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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

A complex arrangement of rigid steel piping, stop valves regulate flow to various parts of the building.
Water and sewage pipes of a Jerusalem building built around 1930

Plumbing (from the Latin plumbum for lead as pipes were once made from lead) is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and the drainage of waste. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean water, and proper collection and transport of wastes.[1]

Plumbing also refers to a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution of potable water and the removal of waterborne wastes. Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.

Contents

History

Standardized earthen plumbing pipes with broad flanges making use of asphalt for preventing leakages appeared in the urban settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2] Plumbing originated during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water, and drainage of wastes. Improvement in plumbing systems was very slow, with virtually no progress made from the time of the Roman system of aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.

Materials

Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo or stone. Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper,[3] brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Present-day drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead is not used in modern water-supply piping due to its toxicity.[4][5] [6]

The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.

Fittings and valves

Piping being placed for a sink

In addition to the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions. The piping and plumbing fittings and valves articles discuss these features further.

Fixtures

Plumbing fixtures are designed for the end-users. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations.

A plumber wrench for working on pipes and fittings

Equipment

Plumbing equipment, not present in all systems, include, for example, water meters, pumps, expansion tanks, backflow preventers, filters, water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers, gauges, and control systems.

Now there is equipment that is technologically advanced and helps plumbers fix problems without the usual hassles. For example, plumbers use video cameras for inspections of hidden leaks or problems, they use hydro jets, and high pressure hydraulic pumps connected to steel cables for trench-less sewer line replacement.

Systems

Copper piping system in a building with intumescent firestop being installed by an insulator, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:

For their environmental benefit and sizable energy savings hot water heat recycling units are growing in use throughout the residential building sectors. Further ecological concern has seen increasing interest in grey-water recovery and treatment systems.

Firestopping

Self-levelling silicone firestop installation in mechanical service penetration in 2 hour rated concrete floor.

Firestopping is required where mechanical penetrants traverse fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies, or membranes thereof. This work is usually done worldwide by the insulation trade and/or specialty firestop sub-contractors.

Regulation

Much of the plumbing work in populated areas is regulated by government or quasi-government agencies due to the direct impact on the public's health, safety, and welfare. Plumbing installation and repair work on residences and other buildings generally must be done according to plumbing and building codes to protect the inhabitants of the buildings and to ensure safe, quality construction to future buyers. If permits are required for work, plumbing contractors typically secure them from the authorities on behalf of home or building owners. In the United Kingdom the professional body is the newly Chartered Institute of Plumbing and Heating Engineering (educational charity status)[7] and it is true that the trade still remains virtually ungoverned; there are no systems in place to monitor or control the activities of unqualified plumbers or those home owners who choose to undertake installation and maintenance works themselves, despite the health and safety issues which arise from such works when they are undertaken incorrectly - see Health Aspects of Plumbing (HAP) published jointly by the World Health Organization(WHO) [8] and the World Plumbing Council (WPC) [6]. WPC has subsequently appointed a representative to the World Health Organization to take forward various projects related to Health Aspects of Plumbing. [6]

See also

References

  1. ^ Plumbing: the Arteries of Civilization, Modern Marvels video series, The History Channel, AAE-42223, A&E Television, 1996
  2. ^ Teresi et al. 2002
  3. ^ Copper Tube Handbook, the Copper Development Association, New York, USA, 2006
  4. ^ Uniform Plumbing Code, IAPMO
  5. ^ International Plumbing Code, ICC
  6. ^ a b c "Lead Pipe History". http://www.plumbingforums.com/forum/f2/lead-pipes-144/. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 
  7. ^ "Home =CIPHE". http://www.CIPHE.org.uk. 
  8. ^ "WHO Health aspects of plumbing". http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/publications/plumbinghealthasp/en. Retrieved 2009-10-11. 
  • Teresi, Dick; et al. (2002). Lost Discoveries: The Ancient Roots of Modern Science--from the Babylonians to the Maya. New York: Simon & Schuster. pp. 351–352. ISBN 0-684-83718-8. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Plumbing (from the Latin plumbum for lead) is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and the drainage of waste. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment.

Sourced

  • An excellent plumber is infinitely more admirable than an incompetent philosopher. The society which scorns excellence in plumbing because plumbing is a humble activity and tolerates shoddiness in philosophy because it is an exalted activity will have neither good plumbing nor good philosophy. Neither its pipes nor its theories will hold water.
    • John W. Gardner, President, Carnegie Corporation, "Excellence: Can We Be Equal and Excellent Too?", p. 86 (1961)
  • I long to create something
    that can’t be used to keep us passive:
    I want to write
    a script about plumbing, how every pipe
    is joined
    to every other.
    • Adrienne Rich, U.S. poet and feminist. “Essential Resources,” lines 17-22 (1973)

External links

Wikipedia
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Plumbing, from the Latin for lead (plumbum), is the skilled trade of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for potable water systems and the drainage of waste. Plumbing originated during the ancient civilizations such as Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they developed public baths and needed to provide potable water, and drainage of wastes. A plumber is someone who installs or repairs piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is a basic and substantial part of every developed economy due to the need for clean water, and proper collection and transport of wastes.[1]

Plumbing is a system of pipes and fixtures installed in a building for the distribution of potable water and the removal of waterborne wastes. Plumbing is usually distinguished from water and sewage systems, in that a plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city. Improvement in plumbing systems was very slow, with virtually no progress made from the time of the Roman system of aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems eliminated open sewage ditches and cesspools.

Plumbing equipment, not present in all systems, include, for example, water meters, pumps, expansion tanks, backflow preventers, filters, water softeners, water heaters, heat exchangers, gauges, and control systems.

Plumbing fixtures are the devices installed for the end-users. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, lavatories, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, eyewashes, floor drains, garbage disposers, and hosebibbs.

In addition to the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions. The piping and plumbing fittings and valves articles discuss them further.

Water systems of ancient times relied on gravity for the supply of water, using pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead or stone. Present-day water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper, brass, plastic, steel, or other nontoxic material. Present-day drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Special waste systems for acid waste often utilize polyvinylidene difluoride piping or boron silicate glass piping. Lead is not used in modern water-supply piping due to its toxicity.

The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is typically formed via casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe normally has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubing is thinner-walled and requires special joining techniques such as 'soldering', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.

Systems

The major categories of plumbing systems or subsystems are:

  • Potable cold and hot water supply
  • Traps, drains, and vents
  • Septic systems
  • Rainwater, surface, and subsurface water drainage
  • Fuel gas piping
  • Medical Gas systems including: Vacuum, Air, Medical Air, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Nitrous Oxide, and Carbon Dioxide.
  • Firestopping is required where mechanical penetrants traverse fire-resistance rated wall and floor assemblies, or membranes thereof. This work is usually done worldwide by the insulation trade and/or specialty firestop sub-contractors.

Of increasing interest, for ecological reasons, are gray-water recovery and treatment systems. These systems can consist of rain water collected from the roofs or other projected areas of the structure being stored in a cistern or special retaining pond. This water can then be treated to reduce the growth of bacteria. Use of reclaimed gray-water is restricted to non-potable uses such as supplies for toilets, urinals, irrigation systems or HVAC.

See also

The Plumbing module is a stub. You can help Wikiversity by expanding it.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PLUMBING, properly working in lead (Lat. plumbum), now a term embracing all work not only in lead, but also in tin, zinc and other metals, connected with the installation, fitting, repairing, soldering, &c., of pipes for water, gas, drainage, on cisterns, roofs and the like in any building, i.e. the general work of a plumber. (See Building and Sewerage.) on (After Sadebeck. From Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Botanik, by permission of Gustav Fischer.) Taphrina Pruni. - Transverse section through the epidermis of an infected plum. Four ripe asci, a i, a 2, with eight spores a3, a 4, with yeast-like conidia abstricted from the spores (X 600).

st, Stalk-cells of the asci.

m, Filaments of the mycelium cut transversely.

cut, Cuticle.

ep, Epidermis.

Missing image
Plumbing-1.jpg
Missing image
Plumbing-2.jpg

<< Plumbago Drawings

Edward Hayes Plumptre >>


Wikibooks

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

Contents

Introduction

Plumbing is a trade that supports a wide variety of services found in modern buildings and urban areas. At a basic level though, it is the craft that serves to provide clean, drinkable water to homes and businesses and conducts contaminated water away from them. To learn the theory and skill needed to construct and maintain the plumbing systems for large commercial buildings, install boilers, and other complex jobs, plumbers often receive years of training. However, the plumbing systems that bring hot and cold water to household fixtures (sinks, bathtubs, water closets, ...) and carry waste water away from them can be designed, built, and maintained by anyone who is willing to do careful research, invest in tools and practice, and proceed patiently and carefully with the work. It should be noted that another qualification for doing plumbing work is a willingness to come in contact with what is sometimes rather messy stuff.

Plumbing Codes

Many local, regional, and national governments enact regulations that apply to the way buildings are constructed. These regulations are put in place to protect citizens from dangerous conditions. The regulations that apply to a trade such as plumbing are called "codes." Codes exist for general building, electrical work, plumbing, and other aspects of construction. Governments may write their own codes or use codes developed by outside authorities.

In many cases, the regulations are developed as a result of lessons learned through accidents and injuries. As trade experts analyze the flaws in a building that cause or contribute to fires, poisoning, falls, or other mishaps, they add rules to the relevant codes to reduce the chance of recurrence.

Plumbing codes are often associated with inspections. An inspection is done by a trade expert, designated by a government body, who checks work being done to a building to make sure that it is done according to the code. Some government bodies do not inspect work being done. Some government bodies do not require that work be done in accordance with a code at all.

US

One historical figure who gave momentum to the use of building codes in the United States was the early American Benjamin Franklin.

Materials and Tools

Sink mount kitchen faucet installation tools:

  • Basin wrench
  • Plumbers tape
  • Adjustable wrench
  • Rags
  • Plumber's putty
  • Copper tube cutter
  • Needle-nose pliers
  • 1/2" faucet supply hoses (2)
  • Flashlight
  • Philips and flathead screw drivers

Replacement kitchen faucet:

  1. Check that appropriate contents have been supplied--compare to contents on box.
  2. Instructions.

Wall mount Kitchen Faucet tools will include similar to above and a pipe wrench plus threaded pipes, possible requirements like pipe extractor, hammer and chisel to modify the wall.

Valves

Pipes

Materials

Collectors

Water Supply

Pressure

Drainage and Venting

The drain should be at least 1 1/4" and should enter a 3 inch pipe before exiting the structure to septic tank or sewer system.

The vent should also be at least 1 1/4" and should enter a 3 inch pipe before exiting the structure through the roof.

Projects


Simple English

building built around 1930]]

Plumbing (which comes from from the Latin word plumbum, which means lead, as pipes were once made from lead) is the job of working with pipes, tubing and plumbing fixtures for drinking water systems and getting rid of waste. A plumber is someone who fixes or puts in piping systems, plumbing fixtures and equipment such as water heaters. The plumbing industry is an important part of every developed economy because people need clean water and safe ways to move and store waste.[1]

Plumbing also refers to a system of pipes and fixtures put in a building to move water and the get rid of waste that is in water. Plumbing is different from water and sewage systems because plumbing system serves one building, while water and sewage systems serve a group of buildings or a city.

Contents

History

File:Lead pipe - Bath Roman
Roman lead pipe with a folded seam, at the Roman Baths in Bath, England

Plumbing was very rare until modern cities grew in the 19th century. At about the same time, public health leaders began wanting better systems to get rid of waste. Before this, people got rid of waste by collecting it and dumping it onto the ground or into rivers. However, there were some plumbing pipes in the city settlements of the Indus Valley Civilization by 2700 B.C.[2] Plumbing was also used during the ancient civilizations such as the Greek, Roman, Persian, Indian, and Chinese civilizations as they built public baths and needed drinking water, and somewhere to drain waste. The Romans used lead pipe inscriptions to stop people from stealing water. These systems did not improve much over the years. There were almost no improvements from the time of the Roman system of aqueducts and lead pipes until the 19th century. Eventually the development of separate, underground water and sewage systems got rid of open sewage ditches and cesspools. Most large cities today send solid wastes to treatment plants through pipes. This separates water from waste and makes the water more pure before it goes into streams or other bodies of water. Most places stopped using lead for drinking water after World War II because of the dangers of lead poisoning. At this time, copper piping was started because it was safer than using lead pipes.[3]

Materials

Water systems in ancient times used gravity to move water. They used pipes or channels usually made of clay, lead, bamboo or stone.Today, water-supply systems use a network of high-pressure pumps, and pipes are now made of copper,[4] brass, plastic, or other nontoxic material. Drain and vent lines are made of plastic, steel, cast-iron, and lead. Lead is not used in pipes today because it can be poisonous.[5][6][7]

The 'straight' sections of plumbing systems are of pipe or tube. A pipe is usually made from casting or welding, where a tube is made through extrusion. Pipe usually has thicker walls and may be threaded or welded, where tubes have thinner walls, and needsspecial joining techniques such as 'brazing', 'compression fitting', 'crimping', or for plastics, 'solvent welding'.

Fittings and valves

As well as the straight pipe or tubing, many fittings are required in plumbing systems, such as valves, elbows, tees, and unions.

Fixtures

Plumbing fixtures are designed for the people who use the water. Some examples of fixtures include water closets (also known as toilets), urinals, bidets, showers, bathtubs, utility and kitchen sinks, drinking fountains, ice makers, humidifiers, air washers, fountains, and eye wash stations.

for working on pipes and fittings]]

Regulation

Much of the plumbing work in places where many people live is done under government rules.. Putting in plumbing and fixing plumbnig generally must be done according to plumbing and building codes to protect the the people who live or work in the buildings.

References

  1. Plumbing: the Arteries of Civilization, Modern Marvels video series, The History Channel, AAE-42223, A&E Television, 1996
  2. Teresi et al. 2002
  3. Kavanaugh, Sean. "History of Plumbing Pipe and Plumbing Material". http://www.hihut.com/history-of-plumbing-pipe-and-plumbing-material.html. 
  4. Copper Tube Handbook, the Copper Development Association, New York, USA, 2006
  5. Uniform Plumbing Code, IAPMO
  6. International Plumbing Code, ICC
  7. "Lead Pipe History". http://www.plumbingforums.com/forum/f2/lead-pipes-144/. Retrieved 2010-01-12. 








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