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Players who have converted from one football code to another: Wikis

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There are many players who have converted one football code to another or even changed from other sports at a professional or representational level.

In some countries, such as Australia where multiple codes are popular and the practice of switching codes is common they are known simply as a code convert.[1] In Australia star code converts can have a substantial impact on the football codes. For instance, Dally Messenger's defection from rugby union to rugby league was considered a pivotal moment in the establishment of the latter code over other codes in Australia.[2][3]

Globalisation is increasing the opportunities for players to transfer to different countries and to different professional sports, including the codes of football.[citation needed]

Contents

From American football

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American football to Canadian football

Because American and Canadian football are both gridiron codes, they are very similar, and most players can easily change back and forth between the two codes without much difficulty. Below is only a partial list of players who have made the transition from the NFL to the CFL.

Name Country Top American football level Top Canadian football level
Robert Edwards USA NFL CFL
Mervyn Fernandez USA NFL CFL
Doug Flutie USA NFL CFL
Mark Gastineau USA NFL CFL
Shaun King USA NFL CFL
Lawrence Phillips USA NFL CFL
Casey Printers USA NFL CFL
Andre Rison USA NFL CFL
Ricky Williams USA NFL CFL

American football to rugby league

Name Country Top American Football Level Top Rugby League Level Top representation level
Manfred Moore USA NFL New South Wales Rugby Football League -
Philippe Gardent France NFL National League One -

American football to rugby union

Name Country Top American football level Top rugby union level Top representation level
Bennie Brazell USA NFL USA sevens
Dave Hodges USA NCAA Division III Celtic League USA (15s)
Dan Lyle USA NCAA Division I FCS English Premiership USA (15s)
Leonard Peters USA NFL USA Rugby Men's Club Division I USA sevens
Richard Tardits France, later USA NFL USA Rugby Men's Club Division I USA (15s)

NB: Tardits switched codes twice: to American football as a young adult, and back to rugby union after a brief NFL career. He played for Biarritz Olympique and the France under-21 national team before switching to American football, and played for the USA national team after returning to his original code. This entry outlines his career after his second switch of codes.

American football to Australian rules football

Name Country Top American Football Level Top Australian rules football Level Top representation level
Dwayne Armstrong USA NFL Australian Football League (reserves) -

From Association Football

Association football to American football

Numerous American football placekickers grew up playing football (soccer); however, very few have competed at a very high level in their original code. A large number of the first "soccer-style" placekickers of the 1960s and early 1970s were Europeans and Latin Americans who changed codes in adulthood. Eventually, kickers who changed codes in adulthood were largely, though not completely, displaced by players who were either born and raised in the U.S. or immigrated to the U.S. at a relatively early age, thus receiving more exposure to American football than most of the first soccer-style placekickers.

Name Country Top Football (Soccer) Level Top American football Level Top representation level
Phil Alexander England Norwich City F.C. London Monarchs N/A
Clive Allen England Tottenham Hotspur F.C. London Monarchs England national football team
Jesús Angoy Spain FC Barcelona Barcelona Dragons N/A
Manfred Burgsmüller Germany Werder Bremen Rhein Fire Germany national football team
Toni Fritsch Austria Rapid Vienna Dallas Cowboys, San Diego Chargers,
Houston Oilers, New Orleans Saints
Austria national football team (soccer)
Pro Bowl (American football)
Tony Meola USA Red Bull New York, Fort Lauderdale Strikers, Buffalo Blizzard New York Giants (didn't pass tryouts) US National Team (soccer)

Association football to Australian rules football

Although playing with different shaped ball and using the hands, there have been many Aussie Rules players who have played soccer at junior level. AFL players to have played soccer at junior level include Andrew McLeod, Clive Waterhouse, Adam Goodes, Adem Yze and Eddie Betts. Englishman Brad Moran converted in 2003 and Brad Green was trialled with Manchester United before switching codes. National team representatives to switch from soccer include Mtutuzeli Hlomela (South Africa) and Michito Sakaki (Japan).

Association football to Gaelic football

Name Country Top soccer Level Top Gaelic football Level Top representation level Playing Era
Ciarán Lyng Ireland Preston North End F.C., Shrewsbury Town, Ireland underage teams Wexford senior football team 2000s
Shane Supple Ireland Ipswich town F.C., Falkirk Dublin senior football team 2000s
Anthony Tohill Ireland Derry City F.C., Manchester United F.C. Reserves Derry senior football team 1990s, 2000s

Association football to rugby union

Frank Hadden, Scottish rugby player and coach, had trials with both Queens Park Rangers and Forfar Athletic, as well as being offered a contract by Raith Rovers.[4]

Association football to rugby league

From Australian Rules Football

Australian rules football to American football

Name Country Top Aussie rules level Top American football level Top representation level Playing Era
Pat O'Dea Australia VFA College football N/A 1890s
Colin Ridgeway Australia VFL (reserves) NFL N/A 1960s
Darren Bennett Australia AFL NFL N/A 1987-2005
Ben Graham Australia AFL NFL Australia (Inter-rules) 1993 -
Nathan Chapman Australia AFL NFL (rookie) N/A 2004 -
Mat McBriar Australia High School NFL N/A 2005 -
Saverio Rocca Australia AFL NFL N/A 1992 -

Australian rules football to Association football

The technique of kicking grubber goals and scissor kicking in Aussie Rules is similar to goal striking in soccer, and International Rules participation provides experience with the round ball and even goal keeping.

As well as the players below, some player have been known to have played amateur level soccer after retiring from the AFL include Gary Ablett, James Hird and Gavin Wanganeen[5].

Name Country Top Aussie rules level Top Soccer level Top representation level Playing Era
Peter Bevilaqua Australia VFL Victorian Premier League N/A 1950s
Angelo Lekkas Australia AFL with Hawthorn Victorian Premier League with South Melbourne Australia (Inter-rules) 1993 -
Fred Agius Australia SANFL with Central Districts A-League with North Queensland Fury Olyroos 2000s -

Australian rules football to Gaelic football

Name Country Top Australian Rules Level Top Gaelic football Level Top representation level Playing Era
Paul Earley Ireland AFL All-Ireland Senior Football Championship NA 1980s
Dermot McNicholl Ireland AFL Derry All-Ireland winner 1993 NA 1980s, 1990s
Anthony Tohill Ireland Melbourne Demons Derry senior football team NA 1990s, 2000s
Tadhg Kennelly Ireland AFL premiership 2005 Kerry All-Ireland winner 2009 Ireland (Inter-rules) 2000s

Australian rules football to rugby union

As in rugby league and Australian rules, early in the history of the two codes in Australia the two codes were interchangeable[citation needed]. There is a much greater divide today. Jason Akermanis was the first professional Australian football player to suggest a switch to Rugby[6]. Nevertheless, there are still some positions and roles that have commonalities (particularly those that involve kicking and catching such as the backs and second row in rugby union; half forwards and rucks in Australian Rules)[7]. Also at amateur level, conversion is quite common, as in the case of many start-up Australian Rules clubs in countries such as France [8] and developing Aussie Rules countries such as New Zealand and Samoa where there are dual-internationals at junior level.

Name Country Top Aussie rules Level Top rugby union Level Top representation level
Nick Evans' New Zealand Falcons Under 21 All Blacks New Zealand (RU), New Zealand U21 (AR)
Rambo Tavana Samoa Samoa Manu Samoa Samoa (AR), Samoa (RU)
Mikaele Pesamino Samoa Samoa Manu Samoa Samoa (AR), Samoa (RU)
Alec Boswell Timms Australia/Scotland Geelong Scotland/British Isles Geelong (AR), Scotland/British Isles (RU)

Australian rules football to rugby league

Early in the history of the two codes in Australia, players would interchange the codes and even had discussions of merging them into a single game.[9] Rugby league has since evolved to specialise in physicality and body type making it more difficult for successful conversion between the two, although it does sometimes happen at junior level and in areas where both codes are played. League great Darren Lockyer played Aussie Rules at a junior level in Queensland[10], as did Marcus Bai in Papua New Guinea. Players of both codes at Junior levels have included Peter Sterling[citation needed] (League) and Paul Kelly (AFL). Greg Brentnall played Australian Football in Riverina in the 1960s before turning down an offer to play in the VFL/AFL and switching to rugby league taking up a contract with the Canterbury-Bankstown Bulldogs in 1972.

Name Country Top Aussie rules Level Top rugby league Level Top representation level
Adrian Barich Australia AFL ARL reserve grade NSW, WA (AR)

From Canadian Football

From Canadian football to American football

Because American and Canadian football are both gridiron codes, they are very similar, and most players can easily change back and forth between the two codes without much difficulty. Below is only a partial list of players who have made the transition from the CFL to the NFL.

Name Country Top Canadian football level Top American football level
Mervyn Fernandez USA CFL NFL
Doug Flutie USA CFL NFL
Jeff Garcia USA CFL NFL
Harald Hasselbach Netherlands CFL NFL
Raghib Ismail USA CFL NFL
Warren Moon USA CFL NFL
Casey Printers USA CFL NFL
Mike Sellers USA CFL NFL
Joe Theismann USA CFL NFL
Cameron Wake USA CFL NFL
Ricky Williams USA CFL NFL

From Gaelic football

Gaelic football is especially vulnerable to code-switching, for reasons outlined by rugby union journalist Hugh Farrelly in 2009:

The parochialism that is the GAA's greatest strength (every village in Ireland has a local team) is also its Achilles heel for, with no viable international outlet, the Association is vulnerable to other sports. Furthermore, a strict adherence to its amateur code means talented youngsters can be lured away from the game they grew up with... by the prospect of pay for play....[11]

Gaelic football to Association football

Name Country Top Gaelic football Level Top soccer level Top representation level
Kevin Moran Ireland All-Ireland Football Championship winner with Dublin GAA FA First Division with Manchester United F.C. Republic of Ireland national football team
Niall Quinn Ireland Dublin County Minor Team (both Gaelic Football & Hurling) Premiership With Arsenal F.C., Manchester City F.C. & Sunderland A.F.C Republic of Ireland national football team
Kevin Doyle Ireland Wexford County Minor Team Premiership with Wolverhampton Wanderers F.C. Republic of Ireland national football team
Shane Long Ireland Tipperary County Minor Team Premiership With Reading F.C. Republic of Ireland national football team
Martin O'Neill Ireland Derry County Minor Team FA First Division With Nottingham Forest Northern Ireland national football team
Neil Lennon Ireland Armagh County Minor Team Scottish Premier League With Celtic F.C. Northern Ireland national football team
Cillian Sheridan Ireland Cavan County Minor Team Scottish Premier League With Celtic F.C. and Motherwell F.C.; Football League Championship with Plymouth Argyle F.C. Republic of Ireland under-21 national football team
  • Jack Kirwan (Dublin GAA) / St James Gate, Tottenham Hotspur & Everton F.C.
  • Val Harris (Dublin GAA) / Shelbourne & Everton FC
  • Con Martin (Dublin GAA) / Leeds United, Aston Villa

Gaelic football to Australian rules football

Like rugby union and league, the two codes share similarities, making switching between them a possibility. International Rules representation for players of both codes is common. The Gaelic Athletic Association prohibits professionalism, meaning that there is a financial lure for players to compete in the professional elite Aussie Rules competitions in Australia. [12]

Name Country Top Gaelic level Top Aussie rules level Top representation level Playing Era
Sean Wight Scotland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL NA 1985-95
Paul Earley Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL NA 1985-87
Dermot McNicholl Ireland Derry All-Ireland winner 1993 AFL NA 1985-97
Brian Stynes Ireland Dublin All-Ireland winner 1995 AFL Ireland (Inter-rules), Ireland (AR) 1985-95
Jim Stynes Ireland Dublin All-Ireland (Minor) winner 1994 AFL (Brownlow Medallist) Ireland (Inter-rules) 1987-98
Tadhg Kennelly Ireland Kerry All-Ireland winner 2009 AFL premiership 2005 Ireland (Inter-rules) 2001-
Colm Begley Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL Ireland (Inter-rules) 2006-
Martin Clarke Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL N/A 2005-
Pierce Hanley Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL N/A 2008-
Michael Quinn Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL N/A 2009-
Kevin Dyas Ireland Gaelic Athletic Association AFL N/A 2009-

Gaelic football to Rugby Union

Name Country Top Gaelic football level Top rugby union Level Top representation level
David Beggy Ireland Meath senior football team Leinster Rugby
Shane Byrne Ireland Local minor (under-18) team Leinster Rugby, Saracens Ireland national rugby union team, British and Irish Lions
Mick Galwey Ireland Kerry County Team Munster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team
Brian Rigney Ireland Local Team, Offaly Leinster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team
Brian Carney Ireland Local team Munster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team
Tomás O'Leary Ireland Cork Minors (captain) Munster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team
Moss Keane Ireland UCC GAA, Kerry under-21 Munster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team, British and Irish Lions
Gavin Duffy Ireland Mayo GAA minor (under-18) football team Connacht Rugby, NEC Harlequins Ireland national rugby union team
Shane Horgan Ireland Meath GAA minor (under-18) football team Leinster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team, British and Irish Lions
Geordan Murphy Ireland Kildare GAA minor (under-18) football team Leicester Tigers Ireland national rugby union team, British and Irish Lions
Rob Kearney Ireland Louth GAA minor (under-18) football team Leinster Rugby Ireland national rugby union team, British and Irish Lions
Dick Spring Ireland Kerry GAA Munster Rugby, London Irish Ireland national rugby union team

NB: Byrne changed codes twice. He first switched to rugby union as a teenager, then returned to Gaelic football after a long professional rugby career. This entry discusses his Gaelic football career before his first code switch.

Gaelic football to Rugby league

Name Country Top Gaelic football level Top rugby league Level Top representation level
Brian Carney' Ireland Local football team Super League / NRL Great Britain (RL)

see also Cat:Gaelic footballers who switched code

From Rugby Union

Rugby union to Association football

Name Country Top rugby union Level Top association football Level Top representation level Playing Era
J.W. Sutcliffe England Bradford P.A./Heckmondwike Bolton Wanderers/Manchester United England (both) 1880s/1910s
Adam Holloway England Henley Hawks/
Crusaders
Strathcona Terriers FC England/New Zealand/Canada 2000s
Tony Ward Ireland Munster/Ireland/British and Irish Lions Shamrock Rovers/Limerick United British and Irish Lions 1970s and 1980s
Tommy Moroney Ireland Munster West Ham United Republic of Ireland 1940s
Aaron Ramsey Wales Caerphilly RFC (youth team) Cardiff City/Arsenal Wales 2000s
Henry Renny-Tailyour Scotland Scotland Royal Engineers A.F.C. Scotland 1870s, 1880s

Rugby union to Gaelic football

Name Country Top rugby union Level Top Gaelic football Level Top representation level Playing Era
Shane Byrne Ireland Leinster Rugby, Ireland, British and Irish Lions Aughrim GAA 1990s, 2000s
Eric Miller Ireland Old Wesley, Leicester Tigers, Leinster, the Barbarians, Ireland, British and Irish Lions Dublin senior football team Dublin senior football team 1990s, 2000s

Rugby league / rugby union

Two of the closest codes, they share some similar skills. Until 1995 union was "officially amateur" and union players were offered money to switch codes. That trend has since reversed. Conversion from one code to the other is more difficult for forwards rather than backs where the similarities are most adjacent. It is worth noting that several players, including Iestyn Harris and Mat Rogers, have converted between the two codes on more than one occasion.

Rugby union to rugby league

Name Country Top rugby union level Top rugby league level Top representation level Playing Era
Frano Botica New Zealand All Blacks Super League NRL New Zealand (RU/RL) Croatia (RU) 1980/90s
Michael Cleary Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1960s
Ryan Cross Australia Super 14 NRL Australian Schoolboys (RU) 2000s
Arthur Daniels Wales Club (Llanelli) Rugby Football League Championship Wales/Great Britain (RL) 1940s/50s
Jonathan Davies Wales Welsh Premier Division Super League Wales/Great Britain (RL) Wales (RU) 1980s/90s
Marc Ellis New Zealand All Blacks NRL New Zealand (RU/RL) 1990s
Rocky Elsom Australia Wallabies Junior Australia (RU) 2000s
George Fairbairn Scotland SRU national league/Kelso RFC Rugby Football League Championship Great Britain 1970/80s
Russell Fairfax Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU) 1970s
Ray French England England Rugby Football League Championship Great Britain
John Gallagher New Zealand All Blacks Super League New Zealand (RU) 1980s
Scott Gibbs Wales Welsh Premier Division Super League Wales/Great Britain (RL/RU) 1990s
Scott Gourley Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1980s
Daryl Halligan New Zealand NPC NRL New Zealand (RL) 1990s
Sam Harris Australia Super rugby NRL Australian Schoolboys (RU) City v. Country (RL) 2000s
Nigel Heslop England International Rugby Football League Championship England 1990s
Craig Innes New Zealand All Blacks NRL New Zealand (RU/RL) 1990s
Ben Kennedy Australia Australian U21 NRL Australia (RL) 1990s/2000s
John Kirwan New Zealand All Blacks NRL New Zealand (RU) 1980/90s
Tony Melrose Australia --- NSWRL Australia (RU) 1980s
Dally Messenger Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RL) 1900s
Garrick Morgan Australia Wallabies NRL Australia (RU) 1990s
Rex Mossop Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1950s
Noa Nadruku Fiji Fiji international National Rugby League Fiji (RU/RL) 1990s
Michael O'Connor Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1980/90s
Brett Papworth Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU) 1980s
Ray Price Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1980s
Scott Quinnell Wales Wales Super League Wales (RU/RL) 1990s/2000s
Matthew Ridge New Zealand All Blacks NRL New Zealand (RU/RL) 1980s/90s
Kevin Ryan Australia Wallabies NSWRL Australia (RU/RL) 1950s/1960s
Wendell Sailor Australia Wallabies NRL Australia (RU/RL) 1990s/2000s
Brian Smith (rugby) Australia, Ireland Wallabies, Ireland NSWRL Australia (RU), Ireland (RU) 1980s/1990s
Ricky Stuart Australia Wallabies, Ireland NRL Australia (RU & RL) 1980s/1990s
George Smith New Zealand All Blacks All Golds New Zealand (RU/RL) 1900s
Alan Tait Scotland Scotland /1997 Lions Tour Rugby Football League Championship Great Britain 1980/90s
Brad Thorn New Zealand All Blacks NRL Australia (RL) New Zealand (RU) 1990s/2000s
John Timu New Zealand All Blacks NRL New Zealand (RU/RL) 1990s
Va'aiga "Inga" Tuigamala New Zealand All Blacks Super League New Zealand (RU) Western Samoa (RL) 1990s
Lesley Vainikolo Tonga England Super League England (RU) New Zealand (RL) 2000s
Dave Valentine Scotland Scotland Super League Scotland (RU), Great Britain, Empire XIII (RL) 1940s, 1950s
Rob Valentine Scotland Scotland Super League Scotland (RU) Great Britain, Other Nations (RL) 1960s, 1970s
Roy Muir Kinnear Scotland Scotland, British and Irish Lions Super League Scotland, B&I Lions (RU) Great Britain, Other Nations (RL) 1920s, 1930s

Kurt Sherlock

Gareth Thomas Wales Wales, British and Irish Lions Super League

Rugby union to American football

Rugby union and American football share the same origins, but have evolved into very different games. Both are very physical and require similar body types.

Name Country Top rugby union level Top American football level Top representation level Playing Era
Colin Scotts Australia Australian schoolboys NFL Australia 1980s
Steve Tasker United States Northwestern University NFL, Buffalo Bills Pro Bowl 1985-1997
Gavin Hastings Scotland International WLAF Scotland/British Lions 1990s
Gary Parker Scotland Club (Melrose RFC) WLAF N/A 1980s/90s
Gary Anderson South Africa Brettonwood High School, Durban, South Africa NFL, Pittsburgh Steelers, Philadelphia Eagles, San Francisco 49ers, Minnesota Vikings, Tennessee Titans N/A 1982-2004
Richard Tardits France,
later USA
Biarritz Olympique, USA NFL, Arizona Cardinals, New England Patriots USA Rugby 1980s/90s
David Dixon New Zealand New Zealand under-19 NFL, Minnesota Vikings New Zealand 1994-2004
Haloti Ngata United States Highland High School, Salt Lake City, Utah NFL, Baltimore Ravens N/A 2006-present
Stewart Bradley United States Highland High School, Salt Lake City, Utah NFL, Philadelphia Eagles N/A 2007-present

Rugby union to Australian rules football

In recent years, several schoolboy rugby union players have made a transition to Australian Rules, including Ray Smith (Queensland Under 19), Jim Stynes, Lewis Roberts-Thomson, Adam Campbell (New Zealand Under 15), Daniel Merrett, Brad Moran (West Midlands (England) Under 16) and Tom Williams (Queensland Under 16) and more recently Canadian international Mike Pyke.

Name Country Top Rugby union Top Aussie rules level Top representation level Playing Era
Mike Pyke Canada Top 14 (France) AFL, Sydney Swans Canada (rugby) 2004-

From Rugby League

Rugby league to rugby union

Name Country Top rugby league level Top union level Top representation level Playing Era
Chris Ashton England Super League Northampton Saints England 'A' (RL)
Berrick Barnes Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RU)
Nathan Blacklock Australia NRL/Super League Super 12 Australia (RL)
Willie Carne Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL)
Brian Carney Ireland Super League/NRL Magners League Great Britain (RL), Ireland (RU)
Ryan Cross Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RU)
Andy Farrell England Super League English Premiership Great Britain (RL), England (RU)
Paul Franze Australia NRL English Premiership Australia (RL), London Irish(RU)
Iestyn Harris Wales Super League Heineken Cup, Celtic League Great Britain (RL), Wales(RU)
Sam Harris Australia NRL Super rugby Australian Schoolboys (RU), City v. Country (RL)
Wise Kativerata Australia NRL Shute Shield Australia Sevens (RU) 2001 – 2004
Tasesa Lavea New Zealand NRL Super rugby New Zealand (RL), New Zealand (RU)
Ben MacDougall Australia NRL Celtic League Scotland (RU)
Stephen Myler England Super League English Premiership
Henry Paul New Zealand NRL English Premiership New Zealand (RL), England (RU)
Jason Robinson England Super League English Premiership Great Britain (RL), England Captain and Lions (RU)
Mat Rogers Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL/RU)
Wendell Sailor Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL/RU)
Clinton Schifcofske Australia NRL/Super League Super Rugby State of Origin {RL}/Australia A (RU)
Timana Tahu Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL/RU)
Alan Tait Scotland Super League Magners League Scotland (RL/RU), Great Britain (RL), British & Irish Lions (RU)
Brad Thorn Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL), New Zealand (RU)
Lote Tuqiri Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL/RU), Fiji (RL)
Lesley Vainikolo England Super League English Premiership New Zealand (RL), England (RU)
Andrew Walker Australia NRL Super rugby Australia (RL/RU)
Chev Walker England Super League English Premiership Great Britain (RL), England Saxons (RU)
Barrie Jon Mather England RFL Championship/Super League England RU Gt Britain (RL), England (RL), England (RU) - first player to play for both national teams post RU professional era
Sonny Bill Williams New Zealand NRL Top 14 New Zealand Kiwis
Mark Gasnier Australia NRL Top 14 Australian Kangaroos
Shontayne Hape New Zealand NRL, Super League English Premiership New Zealand Kiwis 1999–

Rugby league to Australian rules football

In recent years, several schoolboy rugby league players have made a transition to Australian Rules, including Paul Kelly, Kieren Jack, Matthew Whelan and Sam Gilbert whilst Wayne Carey from Wagga Wagga was exposed to rugby league at a young age. In July 2009 Karmichael Hunt surprised followers both codes by announcing that he will switch to play Australian rules football in 2011 with the new Gold Coast Football Club.[13]

Name Country Top rugby league level Top Aussie Rules level Top representation level Playing Era
Ray Smith Australia Queensland Rugby League VFL Queensland (RL) 1970s[14]
Fabian Francis Australia Northern Territory Rugby League Australian Football League Northern Territory (RL) / Aboriginal All-Stars (AR) 1990s

References

  1. ^ Globalisation and the future of indigenous football codes. Lionel Frost. Economic Society of Australia. 2004
  2. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2007/06/24/1960300.htm
  3. ^ http://www.rl1908.com/Rugby-Rebellion/bookrelease.htm
  4. ^ Lothian, Bill (16 May 2005). "Hadden can follow in my footsteps, says Dwyer". scotsman.com. http://edinburghnews.scotsman.com/sport.cfm?id=533792005. Retrieved 2006-11-11. 
  5. ^ http://www.news.com.au/adelaidenow/sport/afl/story/0,26547,23541454-5016212,00.html Wanga's new passion
  6. ^ http://aru.rugby.com.au/news/2002_june/akermanis_serious_about_union_switch_14128,7131.html
  7. ^ [1]
  8. ^ [2]
  9. ^ Australian Rules Football and Rugby League merger
  10. ^ The Midas Touch by Paul Malone from couriermail.com.au
  11. ^ Farrelly, Hugh (2009-09-15). "The most progressive team in Ireland". Scrum.com. http://www.scrum.com/scrum/rugby/story/102547.html. Retrieved 2010-01-28.  In this piece, Farrelly also dismisses the International Rules series as a viable international outlet, stating that it "is popular with the combatants but has never captured the public's imagination."
  12. ^ "Begley warns Aussies are watching". GAA http://www.gaa.ie.+2006-01-03. http://www.gaa.ie/plugins/newsfeed.cgi?rm=content&plugin_data_id=10054. Retrieved 2009-01-26. 
  13. ^ NRL's Hunt to join Gold Coast AFL team (29 July 2009)
  14. ^ http://www.sportingpulse.com/assoc_page.cgi?client=1-4711-0-0-0&sID=82235&news_task=DETAIL&articleID=7312030&sectionID=82235

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