thin-walled, unlignified, and very seldom pitted (fig.^ A. Obtain a live or preserved sample of a liverwort and explain how it is different from a moss in appearance.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1, J). .The hydrom strand has in most cases no connection with the leaves, but runs straight up the stem and spreads out below the sexual organs or the foot of the sporogonium.^ In other words, vestigal organs that hang around even though they have no particular function is precisely what the Theory of Evolution predicts will be the case.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some perennials also evade drought much as annuals do, by having underground parts that send up stems, leaves, and flowers only during wet years.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Obviously animals can’t always go on losing functions in their organs or they’ll run out of organs to be “vestigial” (I know this is silly but obvious).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

It has been shown that it conducts water with considerable rapidity. In the stalk of the sporogonium there is a similar strand, which is of course not in direct connection with, but continues the conduction of water from, the strand of the gametophytic axis. .In the aquatic, semi-aquatic, and xerophilous types, where the whole surface of the plant absorbs water, perpetually in the first two cases and during rain in the last, the hydrom strand is either much reduced or altogether absent.^ The buds burst into bloom five days after each of the first two or three summer rains.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dropping leaves reduces the surface area of the plant and thus reduces transpiration.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants using CAM lose about one-tenth as much water per unit of carbohydrate synthesized as do those using standard C3 photosynthesis.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In accordance with the general principle already indicated, it is only where absorption is localized (i.e. where the plant lives on soil from which it absorbs its main supply of water by means of its basal rhizoids) that a water-conducting (hydrom) strand is developed. The leaves of most mosses are flat plates, each consisting of a single layer of square or oblong assimilating (chlorophyllous) cells. .In many cases the cells bordering the leaf are produced into teeth, and very frequently they are thick-walled so as to form a supporting rim.^ A simple method to distinguish bacteria biochemically begins with cell wall composition and the stains they bind.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The centre of the leaf is often occupied by a midrib consisting of several layers of cells. .These are elongated in the direction of the length of the leaf, are always poor in chlorophyll and form a channel for conducting the products of assimilation away from the leaf into the stem.^ These lessons can be made lighter and more applicable to the 6-9 year old child by dividing the lessons as the classified nomenclature into The Plant, The Root, The Stem, The Leaf, The Flowers and the Seeds.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where does photosynthesis occur on this plant (leaf, stem, root, all of these)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is the first indication of a conducting foliar strand or leaf bundle and forms an approach to leptom, though it is not so specialized as the leptom of the higher Phaeophyceae. .Associated with the conducting parenchyma are frequently found hydroids identical in character with those of the central strand of the stem, and no doubt serving to conduct water to or from the leaf according as the latter is acting as a transpiring or a waterabsorbing organ.^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Synthetic cinnamic acids, identical to those from propolis, were found to inhibit hemagglutination activity of influenza virus ( 199 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I. Thallophytes: Plant body called a thallus, without true roots, stems or leaves; zygote not developing into multicellular embryo within the female sex organ; typically nonvascular without a water-conducting system of cells.

.In a few cases the hydrom strand is continued into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace bundle (the anatomically demonstrable trace of the leaf in the stem).^ This season begins a few weeks after the first summer rain and continues into late fall.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This in several cases runs vertically downwards for some distance in the outer cortex, and ends blindlythe lower end or the whole of the trace being band-shaped or star-shaped so as to present a large surface for the absorption of water from the adjacent cortical cells.^ MATERIALS: Some aquatic plants, a large cylindrical glass container, a large funnel, a test tube full of water, water, a long match.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other cases the trace passes inwards and joins the central hydrom strand, so that a connected water-conducting system between stem and leaf is established.^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the highest family of mosses, Polytrichaceae, the differentiation of conducting tissue reaches a decidedly higher level. In addition to the water-conducting tissue or hydrom there is a welldeveloped tissue (leptom) inferred to be a conducting channel for organic substances. .This leptom is not so highly differentiated as in the most advanced Laminariaceae, but shows some of the characters of sieve-tubes with great distinctness.^ They show the most advanced structural organization in the plant kingdom , enabling them to inhabit a very diverse range of habitats.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each leptoid is an elongated living cell with nucleus and a thin layer of protoplasm lining the wall (fig.^ Draw and label a wet mount in the space below: cell wall, terminal vacuole, nucleus, CaSO 4 crystals.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be able to identify the following on a prepared slide: cell wall, nucleus (if visible), and terminal vacuole.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1, K). The whole cavity of the cell is sometimes stuffed with proteid contents. The end of the cell is slightly swollen, fitting on to the similar swollen end of the next leptoid of the row exactly after the fashion of a trumpet-hypha. The end wall is usually very thin, and the protoplasm on artificial contraction commonly sticks to it just as in a sieve-tube, though no perforation of the wall has been found. Associated with the leptoids are similar cells without swollen ends and with thicker cross-walls. Besides the hydrom and leptom, and situated between them, there is a tissue which perhaps serves to conduct soluble carbohydrates, and whose cells are ordinarily full of starch. This may be called amylom. .The stem in this family falls into two divisions, an underground portion bearing rhizoids and scales, the rhizome, and a leafy aerial stem forming its direct upward continuation.^ How would you determine whether an underground plant structure is a root or a rhizome (underground stem)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This season begins a few weeks after the first summer rain and continues into late fall.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The seven major families of cone-bearing trees and shrubs all evolved from the division Pinophyta (Coniferophyta).

.The leaf consists of a central midrib, several cells thick, and two wings, one cell thick.^ There are two classes within this group: the Monocotyledonae with one seed leaf ( cotyledon ) in the seed , and the Dicotyledonae with two seed leaves.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The midrib bears above a series of closely set, vertical, longitudinally-running plates of green assimilative cells over which the wings close in dry air so as to protect the assimilative and transpiring plates from excessive evaporation of water. The midrib has a strong band of stereom above and below. In its centre is a band-shaped bundle consisting of rows of leptom, hydrom and amylon cells. .This bundle is continued down into the cortex of the stem as a leaf-trace, and passing very slowly through the sclernchymatous external cortex and the parenchymatous, starchy internal cortex to join the central cylinder.^ It still continues to evolve, often through a series of recognisable stages, from pioneer to climax, but ever more slowly with time and maturity, like anything alive.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Respiration is the chemical pathway through which carbohydrate is broken down (oxidized) into carbon dioxide and water, releasing the energy stored in the carbohydrate molecules.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The latter has a central strand consisting of files of large hydroids, separated from one another by very thin walls, each file being separated from its neighbor by stout, dark-brown walls.^ I believe there’s a spiritual need in all human beings that never changes, and sooner or later most people need to feed it, one way or another.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But suppose one of those pale skins marries a dark-skinned partner from another part of the world.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is growing a broth culture a way to grow large numbers of bacteria, or a way to separate individual bacteria from one another?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This is probably homologous with the hydrom cylinder in the stems of other mosses. .It is surrounded by (I) a thin-walled, smaller-celled hydrom mantle; (2) an amylom sheath; (3) a leptom mantle, interrupted here and there by starch cells.^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These three concentric tissue mantles are evidently formed by the conjoined bases of the leaf traces, each of which is composed of the same three tissues. .As the aerial stem is traced down into the underground rhizome portion, these three mantles die out almost entirelythe central hydrom strand forming the bulk of the cylinder and its elements becoming mixed with thick-walled stereids; at the same time this central hydromstereom strand becomes three-lobed, with deep furrows between the lobes in which the few remaining leptoids run, separated from the central mass by a few starchy cells, the remains of the amylom sheath.^ How would you determine whether an underground plant structure is a root or a rhizome (underground stem)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the periphery of the lobes are some comparatively thin-walled living cells mixed with a few thin-walled hydroids, the remains of the thin-walled hydrom mantle of the aerial stem.^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Outside this are three arcs of large cells showing characters typical of the endodermis in a vascular plan.t; these are interrupted by strands ofnarrow, elongated, thick-walled cells, which send branches into the little brown scales borne by the rhizome.^ Of necessity these must be on the outside and therefore they are sepals, even if they are large and colorful.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I am speaking of large-scale changes, such as divergence from a common ancestor many millions ago into say, Monkeys and Rabbits.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The surface layer of the rhizome bears rhizoids, and its whole structure strikingly resembles that of the typical root of a vascular plant.^ A phylum of simple plants possessing no vascular tissue and rudimentary rootlike organs ( rhizoids ).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How would you determine whether an underground plant structure is a root or a rhizome (underground stem)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A giant saguaros root system is just beneath the soil surface and radiates as far as the plant is tall.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In Cat harinea undulata the central h drom cylinder of the aerial stem is a loose tissue, its interstices being filled up with thin-walled, starchy parenchyma. In Dawsonia superba, a large New Zealand moss, the hydroids of the central cylinder of the aerial stem are mixed with thick-walled stereids forming a hydrom-stereom strand somewhat like that of the rhizome in other Polytrichaceae.
The central hydrom strand in the seta of the sporogonium of most mosses has already been alluded to. .Besides this there is usually a living conducting tissue, sometimes differentiated as leptom, forming a mantle round the hydrom, and bounded externally by a more or less well-differentiated endodermis, abutting on an irregularly cylindrical lacuna; the latter separates the central conducting cylinder from the cortex of the seta, which, like the cortex of the gametophyte stem, is usually differentiated into an outer thick-walled stereom and an inner starchy parenchyma.^ For example, a flower that has many (more than ten) petals and sepals that intergrade into one another, many stamens (usually hundreds), a two- to multi-lobed stigma, and an ovary enveloped in stem tissue may be unequivocally identified as belonging to a member of the cactus family.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Does the female gametophyte ever live on its own, or is it always encapsulated by the sporophyte tissue of the female cone?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Frequently, also, a considerable differentiation of vegetative tissue occurs in the wall of the spore-capsule itself, and in some of the higher forms a special assimilating and transpiring organ situated just below the capsule at the top of the seta, with a richly lacunar chlorophyllous parenchyma and stomata like those of the wall of the capsule in the Anthocerotean liverworts.^ Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As of 2004, some 287,655 species had been identified, of which 258,650 are flowering and 18,000 bryophytes (see table below ).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I would just like to try and understand something you mentioned… “Hummingbirds and ostriches both share a common ancestor, but neither species will evolve into anything but some other form of bird”.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.^ These members are assigned to Ascomycota based upon morphological and/or physiological similarities to ascus-bearing taxa, and in particular by phylogenetic comparisons of DNA sequences.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Currently, of the one-quarter to one-half of all pharmaceuticals dispensed in the United States having higher-plant origins, very few are intended for use as antimicrobials, since we have relied on bacterial and fungal sources for these activities.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The features of histological structure seen in the Bryophytic series are such as we should expect to be developed in response to the exigencies of increasing adaptation to terrestrial life on soil, and of increasing size of the plant-body.^ Plants have many adaptations that increase the likelihood of outcrossing.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whereas other vascular plants, such as ferns, reproduce by means of spores and so need moisture to develop, some seed plants can survive and reproduce in extremely arid conditions.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the liverworts we find fixation of the thallus by water-absorbing rhizoids; in certain forms with a localized region of water-absorption the development of a primitive hydrom or water-conducting system; and in others with rather a massive type of thallus the differentiation of a special assimilative and transpiring system.^ The development of wings from other types of limb has much evidence, would you consider the development of a wing from a arm like limb impossible?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue they perceive is not that changes are occuring, but rather that evolution results in entirely new species branching from others.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.^ The field of ethnobotany studies plant use by indigenous cultures which helps to conserve endangered species as well as discover new medicinal plants .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, the roots of ginseng plants contain the active saponins and essential oils, while eucalyptus leaves are harvested for their essential oils and tannins.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Frequently plants (and animals) are similar to each other in outward appearance because their ancestors have adapted to the same environmental challenges by evolving similar forms or structures.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In higher forms the conducting strands of the leaves are continued downwards into the stem, and eventually come into connection with the central hydrom cylinder, forming a complete cylindrical investment apparently distinct from the latter, and exhibiting a differentiation into hydrom, leptom and amylom which almost completely parallels that found among the true vascular plants.^ Their molecular weights range from 500 to 3,000 ( 87 ), and they are found in almost every plant part: bark, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots ( 192 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Vascular plants first appeared during the Silurian period, and by the Devonian had diversified and spread into many different land environments.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Similar differentiation, differing in some details, takes place independently in the other generation, the sporogonium.^ Just go to the Black President or Global Warming or any other ‘our view’ section and take a look at how stupid some of the stupid arguments are.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While we can happily manipulate some invertebrates to become different species, with animals with generation times of several years or longer, it is very difficult to show practically.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Take half an egg shell and gently place some soil in it.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The stereom of the moss is found mainly in the outer cortex of the stem and in the midrib of the leaf.
Vascular Plants.In the Vascular Plants (Pteridophytes, i.e. ferns, horse-tails, club mosses, &c., and Phanerogams or Flowering Plants) the main plant-body, that which we speak of in ordinary language as the plant, is called the sporophyte because it bears the asexual reproductive cells or spores. The gametophyte, which bears the sexual organs, is either a free-living thallus corresponding in degree of differentiation with the lower liverworts, or it is a mass of cells which always remains enclosed in a spore and is parasitic upon the sporophyte.
.The body of the sporophyte in the great majority of the vascular plants shows a considerable increase in complexity over that found in the gametophyte of Bryophytes.^ Like other bryophytes, they have a gametophyte -dominant life cycle, in which cells of the plant carry only a single set of genetic information.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are cone -bearing seed plants with vascular tissue; all extant conifers are woody plants , the great majority being trees with just a few being shrubs .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The principal new feature in the external conformation. of the body is the acquirement of true roots, the nearest approach to which in the lower forms we saw in the rhizome of Polytrichaceae. .The primary root is a downward prolongation of the primary axis of the plant.^ No desert plant is known to use very deep roots as a primary strategy for survival.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this, as well as from various parts of the shoot system, other roots may originate.^ The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MATERIAL: several low glass containers of different shapes, strawberry or violet runners , various kinds of tubers, carrot roots, bulbs, shoots of various plants.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlorophyll , a green-colored, magnesium -containing pigment is essential to this process; it is generally present in plant leaves , and often in other plant parts as well.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The root differs from the shoot in the characters of its surface tissues, in the absence of the green assimilative pigment chlorophyll, in the arrangement of its vascular system and in the mode of growth at the apex, all features which are in direct relation to its normally subterranean life and its fixative and absorptive functions.^ MATERIAL: several low glass containers of different shapes, strawberry or violet runners , various kinds of tubers, carrot roots, bulbs, shoots of various plants.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants are distinguished from green algae , which represent a mode of photosynthetic life similar to the kind modern plants are believed to have evolved from, by having specialized reproductive organs protected by non-reproductive tissues.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Within the limits of the sporophyte generation the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams also differ from the Bryophytes in possessing special assimilative and transpiring organs, the leaves, though these organs are developed, as we have seen, in the gametophyte of many liverworts and of all the mosses.^ Are liverworts gametophyte dominant or sporophyte dominant?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mosses show a marked alternation of generations between gamete-bearing forms ( gametophytes ) and spore-bearing forms ( sporophytes ): they possess erect or prostrate leafy stems ( the gametophyte generation , which is haploid ); these give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules (the sporophyte generation, which is diploid ), the latter being dependent on the former for water and nutrients.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chewing sticks come from different species of plants, and within one stick the chemically active component may be heterogeneous ( 5 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The leaves, again, have special histological features adapted to the performance of their special functions.
.Alike in root, stem and leaf, we can.^ Experiments can be done that give the lessons for the needs of the plant, the functions of the root, the stem, the leaf, flowers and seed.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ X. Observe the adult monocot and dicot plants and observe the following: node, leaf, petiole, leaf sheath, rachis, blade, stem, root, apical bud, and axillary bud.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

trace a three-fold division of tissue systems, a division of which there are indications among the lower plants, and which is the expression of the fundamental conditions of the .evolution of a bulky differ- Tissue entiated plant-body.^ Main article: Vascular tissue Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

From the primitive uniform Systems. mass of undifferentiated assimilating cells, which we may conceive of as the starting-point of differentiation, though such an undifferentiated body is only actually realized in the thallus of the lower .Algae, there is, (1) on the one hand, a specialization of a surface layer regulating the immediate relations of the plant with its surroundings.^ Another complaint is the juxtaposition of an image relating to CO 2 emissions and an image illustrating invasive plant species.
  • RealClimate: Al Gore’s movie 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.realclimate.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chewing sticks come from different species of plants, and within one stick the chemically active component may be heterogeneous ( 5 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There is great interest in plant chemicals which may have anti-infective properties for Plasmodium species.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the typically submerged Alg~ and in submerged plants of every group this is the absorptive and the main. assimilative layer, and may also by the production of mucilage be of use in the protection of the body in various ways. .In the terrestrial plants it differs in the subterranean and subaerial parts, being in the former preeminently absorptive, and in the latter protectiveprovision at the same time being made for the gaseous interchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide necessary for respiration and feeding.^ Comparisons of different kinds of plants can be made.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C4 plants use carbon dioxide more efficiently (by bypassing photorespiration) and lose less water through transpiration (water evaporated from inside plants) per unit of carbohydrate made.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The equilibrium between gaseous carbon dioxide and the organic acid is dependent on temperature.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This surface layer in the typically subaerial shoot of the sporophyte in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams is known as the epidermis, though the name is restricted by some writers, on account of developmental differences, to the surface layer of the shoot of Angiosperms, and by others extended to the surface layer of the whole plant in both these groups.^ These frustules show a wide diversity in form, some quite beautiful and ornate, but usually consist of two asymmetrical sides with a split between them, hence the group name.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Almost all of these plants contain a chemical known as a “pyrethrin.” ( I don’t know if I have the correct spelling).
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these are still often considered plants in many contexts, both technical and popular.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, we have (2) an internal differentiation of conducting tissue, the main features of which as seen in the gametophyte of Bryophytes have already been fully described.^ K. Bryophytes are described as being gametophyte dominant.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the Vascular Plants this tissue is collectively known as the vascular system.^ The majority of plant species have various kinds of fungi associated with their root systems in a kind of mutualistic symbiosis known as mycorrhiza .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A phylum of simple plants possessing no vascular tissue and rudimentary rootlike organs ( rhizoids ).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Vascular tissue Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The remaining tissue of the plant-body, a tissue that we must regard phylogenetically as the remnant of the undifferentiated tissu~ of the primitive thallus, but which often undergoes further different,iation of its own, the better to fulfil its characteristically vital functions for the whole plant, is known, from its peripheral position in relation to the primitively central conducting tissue, as (3) the cortex.^ We are now going to consider various plant tissues and their functions.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about 3 percent of all the Earths plant species are known to use C4, but a number of them are vital crops, such as corn, sorghum, and sugar cane.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Besides absorption, assimilation, conduction and protection there is another very important function for which provision has to be made in any plant-body of considerable size, especially when raised into the air, that of support.^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After some additional research there is another plant that bears the title, ‘Mosquito Plant’.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Normally the skin provides a very effective barrier and protects the body from infection.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Special tissues (stereom) may be developed for this purpose in the cortex, or in immediate connection.^ Some climbing species, such as kudzu , which do not need to produce thick supportive tissue, may grow up to 12.5&# 160;mm/h.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

with the conducting system, according to the varying needs of the particular type of plant-body. .The important function of aeration, by which the inner living tissues of the bulky plant-body obtain the oxygen necessary for their respiration, is secured by the development of an extensive system of intercellular spaces communicating with the external air.^ We are now going to consider various plant tissues and their functions.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We will still be considering taxonomy, particularly differences between monocots and dicots, and we will also be considering plant structures and functions in light of the tissues from which they are composed.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In relation to its characteristic function of protection, the epidermis, which, as above defined, consists of a single layer of cells has typically thickened and cuticularized outer walls.^ Gram-positive bacteria have a thick peptidoglycans layer in their cell wall.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

B
.These serve not only to protect the plant against slight P dermis.^ Some plants serve as homes for endophytic fungi that protect the plant from herbivores by producing toxins.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Toxin-tolerant insects often incorporate their host plants toxins into their own tissues for protection against their predators.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Man is the only creature that has to make laws against himself to protect his own environment.” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

mechanical injury from without, and against the entry of smaller parasites, such as fungi and bacteria, but also and especially to prevent the evaporation of water from within.
At intervals it is interrupted by pores (stomata) leading from the air outside to the system of intercellular spaces below. Each stoma is surrounded by a pair of peculiarly modified Stomata epidermal cells called guard-cells (fig. 1, T), which open and close the pore according to the need for transpiration. .The structure of the stomata of the sporophyte of vascular plants is fundamentally the same as that of the stomata on the sporogonium of the true mosses and of the liverwort A nihoceros.^ Frequently plants (and animals) are similar to each other in outward appearance because their ancestors have adapted to the same environmental challenges by evolving similar forms or structures.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Vascular tissue Vascular plants differ from other plants in that they transport nutrients between different parts through specialized structures, called xylem and phloem .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stomata are often situated at the bottom of pits in the surface of the leaf. This arrangement is a method of checking transpiration by creating a still atmosphere above the pore of the stoma, so that water vapour collects in it and diminishes the further outflow of vapour. .This type of structure, which is extremely various in its details, is found especially, as we should expect, in plants which have to economize their water supply.^ The growth rate of plants is extremely variable.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spoil heaps of coal mines are the best places to collect; coal itself is the remains of fossilised plants, though structural detail of the plant fossils is rarely visible in coal.
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Can the students make any inferences about what might occur if poisonous substances were present in the water supply used to nourish the plants that are grown as commercial food crops?
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The stomata serve for all gaseous interchange between the plant and the surrounding air.^ Back to top ] Aristotle divided all living things between plants (which generally do not move), and animals (which often are mobile to catch their food).
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The guard-cells contain chlorophyll, which is absent from typical epidermal cells, the latter acting as a tissue for water storage.^ With a few exceptions among the green algae, all such forms have cell walls containing cellulose , have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b , and store food in the form of starch .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes the epidermis is considerably more developed by tangential division of its cells, forming a many-layered water-tissue.^ Cell division is also characterized by the development of a phragmoplast for the construction of a cell plate in the late stages of cytokinesis .
  • Plantae (Kingdom) 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC zipcodezoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is found especially in plants which during certain hours of the day are unable to cover the water lost through transpiration by the supply coming from the roots.^ Plants absorb minerals that are dissolved in water through the roots in the ground.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C4 plants use carbon dioxide more efficiently (by bypassing photorespiration) and lose less water through transpiration (water evaporated from inside plants) per unit of carbohydrate made.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The water stored in such a time supplies the immediate need of the transpiring cells and prevents the injury which would result from their excessive depletion.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have one water fountain in the yard & keep a chlorine tablet in it (I was told this would prevent mosquitoe’s).
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since the hottest time of year is also the driest, water is not available for transpiration.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

-
.The epidermis of a very large number of species bears hairs of various kinds.^ Within that 1% we get different variations of epidermis pigment and hair texture, eye colors etc.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For each conspicuous species there are dozens of others that either have less colorful flowers or dont grow in large numbers.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The simplest type consists simply of a single elongated cell projecting above the general level of the lairs, epidermis. .Other hairs consist of a chain of cells; others, again, are branched in various ways; while yet others have the form of a flat plate of cells placed parallel to the leaf surface and inserted on a stalk.^ While naringin was not inhibitory to herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), poliovirus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3, or RSV, the other three flavonoids were effective in various ways.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants store energy for long-term use in the form of starch, which is a complex carbohydrate consisting of long chains of sugar molecules.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cells of hairs may have living contents or they may simply contain air.^ The first living things were probably single celled creatures who replicated through a process called Mitosis; that is, they cloned themselves.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A very common function of hairs is to diminish transpiration, by creating a still atmosphere between them, as in the case of the sunk stomata already mentioned.^ In cold situations, the rising hair traps air between the hairs and skin, creating insulation and warmth.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I see that this list has already created much tension between Intelligent Design and Evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

But hairs have a variety of other functions. .They may, for instance, be glandular or stinging, as in the common stinging nettle, where the top of the hair is very brittle, easily breaking off when touched.^ Urtica dioica Common Names stinging nettle Family Nettle Flower Color Green Plant Type Forb Native Yes .

^ They, in turn, may set off a new spasm of adaptation and add to the overall number of extinctions.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The sharp, broken end penetrates the skin, and into the slight wound thus formed the formic acid contained by the hair is injected.
.Mention may be made here of a class of epidermal organ, the hydaihodea, the wide distribution and variety of which have been revealed by recent research.^ The focus of the study was to provide a more standardized extraction method for the wide variety of researchers working in diverse settings.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

These are special organs, ?Iydathodes. usually situated on foliage leaves, for the .excretion of water in liquid form when transpiration is diminished so that the pressure in the water-channels of the plant has come to exceed a certain limit.^ The plant joins several carbon dioxide molecules and adds hydrogen atoms split from water molecules to form molecules of sugar (simple carbohydrate).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are widely distributed, but are particularly abundant in certain tropical climates where active root absorption goes on while the air is nearly saturated with water vapour.^ While they are attractive plants that both repel mosquitoes and can add interest to your cooking, they are truly tropical plants that are not hardy in cold climates.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In contrast to succulents that can take up water only from nearly saturated soil, drought tolerant plants can absorb water from much drier soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since nearly all of the identified components from plants active against microorganisms are aromatic or saturated organic compounds, they are most often obtained through initial ethanol or methanol extraction.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In one type they may take the form of specially-modified single epidermal cells or multicellular hairs without any direct connection with the vascular system.^ Once roots have started to form, take one of the sprouts and invert it so the root is pointing upward.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See if they can classify the different types of products formed.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cells concerned, like all secreting organs, have abundant protoplasm with large nuclei, and sometimes, in addition, part of the cell-wall is modified as a filter.^ Just like a mechanic may have his favourite tools and parts and he’ll modify these to design pieces of a car, a boat, a plan and a motorbike.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Like all body parts, it needs grooming, can be injured and damaged and thereby introduce infection to the body, etc., etc.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a second type they are situated at the ends of tracheal strands and consist of groups of richly protoplasmic cells belonging to the epidermis (as in the leaves of many ferns), or to the subjacent tissue (the commonest type in flowering plants); in this last case the cells in question are known as epithem.^ What flowering plants do they most resemble?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viola beckwithii Common Names Beckwith's violet Family Violet Flower Color Purple, white Plant Type Herb Native Yes .

^ Lythrum salicaria Common Names purple loosestrife Family Loosestrife Flower Color Purple Plant Type Herb Native No Weed Noxious .

.The epithem is penetrated by a network of fine intercellular spaces, which are normally filled with water and debouch on one or more intercellular cavities below the epidermis.^ Fill one glass with water and in the other glass place a mixture of water and ink, or a mixture of water and food colouring.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Above each cavity is situated a so-called water-sloma, no doubt derived phylogenetically from an ordinary stoma, and enclosed by guard-cells which have nearly or entirely lost the power of movement.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pores of the water-stomata are the outlets of the hydathode. The epithem is frequently surrounded by a sheath of cuticularized cells. .In other cases the epithem may be absent altogether, the tracheal strand debouching directly on the lacunae of the mesophyll.^ Actually in many cases animals even tend to other species who may be sick or injured.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

This last type of hydathode is usually situated on the edge of the leaf. .Some hydathodes are active glands, secreting the water they expel from the leaf.^ They also eat prickly pear for water and manage to excrete the oxalates which could clog the kidneys of some other animals.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

types of glands also exist, either in connection with the epidermis or not, such as nectaries, digestive glands, oil, resin and mucilage glands, &c. .They serve the most various purposes in the life of the plant, but they are not of significance in relation to the primary vital activities, and cannot be dealt with in the limits of the present article.l The typical epidermis of the shoot of a land plant does not absorb water, but some plants living in situations where they cannot depend on a regular supply from the roots (e.g.^ Plants absorb minerals that are dissolved in water through the roots in the ground.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some believe there is no purpose to life or a God, some do not, how does this prove anything?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

epiphytic plants and .desert plants) have absorptive hairs or scales on the leaf epidermis through which rain and dew can be absorbed.^ Lomatium dissectum Common Names fern-leafed lomatium, fern-leafed desert parsley, desert parsley, fernleaf biscuitroot Plant Type Forb Native Yes Weed No .

^ Since the plants are inconspicuous until they begin the spring bolt, many people mistakenly think that spring rains produce desert wildflower displays.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But many nonsucculent desert plants survive months or even years with no rain.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some hydathodes also are capable of absorbing as well as excreting water.
.The surface layer of the root, sometimes included under tht term epidermis, is fundamentally different from the epidermis of the stem.^ VII. How do roots structurally differ from stems?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The light color is usually due to a dense covering of trichomes (hairlike scales), but is sometimes from a waxy secretion on the leaf or stem surface.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In correspondence with its water-absorbing epidermis function it is not cuticularized, but remains usually thinof Root, walled; the absorbing surface is increased by its cell~
being produced into delicate tubes which curl round and adher~ firmly to particles of soil, thus at once fixing the root firmly in thi soil, and enabling the hair to absorb readily the thin films of watei ordinarily surrounding the particles (fig. I, U). .The root-hair end~ blindly and is simply an outgrowth from a surface cell, havin~ no cross-walls.^ Probable targets in the microbial cell are surface-exposed adhesins, cell wall polypeptides, and membrane-bound enzymes.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

It corresponds in function with the rhizoid of i Bryophyte. .At the apex of a root, covering and protecting th~ delicate tissue of the growing point, is a special root-cap consistinf of a number of layers of tissue whose cells break down into mucilagi towards the outer surface, thus facilitating the passage of the ape~ as it is pushed between the particles of soil.^ Toxin-tolerant insects often incorporate their host plants toxins into their own tissues for protection against their predators.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For each conspicuous species there are dozens of others that either have less colorful flowers or dont grow in large numbers.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plants defend themselves from the cold by developing very thin pointed leaves, like needles, covered with a thick film which protects them from the cold.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The cortex, as has been said, is in its origin the remains of th~ primitive assimilating tissue of the plant, after differentiatioi of the surface layer and the conducting system.^ A giant saguaros root system is just beneath the soil surface and radiates as far as the plant is tall.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I Cortex. consists primitively of typical living parenchyma; bu its differpotlistion mov he esctremelv vsred, sinr-p in the rnmnle~
bodies of the higher plants its functions are numerous. .In all green plants which have a special protective epidermis, the cortex of the shoot has to perform the primitive fundamental function of carbon assimilation.^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only about 3 percent of all the Earths plant species are known to use C4, but a number of them are vital crops, such as corn, sorghum, and sugar cane.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Green plants use light energy to combine low-energy molecules (carbon dioxide and water) into high-energy molecules (carbohydrates), which they accumulate and store as energy reserves.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the leafy shoot this function is mainly localized in the cortical tissue of the leaves, known as mesophyll, Mesophyli. which is essentially a parenchymatous tissue containing chloroplasts, and is penetrated by a system of intercellular spaces so that the surfaces of the assimilating cells are brought into contact with air to as large an extent as possible, in order to facilitate gaseous interchange between the assimilating cells and the atmosphere. At the same time the cells of the mesophyll are transpiring cellsi.e. the evaporation of water from the leaf goes on from them into the intercellular spaces. The only pathways for the gases which thus pass between the cells of the mesophyll and the outside air are the stomata. .A land plant has nearly always to protect itself against over-transpiration, and for this reason the stomata of the typical dorsiventral leaf (fig.^ Toxin-tolerant insects often incorporate their host plants toxins into their own tissues for protection against their predators.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the day the stomates are closed and the plants are nearly completely sealed against water loss; photosynthesis is conducted using the stored carbon dioxide.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.2, A), which has distinct upper and lower faces, are placed mainly or exclusively on the lower side of the leaf, where the water vapour that escapes from them, being lighter than air, cannot pass away from the surface 01 the leaf, but remains in contact with it and thus tends to check further transpiration.^ Lighter colors reflect more light (= heat) and thus remain cooler than dark green leaves.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ COMMAND: In the afternoon, cover both sides of a leaf with aluminum foil, holding it in place with a pin.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The stomata are in direct communication with the ample system of intercellular spaces which is found in the loosely arranged mesophyll (spongy tissue) on that side. This is the main transpiring tissue, and is protected from direct illumination and consequent too great evaporation. .The main assimilating tissue, on the other hand, is under the upper epidermis, where it is well illuminated, and consists of oblong cells densely packed with chloroplasts and with their long axes perpendicular to the surface (palisade tissue).^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The intercellular spaces are here very narrow channels between the palisade cells. Leaves whose blades are normally held in a vertical position possess palisade tissue and stomata on both sides (isobilateral leaves) (fig. 2, B), since there is no difference in the illumination and other external conditions, --------
ph/i ~ Ce ..----.- FIG. iTransverse Sections of Leavei.
A Dorsiventraf leaf. B. Isobilateral leaf.
c/i, epidermis; st stoma; me,, mesophyil; pal, palisade; spa, spongy tissue; Isp, inteicellular space; wi., water tissue; x, xylem; p/i, phioem; Phil, phloeoterma; sri, scierenchyma.
while those which are cylindrical or of similar shape (centric leaves) have it all round. .The leaves of shade plants have little or no differentiation of palisade tissue.^ Desert plants that do have large leaves produce them only during the cool or rainy season or else live in shaded microhabitats.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Delphinium bicolor Common Names little larkspur Family Buttercup Plant Type Herb Native , Yes Weed No .

.In fleshy leaves which contain a great bulk of tissue in relation to their chlorophyll content, the central mesophyll contains little or no chlorophyll and acts as waterstorage tissue.^ In the same way the little toe may once have acted in a prehensile fashion, which is no longer relevant.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The cortex of a young stem is usually green, and plays a more or less important part in the assimilative function.^ Then cover the green parts of the plant with a bag and tie the bag around the bottom of the stem.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Identify and be familiar with the functions of the following parts of a dicot root: epidermis, cortex, and vascular cylinder.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It alse always possesses a well-developed lacunar system communicating with the external air through stomata (in the young stem) or lenticel~ (see below). .This lacunar system not only enables the cells of the cortex itself to respire, but also forms channels through whicF air can pass to the deeper lying tissues.^ As ruminants, cows have evolved to eat grass, break it down in their rumen and then pass it on through the rest of their digestive system.
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

.The cortex of the older stem of the root frequently acts as a reserve store-house for food which generally takes the form of starch, and it also assists largel) in providing the stereom of the plant.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Identify the roots, stems, leaves, and flowers of plants.
  • Grade Two Science - Plant Growth 23 September 2009 0:51 UTC www.sasked.gov.sk.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its purpose is to attract animals who will take the fruit as food, and the seeds will be carried far from the mother plant.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the leaf-blade this sometimes aopears as a layer of thickened subepidermal cells, tht hypoderm, often also as subepidermal bundles of sclerenchymatou~ fibres, or as similar bundles extending right across the leaf from mu epidermis to the other and thus acting as struts. Isolated celh (idioblasts), thickened in various ways, are not uncommonly founc supporting the tissues of the leaf. In the larger veins of the leaf especially in the midrib, in the petiole, and in the young stem, a1 extremely frequent type of mechanical tissue is collenchyma. This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue. .This tissue remains living and is usually formed quiti early, just below the epidermis, where it provides the first periphera support for a still growing stem or petiole.^ Plants which grow in very dry areas transform their leaves and stem into water containers, and they can live without rain for a very long time.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still others rely on camouflage; Arizona night-blooming cereus ( Peniocereus greggii ) closely resembles the dry stems of the shrubs in which it grows.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Sclerenchyma may bi formed later in various positions in the cortex, according to loca needs. .Scattered single stereids or bundles of fibres are no imnrornmnn in the rnrtev of the root The innermost layer of the cortex, abutting on the central cylinder of the stem or on the bundles of the leaves, is called the jthloeoterma, and is often differentiated.^ Succulent plants store water in fleshy leaves, stems or roots in compounds or cells from which it is not easily lost (see photo on page 135).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The parts of flowers and fruits are also easier to identify and describe than the vegetative organs (leaves, stems, and roots).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the leafPhloeo- blade it takes the form of special parenchymatous erma. sheaths to the bundles. The cells of these sheaths are often distinguished from the rest of the mesophyll by containing little or no chlorophyll. Occasionally, however, they are particularly rich in chioroplasts. .These bundle sheaths are important in the conduction of carbohydrates away from the assimilating cells to other parts of the plant.^ Animals acquire their carbohydrates by eating plants or other animals.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before exploring these special characteristics, it is important that you understand something about plant structures, functions, and classification.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rarely in the leaf, frequently in the stem (particularly in Pteridophytes), and universally in the root, the phloeoterma is developed as an endodermis (see below).^ Experiments can be done that give the lessons for the needs of the plant, the functions of the root, the stem, the leaf, flowers and seed.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ X. Observe the adult monocot and dicot plants and observe the following: node, leaf, petiole, leaf sheath, rachis, blade, stem, root, apical bud, and axillary bud.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Water is absorbed through the roots, and CO2 diffuses into the leaves through the stomates (valved pores in leaf and stem surfaces).
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In other cases it does not differ histologically from the parenchyma of the rest of the cortex, though it is often distinguished by containing particularly abundant starch, in which case it is known as a starch sheath.
.One of the most striking characters common to the two highest groups of plants, the Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, is the Vascular possession of a double (hydrom-leptom) conducting .s system, such as we saw among the highest mosses, YS em.^ Flavones are phenolic structures containing one carbonyl group (as opposed to the two carbonyls in quinones) (Fig.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ (Humans are one of VERY many species on earth that have a communication system, ours happens to be the most complex..wow perhaps its not a coincidence that we’re also the most intelligent.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The two major groups of plants are the gymnosperms (the Cycadophyta, Ginkgophyta, Gnetophyta, and Coniferophyta) which means naked seed, and the angiosperms which means covered seed.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

but with sharply characterized and peculiar features, probably indicating common descent throughout both these groups. .It is confined to the sporophyte, which forms the, leafy plant in these groups, and is known as the vascular system.^ Almost all of these plants contain a chemical known as a “pyrethrin.” ( I don’t know if I have the correct spelling).
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are these vascular or avascular plants and are veins observable?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Are these vascular or avascular plants and are veins observable?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Associated with it are other tissues, consisting of parenchyma, mainly starchy, and in the Phanerogams particularly, of special stereom. .The whole tissue system is known as the stelar system (from the way in which in primitive forms it runs through the whole axis of the plant in the form of a column).^ Tannins may be formed by condensations of flavan derivatives which have been transported to woody tissues of plants.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The stelar system of Vascular Plants has no direct phylogenetic connection with that of the mosses.^ This includes both plants that lack a vascular system, and some divisions of the tracheophytes , plants that possess a vascular system.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The origin of the Pteridophyta (q.v.) is very obscure, but it may be regarded as certain that it is not to be sought among the mosses, which are an extremely specialized and peculiarly differentiated group. Furthermore, both the hydrom and leptom of Pteridophytes have marked peculiarities to which no parallel is to be found among the Bryophytes. 1-lence we must conclude that the conducting system of the Ptcridophytes has had an entirely separate evolution. .All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p.^ I believe in evolution for 2 reasons: .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ BUT, there are non-Christian scientific objections to biological Darwinism presented here (to various degrees — some reject a small part, some object all, some see a harmony between evolution and Christianity, some merely want more study.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All in all, data about specific antibiotic properties of coumarins are scarce, although many reports give reason to believe that some utility may reside in these phytochemicals ( 26 , 83 , 193 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
The hydroid of a Pteridophyte or of a Phanerogam is characteristically a dead, usually elongated, cell containing air and water, and either thin-walled with lignified (woody) spiral (fig. I, p.) or annular thickenings, or with thick lignified walls, incompletely perforated by pits (fig.i, 9.) (usually bordered pits) of various shapes, e.g. the pits may be separated by a network of thickenings when the tracheid is reticulate or they may be transversely elongated and separated by bars of thickening like the rungs of a ladder (scalariform thickening). .When, in place of a number of such cells called tracheids, we have a continuous tube with the same kind of wall thickening, but composed of a number of cells whose cross walls have disappeared, the resulting structure is called a vessel.^ Identify the following: cell wall, nucleus, chloroplast, pyrenoids, conjugation tubes, zygote.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Vessels are common in the Angiospermous group of Flowering Plants.^ Viola beckwithii Common Names Beckwith's violet Family Violet Flower Color Purple, white Plant Type Herb Native Yes .

^ Lythrum salicaria Common Names purple loosestrife Family Loosestrife Flower Color Purple Plant Type Herb Native No Weed Noxious .

^ Sphaeralcea coccinea Common Names red globe mallow Family Mallow Flower Color Red, Orange Plant Type Forb .

The scalariform hydroids of Ferns (fig. I, N.) have been quite recently shown to possess a peculiar structure. .The whole of the middle lamella or originally formed cell-wall separating one from another disappears before the adult state is reached, so that the walls of the hydroids consist of a framework of lignified bars, with open communication between the cell cavities.^ HELL of a lot of evidence that it consistently reveled a person’s internal state better than an MIR machine before i’d recommend teaching it in medical school!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is growing a broth culture a way to grow large numbers of bacteria, or a way to separate individual bacteria from one another?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is preparing a smear plate a way to grow large numbers of bacteria, or a way to separate individual bacteria from one another?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tracheids or vessels, indifferently called tracheal elements, together with the immediately associated cells (usually amylom in Pteridophytes) constitute the xylem of the plant.^ Tubes called xylem carry the water to the leaves on the plant.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is a morphological term given to the particular~ type of hydrom found in both Pteridophytes and Phanerogams, together with the parenchyma or stereom, or both, included within the boundaries of the hydrom tissue strand.^ I have seen the two species within inches of each other where these soil types meet, but not one plant of either species could be found on the other soil.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The leptoid of a Pteridophyte (fig. .I, 0.) is also an elongated cell, with a thin lining of protoplasm, but destitute of a nucleus, and always in communication with the next cell of the leptom strand by perforations (in Pteridophytes often not easily demonstrable), through which originally pass strings of protoplasm which are bored out by a ferment and converted into relatively coarse slime strings, along which pass, we must suppose, the organic substances which it is the special function of the leptoids to conduct from one part of the plant to another.^ Is this not evolution – in laymans terms – the changing of one species into another?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Insect biology is not my fore front, but I do know that they have changed species of fly from one to another e.g.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The peculiar substance called callose, chemically allied to cellulose, is frequently formed over the surface of the perforated end-walls. .The structure formed by a number of such cells placed end to end is called a sieve-tube (obviously comparable with a xylem-vessel), and the end-wall or area of endwall occupied by a group of perforations, a sseve-plate.^ Tubes called xylem carry the water to the leaves on the plant.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the sieve-tube has ceased to function and the protoplasm, slime strings, and callose have disappeared, the perforations through which the slime strings passed are left as relatively large holes, easily visible in some cases with low powers of the microscope, piercing the sieve.plate.^ That was low power stuff indeed from Randall by his own towering standards, which I took as relative respect for jeremy.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Can’t remember which list had some fool commenting about adaptive intelligence passed through genes so I’m putting this Lamarkian story here!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In some cases, the inoculated plates or tubes are exposed to UV light ( 221 ) to screen for the presence of light-sensitizing photochemicals.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The sieve-tubes, with their accompanying parenchyma or stereom, constitute the tissue called phloem. This is the term for a morphologically defined tissue system, i.e. the leptom found in Pteridophytes and Phanerogams with its associated cells, and is entirely parallel with the xylem. .The sieve-tubes differ, however, from the tracheids in being immediately associated, apparently constantly, not with starchy parenchyma, but with parenchymatous cells, containing particularly abundant proteid contents, which seem to have a function intimately connected with the conducting function of the sieve-tubes, and which we may call proteid-cells.^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MATERIALS: 3 glass tubes of different thicknesses, one of which is a capillary tube, a pitcher of water, red dye or food coloring, an eye dropper, a small glass container.
  • Biology :: 6-9 :: Plant Kingdom 18 September 2009 8:08 UTC www.moteaco.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, I think he was referring to what some might call the “soul” of human beings.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the Angiosperms there are always sistercells of sieve-tube segments and are called companion-cells (fig.^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

I, R.).
.The xylem and phloem are nearly always found in close association in strands of various shapes in all the three main organs of the sporophyteroot, stem and leafand form a connected tissue-system running through the whole body.^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stems and leaves of most species have waxy cuticles that render them nearly waterproof when the stomates are closed.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and sclerenchyma (bundle fibers).
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the primary axis of the plant among Pteridophytes and many Phanerogams, at any rate in its first formed part, the xylem and phloem are associated in the form of a cylinder (stele), with xylem occupying the centre, and the phloem (in the upward-growing part or primary stem) forming a mantle at the periphery (fig.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The descendants of the first algae came to dominate many aquatic environments and ultimately gave rise to land plants [10] .
  • Chlamydiae Has Contributed at Least 55 Genes to Plantae with Predominantly Plastid Functions 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

4). In the downward growing part of the axis (primary root), Aflangehowever, the peripheral mantle of phloem is interrupted, ~7ii ~. the xylem coming to the surface of the cylinder ,~dS;
along .(usually) two or (sometimes) more vertical lines.^ A good bloom cannot be reliably predicted more than a week or two before it begins, and usually lasts at peak beauty for only two weeks.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

c eun~7 Such an arrangement of vascular tissue is called radial, ~
and is characteristic of all roots (figs. 3 and In). .The cylinder is surrounded by a mantle of one or more layers of parenchymatous cells, the pericycle, and the xylem is generally separated from the phloem in the stem by a similar layer, the mesocycle (corresponding with the amylom sheath in mosses).^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rolo Tomasi (160) – One thing I’ve learned is that evolving creatures tend to become more and more dissimilar than similar.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The pericycle and mesocycle together form the conjunctive tissue of the stele in these simplest types. When the diameter of the stele is greater, parenchymatous conjunctive tissue often occupies its centre and is frequently called the pith. .In the root the mesocycle, like the phloem, is interrupted, and runs into the pericycle where the xylem touches the latter (fig.^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

3). The whole cylinder is enclosed by the peculiarly differentiated innermost cell-layer of the cortex, known as the endodermis. .This layer has its cells closely united and sealed to one another, so to speak, by the conversion of the radial and transverse walls (which separate each cell from the other cells of the layer), or of a band running in the centre of these, into corky substance (fig.^ Is this not evolution – in laymans terms – the changing of one species into another?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I’m not usually one to comment on these type of forums but this topic in general is rather close to my heart.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

1, v.), so that the endodermal cells cannot be split apart to admit of the formation of intercellular spaces, and an air-tight sheath is formed round the cylinder. Such a vascular cylinder is called a haplostele, and the axis containing it is said to be haplostelic. In the stele of the root the strands of tracheids along the lines where the xylem touches the pericycle are spiral or annular, and are the xylem elements first formed when the cylinder is developing. .Each strand of spiral or annular first-formed tracheids is called a protoxylem strand, as distinct from the metaxylem or rest of the xylem, which consists of thick-walled tracheids, the pits of which are often scalariform.^ The most common form of photosynthesis creates a 3-carbon sugar as its first stable product, so its called C3 photosynthesis.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The thin-walled spiral or annular tracheae of the protoxylem allow of longitudinal stretching brought about by the active growth in length of the neighboring living parenchymatous cells of a growing organ. .During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.^ In a time before prosthetic teeth, needing molars to chew, yet being so worked, many molars would rot, become cavity infested, and eventually need to be pulled out.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Maybe some of the goo was in cupcake pans and would eventually become bite sized cakes instead of the full sized model.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Similarly these plants can continue to photosynthesize with low leaf-moisture contents that would be fatal to most plants.
  • Plant Ecology of the Sonoran Desert Region 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC desertmuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Hence such tracheae are only laid down in organs whose growth in length has ceased. The stele is called monarch, diarch,. .. polyarch according as it contains one, two,. .. or many protoxylems. .When the protoxylem strands are situated at the periphery of the stele, abutting on the pericycle, as in all roots, and many of the more primitive Pteridophyte stems, the stele is said to be exarch.^ It was indeed a load of that wot you just said, and all my fault for not being more alert to the rules of the game.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Where does photosynthesis occur on this plant (leaf, stem, root, all of these)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch. This is the case in the stems of must Phanerogams and of some Pteridophytes. When the protoxylems have an intermediate position the stele is inesarch (many Pteridophytes and some of the more primitive Phanerogams). In many cases externai protophloem, usually consisting of narrow sieve-tubes often with swollen walls, can be distinguished from metaphloem.
As the primitive stele of a Pteridophyte is traced upwards from the primary rout into the stem, the phloem becomes continuous round the xylem. At the same time the ~ ~
stele becomes more bulky, all its elements increas- ~ ~ 0 ing in number (fig. 4). Soon a bundle goes off to ~ the first leaf. This consists of a few xylem elements, e a a segment of phloem, pericycle, and usually an arc of h~s endodermis, which closes round the bundle as it detaches ~
itself from the stele. As the stele is traced farther upwards it becomes bulkier, as do the successive leaf-bundles which leave it. In many Pteridophytes the solid haplostele is maintained throughout the axis. In others a central parenchyma or primetive pith a new region of the primitive stelar conjunctiveappears in the centre of the xylem. In most ferns internal p/deem appears instead of a ~arenchymatous pith (fig. 5). Sometimes this condition, that of the amphiphloic 110 plostele, is maintained throughout the adult stem (Lindsaya). .In the majority of ferns, at a higher level, after the stele has increased greatly in diameter, a large-celled true pith or medulla, resembling the cortex in its characters, and quite distinct from conjunctive, from which it is separated by an internal endodernlis, appears in the centre.^ In fact there is a large enough mountain of evidence to stand quite safely on the side of evolutionary theory and support it as true.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.These successive new tissues, appearing in the centre of the stele, as the stem of a higher fern is traced upwards from its first formed parts, are all in.^ Seeing as any and all parts of the genetic code can mutate, this would negate the effect of any coded barrier as it itself (if it exists) could mutate to a useless form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ALL living organisms and how new species form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Evidence in the article: 10 instances of human organs/parts which appear to show evidence of once greater form/function.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

continuity with the respective corresponding external tissues at the point of origin of each leaf trace (see below). .Where internal phloem is present this is separated from the internal endodermis by an endocycle or internal pericycle, as it is sometimes called, and from the xylem by an internal mesocyclethese two layers, together with the outer mesocycle and pericycle, constituting the conjunctive tissue of the now hollow cylindrical stele.^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A. Internal to fleshy layer is a hard layer containing one seed, called a stone Drupe .
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

(The conjunctive frequently forms a connected whole with bands of per pa / -..-
~ ~~C5 ph ,
/0 .~--... ,e~IIi .f_ (~!
FIGS. ft1.Types of Stole in Vascular Plants. Ftc. 3.Dlarch stele of root of a F stem of young Fern. Fin. 6.Sofenostele of stem of Fern showing detachment of lea Malonia. vie. ~.Tricyclic dictyostele of Dan,,na. Fec. io.Diarch haplostele of .5 Lyco podium. Fio. i3.Typical siphonostele of dicotyledn. FIG. i4.Stele of mr Explanation of Lettering: st. stele; mit. meristele; it. leaf-trace; 1.1. leaf-gap; cor cell; per. pericycle; ph. phfoein; sacs. mesocyde; x. xylem; px. protoxylem; ins. metu starchy xylem-parenchyma, which, when the xylem is bulky, usually appear among the tracheids, the phloem also often being penetrated by similar bands of phloem-parenchyma.)
In the other groups of Pteridophytes internal phloem is not found and an internal endodermis but rarely. The centre of the S~hooo- stele is however often occupied by a large-celled pith resembling the cortex in structure, the cortex and pith ~ together being classed as ground tissue. .To this type of steIn having a ground-tissue pith, whether with or without internal phloem, is given the name siphonostele to distinguish it from the solid haplostele characteristic of the root, the first-formed portion of the stem, and in the more primitive Pteridophytes, of the whole of the axis.^ I tend to wonder whether that reveals more about them and their internal vision than me and others who share my view.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The type of siphonostele characteristic of many ferns, in which are found internal phloem, and an internal endodermis separating the vascular conjunctive from the pith is known as a solenostele. The solenostele of the ferns is broken by the departure of each leaf-bundle, the outer and inner endodermis joining so that the stele becomes horseshoe-shaped and the cortex continuous with the pith (fig. 6). Such a break is known as a leaf-gap. .A little above the departure of the leaf-bundle the stele again closes up only to be again broken by the departure of the next leaf-bundle.^ The Y chromosome is just a little nub that backs up only a few of the genes on the X chromosome.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Where the leaves are crowded, a given leaf-gap is not closed before the next ones appear, and the solenostele thus becomes split up into a number of segments, sometimes band-shaped or semilunar, sometimes isodiametric in cross-section (fig.^ Ergo, if you split *everything* into any number of parts, from God and His Creation (two) downwards, you are positing finites.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As it becomes more complex it ‘picks up speed’ until beginning to close on optimum development, when it tends to stabilise.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the way – the apostle Peter is sometimes refered to as the “apostle with the foot-shaped mouth,” because he often spoke in haste before engaging his brain.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

7). In the latter case each segment of the solenostele frequently resembles a Dktyosteb. haplostele, the segments of inner endodermis, pericycle, phloem and ~ Pig. 6.
00~~ :~
ph o ,~c:~:~--\ ,a..,Oa p-c.
0 oc~7(~ per U
,,s cP Oor~
foE~
~ ~~oooe x~ 0Q~
.00 00 0 0 ~ ~0 ,~~ ce~
F,~./4. ~ F~.g rn. FIG. 4.Haplostele of stem of young Fern. Fxo. s.Amphiphloic haplostele of -trace and leaf-gap. FIG. 7.Dictyostele of Fern. Fiu. 8.Tricycfic solenostele of eloginell~. Fzo. ix.Tristefic stein of Selaginella. Fie. 12.Modified hapfostele of ocotyledn. FIG. if.Poiyarch root of Veratrum (a monocotyfedon).
cortex; p.t. peristelar tissue; p.1. peristefar lacuna; end. endoderruis; p.c. passage ylem; p. pith; ccl. p. sclerised pith; c. cainbium; p.m.r. primary, medullary, ray.
I mesocycle joining with the corresponding outer segments to form a nearly concentric structure. For this reason a stem in which as pot ystelic, the term stele being transferr~d from the primary I central cylinder of the i~xis and applied to the vascular strands just described. In this use the term loses, of course, its morphoI logical value, and it is better to call such a segment of a broken-up I stele a meristele, the whole solenostele with overlapping leaf-gaps being called a dictyostele. .The splitting up of the vascular tube I into separate strands does not depend wholly upon the occurrence I of leaf-gaps.^ Oscillitoria also has separation discs (hormogonia), which cause long strands to break into smaller strands, which then grow and fragment again.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some forms other gaps (perforations) appear in the vascular tube placing the pith and cortex in communication.^ A. Identify and be familiar with the following parts of a monocot root: epidermis, cortex, vascular cylinder, and pith.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In other cases the leaf-gaps are very broad and long, the meristeles separating them being reduced to comparatively slender strands, while there is present in each gap a network of fine vascular threads, some of which run out to the leaf, while others form cross-connections between these leaf-trace strands and also with the main cauline meristeles.^ BUT, there are non-Christian scientific objections to biological Darwinism presented here (to various degrees — some reject a small part, some object all, some see a harmony between evolution and Christianity, some merely want more study.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now Adam could have been created directly out of some dirt, or God could have separated a Cro-Magnon man from his tribe and breathed his spirit into him, to create a human being.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oscillitoria also has separation discs (hormogonia), which cause long strands to break into smaller strands, which then grow and fragment again.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Finally the cauline meristeles themselves may be resolved into a number of fine threads. Such a structure may be spoken of as a dissected dictyostele.
.In some solenostelic ferns, and in many dictyostelic ones additional vascular strands are present which do not form part of the primary vascular tube.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Man evolved in one single step from clay into his present form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

They usually run freely in the pith and Polycycly. join the primary tube in the neighborhood of the leaf-gaps. .Sometimes a complete internal vascular cylinder, having the same structure as the primary one, and concentric with it, occurs in the pith, and others may appear, internal to the first (Matonia, Saccoloma).^ A. Identify and be familiar with the following parts of a monocot root: epidermis, cortex, vascular cylinder, and pith.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I believe natural selection and adaptation is observable but no matter what changes occur, one thing remains the same…dogs are dogs, cats are cats, horses are horses, monkeys are monkeys, humans are humans.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, he was also a mathematician, first and foremost–and one cannot second guess what view he may or may not have taken of this or that modern science.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Junctions of the first internal cylinder are made with the primary (external) cylinder at the leafgaps, and of the second internal cylinder with the first in the same neighborhood (fig. 8). In dictyostelic ferns similar internal (dictyostehc) cylinders are found in some forms, and occasionally a large series of such concentric cylinders is developed (Marattiaceae) (fig. 9). In such cases the vascular system is said to be polycyclic in contrast with the ordinary monocyclic condition, These internal strands or cylinders are to be regarded as peculiar types of elaboration of the stele, and probably act as reservoirs for water-storage which can be drawn upon when the water supply from the root is deficient.
.The vascular supply of the leaf (leaf-trace) consists of a single strand only in the haplostelic and some of the more primitive siphonostelic forms.^ They ‘adapted’ then ‘adapted’ some more, but then a divine guiding hand stepped in and magicked that fish up onto land with fully-formed legs.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some of the simplest bioactive phytochemicals consist of a single substituted phenolic ring.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the microphyllous groups Leaf.trace of Pteridophytes (Lycopodiales and Equisetales) in and Petlolar which the leaves are small relatively to the stem, the Strands, single bundle destined for each leaf is a small strand whose departure causes no disturbance in the cauline stele. In the megaphyllous forms, on the other hand, (Ferns) whose leaves are large relatively to the stem, the departure of the correspondingly large trace causes a gap (leaf-gap) in the vascular cylinder, as already described. In the haplostelic ferns the leaf-trace appears as a single strand with a tendency to assume the shape of a horseshoe on cross-section, and this type is also found in the more primitive solenostelic types. .In the more highly developed lorms, as already indicated, the leaf-trace is split up into a number of strands which leave the base and sides of the leaf-gap independently.^ Ergo, if you split *everything* into any number of parts, from God and His Creation (two) downwards, you are positing finites.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As it becomes more complex it ‘picks up speed’ until beginning to close on optimum development, when it tends to stabilise.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dawkins’s elegant computer evolution simulation, where he sets up a simple line and allows random computer errors to accumulate and develop selectively into something ever more complex and attractive takes place in the context of ID (I, Dawkins!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the petiole these strands may increase in number by branching, and thotigh usually reducible to the outline of the primitive horseshoe, more or less elaborated, they may in some of the complex polycylic dictyostelic types (Marattiaceae) be arranged in several concentric circles, thus imitating the arrangement of strands formed in the stem.^ Yesterday I went to Calloway’s Nursery to buy a mosquito plant, they said they should have some more in a few days.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are pastured, but they do get some grain each day (usually in the morning).
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

.The evolution of the vascular structure of the petiole in the higher ferns is strikingly parallel with that of the stem, except in some few special cases.^ Just because one ape skull brow line is higher or the skull is thicker or thinner or whatever, doesn’t mean that its a new species or some descendant.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is good reason to believe that the haplostele is primitive in the evolution of the vascular system.^ I believe in evolution for 2 reasons: .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good system you have there, J. I have no clue why people aren’t just breaking down the doors to get in on this deal.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good vs. Reason vs. Fantasy…Evolution vs. Creationism… that’s the last time I take an all day horse back ride in the Everglades!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is found in most of P all I of those Pteridophytes which we have other reasons for e considering as primitive types, and essentially the same Ontogeny type is found, as we have seen, in the independently with developed primitive conducting system of the mossPh.~logeny.^ Laboratories of the world have found literally thousands of phytochemicals which have inhibitory effects on all types of microorganisms in vitro.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They found that gallic acid derivatives were more effective against both types of S. aureus than they were against other species.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

stem. This type of stern is therefore often spoken of as protoslelic. .In the Ferns there is clear evidence that the amphiphloic haplostele or protostele succeeded the simple (ectophloic) protostele in evolution, and that this in its turn gave rise to the solenostele, which was again succeeded by the dictyostele.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is a fairly blanket statement, and there is a mountain of evidence that lends credence and validity to evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My interpretation: There’s no evidence given IN THE ARTICLE for (upward/macro) evolution because the 10 examples cited only involve the loss of something.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Polycycly was derived independently from monocycly in solenostelic and in dictyostelic forms. .In the formation of the stem of any fern characterized in the adult condition by one of the more advanced types of vascular structure all stages of increase in complexity from the haplostele of the first-formed stem to the particular condition characteristic of the adult stem are gradually passed through by a series of changes exactly parallel with those which we are led to suppose, from the evidence obtained by a comparison of the adult forms, must have taken place in the evolution of the race, There is no more striking case in the plantkingdom of the parallel between ontogeny (development of the individual) and phylogeny (development of the race) so well known in many groups of animals.^ There would be no more religion … .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is no serious debate here.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is absolutely NO EVIDENCE for non-naturalistic explanations in evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The stele of most Lycopods is amore or less modified protostele, but in the genus Lyco podium a peculiar arrangement of the xylem Ab and phloem is found, in which the latter, instead of being erran confined to a peripheral mantle of tissue, forms bands Stelar running across the stele and alternating with similal Systems of bands of xylem (fig.^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and sclerenchyma (bundle fibers).
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

12). In Selaginella the stelar systeim h do~ shows profounder modifications. In some forms we find ji vtes. a simple protostele, exarch-polyarch in one species (S. spinosa), exarch-diarch in several (fig. 10). .In other species, however, a peculiar type of polystely is met with, in which the original diarch stele gives rise to se-called dorsal and ventral stelar cords which at first lie on the surface of the primary stele, but eventually at a higher level separate from it and form distinct secondary steles resembling the primary one.^ A. Internal to fleshy layer is a hard layer containing one seed, called a stone Drupe .
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If religious people keep deciding to mate with each other this form of selective breeding will eventually lead to a melting pot of stupidity and deluded thinking at a genetic and social level.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in the years that followed bacteria developed a novel enzyme that was capable of digesting it thereby opening up a completely new niche that was not occupied by any other organism (giving that species an advantage).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Similar cords may be formec on. and may seoarate from, these secondary steles. thus ~ivinr ris to a series of steles arranged in a single file (fig. Ii). ln the creeping stem of one species (S. Lyallii) a polycyclic solenostele is found exactly parallel with that of the rhizome of ferns. The gaps in the outer tubular stele, however, are formed by the departure of aerial branch-traces, instead of leaf-traces as in the ferns. .The first formed portion of the stern in all species of Selaginella which have been investigated possesses an exarch haplostele.^ ALL living organisms and how new species form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The stele of Equisetum is of a very peculiar type whose relations are not completely clear. It consists of a ring of endarch collateral bundles1 surrounding a hollow pith. The protoxylem of each is a leaftrace, while the metaxylem consisting of a right and a left portion forms a quite distinct cauline system. .All the metaxylems join at the nodes into a complete ring of xylem.^ Also, I’m not questioning mutation at all, but when was the last time a species mutated into a completely different species?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The whole stele may be surrounded by a common external endodermis; sometimes there is an internal endodermis in addition, separating the bundles from the pith; while in other cases each bundle possesses a separate endodermis surrounding it.^ Actually in many cases animals even tend to other species who may be sick or injured.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

At the nodes the relation of the endodermis to the bundles undergoes rather complex but definite changes. .It is probable that this type of stele is a modification of a primitive protostele, in which the main mass of stelar xylem has become much reduced and incidentally separated from the leaftraces.^ Because people can get by without them or with significantly reduced functionality, it is likely that the organ will become vestigial much like Darwin’s earpoint or the appendix.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.During recent years a number of fossil (Carboniferous and Permian) plants have been very thoroughly investigated in the light of modern anatomical knowledge, and as a result it has become st i s clear that in those times a large series of plants etisted ear ys intermediate in structure between the modern ferns tern of Cycaand the modern Gymnosperms (especially Cycads), dofiices.^ The theory has been around for a very long time, if there were any serious holes in it we would have found them by now.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We will still be considering taxonomy, particularly differences between monocots and dicots, and we will also be considering plant structures and functions in light of the tissues from which they are composed.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rushed, but I’ll just add that hybridisation (resulting in fertile *offspring*) is a very common factor in the speciation of plants, whose breeding systems are notably different from those of mobile organisms.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

and to these the general name Cycadofilices has been applied. .We now know that many at least of the Cycadofilices bore seeds, of a type much more complex than that of most modern seed plants, and in some cases approximating to the seeds of existing Cycads.^ Evolution encompasses much more than that.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ VERY much more quickly than we do.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Mosquito plant IS citronella in most cases.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among the Cycadofilices a series of stages is found leading from the primitive fern-protostele to the type of siphonostele characteristic of the Cycads which agrees in essentials in all the Spermophytes. The main events in this transition appear to have been (I) disappearance of the central xylem of the protostele and replacement by pith, leading to the survival of a number of (mesarch) collateral bundles (see below) at the periphery of the stele; (2) passage from mesarchy to endarchy of these bundles correlated with a great increase in secondary thickening of the stele. .The leaves of the more primitive members of this series were entirely fern-like and possessed a fern-like vascular strand; while in the later members, including the modern Cycads, the leaf bundles, remaining unaffected by secondary thickening, are mesarch, while those of the stem-stele have become endarch.^ It still continues to evolve, often through a series of recognisable stages, from pioneer to climax, but ever more slowly with time and maturity, like anything alive.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over millions of years those fins got better and better, until they were more like legs, and the fishes’ heads got more mobile until they developed necks, for searching in the mud.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Once sex came into the picture, genetic mutations were more likely, and the lucky mutations, those which made the offspring more able to thrive in their environment, were more likely to survive and reproduce.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the types forming this series, there are a number of others (Medulloseae and allied forms) which show numerous, often very complex, types of stelar structure, in some cases polystelic, whose origin and relationship with the simpler and better known types is frequently obscure.^ Now, might there be some sort of genetic benefit for Homo sapiens in that indirect form of lineage?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ CookieGal There are a number of local beef producers where I live; some finish their cattle on grain, some on grass.
  • Grass-fed beef vs. Grain Fed beef - General Chowhounding Topics - Chowhound 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC chowhound.chow.com [Source type: General]

^ As the function of the trait is no longer beneficial for survival, the likelihood that future offspring will inherit the “normal” form of it decreases.* In some cases the structure becomes detrimental to the organism (for example the eyes of a mole can become infected[6]).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Among the existing Cycads, though the type of vascular system conforms on the whole with that of the other existing seed-plants, peculiar structures are often found (e.g.^ Mosquito Plant, being a genetically altered hybrid can be found ANYWHERE, I just bought some the other day at my local nursery.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

indications of polystely, frequent occurrence of extra-stelar concentric bundles, anomalous secondary thickening) which recall these complex types of stelar structure in the fossil Cycadofilices.
The typical structure of the vascular cylinder of the adult primary stem in the Gyrnnosperms and Dicotyledons is, like that of the higher ferns, a hollow cylinder of vas- Structure of cular tissue enclosing a central parenchymatous pith. the .Stele In But, unlike the ferns, there is in the seed-plants no in- s d I ~ ternal phloem (except as a special development in ee pan $~$~ certain families) and no internal endodermis.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is great interest in plant chemicals which may have anti-infective properties for Plasmodium species.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Brief History It is estimated that there are 250,000 to 500,000 species of plants on Earth ( 25 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

The xylem and phloem also, rarely form perfectly continuous layers as they do in a solenostelic fern. The vascular tissue is typically separable into distinct collateral bundles (figs. 13, 23), the xylem of which is usually wedgeshaped in cross-section with the protoxylem elements at the inner extremity, while the phloem forms a band on the outer side of the xylem, and separated from it by a band of conjunctive tissue (mesodesm). .These collateral bundles are separated from one another by bands of conjunctive tissues called primary medullary rays, which may be quite narrow or of considerable width.^ Unionists are one religion and the majority of Nationalists/Republicans (or whatever they wish to call themselves) are another religion.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A belief in evolutionary biology does not in any way intellectually elevate one person over another who may believe in a alternative theory.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.When the pith is large celled, the xylems of the bundles are separated from it by a distinct layer of conjunctive tissue called the endocycle, and a similar layer, the pericycle, separates the phloem from the cortex.^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, parenchyma, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, and phloem.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and sclerenchyma (bundle fibers).
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The inner layer of the cortex (phloeoterma) may form a well-marked endodermis, or differ in other ways from the rest of the cortex.^ On the other hand, animals may behave in a surprisingly human way.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These of course are not “biological” differences, and in no way an example of biological evolution, but behaviour goes a long way to separating us from lower life form animals.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Good luck, and may the best … Well, may you bury the hatchet, even if only in each others’ heads.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The pericycle, medullary rays, endocycle and mesoderm all form parts of one tissue system, the external conjunctive, and are only topographically separable.^ Seeing as any and all parts of the genetic code can mutate, this would negate the effect of any coded barrier as it itself (if it exists) could mutate to a useless form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not only that, but something that forms an integral part of our working lives.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have only one question for all the Fundamentalist Christians out there.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The external conjunctive is usually a living comparatively small-celled tissue, whose cells are consider ably elongated in the direction of the stem-axis and frequently contain abundant starch.^ To bad he invented it before we could understand a single living cell is more directed and more complex than a large human city.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Certain regions of it, particularly thi whole or part of the pericycle, but sometimes also the endocycle are typically converted into thick-walled hard (scierenchymatous, tissue usually of the prosenchymatous (fibrous) type, which v important in strengthening the stem, particularly in enablingi to resist bending strains. The relatively peripheral position ii the stem of the pericycle is important in this connexmon. Variou~ secondarv meristems f see o. 7~tf) also arise in the external coniunctive Most of the collateral bundles of this spermophytic type of siphonostele are leaf-trace bundles, i.e. they can be traced upwards from any given point till they are found to pass out of the cylinder, travel through the cortex of the stem and enter a leaf. The remaining bundles (compensation bundles) which go to make up the cylinder are such as have branched off from the leaf-traces, and will, after joining with others similarly given off, themselves form the traces of leaves situated at a higher level on the stem. Purely cauline vascular strands (i.e. confined to the stem) such as are found in the dictyosteles of ferns are rare in the flowering plants. The leaf trace of any given leaf rarely consists of a single bundle only (unifascicular); the number of bundles of any given trace is always odd; they may either be situated all together before they leave the stele or they may be distributed at intervals round the stele. The median bundles of the trace are typically the largest, and at any given level of the stem the bundles destined for the next leaf above are as a whole larger than the others which are destined to supply higher leaves. .Leaf-gaps are formed in essentially the same way as in the ferns, but when in the case of a plurifascicular trace the bundles are distributed at intervals round the cylinder it is obvious that several gaps must be formed as the different bundles leave the stele.^ These of course are not “biological” differences, and in no way an example of biological evolution, but behaviour goes a long way to separating us from lower life form animals.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The gaps, are, however, often filled as they are formed by the development of external conjunctive tissue immediately above the points at which the bundles begin to bend out of the stele, so that sharply defined open gaps such as occur in fern-steles are but rarely met with in flowering plants.^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course religions are constructions of human thinking – however they often claim absolute truth.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ My observation of human artistic genius and highest intellectual ability (brainy businesses) notes that these sometimes do indeed run in dynasties, such as the Bachs, the Mendelssohns and the Huxleys, but probably more often than not they flower out of nothing and lead to nothing in reproductive terms.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The constitution of the stele of a flowering plant entirely from endarch collateral bundles, which are either themselves leaf-traces or will form leaf-traces after junction with other similar bundles, is the great characteristic of the stem-stele of flowering plants.^ The use of plant extracts, as well as other alternative forms of medical treatments, is enjoying great popularity in the late 1990s.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

These collateral bundles are obviously highly individualized. The external conjunctive tissue is often arranged in relation to each bundle separately, the pericyclic fibres for instance, already referred to, being cften confined to the bands of pericyclic tissue abutting on the phloem of each bundle, while the Cortex and pith frequently form rays in the intervals between the adjacent bundles.
In some cases this individualization is carried ftirther, the cortex and pith becoming continuous between the bundles which appear as isolated strands em- Aberrant bedded in a general \ ,L.~/ ~ Typesof ground-tissue. Each J~ 1 1 / Stelein bundle has its own ~ investment of tissue P corresponding with external conjunctive, and now called peridesm. .The bundles sometimes keep their arrangement s v in a ring corresponding with the stele, though the continuous cylin 0 der no longer exists (species of - Ranunculus).^ I am intrigued though by the references to how certain percentages of the population no longer have a certain attribute.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We got up on two legs, so the tail was no longer needed – though would have been fun to keep.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Species can drift so far, just in our lifetimes, that they can no longer interbreed (Google “ring species”).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

This condition is ~t1 known as astely. .In some astelic L- ~ stems (Nymphaeaceae) the number of bundles is greatly increased and they are scattered throughout the ground tissue.^ The anominity of the Internet greatly increases people’s courage, and they say things in such a way that they’d never say to someone’s face.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

A polystelic con g dition arises in some members of this order by the association of collateral 8 bundles round common centres. A
similar phenomenon is seen in two r widely separated genera of flowering plants: Primula Auricula and Gunnera (Halorageae).
The monocotyledons, one of the primary divisions of angiosperms, typically possess large Monocoty- leaves with broad Iedonous sheathing bases containType. ing a very great number of bundles. This results in the number of bundles present at any (Sachs.). - given level of the stem being enor c1c~Gd i~ ~e5~Y~. ~ mously increased. These bundles cotyledon. are scattered in a definite though not r. Annuiar vessel, superficially obvious order through & I,~iterceiiuIar canal, the conjunctive tissue of the stele, 1. Pitted ~ which occupies nearly the whole vv. Sieve-tubes with accompanying corn- diameter of the stem, the cortex sd.p~cierizedperid~sm. being reduced to a very narrow p. Surrounding narenchyrna. outer layer, or disappearing altogether cells a of the bundie are parenchy- (fig. 3). The mass of conjunctive matous, i marks the mner side of tissue is developed as a large-celled the bun ~ ground-tissue, and round each ,bundle there is a peridesm which rs often fibrous (fig. 16). .It is possible to suppose that this condition is derived from the astelic condition already referred to, but the evidence on the whole leads to the conclusion that it has ansen byan increase in the number of the bundles within the stele, the individuality of the bundle asserting itself after its escape from the original bundle-ring of the primitive cylinder.^ The site(s) and number of hydroxyl groups on the phenol group are thought to be related to their relative toxicity to microorganisms, with evidence that increased hydroxylation results in increased toxicity ( 76 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Creationists already have their conclusion, they “know” the answer, it’s unchanging despite any evidence provided that suggests otherwise.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the stems of many water-plants various stages of reduction of the vascular system, especially of the xylem, are met with, and very often this reduction leads to the formation of a compact stele in which the individuality of the separate Reduced bundles may be suppressed, so that a closed cylinder lmpbost~h1c of xylem surrounds a pith.^ Creationists unfortunately, can be very close-minded and often refuse to listen to any reason or logic while looking for non-existent flaws, conspiracies(!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and sclerenchyma (bundle fibers).
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fruit of the plants listed may vary in nutritional value.
  • Landscaping for Bluebirds 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.sialis.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The phloem is generally Type. unreduced, and there is normally a well marked endoderinis (fig. 17).
Fio. i 7.Transverse section of the stele of the stem of a water-plant (Naias);
1. intercellular channel representing xylem; ph. phloem; e. endodermis.
.In other cases the reduction goes much further, till the endodermis eventually comes to surround nothing but an intercellular channel formed in place of the stelar tissue.^ FACT…so show me just 1 undeniabe case where somthing comes fom nothing…let alone 1 animal into an entirly different 1 .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have pointed out to painter friends that nothing ’sees’ or is aware of what we (and other conscious life-forms) experience as, for example they portray landscape.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In the blade of a typical leaf of a vascular plantessentially a thin plate of assimilating tissuethe vascular system takes the form of a number of separate, usually branching and anastomosing strands.^ Is preparing a smear plate a way to grow large numbers of bacteria, or a way to separate individual bacteria from one another?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

These, with their associated Stelar stereom, form a kind of framework which is of great Tissueol Leaf and importance in supporting the mesophyll; but also, and R~t.
chiefly, they provide a number of channels, penetrating every part of the leaf, along which water and dissolved salts are conveyed to, and elaborated food-substances from, the mesophyll cells. The bundle-system is of course continuous with that of the petiole and stem. .The leaf-bundles are always collateral (the phloem being turned downwards and the xylem upwards), even in Ferns, where the petiolar strands are concentric, and they have the ordinary mesodesm and peridesm of the collateral bundle.^ B. Identify the following structures/tissues and their functions: epidermis, collenchyma, parenchyma, vascular bundles, xylem, vascular cambium, phloem, and sclerenchyma (bundle fibers).
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The latter is often sclerized, especially opposite the phloem, and to a less extent opposite the xylem, as in the stem. .As a bundle is traced towards its blind termination in the mesophyll the peridesmic stereom first disappears, the sieve-tubes of the phloem are replaced by narrow elongated parenchyma cells, which soon die out, and the bundle ends with a strand of tracheids covered by the phloeotermic sheath.^ B. Also identify and be familiar with the following structures/tissues and their functions: Epidermis, parenchyma, starch granules, stele, endodermis, pericycle, xylem, phloem, sieve tubes, companion cells, vascular cambium.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The structure of the stele of the primary Fin. i&Vertical section of a .Palm-stem showing the root as it is found in most Pteridophytes vascular bundle,, Jr.^ C. How are the vascular bundles arranged in a monocot stem?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ C. How are the vascular bundles arranged in a dicot stem?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

curving and many Phanerogams has been already inwards and then outwards. described. .The radial structure is characteristic of all root-steles, which have in essential points a remarkably uniform structure throughout the vascular plants, a fact no doubt largely dependent on the very uniform conditions under which they live.^ Those who cavalierly reject the Theory of Evolution, as not adequately supported by facts, seem quite to forget that their own theory is supported by no facts at all.” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I live in a very, very, very rural part of Arkansas, and we don’t get alot of fancy schmancy plants like they do on the coasts, so if WE can get it, I am pretty sure you can get it other places as well.
  • Five Plants That Repel Mosquitoes | Gomestic 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC gomestic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, the roots of ginseng plants contain the active saponins and essential oils, while eucalyptus leaves are harvested for their essential oils and tannins.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

While the stele of the primary root in both Gymnosperms and Angiosperms is usually diarch or tetrarch, the large primary root-steles of many adventitious roots are frequently polyarch, sometimes with a very large number of protoxylems. Such a stale seldom has the centre filled up with xylem, this being replaced by a large-celled pith, so that a siphonostelic structure is acquired (fig. 15). Sometimes, however, the centre of a bulky root stale has strands of metaxylem (to which may be added strands of metaphioem) scattered through it, the interstices being filled with conjunctive. The conjunctive of a root-stele possessing a pith is often sclerized between the pith and the pericycle. Sometimes all the parenchyma within the stele undergoes this change. In the roots of some palms and orchids a polystelic structure obtains.
In certain families of Angiosperms a peculiar tissue, called laticiferous tissue is met with. .This takes the form of long usually richly branched tubes which penetrate the other tissues of the plant mainly in a longitudinal direction.^ The use of plant extracts, as well as other alternative forms of medical treatments, is enjoying great popularity in the late 1990s.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Tannins may be formed by condensations of flavan derivatives which have been transported to woody tissues of plants.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.They possess a delicate Laticiferous layer of protoplasm, with numerous small nuclei lining Tissue the walls, while the interior of the tube (corresponding with the cell-vacuole) contains a fluid called latex, consisting of an emulsion of fine granules and drops of very various substances suspended in a watery medium in which various other substances (salts, sugars, rubber-producers, tannins, alkaloids and various enzymes) are dissolved.^ The active component of the Nigerian chewing stick ( Fagara zanthoxyloides ) was found to consist of various alkaloids ( 157 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Of the suspended substances, grains of caoutchouc, drops of resin and oil, proteid crystals and starch grains may be mentioned. Of this varied mixture of substances some are undoubtedly plastic (i.e. of use in constructing new plant-tissue), others are apparently end-products of metabolism, in other words excrela, though they are not actually cast out from the plant-body. .The relation ~ of the laticiferous tissue to the assimi I lating cells under which they often end, and the fact that where this tissue is / richly developed the conducting paren ~ chyma of the bundles, and sometimes also 4 the sieve-tubes, are poorly developed, as well as various other facts, point to the conclusion that the laticiferous system has an important function in conducting plastic substances, in addition to acting as an excretory reservoir.^ (Minor variations in genetic mutation and abiogenesis have been proven time and time again, therefore theyre not only possible but seem not to be harmful, in fact they keep life..alive.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The ONLY people bickering against this are those who come at it from a dogma–no matter how well they hide it or deny it or sidestep it, the fact is that this is the case.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Humans have this muscle as well, but it is now so underdeveloped that it is often taken out by doctors when they need tissue for reconstruction in other parts of the body.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

As a secondary function we may recognize, in certain cases, the power of closing wounds, which results from the rapid coagulation of exuded latex in contact with the air. The use of certain plants as rubber-producers (notably Hevea b~-a~iliensis, the Pam rubber-tree) depends on this property. The trees are regularly tapped and the coagulated latex which exudes is collected and worked up into rubber. .Opium is obtained from the latex of the opium poppy (Pa paver somniferum), which contains the alkaloid morphine.^ The first medically useful example of an alkaloid was morphine, isolated in 1805 from the opium poppy Papaver somniferum ( 69 ); the name morphine comes from the Greek Morpheus, god of dreams.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

- Laticiferous tissue is of two kinds:
(1) lati.ciferous cells (coenocytes) (fig. 9) which branch but do not anastomose, and the apices of which keep pace in their growth with that of the other tissues of -, the plant (Anocynaceae, most Eunhorbi(Alter Haberlandt. From vinm,, - -
Try/-Book of Bc/any, by 11cr- aceae, &c.); t2) ~aticzferous vessels ~fig. 20) mission,) which are formed from rows of menFie. ifA portion of a lactici- stematic cells, the walls separating the lerous coenocyte dissected out s cells breaking down, so that a network ihe leaf of a Euphorbia (Xi20). of laticiferous tubes arises (Papaveraceae, Hevea, &c.). In some cases (Allium, Convolvulaceae, &c.) rows of cells with latex-like contents occur, but the walls separating the individual cells do not break down.
The body of a vascular plant is developed in the first place by repeated division of the fertilized egg and the growth of Develop- the products of division. .The body thus formed ment of is called the embryo, and this develops into the adult Primary plant, not by continued growth of all its parts as in an animal, but by localization of the regions of cell-division and growth, such a localized region being called a growing-point.^ Seeing as any and all parts of the genetic code can mutate, this would negate the effect of any coded barrier as it itself (if it exists) could mutate to a useless form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But I don’t buy into all of it, because I have a brain and I can actually choose to believe some things and call the rest bullshit.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.This localization takes place first at the two free ends of the primary axis, the descending part of which is the primary root, and the ascending the primary shoot.^ I guess that kindney was “vestigial.” Why have two in the first place?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is really the primary reason why we exist in the first place.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Later, the axis branches by the formation of new growing-points, and in this way the complex system of axes forming the body of the ordinary vascular plant is built up.^ God is the same way…grow up or go to your room, cept with him it is forever.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In the flowering plants the embryo, after developing up to a certain point, stopf growing and rests, enclosed within the seed. .It is only or germination of the latter that the development of the embryc into the free plant is begun.^ They germinate and develop into gametophytes in an asexual reproduction.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In the Pteridophytes, on the other hand, development from the egg is continuous.
.The triple division of tissues is laid down in most cases at 1 very early period of developmentin the flowering plants usuall3 before the resting stage is reached.^ What flowering plants do they most resemble?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ V. Division Anthophyta--flowering plants.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In many Pteridophytes thi first leaf is formed very early, and the first vascular strand i! developed at its base, usually becoming continuous with the cylinde of the root; the strand of the second leaf is formed in a similar wa~ and runs down to join that of the first, so that the stem stele is forme. by the joined bases of the leaf-traces. .In other cases, however, continuous primitive stele is developed, extending from the primar stem to the primary root, the leaf-traces arising later.^ X. Observe the adult monocot and dicot plants and observe the following: node, leaf, petiole, leaf sheath, rachis, blade, stem, root, apical bud, and axillary bud.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Where does photosynthesis occur on this plant (leaf, stem, root, all of these)?
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Plant Organ--Stem, leaf (blade, petiole, or both), root, flower, fruit.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This i correlated with the comparatively late formation and small development of the first leaves. The evidence scarcely admits of a decision as to which of these methods is to be regarded as primitive in descent. .In the seed-forming plants (Phanerogams) one or more primary leaves (cotyledons) are already formed in the resting embryo.^ But nothing ‘ready made’, more kit-form ID. Raw materials, perhaps simply modified energy, natural laws and momentum, the rest follows (including evolution)as a plant grows from a seed (don’t take that literally!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ D. Observe the following with a dissecting microscope: embryo, testa (seed coat), cotyledons, primordial leaves (plumule), epicotyl, hypocotyl, and radicle.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In cases where the development of the embryo is advanced at the resting period, traces run from the cotyledons and determine the symmetry of the stele of the primitive axis, the upperpart of which often shows stem-structure, in some respects at least, and is called the hypocoty- ledonary stem or hypocotyl, while the lower part is the primary root .~-,
(Alter Sachs. From Vines T sf-Book of Botany, by permission.)
Fin. 2o.Laticiferous vessels from the cortex of the root Scoyzonera hispanica, tangential secf ion.
A, Slightly magnified. B, A small portion highly magnified.
(radicte). .In other cases the root structure of the stele continues up to the cotyledonary node, though the hypocotyl is still to be distinguished from the primary root by the character of its epidermis.^ In other words, vestigal organs that hang around even though they have no particular function is precisely what the Theory of Evolution predicts will be the case.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I also accept your comments about Ireland though the root cause of Ireland is religious the modern reasons for its continuation are not.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Your assessment of this list is still WRONG anyway, but of course it’s typical of your sort that you continue to harp on it as though what you thought was just so and the rest of us were just dead wrong.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.On germination of the seed the radicle first grows out, increasing in size as a whole, and soon adding to its tissues by cell division at its apical growing-point.^ It should be pointed out that the whole proposed basis for “losing” these traits is predicated on the assumption that something “better” was “gained,” thereby making the legacy trait obsolete.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Receptacle tissue grows around ovary, ovary seen as core within which are seeds .
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Randall gave me some relevant information pointing to several apparent increases in genetic information, but these as I pointed out are on a micro-evolutionary scale.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The hypocotyl usually elongates, by its cells increasing very greatly in the longitudinal direction both in number and size, so that the cotyledons are raised into the air as the first foliage-leaves. Further growth in length of the stem is thenceforward confined to the apical growing point situated between the cotyledons. .In other cases this growing-point becomes active at once, there being little or no elongation of the hypocotyl and tbe cotyledon or cotyledons remaining in the seed.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, as is usually the case with evolution, there seems to be a constant attempt to suggest that if there is evolution, there can be no God.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The structure of the growing-points or apical meristems varies much in different cases. .In most Pteridophytes there is a single large apical cell at the end of each stem and root axis.^ To bad he invented it before we could understand a single living cell is more directed and more complex than a large human city.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ X. Observe the adult monocot and dicot plants and observe the following: node, leaf, petiole, leaf sheath, rachis, blade, stem, root, apical bud, and axillary bud.
  • Prokaryotes    Protists    Fungi    Plantae    Invertebrates    Skeletal System    Muscular 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC faculty.palomar.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ O.K. So every single cell in the meat and veg you ate for lunch is more complex than the most advanced human computer programme.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

This usually has the form of a tetrahedron, with its points base occupying the surface of the body of the axis and its apex pointing towards the interior. In the stem, segments are successively cut off from the sides of the tetrahedron, and b~ their subsequent division the body of the stem is produced. .In the root exactly the same thing occurs, but segments are cut off alsc from the base of the tetrahedron, and by the division of thes~ the root-cap is formed (fig.^ I believe natural selection and adaptation is observable but no matter what changes occur, one thing remains the same…dogs are dogs, cats are cats, horses are horses, monkeys are monkeys, humans are humans.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

21). In both stem and root early walli separate the cortex from the stele. The epidermis in the stair and the surface layer of the root soon becomes differentiated froit the underlying tissue. In some Pteridophyte stems the apical eel is wedge-shaped, in others prismatic; in the latter case segment~
- are cut off from the end of the prism turned towards the body o the stem. In other cases, again, a group of two or four prismatIl cells takes the place of the apical cell. Segments are then cut if from the outer sides of these initial cells. .In most of the Phanerogams the apical (or primary) merislem, instead of consisting of a single apical cell or a group of initials, is stratifiedi.e.^ O.K. So every single cell in the meat and veg you ate for lunch is more complex than the most advanced human computer programme.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

there is .~.. ,,,f.e \\~0.\~.~J \\ y~ \ \j/f / ~/ X 1W! ~ff ~)\ /\y\ \ \~J~/// <~ ~
i..
0,,. ~ec _ ~ i:
.., -, .~ .. -~: ~
~ ~ -V ~ -~ ~
1 a4~
O~ .~
0 0. Cc QO 0 o .,1e o~9 O ,o 0.0 ~ oS 5 5
~ ~,~o. Qo - ~ ~Ci,, SC ~
-- Co ,,,,o Oo,,.ei 0.
~ l,~ ~s~ ~
0~1~0G. ~
~ e.
00.0 0.
~0 ~
cASter Strasburger. From vines Text-Book of Botany, by permission.)
Fio. 21.Median Longitudinal Section through the Apex of the Root of Pteris cretica.
t. Apical cell, p. Wall marking limit between the plerome k, initial segment of root-cap. P and the pleriblem Pb.
k,o. Outermost layer of root-cap. c. Wall marking the inner limit of the outer cortex.
more than one layer of initials (fig. 22). Throughout the Angiosperms the epidermis of the shoot originates from separate initials, which never divide tangentially, so that the young shoot is covered by a single layer of dividing cells, the dermatogen. Below this are (After Dc Bary. From Vines Text-Book of Botany, by permission.)
Fin, 22.Median Longitudinal Section of the Growing, Point of the Stem of HiPPurii vulgaris, showing a many-layered meristem.
5, Rudiment of reaf; d, dermatogen.
the initials of the cortex and central cylinder .Whether these art always in layers which remain separate is not known, but it is certair that in many cases such layers cannot be distinguished.^ Hemza3000: the risk is always there, but regardless of whether you believe in evolution or not, these are still at least all interesting scientific looks at humans .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

This however, may be due to irregularity of division and displacement of the cells by irregular tensions destroying the obvious layerec arrangement. In some cases there is a perfectly definite line o:
separation between the young cylinder .(plerome) and young corte1 (periblem), the latter having one or more layers of initials at th actual apex.^ Continue to do this until your elementary questions (such as the ones you have posted here), having been readily answered in the literature, become more advanced, etc.
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.This clear separation between periblem and pleromi is mostly found in plants whose stem-apex forms a naked cone the leaves being produced relatively late, so that the stele of th young stem is obvious above the youngest leaf-traces (fig.^ Their molecular weights range from 500 to 3,000 ( 87 ), and they are found in almost every plant part: bark, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots ( 192 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

22). When the leaves are developed early, they often quite overshadow thi actual apex of the stem, and the rapid formation of leaf-tissui disturbs the obviousness of, and perhaps actually destroys, th~ stratified arrangement of the shoot initials. In this case also the differentiation of leaf-bundles, which typically begins at the base of the leaf and extends upwards into the leaf and downwards into the stem, is the first phenomenon in the development of vascular tissue, and is seen at a higher level than the formation of a stele. .The latter is produced (except in cases of complete astely where a cylinder is never formed) after a number of leaf-traces have appeared on different sides of the stem so as to form a circle as seen in transverse section, the spaces intervening between adjacent bundles becoming bridged by small-celled tissue closing the cylinder.^ In the latter case numbers are *big* like the standing hair of the frightened cat.
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^ (If you completely understood evolution I can’t see how you would even put number 5 in this 10, thats direct evidence of evolution in the loudest form.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In this tissue fresh bundles may become differentiated, and what remains of it becomes the rays of the fully-formed stele. Many cases exist which are intermediate between the two extreme types described. .In these the stele becomes obvious in transverse section at about the same level as that at which the first leaf-traces are developed.^ It seems like a fair question, but if you think about it for a minute or two, a reasonable answer becomes stunningly obvious.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If these do not qualify as information, then nothing about information is relevant to evolution in the first place.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Where a large-celled pith is developed this often becomes obvious very early, and in some cases it appears to have separate initials situated below those of the hollow vascular cylinder. .In some cases where there is apparently a well-marked plerome at the apex, this is really the young pith, the distinction between the stelar and cortical initials, if it exists, being, as is so often the case, impossible to make out.^ Bucslim – I LOVE the way you sneek in there when everyone is so serious and make me burst out laughing!
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^ Randall gave me some relevant information pointing to several apparent increases in genetic information, but these as I pointed out are on a micro-evolutionary scale.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But if you *are* serious, I suggest that you follow the path I took: read what the experts have to say (the information is out there, in droves), with an *open mind* as well as a critical eye.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The young tissue of the stelar cylinder, in the case of the modified siphonostele characteristic of the dicotyledonous stem, differs from the adjoining pith and cortex in its narrow elongated cells, a difference produced by the stopping of transverse and the increased frequency of longitudinal divisions. This is especially the case in the young vascular bundles themselves (desmogen strands). The protoxylem and protophloem are developed a few cells from the inner and outer margins respectively of the desmogen strand, the desmogenic tissue left over giving rise to the segments of endocycle and pericycle capping the bundle. Differentiation of the xylem progresses outwards, of the phloem inwards, but the two tissues never meet in the centre. Sometimes development stops altogether, and a layer of undifferentiated parenchyma (the mesodesm) is left between them; or it may continue indefinitely, the central cells keeping pace by their tangential division with the differentiation of tissue on each side. .In this case the formation of the primary bundle passes straight over into the formation of secondary tissue by a cumbium, and no line can be drawn between the two processes.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
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.The differentiation of the stelar stereom, which usually takes the form of a sclerized pericycle, and may extend to the endocycle and parts of the rays, takes place in most cases later than the formation of the primary vascular strand.^ Lo, I have placed a part of thine body, which I formed from dust, to remind thee of thine sinfulness.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In the very frequent cases where the bundles have considerable individuality, the fibrous pericyclic cap very clearly has a common origin from the same strand of tissue as the vascular elements themselves. In such cases it is part of the peridesm or sheath of elongated narrowcelled tissue surrounding the individual bundle.
The separation of layers in the apical meristem of the root is usually very much more obvious than in that of the stem. The outermost is the caiyptrogen, which gives rise to the root-cap, and in Dicotyledons to the piliferous layer as well. The periblem, one cell thick at the apex, produces the cortex, to which the piliferous layer belongs in Monocotyledons; and the plerome, which is nearly always sharply separated from the periblem, gives rise to the vascular cylinder. In a few cases the boundaries of the different layers are not traceable. The protoxylems and the phloem strands are developed alternately, just within the outer limit of the young cylinder. The differentiation of metaxylem follows according to the type of root-stele, and, finally, any stereom there may be is developed. .Differentiation is very much more rapidi.e.^ VERY much more quickly than we do.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

the tissueo are completely formed much nearer to the apex, than is the case in the stem. This is owing to the elongating region (in which proto. xylem and protophloem alone are differentiated) being very much shorter than in the stem. The root hairs grow out from the cells of the piliferous layer immediately behind the elongating tegion.
The branches of the stem arise by multiplication of the cells 01 the epidermis and cortex at a given spot, giving rise to a protuber ance, at the end of which an apical meristem is established. Thi vascular system is connected in various ways with that of th(parent axis by the differentiation of bundle-connections across thi cortex of the latter. .This is known as exogenous branch-formation In the root, on the other hand, the origin of branches is endogenous The cells of the pericycle, usually opposite a protoxylem strand divide tangentially and give rise to a new growing-point.^ The issue they perceive is not that changes are occuring, but rather that evolution results in entirely new species branching from others.
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^ Loss of function does not explain a rise of new and separate species, say for instance a dinosaur growing feathers from scales and becoming a bird.
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^ Parents would then give rise to unaggressive, toothless children on the Planet of War by conscious will, thus rapidly forming a new Lamarckian species, Homo martiensis.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The ne~ root thus laid down burrows through the cortex of the mother-root and finally emerges into the soil. The connections of its stele witl that of the parent axis are made across the pericycle of the latter Its cortex is never in connection with the cortex of the parent, but with its pericycle. Adventitious roots, arising from stems, usuall) take origin in the pericycle, but sometimes from other parts of th Conjunctive.
In most of the existing Pteridophytes, in the Monocotyledons and in annual plants among the Dicotyledons, there is n further growth of much structural importance in the ~ d ~
tissues after differentiation from the primary men- Tissues. stems. .But in nearly all perennial Dicotyledons, in all dicotyledonous and gymnospermous trees and shrubs and in fossil Pteridophytes belonging to all the great groups, certain layers of cells remain meristematic among the permanent tissues, or after passing through a resting stage reacquire menstematic properties, and give rise to secondary tissues.^ Louisiana passed a bill requiring all teachers to give equal time to the theories of holocaust deniers in the history classroom as an “alternative” it would probably not be tolerated.
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^ The intermediate breeding stages are passed through rapidly, their ‘unwanteds’ seldom preserved (unless for the records of the programme).
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^ All the great minds you belittle by mentioning them went through this process.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Such meristematic layers are called secondary meristems. There are two chief secondary meristems, the cambium and the phellogen. .The formation of secondary tissues is characteristic of most woody plants, to whatever class they belong.^ Tannins may be formed by condensations of flavan derivatives which have been transported to woody tissues of plants.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Every great group or phylum of vascular plants, when it has become dominant in the vegetation of the world, has produced members with the tree habit arising by the formation of a thick woody trunk, in most cases by the activity of a cambium.
The camb-ium in the typical case, which is by far the most frequent, continues the primary differentiation of xylem and phloem in the desmogen strand (see above), or arises in the resting mesodesm or mesocycle and adds new (secondary) xylem and phloem to the primary tissues. New tangential walls arise in the cells which are the seat of cambial activity, and an initial layer of cells is established which cuts off tissue mother-cells on the inside and outside, alternately contributing to the xylem and to the phloem. .A tissue mother-cell of the xylem may, in the most advanced types of Dicotyledons, give rise to(I) a tracheid; (2) a segment of a vessel; (3) a xylem-fibre; or (4) a vertical file of xylem-parenchyma cells.^ O.K. So every single cell in the meat and veg you ate for lunch is more complex than the most advanced human computer programme.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In the last case the mother-cell divides by a number of horizontal walls. A tissue mother-cell of the phloem may give rise to (i) a segment of a sieve-tube with its companion cell or cells; (2) a phloem fibre; (3) a single phloem-parenchyma (cambiform) cell, or a ve~rtical file of short parenchyma cells. .At celtain points the cambium does not give rise to xylem and phloem elements, but cuts off cells on both sides which elongate radially and divide by horizontal walls.^ Argue civilly 2: If evolution is true, it does not deny the existence of God – so there is no point arguing so bitterly in that direction – both can be true.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.When a given initial cell of the cambium has once begun to produce cells of this sort it continues the process, so that a radial plate of parenchyma cells is formed stretching in one plane through the xylem and phloem.^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Humans have structures in their genetic make-up that were once used to produces enzymes to process vitamin C (it is called L-gulonolactone oxidase).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first living things were probably single celled creatures who replicated through a process called Mitosis; that is, they cloned themselves.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Such a cell-plate is called a medullary ray. It is essentially a living tissue, and serves to place all the living cells of the secondary vascular tissues in communication. It conducts plastic substances inwards from the cortex, and its cells are frequently full of starch, which they store in winter. .They are accompanied by intercellular channels serving for the conduction of oxygen to, and carbon dioxide from, the living cells in the interior of the wood, which would otherwise be cut off from the means of respiration.^ The first living things were probably single celled creatures who replicated through a process called Mitosis; that is, they cloned themselves.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If I cut off my left hand, I would live a healthy and normal life, with little major difficulty.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The xylem and phloem parenchyma consist of living cells, fundamentally similar in most respects to the medullary ray cells, which sometimes replace them altogether. The parenchyma is often arranged in tangential bands between the layers of sievetubes and tracheal elements. The xylem parenchyma is often found in strands associated with the tracheal elements. These strands are not isolated, but form a connected network through the wood. The xylem parenchyma cells are connected, as are the medullary ray cells, with the tracheal elements by one-sided bordered pitsi.e. pits with a border on the tracheal element side, and simple on the parenchyma cell side. The fibres are frequently found in tangential bands between similar bands of tracheae or sieve-tubes. The fibrous bands are generally formed towards the end of the years growth in thickness. .The fibres belong to the same n,orpholcgical category as the parenchyma, various transitions being found between them; thus there may be thin-walled cells of the shape of fibres, or ordinary fibres may be divided into a number of superposed cells.^ There is NO PROOF in any fossil records of evolution BETWEEN SPECIES. No evidence to prove that species evolved into others.
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^ Useful antimicrobial phytochemicals can be divided into several categories, described below and summarized in Table 2 .
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, there is no evidence to date that suggests there are nerve and axon connections between any existing sensory receptor cells that may be in the adult human VNO and the brain.
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.These intermediate cells, like the ordinary parenchyma, frequently store starch, and the fibres themselves, though usually dead, sometimes retain their protoplasm, and in that case may also be used for starch accumulations.^ Just like a mechanic may have his favourite tools and parts and he’ll modify these to design pieces of a car, a boat, a plan and a motorbike.
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The vessels and tracheids are very various in size, shape and structure in different plants. .They are nearly always aggregated in strands, which, like those of the parenchyma, are not isolated, but are connected with one another.^ Insect biology is not my fore front, but I do know that they have changed species of fly from one to another e.g.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If one cocks-up on reincarnation first time round, is it possible to have another stab, like taking the driving test again?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, since they are supposedly not preying on one another the while, nothing is allowed for sustenance requirements whilst afloat.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a few cases some of the tracheids have very thick walls and reduced cavities, functioning as mechanical rather than as waterconducting elements.^ Humans have it too – it is the little bulb that points in to the ear from the face side – some people push it in to block out noise, rather than putting their finger directly in their ear.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.All transitions are found between such forms and typical tracheids.^ When I use the word evolution, I am not referring to the minor variations found in all of the various life forms (microevolution).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.These fibre-tracheids are easily confused on superficial view with the true wood-fibres belonging to the parenchymatous system; but their pits are always bordered, though in the extreme type they are reduced to mere slits in the wall.^ Our education system is extremely poor if it lets out people who refuse to accept that they are part of nature.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That is true – though I believe I read that the wisdoms only become useful molars if they get a chance to move while you are still young.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The sieve-tubes of the secondary phloem usually have very oblique end-walls bearing a row of sieve-plates; plates also occur on the radial side-walls.
The tissue-elements just described are found only in the more complicated secondary vascular tissues of certain Dicotyledons. .A considerable evolution in complexity can be traced in passing from the simplest forms of xylem and phloem found in the primary vascular tissues both among Pteridophytes and Phanerogams to these highly differentiated types.^ When I use the word evolution, I am not referring to the minor variations found in all of the various life forms (microevolution).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In the simplest condition we have merely tracheae and sieve-tubes, respectively associated with parenchyma, which in the former case is usually amylom, i.e. consists of starch-containing cells, and in the latter of proteid cells. This type is found in nearly all Pteridophytes and, so far as is known, in Cycadofihices, both in primary and secondary tissue. The stereom is furnished either by cortical cells or by the tracheal elements, in a few cases by fibres which arc probably homologous with sievetubes. .Among Gymnosperms the secondary xylem is similarly simple, consisting of tracheids which act as stereom as well as hydrom, and a little amylom; while the phloem-parenchyma sometimes undergoes a differentiation, part being developed as amylom, part as proteid cells immediately associated with the sieve-tube, in other cases the proteid cells of the secondary phloem do not form part of the phloem-parenchyma, but occupy the top and bottom cellrows of the medullary rays, the middle rows consisting of ordinary starchy cells.^ So far as we know, most of the universe is as unconscious of its own existence, form and spacing as your nails or the hair on your head or your blood cells are aware of you or their part in your existence.
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^ We know which machine works and will be chosen for development (all other things being equal!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The top and bottom rows of the xylem rays are often developed as irregularly-thickened radially-elongated tracheids which serve for the radial conduction of water, and communicate with the ordinary tracheids of the secondary xylem by large bordered pits. The, primary vascular tissues of Angiosperms are likewise nearly always simple, consisting merely of tracheae and sieve-tubes often associated with amylom. A characteristic peculiarity, both ~ / t~.
~ LA 1 J~ y ~ ~
(From Greens Vegetable Physiology, by permission.)
FiG. 23.SectLo of part of hypocotyledonary stem of Ricinus communis.
a, Starch sheath; at the extremities of the figure its cells are represented as empty; b, cambiuin layer.
in the primary and secondary tissue, is that the proteid cells of the phloem are here always sister-cells of the leptoids and are known as companion-cells. .In the secondary tissues of Dicotyledons we may have, as already described, considerably more differentiation of the cells, all the varieties being referable, however, on the one hand to the tracheal or sieve-tube type, on the other to the parenchyma type.^ However, I believe that all existence, including nature, was created by a greater being… yes God.
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^ There is no mention of Australia or Korea in the bible, but that doesn’t stop me being a citizen of one and a resident of the other.
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^ I believe there’s a spiritual need in all human beings that never changes, and sooner or later most people need to feed it, one way or another.
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The main feature is the development of special vascular stereom and storage tissue. .In some cases special secreting tissues, resin ducts, oil glands, laticiferous tissue, crystal sacs, &c., may be developed among the ordinary secondary vascular elements.^ Actually in many cases animals even tend to other species who may be sick or injured.
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.The limit of each years increment of secondary wood, in those plants whose yearly activity is interrupted by a regular winter or dry season, is marked by a more or less distinct line, which is produced by the sharp contrast between the wood formed in the late summer of one year (characterized by the sparseness or small diameter of the tracheal elements, or by the preponderance of fibres, or by a combination of these characters, giving a denseness to the wood) and the loose spring wood of the next year, with its absence of fibres, or its numerous large tracheae.^ So, take those two web sites for what they are, no more, no less.
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^ Major changes occurred between these diverse life forms (i.e., fish changed to amphibians, amphibians changed to reptiles, and reptiles changed to birds or mammals).” .
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^ You will NOT find it was rejected for an earlier, more traditional, less complex, less supported form of ’science’ simply because it was, shall we say, ‘disbelieved’.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

The abundance of waterconducting channels is in relation to the need for a large and rapid supply of water to the unfolding leaves in the spring and early summer. .In Gymnosperms, where vessels and fibres are absent, the late summer wood is composed of radially narrow thick-walled tracheids, the wood of the succeeding spring being wide-celled and thin-walled, so that the limit of the years growth is very well marked.^ Condensed tannins have been determined to bind cell walls of ruminal bacteria, preventing growth and protease activity ( 105 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Billions of years from now Homo Sapiens may very well have evolved into something completely unrecognisable.
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The older wood of a large tree forming a cylinder in the centre of the trunk frequently undergoes marked changes in character. .The living elements die, and the walls of all the cells often become hardened, owing to the deposit in them of special substances.^ Two “species” in the process of diverging become less and less likely to mate with one another until they do not mate in the wild at all, or barely – which then results in a sterile hybrid.
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Wood thus altered is known as heart-wood, or duramen, as distinguished from the young sap-wood, or alburnum, which, forming a cylinder next the cambium, remains alive and carries on the active functions of the xylem, particularly the conduction of water. The I heart-wood ceases to be of any use to the tree except as a support, but owing to its dryness and hardness it alone is of much use for industrial purposes. .The great hardness of teak is due to the silica deposited in the heart-wood, and the special coloring matters of various woods, such as satinwood, ebony, &c., are confined to the heart-wood.^ Dogs are a great example of selection albeit influenced selection: look at the multiple varied schema available in one species of animal.
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^ Variations WITHIN a species–breeds and such–are no argument against evolution.
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.In some cases the heart-wood, instead of becoming specially hard, remains soft and easily rots, so that the trunk of the tree frequently becomes hollow, as is commonly the case in the willow.^ Maybe some of the goo was in cupcake pans and would eventually become bite sized cakes instead of the full sized model.
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^ While we can happily manipulate some invertebrates to become different species, with animals with generation times of several years or longer, it is very difficult to show practically.
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.Heart-wood is first formed at very different epochs in the life of a tree, according to the speciese.g.^ If it doesn’t, then can we “know” that the first life forms were single cell organisms?
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^ These of course are not “biological” differences, and in no way an example of biological evolution, but behaviour goes a long way to separating us from lower life form animals.
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after fifteen to twenty years in the oak, forty years in the ash, &c.
.In many annual plants no cambium is formed at all, and the same is true of most perennial Pteridophytes and Monocotyledons.^ In many cases the structure is of no direct harm, yet all structures require extra energy in terms of development, maintenance, and weight, and are also a risk in terms of disease (e.g.
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^ While many of the hangovers from our “devolved” past are visible or physical, this is not true for all.
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^ Interpretations of biological Evidence comparing animals, humans, plant, and microscopic life forms that would purport to show a common designer of all life.
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When the vascular tissue of such plants is arranged Camblum in separate bundles these are said to be closed. The in Stems. bundles of plants which form cambium are, on the contrary, called open. In stems with open bundles the formation of cambium and secondary tissue may be confined to these, when it is sard to be entirely fascicular. .In that case either very little secondary tissue is formed, as in the gourds, some Ranunculaceae, &c., or a considerable amount may be produced (clematis, barberry, ivy).^ Tannins may be formed by condensations of flavan derivatives which have been transported to woody tissues of plants.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In the latter event the cells of the primary rays are either merely stretched radially, or they divide to keep pace with the growth of the bundles. If this division occurs by means of a localized secondary meristem connecting the cambial layers of adjacent bundles, an inlerfascicular is formed in addition to the fascicular cambium. The interfascicular cambium may form nothing but parenchymatous tissue, producing merely continuations of the primary rays. .Such rays are usually broader and more conspicuous than the secondary rays formed within the wedges of wood opposite the primary bundles, and are distinguished as princepal rays from these narrower subordinate or fascicular rays (fig.^ Such answers tend to be technical, and ‘n’ times more complicated than the question.
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24). This is the typical case in most trees where the primary bundles are close together. .Where the primary bundles are farther apart, so that the primary rays are wider, the interfascicular cambium may form several fairly broad (principal) secondary rays in continuation of certain radial bands of the primary ray, and between these, wedges of secondary xylem and phloem: or, finally, secondary xylem and phloem may be formed by the whole circumference ot the cambium, fascicular and interfascicular alike, interrupted only by narrow secondary rays, which have no relation to the primary ones.^ Billions of years from now, we may be unrecognizable, but no one is going to trace our ancestry back to beavers.” .
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^ A very strong slave may have been given several women to have children with, meanwhile a weak, sick one would probably have died in the fields.
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^ The reason is, again, that NO ONE has ever claimed that the apes currently existing alongside our species developed into US. WE evolved on a separate line and are RELATED to the other primates on earth–but that again ONLY means that we share ancestry WITH them—NOT that we came FROM them.
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~~2~2tr~
(Alter Kuy, from Greens Vegetable Physiology, by permission.)
Fin. 24.Section of three-year-old item of Lime, ~e. periderm; c, cortex; ph, phlocni with alternating strands of fibres, sieve-tubes and parenchyma; ~r.r, principal ray; Sr., subordinate rays; ca, cambium.
.In a good many cases, sometimes in isolated genera or species, sometimes characteristic of whole families, so-called anomalous cambial layers are formed in the stem, either as an extension of, or in addition to, the original cambial cylinder.^ Actually in many cases animals even tend to other species who may be sick or injured.
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They are frequently associated with irregularities in the activity of the original cambium. Irregularity of cambium occurs in various families of woody dicotyledonous plants, mostly among the woody climbers, known as lianes, characteristic of tropical and sub-tropical forests. In the simplest cases the cambium produces xylem more freely along certain tracts of the circumference than along others, so that the stem loses its original cylindrical form and becomes elliptical or lobed in section. .In others the secondary phloem is produced more abundantly in those places where the secondary xylem is deficient, so that the stem remains cylindrical in section, the phloem occupying the bays left in the xylem mass.^ How many of those many more than 6 billions have left remains?
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Sometimes in such cases the cambium ceases to be active round these bays and joins across the outside of the bay, where it resumes its normal activity, thus isolating a phtoem strand, or, as it is sometimes called, a phloem -island, in the midst of the xylem. .The significance of these phenomena, which present many minor modifications in different cases, is nol fully understood, but one purpose of the formation of phloem promontories and islands seems to be the protection of the sieve-tubes from crushing by the often considerable peripheral pressure that is e~ercised on the stems of these lianes.^ Many different things, all under one incredible head.
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Sometimes the original cambial ring is broken into several arcs, each of which is completed into an independent circle, so that several independent secondary vascular cylinders are formed. The formation of additional cambial cylinders or bands occurs in the most various families of Dicotyledons and in some Gymnosperms. They may arise in the pericycle or endocycle of the stele, in the cortex of the stem, or in the parenchyma of the secondary xylem or phloem. The activity of the new cambium is often associated with the stoppage of the original one. Sometimes the activity of the successive cambiums simply results in the formation of concentric rings or arcs of secondary xylem and phloem. .In other cases a most intricate arrangement of secondary tissue masses is produced, quite impossible to interpret unless all stages of their development have been followed.^ Some human populations have now all but completely stopped growing wisdom teeth, while others have almost 100% likelihood of developing them.
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^ We know which machine works and will be chosen for development (all other things being equal!
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^ In many cases the structure is of no direct harm, yet all structures require extra energy in terms of development, maintenance, and weight, and are also a risk in terms of disease (e.g.
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.Sometimes in lianes the whole stem breaks up into separate woody strands, often twisted like the strands of a rope, and running into one another at intervals.^ Is this not evolution – in laymans terms – the changing of one species into another?
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^ If one cocks-up on reincarnation first time round, is it possible to have another stab, like taking the driving test again?
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^ One didn’t evolve through natural processes into another.
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.An ordinary cambium is scarcely ever found in the Monocotyledons, but in certain woody forms a secondary meristem is formed outside the primary bundles, and gives rise externally to a little secondary cortex, and internally to a secondary parenchyma in which are developed numerous zones of additional bundles, usually of concentric structure, with phloem surrounded by xylem.^ Parents would then give rise to unaggressive, toothless children on the Planet of War by conscious will, thus rapidly forming a new Lamarckian species, Homo martiensis.
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.The cambium in the root, which is found generally in those plants which possess a cambium in the stem, always begins in the conjunctive tissue internal to the primary phloems, and Camblum forms new (secondary) phloem in contact with the In Roots primary, and secondary xylem internally.^ Their molecular weights range from 500 to 3,000 ( 87 ), and they are found in almost every plant part: bark, wood, leaves, fruits, and roots ( 192 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants are rich in a wide variety of secondary metabolites, such as tannins, terpenoids, alkaloids, and flavonoids, which have been found in vitro to have antimicrobial properties.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

In roots which thicken but slightly, whose cambium usually appears late, it is confined to these regions. If the development of secondary tissues is to proceed further, arcs of cambium are formed in the pericycle external to the primary xylems, and the two sets of cambial arcs join, forming a conti,riuous, wavy line on transverse section, with bays opposite the primary phloems and promontories opposite the primary xylems. Owing to the resistance offered by the hard first-formed secondary xylem, the bays are pushed outwards as growth proceeds, and the wavy line becomes a circle. .Opposite the primary xylems, the cambium either (a) forms parenchyma on both sides, making a broad, secondary (principal) ray, which interrupts the vascular ring and is divided at its inner extremity by the islet of primary xylem; or (b) forms secondary xylem and phloem in the ordinary way, completing the vascular ring.^ I believe in both God and evolution, and it seems like you are trying to make sense of the world just like how I am, although in a slightly different way, and that’s great.
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In either case, narrow, secondary rays are formed at intervals, just as in the stem. Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. .The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.^ They’ve just always been that way.
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The so-called anomalous cambiums in roots follow the same lines as those of the stem.
In nearly all plants which produce secondary vascular tissues by means of a cambium there is another layer of secondary meristem arising externally to, but in quite the same fashion as, Ph II
the cambium, and producing like the latter an external ~i, and an internal secondary tissue. This is the phellogen, Periderm. and the whole of the tissue it gives rise to is known as periderm. .The phellogen derives its name from the fact that its external product is the characteristic tissue known as cork.^ Artemisin and its derivative α-arteether, also known by the name qinghaosu, find current use as antimalarials ( 237 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This consists typically of close-fitting layers of cells with completely suberized walls, intended to replace the epidermis as the external protective layer of the plant when the latter, incapable as it is of further growth after its original formation, is broken and cast off by the increase in thickness of the stem through the activity of the cambium.^ Condensed tannins have been determined to bind cell walls of ruminal bacteria, preventing growth and protease activity ( 105 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Brantner A, Grein E. Antibacterial activity of plant extracts used externally in traditional medicine.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Their activity is probably due to their ability to complex with extracellular and soluble proteins and to complex with bacterial cell walls, as described above for quinones.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Cork is also formed similarly in the root after the latter has passed through its primary stage as an absorptive organ, and its structure is becoming assimilated to that of the stem.^ The intermediate breeding stages are passed through rapidly, their ‘unwanteds’ seldom preserved (unless for the records of the programme).
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The internal tissue formed by the phellogen is known as phelloderm, and consists usually of ordinary parenchyma. The phellogen may arise, in the first place, in any tissue of the axis external to the actual vascular tissuesi.e. in the epidermis itself (rarely), in any layer of the cortex, or in the pericycle. Its most usual seat of origin in the stem is the external layer of the cortex immediately below the epidermis; in the root, the pericycle. All the tissues external to the cork are cast off by the plant. The extent of development of the phelloderm is dependent upon whether the phellogen has a superficial or a deep-seated origin. In the former case the formation of phelloderm is trivial in amount; in the latter, considerable, since this tissue has to replace the cast-off cortex, as a metabolic and particularly a storage tissue.
Provision is made for gaseous interchange between the internal tissues and the external air after the formation of cork, by the development of lenticels. These are special organs which Lent~eIs interrupt the continuity of the impermeable layer of ordinary cork-cells. .A lenticel is formed by the phellogen at a given spot dividing very actively and giving rise to a loose tissue of rounded cells which soon lose their contents, and between which air can pass to the tissues below (fig.^ In cold situations, the rising hair traps air between the hairs and skin, creating insulation and warmth.
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^ Parents would then give rise to unaggressive, toothless children on the Planet of War by conscious will, thus rapidly forming a new Lamarckian species, Homo martiensis.
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25). A lenticel appears to the naked eye as a rounded or elongated scar, often forming a distinct prominence on the surface of the organ. .The lenticels of the stem are usually formed beneath stomata, whose function they take up after the stomata have been ruptured and cast off with the rest of the epidermis.^ The thing is, usually when someone on this site doesn’t like what I have to say, they come after me for it, and oh well–that’s just an argument for me to take on.
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^ They ‘adapted’ then ‘adapted’ some more, but then a divine guiding hand stepped in and magicked that fish up onto land with fully-formed legs.
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Both cork and phelloderm may be differentiated in various ways. The former often has its cells lignified, and may consist of alternate layers of hard and soft cells. The latter may develop stereom, and may also be the seat of origin of new formations of various kindse.g. supplementary vascular bundles, anomalous cambial zones, &c. It is often enormously developed and forms a very important tissue in roots. In the stem of a tree the original 14 F
(From Vines Text-Book of Botany, by permissin.)
FIG. riLenticel in the transverse section of a twig of Elder.
E, epidermis; q, phellogen; 1, cells, and ~1, the pheliogen of the lenticel; k, cortical parenchyma, containing chlorophyll.
phellogen is replaced by successive new phellogenic layers of de~per and deeper origin, each forming its own layer of cork. Eventually the new phellogens reach the level of the secondary phloem, and are formed in the parenchyma of the latter, keeping pace in their inward march with the formation of fresh secondary phloem by the cambium. .The complex system of dead and dying tissues cut off by these successive periderms, together with the latter themselves in fact, everything outside the innermost phellogen, constitutes what is often known botanically as the bark of the tree.^ I wish I believed that when you died you went to a heaven and everything was perfect there, but I know that when you die, you’re dead.
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Rhytidome is, however, a preferable term, as the word bark has long been established in popular usage to mean all the tissue that can easily be peeled offi.e. everything down to the wood of the tree. The rough surface of the bark of many trees is due to the successive phellogens not arising in regular concentric zones, but forming in arcs which join with the earlier-formed arcs, and thus causing the bark to come off in flakes or thick chunks. A layer of cork is regularly formed in most Phanerogams across the base of the petiole before leaf fall, so as to cover the wound caused by the separation of the leaf from the stem. Special wound-cork is also often formed round accidental injuries so as to prevent the rotting of the tissues by the soaking in of rain and the entrance of fungal spores and bacteria. A peculiar modification of periderm is formed by the phellogen in the submerged organs (roots or stems) of many aquatic or marsh-loving plants. .This may take various forms and may cover the whole of the organ or be localized in special regions; but its cells are always living and are separated by very large intercellular spaces containing air.^ To bad he invented it before we could understand a single living cell is more directed and more complex than a large human city.
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^ Animalia are those of a multicellular form with specialized eukaryotic cells; have their own means of locomotion.
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.This tissue is called aerenchym, and no doubt its function is to facilitate the respiration of the organs on which it is formed and to which the access of oxygen is difficult.^ Evidence in the article: 10 instances of human organs/parts which appear to show evidence of once greater form/function.
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^ Evidence in the article: 10 instances of specific human organs/parts which appear to show evidence of once greater form/function.
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^ In other words, vestigal organs that hang around even though they have no particular function is precisely what the Theory of Evolution predicts will be the case.
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.In other cases, a similar formation of spongy but dead periderm tissue may occur for the same purpose in special patches, called pneumatodes, on the roots of certain trees living in marshy places, which rise above the soil in order to obtain air.^ As for our genetic similarity to a banana… well, we’re all just branches off the same tree, and if you go down in time far enough, you’ll find every living thing has a common ancestor.
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^ The issue they perceive is not that changes are occuring, but rather that evolution results in entirely new species branching from others.
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^ Actually in many cases animals even tend to other species who may be sick or injured.
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History and Bibliography.The study of plant anatomy was begun in the middle of the seventeenth century as a direct result of the construction of microscopes, with which a clear view of the structure of plant tissues could be obtained. .The Englishman Grew and the Italian Malpighi almost simultaneously published ifiustrated works on the subject, in which they described, for the most part very accurately, what they saw with the new instruments.^ By providing evidence that the book of Genesis is not accurate, it is threatening the very thing that they base their entire belief system on.
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^ So although accurate, to the point and conclusive, when supplied they are often not read or not understood by some, many or most lay persons.
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The subject was practically dormant for nearly a century and a half, largely owing to the dominance of classificatory botany under the in.fluen.ce of Linnaeus. It was revived by several German workers, prominent among whom were Treviranus and Link, and later Moldenhawer, as well as by the Frenchmen Mirbel, at the beginning of the j9th century. .The new work largely centred round a discussion of the nature and origin of vessels, conspicuous features in young plant tissues which thus acquired an importance in the contemporary literature out of proportion to their real significance in the construction of the vascular plant.^ Therefore I am proposing a revolutionary (as opposed to evolutionary) new hypothesis for LV called UD. (Work it out yourselves.
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^ Christ then comes and takes away that sin nature in a real act of spiritual transference, that will eventually work out to our souls, and physical beings.
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The whole of the writings of this time are dominated by a preoccupation with the functions of the different tissues, in itself an excellent standpoint for investigation, but frequently leading in the case of these early investigators to one-sided and distorted views of the facts of structure. The pioneer of modern plant anatomy was Hugo von Mohi (ft. .1840), who carefully investigated and described the facts of anatomical structure without attempting to fit them into preconceived views of their meaning.^ Although I never heard of that example, that still fits into my world view.
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^ But in an attempt to protect the role of a Divine Designer, these people say macroevolution, meaning the evolution of one species into another, is impossible without a guiding hand.
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He produced a solid body of accurately described facts which has formed the secure groundwork of subsequent advance. .From Mohl down to the eighth decade of the century the study of anatomy was entirely in the hands of a group of German.^ Of course, plants have been used for centuries to treat infections and other illnesses in humans in aboriginal groups, but controlled clinical studies are scarce.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

investigators, prominent among whom were several of the most eminent founders of modern. scientific botanysuch, for instance, as Nageli, San.io and De Bary. To the first we owe the secure foundation. of our knowledge of the structure and course of the vascular strands of the higher plants .(IJeber den Bau und die Anordnung der Gefssbundel bei den Stamm und Wurzel der Phanerogamen, Beitrage zur wissenschaftlichen Botanik, Heft i., Leipzig, 1859); to the second the establishment of the sound morphological doctrine of the central cylinder of the axis as the starting-point for the consideration of the general arrangement of the tissues, and the first clear distinction between primary and secondary tissues (Botanische Zeitung, 186I and 1863); to the last the putting together of the facts of plant anatomy known up to the middle of the eighth decade of the century in that great encyclopaedia of plant anatomy, the Vergleichende Anatomie der Vegetationsor gene bei den Phanerogamen und Farnen (Stuttgart, 1876; Eng.^ First of all that syntax is obtuse, and second, where is it established that intellectual capacity is hereditary?
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^ Thanks for picking up the slack and for contributing some interesting facts that I would not have known about otherwise.
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^ In the first century A.D., Dioscorides wrote De Materia Medica , a medicinal plant catalog which became the prototype for modern pharmacopoeias.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

trans., Comparative A-natomy of the Vegetative Organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns, Oxford, 1882). In1870-1871Van. Tieghem published his great work, Sur Ia Racine, Ann. sc-i. nat. bot. (Paris). This was not only in itself an important contribution to plant anatomy, but served as the starting-point of a series of researches by Van Tieghem and his pupils, which has considerably advanced our knowledge of the details of histology, and also culminated in the foundation of the doctrine of the stele (Van Tieghem and Douliot, Sur la polystlie, Ann. sci. nat. bot., 1887; Van Tieghem, Trait~ de botanique (2nd ed. Paris, 1889-1891). This has had a most important effect on the development in recent years of morphological anatomy. -
In the progress of the last three decades, since the publication of De Barys great work, five or six main lines of advance can be distinguished. First, the knowledge of the details Modero of histology has of course advanced greatly in the Progress 01 direction. through the ceaseless activity of very the Subject. numerous, mainly German, workers, though no fundamentally new types of tissue have been discovered. Secondly, the histology of fossil plants, particularly woody plants of the carboniferous period, has been placed on a sound basis, assimilated with general histological doctrine, and has considerably enlarged our conceptions of plant anatomy as a whole, though again. without revealing any entirely new types of structure. .This branch of the subject, founded by Corda, Goppert, Stenzel and others in Germany, was enoi~mously advanced by Williamsons work on the Coal Measures plants, recorded in the magnificent series of memoirs, Researches on the Organization.^ Plant biology is my least favourite area of biology – hence I work as a research scientist in molecular biochemistry!
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of Fossil Plants of the Coal Measures (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc., vols. i.-xix., 1871-1893). The work of Soirns Laubach in Germany, Renault and Bertrand in. France, and in. recent years, of Zeiller in France, and Scott, Seward and others in England, has advanced our knowledge of the anatomy of ~fossil plants in an important degree. While convincing us that the plants of past ages in the earths history were exposed to very similar conditions of life, and made very much the same adaptive responses as their modern representatives, one of the main results of this line of work has been to reveal important data enabling us to fill various gaps in our morphological knowledge and to obtain a more complete picture of the evolution of tissues in the vascular plants. One of the most striking incidents in the progress has been. the recognition within the last few years of the existence of an extinct group of plants lying on the borderland between. Filicales and Gymnosperms, and known as the Cycadofihices, a group in which, curiously enough, the reproductive organs remained undiscovered for some time after the anatomy of the vegetative organs was sufficiently well known to afford clear evidence of their true affinities. Thirdly, we have to record very considerable progress in our knowledge of distinctively morphological anatomy, i.e. the study of tissues from the standpoint of evolution. The Russian plant-anatomist, Russow, may be said to have founded the consideration of plant tissues from the point of view of descent (Vergleichende Untersuchungen ber die Leilbundelkryptogamen, St Petersburg, 1872; and Betrachtungen ber Leitbndel und Grundgewebe, Dorpat, 1875). He was ably followed by Strasburger (Ueber den Bau und die Verrichtungen der Leitungsbahnen in den Pfianzen, Jena, 1891), Haberlandt and others. .The explicit adoption of this point of view has had the effect of clearing up and rendering definite the older morphological doctrines, which for the most part had no fixed criterion by which they could be tested.^ There is no definitive proof of “Evolution” the way most people think of it.
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^ Most religious people don’t take the opportunity to see any other side because they are so closed minded, there is no other side.
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^ However, due to the degenerate nature of the Genetic code, MOST are not even noticed as they have no effect on the protein produced.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Since about 1895 this branch has been most actively pursued in England, where the work of Boodle and of Gwynne-Vaughan especially on Ferns) has been the most important, leading to a coherent theory of the evolution of the vascular system in these plants (Tansley, Evolution of the Filicinean Vascular System, Cambridge, 1908); and in America, where Jeffrey has published important papers on the morphology of the vascular tissues of the various groups of Pteridophytes and Phanerogams and has sought to express his conclusions in a general morphological theory with appropriate terminology.^ I disagree wholeheartedly with the conclusions of the theory of evolution” .
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps he himself is not aware of what The New Scientist is about–it most definitely is NOT anti-evolutionary theory and is certainly not pro-ID (not last I checked anyway… and I should know, since I’m proud to say that I have an ex-girlfriend who’s published in The New Scientist more than once, in the past).
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I might submit a general paper on botanical matters wherever it would be accepted and published, whether peer reviewed or not.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

As a result of this activity Van Tieghems so-called Stelar theory has been revised and modified in the light of more extended and detailed anatomical and developmental knowledge. Schoutes Die Steldr-Theorie (Groningen, 1902), gives an important critical account of this subject.
Fourthly, attention must be called to the great development of what is called Systematic Anatomy, i.e. the study of the anatomical features characteristic of the smaller groups of flowering plants, i.e. the orders, families, genera and species. Radlkofer (1883) was the first to call attention to the great importance of this method in systematic botany, as providing fresh characters on which to base a natural classification. Solereders great work, Systematische Anatomic der Dicotyledoen (Stuttgart, 1898-I908; Eng. trans., Systematic Anatomy of Dicotyledons, Oxford, 1908), brings together so many of the facts as are at present known in an orderly arrangement. Theoretically this branch of the subject should connect with and form the completion of morphological anatomy, but the field, has not yet been sufficiently explored to allow of the necessary synthesis. The true relation of systematic to ecological anatomy (see below) also awaits proper elucidation.
Fifthly, we have to vecord the foundation of the modern study of physiological anatomy (i.e. the study of the specific functions of the various tissues) by Schwendener (,Das mechanische Princip un Ban der Monocotylen, 1874, and other works), followed by numerous pupils and others, among whom Haberlandt (Physiologische Pfianzen-Anatomie, Leipzig, 1st ed., 1884, 4th ed., 1909, and other works) is pre-eminent. .The pursuit of this study has not only thrown valuable light on the economy of the plant as a whole, but forms an indispensable condition of the advance of morphological anatomy.^ Form an opinion into which you have thrown something only you and they consider of critical influence.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.A great deal of work still remains to be done in this department, which at the present time affords one of the most promising fields of anatomical investigation.^ What is most fascinating is that many of these parts of the body still remain in some form so we can see the progress of evolution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s actually one of Chile’s most active volcanoes and erupts several times each century.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But anything that appears threatening to (their) dogma and can still be denied is denied, and presented as mystic, inexplicable Divine work, with its alternative reational scientific explanation(s) pilloried as effective blasphemy.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Finally we may mention ecological anatomy, i.e. the study of anatomical features directly related to the habitat. .A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.^ The considerations for me would be (a) the prestige of the publication, (b) whether anyone relevant knew about it, (c) the importance of my subject to others, and (d) whether anyone who mattered would ever take any notice of it!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are an alien investigator obliged to classify those three groups into two related sets according to *superior capacity*.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But those “intelligent designers” always were working with existing materials and ideas that they *didn’t* design.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

On these lines the future of anatomical study presents almost inexhaustible possibilities. (A. G. T.)
PHYSIOLOGY OF PLANTS
.The so-called vegetable physiology of a generation ago was in ~rrear of animal, and particularly of human, physiology, the study of the latter being followed by many more observers, and from its relative degree of advancement being the more capable of rapid development.^ Human being’s an animal, bub.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If there was evolution, why aren’t their animals who are even remotely capable of thinking like humans.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, recent studies have shown a “pronounced species-dependent metabolism” ( 244 ), so that many in vivo animal studies cannot be extrapolated to humans.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It was fully recognized by its followers that the dominating influence in the structure and working of the body was the protoplasm, and the division of labor which it exhibited, with the accompanying or resulting differentiation into various tissues, was the special subject of investigation.^ Dogs are a great example of selection albeit influenced selection: look at the multiple varied schema available in one species of animal.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When was the last time a species mutated into a completely different species?” C. Diff, HIV (from the original “chimp” version) various other bacteria.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Many who followed the study of vegetable structure did not at that time give an equal prominence to this view.^ Louisiana passed a bill requiring all teachers to give equal time to the theories of holocaust deniers in the history classroom as an “alternative” it would probably not be tolerated.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ IMO, ID doesn’t give any answers, because if aliens or some other force inside of time/space did it, then who made the aliens who made the aliens who made the aliens?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The early histological researches of botanists led them to the recognition of the vegetable cell, and the leading writers in the middle of the ~9th century pointed out the probable identity of Von Mohls protopiarm with the sarcode of zoologists.^ These authors also point out that researchers must distinguish between merely toxic effects of agents on host cells and true antiviral properties of the plant extracts.
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

They laid great stress on the nitrogenous nature of protoplasm, and noted that it preceded the formation of the cell-membrane. But by the ordinary student of thirty years later their work was to some extent overlooked, and the cell-wall assumed a prominence to which it was not entitled. The study of the differentiation of protoplasm was at that time seldom undertaken, and no particular attention was paid either to fixing it, to enable staining methods to be accurately applied to it, or to studying the action of chemical reagents upon it. It is only comparatively recently that the methods of histological investigation used by animal physiologists have been carefully and systematically applied to the study of the vegetable organisms. They have, however, been attended with wonderful results, and have revolutionized the whole study of vegetable structure. They have emphasized the statements of Von Mohl, Cohn, and other writers alluded to, that the protoplasm is here also the dominant factor of the body, and that all the peculiarities of the cell-wall can only be interpreted in the light of the needs of the living substance.
.The Nature of the Organization of Ilte Plant, and the Relations of the Cell-Membrane and the Protoplasm.This view of the structure of the plant and this method of investigation lead us to a greatly modified conception of its organization, and afford more completely an explanation of the peculiarities of form found in the vegetable kingdom.^ Plants are collected either randomly or by following leads supplied by local healers in geographical areas where the plants are found ( 135 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But nothing ‘ready made’, more kit-form ID. Raw materials, perhaps simply modified energy, natural laws and momentum, the rest follows (including evolution)as a plant grows from a seed (don’t take that literally!
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.The study of simple organisms, many of which consist of nothing but a little mass of protoplasm, exhibiting a very rudimentary degree of differentiation, so far as our methods enable us to determine any at all, shows that the duties of existence can be discharged in the absence of any cell-wall.^ Condensed tannins have been determined to bind cell walls of ruminal bacteria, preventing growth and protease activity ( 105 ).
  • Plant Products as Antimicrobial Agents 23 January 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Those organisms which possess the latter are a little higher in the scale of life than those which remain unclothed by it, but a comparison of the behaviour of the two quickly enables us to say that the membrane is of but secondary importance, and that for those which possess it, it is nothing more than a protective covering for the living substance.^ How many of those many more than 6 billions have left remains?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ VERY much more quickly than we do.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Actually THAT was a lot more succinct–and more amusingly put–than my little contribution.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

Its physical properties, permeability by water, extensibility and elasticity, receive their interpretation in the needs of the latter. We come, accordingly, to regard it as practically an exoskeleton, and its functions as distinctly subordinate to those of the protoplasm which it clothes. .If we pass a little higher up the scale ot life we meet with forms consisting of two or more cells, each of which contains a similar minute mass of living substance, A study of them shows that each is practically independent of the others; in fact, the connection between them is so slight that they can separate and each becofne free without the slightest disadvantage to another.^ In fact I reached that present career point via the humanities and find no more conflict between the two aspects of hiumanity than do the famous names I mentioned above.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact I have claimed it is impossible to teach evolution in its historical (and perhaps any other) sense without referring to the clash.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If it doesn’t, then can we “know” that the first life forms were single cell organisms?
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.So long as they are connected together mechanically they have apparently the power of influencing one another in various ways, and of passing liquid or gaseous materials from one to another.^ Insect biology is not my fore front, but I do know that they have changed species of fly from one to another e.g.
  • Top 10 Signs Of Evolution In Modern Man - Listverse 9 January 2010 14:11 UTC listverse.com [Source type: