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Pneumonia
Classification and external resources
alt=An ray showing a white wedge in the right lung field of a chest X-ray. DiseasesDB = 10166
A chest X-ray showing a very prominent wedge shaped pneumonia in the right lung.
ICD-10 J12., J13., J14., J15., J16., J17., J18., P23.
ICD-9 480-486, 770.0
eMedicine topic list
MeSH D011014
Pneumonia
Streptococcus pneumoniae-263.jpg
Infectious pneumonias
Pneumonias caused by infectious or noninfectious agents
Noninfectious pneumonia
.Pneumonia is an abnormal inflammatory condition of the lung.^ Medical Conditions associated with Pneumonia: Respiratory symptoms (3367 causes), Lung symptoms (1501 causes) .

^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

^ Pneumonia , a serious infection of the lung, is a common health condition among the elderly, and the Centers for Disease Control indicates that it is a leading cause of death for individuals over 65...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[1] .It is often characterized as including inflammation of the parenchyma of the lung (that is, the alveoli) and abnormal alveolar filling with fluid (consolidation and exudation).^ A severe inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs) are filled with fluid.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Inflammation of the lungs with consolidation and exudation.

^ Respiratory disease characterized by inflammation of the lung parenchyma (excluding the bronchi) with congestion caused by viruses or bacteria or irritants - (Source - WordNet 2.1) .

[2]
.The alveoli are microscopic air-filled sacs in the lungs responsible for gas exchange.^ A severe inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs) are filled with fluid.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Air may fill up the area between the pleural membranes causing pneumothorax, or collapsed lung.

^ The bronchioles lead to grape-like clusters of microscopic sacs called alveoli .

.Pneumonia can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs.^ Pneumonia is a lung infection that can be caused by many different germs, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi.This...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ When the lungs become inflamed, Pneumonia can result.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Mycoplasma pneumonia is an infection of the lungs caused by by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumonia e (M. pneumonia e).See...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

Its cause may also be officially described as idiopathic—that is, unknown—when infectious causes have been excluded.
.Typical symptoms associated with pneumonia include cough, chest pain, fever, and difficulty in breathing.^ Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, and trouble exercising.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cough with greenish or yellow mucus; bloody sputum happens on occasion Fever with shaking chills Sharp or stabbing chest pain worsened by deep breathing or coughing Rapid, shallow breathing Shortness of breath Additional symptoms include: Headache Excessive sweating and clammy skin Loss of appetite Excessive fatigue Confusion , especially in older people Pneumonia has been added to your Health Portfolio.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the comorbid or associated medical symptoms for Pneumonia may include these symptoms: Lung symptoms Respiratory symptoms Head symptoms Nerve symptoms Pain Sensations Fever Breathing symptoms more associated symptoms...» All associated co-morbid symptoms for Pneumonia Causes of General Symptom Types .

Diagnostic tools include x-rays and examination of the sputum. .Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.^ The best way to treat pneumonia caused by a bacterial infection is with antibiotics.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Early antibiotic treatment for BAL-confirmed ventilator-associated pneumonia: a role for routine endotracheal aspirate cultures.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

.Pneumonia is a common illness which occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among the elderly and people who are chronically and terminally ill.^ Influenza viruses cause disease in all age groups (3,4).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ All elderly people.

^ How Common are these Causes of Pneumonia?

.Additionally, it is the leading cause of death in children under five years old worldwide.^ Worldwide, it's a leading cause of death in children.
  • Pneumonia Support Group - iMedix 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.imedix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonia causes more than 60,000 deaths in America each year, and is the leading cause of death in children worldwide.
  • Pneumonia - Avera Health 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.avera.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the elderly.
  • Dirty air may raise pneumonia risk: study (Reuters) | Yahoo! Green 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC green.yahoo.com [Source type: News]
  • Dirty air may raise pneumonia risk: study 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

[3] .Vaccines to prevent certain types of pneumonia are available.^ Certain types of fungus can cause pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonia can be prevented with vaccines.
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.gene-eden.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is one form of pneumonia for which a vaccine is available.
  • Pneumonia - Bacterial Agents, Viruses, Mycoplasmas, Chlamydia Trachomatis, Eukaryotic Pneumonia, Pneumonia and Fungi 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.bhia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prognosis depends on the type of pneumonia, the appropriate treatment, any complications, and the person's underlying health.^ Treatment of pneumonia depends almost entirely on what type of pneumonia the patient has been diagnosed with.
  • Pneumonia - Medical Look 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medical-look.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment for pneumonia depends largely on the underlying cause.

^ The diagnosis for an individual rests on the kind of pneumonia, the proper treatment, any complications, and the person’s health.

Contents

Classification

.Pneumonias can be classified in several ways.^ Pneumonias can be classified in several different ways.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonias can be classified in several ways.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia can be classified in several ways: .

.Pathologists originally classified them according to the anatomic changes that were found in the lungs during autopsies.^ Classifications: Pneumonia is sometimes classified by anatomic changes found in the lungs when an autopsy is performed.

^ Pathologists classified them according to the anatomic changes that were found in the lungs during autopsies .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pathologists originally classified them according to the anatomic changes that were found in the lungs during autopsies .
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As more became known about the microorganisms causing pneumonia, a microbiologic classification arose, and with the advent of x-rays, a radiological classification.^ Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ For more information about pneumonia .
  • http://www.jointcommissionreport.org/safetyperformance/pneumonia-care-performance.aspx 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.jointcommissionreport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Learn more about the pneumonia vaccine » .
  • Pneumonia Causes, Symptoms, Signs and Treatment (Viral, Bacterial) on MedicineNet.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Another important system of classification is the combined clinical classification, which combines factors such as age, risk factors for certain microorganisms, the presence of underlying lung disease and underlying systemic disease, and whether the person has recently been hospitalized.^ Combined clinical classification .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain combinations of risk factors and symptoms may suggest Legionnaire's disease.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Pneumonia: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another important system of classification is the combined clinical classification, which combines factors such as age, risk factors for certain microorganisms, the presence of underlying lung disease and underlying systemic disease, and whether the person has recently been hospitalized.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

Early classification schemes

Initial descriptions of pneumonia focused on the anatomic or pathologic appearance of the lung, either by direct inspection at autopsy or by its appearance under a microscope.
.
  • A lobar pneumonia is an infection that only involves a single lobe, or section, of a lung.^ Pneumonia: Lung infection or inflammation (as a symptom).

    ^ Severe abdominal pain may accompany pneumonia occurring in the lower lobes of the lung.

    ^ That is, in some patients, the diagnosis of VAP could be missed by blind, nonbronchoscopic sampling, particularly if the pneumonia involves the left lung or upper lobes.
    • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Lobar pneumonia is often due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (though Klebsiella pneumoniae is also possible.^ Streptococcus pneumoniae--also known as pneumococcus--is a common bacteria that often causes ear infections in children, but can also lead to...

    ^ Abscesses are more common with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae , and uncommon with Streptococcus pneumoniae .

    )[4]
  • Multilobar pneumonia involves more than one lobe, and it often causes a more severe illness.
  • Bronchial pneumonia affects the lungs in patches around the tubes (bronchi or bronchioles).
  • Interstitial pneumonia involves the areas in between the alveoli, and it may be called "interstitial pneumonitis." It is more likely to be caused by viruses or by atypical bacteria.
.The discovery of x-rays made it possible to determine the anatomic type of pneumonia without direct examination of the lungs at autopsy and led to the development of a radiological classification.^ Classifications: Pneumonia is sometimes classified by anatomic changes found in the lungs when an autopsy is performed.

^ The discovery of x-rays made it possible to determine the anatomic type of pneumonia without direct examination of the lungs at autopsy and led to the development of a radiological classification.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The classic type of pneumonia, lobar pneumonia, is caused by a pneumococcal bacteria, which reaches the lungs through the airways, affecting one of the five lung lobes.
  • Making Health Happen - Calgary West Central - PCN - Lower Respiratory Infections 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.makinghealthhappen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC bodyhealing.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Early investigators distinguished between typical lobar pneumonia and atypical (e.g.^ Early investigators distinguished between typical lobar pneumonia and atypical (e.g.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Doctors classify pneumonias into community acquired pneumonia (both from typical and atypical organisms), nosocomial pneumonia , immune compromised pneumonia , chronic pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia .
  • pneumonia@Everything2.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We now know that pneumonia of any particular cause can have either typical or atypical features, so the terminology is not very helpful.
  • Section N1: Pneumonia and Pleurisy 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.lakesidepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Chlamydophila) or viral pneumonia using the location, distribution, and appearance of the opacities they saw on chest x-rays.^ The chest x-ray will usually show the pneumonia.

^ Antibiotics are not used to treat a viral pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia in Children | Causes, Symptoms, Treatment | PDRHealth 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.pdrhealth.com [Source type: General]

^ Chlamydophila) or viral pneumonia using the location, distribution, and appearance of the opacities they saw on chest x-rays.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Certain x-ray findings can be used to help predict the course of illness, although it is not possible to clearly determine the microbiologic cause of a pneumonia with x-rays alone.^ Certain x-ray findings can be used to help predict the course of illness, although it is not possible to clearly determine the microbiologic cause of a pneumonia based on x-rays alone.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A phlegm sample may be tested to help determine the cause of the pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.csmc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Certain x-ray findings can be used to help predict the course of illness, although it is not possible to clearly determine the microbiologic cause of a pneumonia with x-rays alone.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

.With the advent of modern microbiology, classification based upon the causative microorganism became possible.^ With the advent of modern microbiology, classification based upon the causative microorganism became possible.

^ Certain x-ray findings can be used to help predict the course of illness, although it is not possible to clearly determine the microbiologic cause of a pneumonia based on x-rays alone.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Treatment for pneumonia should ideally be based on the causative microorganism and its known antibiotic sensitivity.

.Determining which microorganism is causing an individual's pneumonia is an important step in deciding treatment type and length.^ Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Determining which microorganism is causing an individual's pneumonia is an important step in deciding treatment type and length.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of pneumonia has caused serious outbreaks.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

.Sputum cultures, blood cultures, tests on respiratory secretions, and specific blood tests are used to determine the microbiologic classification.^ Sputum cultures, blood cultures, tests on respiratory secretions, and specific blood tests are used to determine the microbiologic classification.

^ Supportive diagnostic tests are microbiological culture of sputum and/or blood .
  • Pneumonia -- Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Other useful tests in selected patients are cultures and/or cytologic examination of sputum (expectorated or induced) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid for mycobacteria and fungi.
  • Unresolved Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.nlhep.org [Source type: Academic]

.Because such laboratory testing typically takes several days, microbiologic classification is usually not possible at the time of initial diagnosis.^ For adults, it usually takes 2 to 3 days.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Because such laboratory testing typically takes several days, microbiologic classification is usually not possible at the time of initial diagnosis.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This can be performed several times a day.
  • The Horse | Foal Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.thehorse.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Combined clinical classification

.Traditionally, clinicians have classified pneumonia by clinical characteristics, dividing them into "acute" (less than three weeks duration) and "chronic" pneumonias.^ Eventually your suppressed acute pneumonia developed into your chronic pneumonia.
  • http://healself.org/Pneumonia.html 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC healself.org [Source type: Original source]
  • http://www.healself.org/Pneumonia.html 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.healself.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Acute pneumonias are divided into bacterial broncho-pneumonias, atypical pneumonias and aspiration pneumonia.

^ Clinical classification of pneumonia are chronic, or lasting longer than three weeks and acute lasting less than three weeks.

.This is useful because chronic pneumonias tend to be either non-infectious, or mycobacterial, fungal, or mixed bacterial infections caused by airway obstruction.^ Subtypes of Pneumonia: Pneumonia, non-infectious .

^ Because of this and infection spreading through the body, pneumonia can cause death.
  • Understanding Pneumonia - American Lung Association 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.lungusa.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bacterial pneumonias tend to be the most serious and, in adults, the most common cause of pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Pneumonia - NY Times Health Information 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • HowStuffWorks "Pneumonia - Medical Dictionary" 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC healthguide.howstuffworks.com [Source type: General]
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Pneumonia - Edward Hospital, Naperville IL Area 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.edward.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.fitsugar.com [Source type: General]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.drexelmed.edu [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.bcbswny.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Pneumonia - NY Times Health Information 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC health.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

.Acute pneumonias are further divided into the classic bacterial bronchopneumonias (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae), the atypical pneumonias (such as the interstitial pneumonitis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae or Chlamydia pneumoniae), and the aspiration pneumonia syndromes.^ Both Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumonias, the primary atypical pneumonias, are usually mild.

^ Pneumonia in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Other organisms, such as atypical bacteria called Chlamydia or Mycoplasma pneumonia are also common causes of community-acquired pneumonia.

.Chronic pneumonias, on the other hand, mainly include those of Nocardia, Actinomyces and Blastomyces dermatitidis, as well as the granulomatous pneumonias (Mycobacterium tuberculosis and atypical mycobacteria, Histoplasma capsulatum and Coccidioides immitis).^ If these defenses are weakened or damaged, however, bacteria or other organisms, such as viruses, fungi, and parasites, can gain the upper hand, producing pneumonia.

^ Other gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include E. coli (a cause in newborns), Proteus (found in several damaged lung tissue), and Enterobacter .

^ During influenza epidemics, deaths can increase from influenza and pneumonia as well as from exacerbations of cardiopulmonary conditions and other chronic diseases.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5]
.The combined clinical classification, now the most commonly used classification scheme, attempts to identify a person's risk factors when he or she first comes to medical attention.^ Combined clinical classification .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The combined clinical classification, now the most commonly used classification scheme, attempts to identify a person's risk factors when he or she first comes to medical attention.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This information is not a substitute for personal medical attention, diagnosis or treatment.
  • Health and Wellness Dictionary: Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC geoparent.com [Source type: General]

.The advantage of this classification scheme over previous systems is that it can help guide the selection of appropriate initial treatments even before the microbiologic cause of the pneumonia is known.^ The treatment of pneumonia and pneumonitis depends on the cause.
  • What is Pneumonia? - A definition of Pneumonia from the ecomii science encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The advantage of this classification scheme over previous systems is that it can help guide the selection of appropriate initial treatments even before the microbiologic cause of the pneumonia is known.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment relies upon the cause of pneumonia.

.There are two broad categories of pneumonia in this scheme: community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia.^ The hospital discharge decision for patients with community-acquired pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia Prediction Model 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.chestx-ray.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This is called hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Community-acquired pneumonia .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia -- Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A recently introduced type of healthcare-associated pneumonia (in patients living outside the hospital who have recently been in close contact with the health care system) lies between these two categories.^ For patients who require hospitalization for pneumonia, the mortality rate is between 10% and 25%.

^ A patient advocate helps resolve issues about health care, medical bills, and job discrimination related to a patient's medical condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The narrow zone between these two pleural membranes normally contains a tiny amount of fluid that helps lubricate the lung.

Community-acquired

.Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is infectious pneumonia in a person who has not recently been hospitalized.^ Hospital-acquired pneumonia .
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Hospital-acquired pneumonia.

^ Community-acquired (pneumonia contracted outside the hospital).

.CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.^ The most common form of pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia .

^ CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Bacterial pneumonia This is the most common type of pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia - Germs that cause pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.consumerreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The most common causes of CAP vary depending on a person's age, but they include Streptococcus pneumoniae, viruses, the atypical bacteria, and Haemophilus influenzae.^ Respiratory viruses are the most common causes of pneumonia in young children, peaking between the ages of 2 and 3.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common pneumonia-causing bacterium in adults is Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus).
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Bacterial pneumonias tend to be the most serious and, in adults, the most common cause of pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Overall, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia worldwide.^ The most common form of pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia .

^ The most common bacterium that causes community-acquired pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumoniae - this is called pneumococcal pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia - information, symptoms and treatment 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ Community-acquired pneumonia .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia -- Drug Companies - Pipeline Drugs -- Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.bupame.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Gram-negative bacteria cause CAP in certain at-risk populations.^ The most common gram-negative species causing pneumonia is Haemophilus influenzae (generally occurring in patients with chronic lung disease, older patients, and alcoholics).

^ The following are common gram-positive bacteria: The most common cause of pneumonia is the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called S. pneumoniae or pneumococcal pneumonia ).

^ Atypical pneumonia refers to pneumonia caused by certain bacteria, including Legionella pneumophila, Mycoplasma pneum...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.CAP is the fourth most common cause of death in the United Kingdom and the sixth in the United States.^ Epidemics of influenza occur during the winter months nearly every year and are responsible for an average of approximately 20,000 deaths per year in the United States (1,2).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

^ Respiratory failure is one of the most important causes of death in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

.The term "walking pneumonia" has been used to describe a type of community-acquired pneumonia of less severity (because the sufferer can continue to "walk" rather than require hospitalization).^ This is called hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Cunha BA. Community-acquired pneumonia.

^ Community-acquired pneumonia .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.bupame.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Topic Tracks - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.library.umc.edu [Source type: Academic]

[6] .Walking pneumonia is usually caused by the atypical bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae.^ Both Mycoplasma and Chlamydia pneumonias, the primary atypical pneumonias, are usually mild.

^ Mycoplasma pneumonia , also known as "walking" pneumonia or atypical pneumonia , is a mild form of pneumonia that is caused by the pathogen mycoplasma pneumonia e.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Atypical pneumonia is pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumonia e, Chlamydophila pneumonia e and Legionella pneumophila bacterial pathogens.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[7]

Hospital-acquired

.Hospital-acquired pneumonia, also called nosocomial pneumonia, is pneumonia acquired during or after hospitalization for another illness or procedure with onset at least 72 hrs after admission.^ Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs contracted during a hospital stay.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Pneumonia that is contracted within the hospital is called nosocomial pneumonia.

^ A comparative analysis of patients with early-onset vs late-onset nosocomial pneumonia in the ICU setting.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The causes, microbiology, treatment and prognosis are different from those of community-acquired pneumonia.^ Cunha BA. Community-acquired pneumonia.

^ Community-acquired pneumonia .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Topic Tracks - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.library.umc.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia, including community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia.
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Up to 5% of patients admitted to a hospital for other causes subsequently develop pneumonia.^ Five percent of patients admitted to a hospital for other conditions develop pneumonia.

^ The patient had influenza with pneumonia at the time of hospitalization.
  • http://www.jointcommissionreport.org/safetyperformance/pneumonia-care-performance.aspx 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.jointcommissionreport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other causes of pneumonia include: .
  • Pneumonia - What Is Pneumonia?, How Does Pneumonia Make Breathing Difficult?, Who Is at Risk for Pneumonia?, Streptococcal Pneumonia, Mycoplasma Pneumonia 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.humanillnesses.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hospitalized patients may have many risk factors for pneumonia, including mechanical ventilation, prolonged malnutrition, underlying heart and lung diseases, decreased amounts of stomach acid, and immune disturbances.^ It is common in pneumonia patients with chronic or severe lung disease.

^ Chronic obstructive lung diseases, including chronic bronchitis and emphysema, are major risk factors for pneumonia.

^ Many conditions mimic pneumonia, particularly in hospitalized patients.

.Additionally, the microorganisms a person is exposed to in a hospital are often different from those at home .^ Additionally, the microorganisms a person is exposed to in a hospital are often different from those at home.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Additionally, the microorganisms a person is exposed to in a hospital are often different from those at home .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia is often divided into two main types ('community-acquired' pneumonia and 'hospital-acquired' pneumonia) depending on whether you were infected while living at home (in the community) or while staying in hospital.
  • Pneumonia - information, symptoms and treatment 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC hcd2.bupa.co.uk [Source type: General]

.Hospital-acquired microorganisms may include resistant bacteria such as MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Serratia.^ High-risk gram-negative bacteria include the following: Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

^ In hospitalized patients, sputum or blood tests often indicate the presence of bacteria or other organisms, but such agents do not necessarily indicate pneumonia.

^ They are now used for serious hospital-acquired infection and for bacteria that have become resistant to other beta-lactam drugs.

.Because individuals with hospital-acquired pneumonia usually have underlying illnesses and are exposed to more dangerous bacteria, it tends to be more deadly than community-acquired pneumonia.^ This is called hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP).
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Cunha BA. Community-acquired pneumonia.

^ Community-acquired pneumonia .
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Topic Tracks - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.library.umc.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a subset of hospital-acquired pneumonia.^ Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Review Update in ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Guidelines for the management of adults with hospital-acquired, ventilator-associated, and healthcare-associated pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.VAP is pneumonia which occurs after at least 48 hours of intubation and mechanical ventilation.^ Failure can occur from mechanical changes in the lungs caused by the pneumonia (called ventilatory failure) or from loss of oxygen in the arteries when pneumonia results in abnormal blood flow (called hypoxemic respiratory failure).

Other types of pneumonia

SARS is a highly contagious and deadly type of pneumonia which first occurred in 2002 after initial outbreaks in China. SARS is caused by the SARS coronavirus, a previously unknown pathogen.
BOOP is caused by inflammation of the small airways of the lungs. It is also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis (COP).
Eosinophilic pneumonia is invasion of the lung by eosinophils, a particular kind of .white blood cell.^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A PMN is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Eosinophilic pneumonia often occurs in response to infection with a parasite or after exposure to certain types of environmental factors.^ Pneumonia in this setting often follows a viral respiratory infection.

^ Cytomegalovirus (CMV) pneumonia is an infection of the lungs that can occur in people who have a suppressed immune sy...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Pneumonia is usually triggered when a patient's defense system is weakened, most often by a simple viral upper respiratory tract infection or a case of influenza.

Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis) is caused by chemical toxicants such as pesticides, which may enter the body by .inhalation or by skin contact.^ Chemical pneumonia Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis ) is caused by chemical toxins such as pesticides , which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemical pneumonia Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis) is caused by chemical toxins such as pesticides, which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact.

^ Chemical pneumonia :Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis ) is caused by chemical toxin s such as pesticide s, which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.When the toxic substance is an oil, the pneumonia may be called lipoid pneumonia.^ When the toxic substance is an oil, the pneumonia may be called lipoid pneumonia.

^ When the toxic substance is an oil, the pneumonia may be called lipoid pneumonia .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the pneumonia starts in the bronchi and bronchioles (airways) and then spreads to patches of tissue in one or both lungs, it may be called "bronchopneumonia."
  • Bacterial Pneumonia (Viral Pneumonia) - treatment, diagnosis, complications, predicted outcome, medications 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.nmihi.com [Source type: Academic]

Aspiration pneumonia (or aspiration pneumonitis) is caused by aspirating foreign objects which are usually oral or gastric contents, either while eating, or after reflux or vomiting which results in bronchopneumonia. .The resulting lung inflammation is not an infection but can contribute to one, since the material aspirated may contain anaerobic bacteria or other unusual causes of pneumonia.^ Among the bacteria are those that cause serious respiratory infections, including pneumonia.

^ Exposure to chemicals can also cause inflammation and pneumonia.

^ Pneumonia may also be caused from infections that spread to the lungs through the bloodstream from other organs.

.Aspiration is a leading cause of death among hospital and nursing home patients, since they often cannot adequately protect their airways and may have otherwise impaired defenses.^ The points are added and the patients are scored: Patients who score low points on these findings are assigned class II and III; they can usually be treated at home or need only to be hospitalized for 24 hours for observation.

^ Often, however, a diagnosis is not straightforward, particularly in hospitalized patients.

^ HIV patients Health care workers, nursing home employees, and other who may expose high-risk people to the flu.

Dust pneumonia describes disorders caused by excessive exposure to dust storms, particularly during the Dust Bowl in the United States. .With dust pneumonia, dust settles all the way into the alveoli of the lungs, stopping the cilia from moving and preventing the lungs from ever clearing themselves.^ Infectious agents reach the lungs and cause pneumonia through different routes: Most often, organisms that cause pneumonia enter the lungs after being inhaled into the airways.

^ Pneumonia is sometimes defined in one of two ways according to its distribution in the lung: Lobar Pneumonia (occurs in one lobe of the lung).

^ Chest therapy using incentive spirometry, rhythmic inhalation and coughing, and chest tapping are all important techniques to loosen the mucus and move it up out of the lungs.

.
  • Necrotizing pneumonia, although overlapping with many other classifications, includes pneumonias that cause substantial necrosis of lung cells, and sometimes even lung abscess.^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

    ^ This organism, then, would very likely be picked up by the test even if it were not the cause of the pneumonia.

    ^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

    .Implicated bacteria are extremely commonly anaerobic bacteria, with or without additional facultatively anaerobic ones like Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.^ Abscesses are more common with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae , and uncommon with Streptococcus pneumoniae .

    ^ Empyema sometimes occurs with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae .

    ^ It is likely to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia-causing bacteria.

    [5] Type 3 pneumococcus is uncommonly implicated.[5]
  • Opportunistic pneumonia includes those that frequently strike immunocompromised victims. Main pathogens are cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis jiroveci, Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, invasive aspergillosis, invasive candidiasis, as well as the "usual bacteria" that strike immunocompetent people as well.[5]
  • .
  • Double pneumonia is a historical term for acute lung injury (ALI) or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).^ Adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS).

    ^ Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the specific condition that occurs when the lungs are unable to function and oxygen is so severely reduced that the patient's life is at risk.

    [8]. .However, the term was, and is used still, especially by lay people, to denote pneumonia affecting both lungs.^ Long-term use of corticosteroids and other medications that suppress the immune system increase the susceptibility to these pneumonias.

    ^ It should be noted, however, that codeine and other narcotics suppress coughing, so they should be used with care in pneumonia and often require monitoring.

    ^ Even in people with a weaker response, however, the vaccine is usually protective against serious flu complications, particularly pneumonia, if such people get the flu.

    Accordingly, the term 'double pneumonia' is more likely to be used to describe bilateral pneumonia than it is ALI or ARDS.

Signs and symptoms

Main symptoms of infectious pneumonia
.People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum, or phlegm and a high fever that may be accompanied by shaking chills.^ Cough that worsens over time and is often accompanied by phlegm .

^ People with pneumonia caused by anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides , which can produce abscesses, often have prolonged fever and productive cough, frequently showing blood in the sputum, which indicates necrosis (tissue death) in the lung.

^ It should be noted, however, that codeine and other narcotics suppress coughing, so they should be used with care in pneumonia and often require monitoring.

.Shortness of breath is also common, as is pleuritic chest pain, a sharp or stabbing pain, either experienced during deep breaths or coughs or worsened by them.^ Symptoms include coughing, shortness of breath, and trouble exercising.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ During recovery, the patient performs rhythmic breathing and coughing every four hours: Before starting the breathing exercise, the patient should tap lightly on the chest to loosen mucus within the lung.

^ (If heart failure affects the lungs, fluid-build up can occur and cause persistent cough, shortness of breath, and wheezing.

.People with pneumonia may cough up blood, experience headaches, or develop sweaty and clammy skin.^ Long spells of coughing may cause vomiting, and broken blood vessels in the eyes and on the skin.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some people who are infected with this type of pneumonia may never experience any symptoms.

^ This vaccine does not prevent influenza, but it may help prevent pneumonia in people who are susceptible to sever flus.

.Other possible symptoms are loss of appetite, fatigue, blueness of the skin, nausea, vomiting, mood swings, and joint pains or muscle aches.^ Symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain, and weight loss.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of menopause include hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, vaginal dryness, trouble concentrating, and infertility.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A type of drug that is used to treat severe mental and emotional disorders, severe nausea and vomiting, and certain other conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Less common forms of pneumonia can cause other symptoms; for instance, pneumonia caused by Legionella may cause abdominal pain and diarrhea, while pneumonia caused by tuberculosis or Pneumocystis may cause only weight loss and night sweats.^ Symptoms may include swelling of the abdomen, severe pain, and weight loss.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

^ Treatment given to relieve the symptoms and reduce the suffering caused by cancer and other life-threatening diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In elderly people, manifestations of pneumonia are seldom typical.^ However, for those people who are very young (under a year), elderly or have a weakened immune system, pneumonia can be fatal.

.They may develop a new or worsening confusion (delirium) or may experience unsteadiness, leading to falls.^ The funds help the cancer centers improve the way they are run and develop new ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Infants with pneumonia may have many of the symptoms above, but in many cases they are simply sleepy or have a decreased appetite.^ Infants with pneumonia may not have a cough.

^ Infants with pneumonia may have many of the symptoms above, but in many cases they are simply sleepy or have a decreased appetite.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of pneumonia may include: .
  • Pneumonia - AOL Health 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aolhealth.com [Source type: General]

[9]
.
Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, keeping oxygen from reaching the bloodstream.
^ A severe inflammation of the lungs in which the alveoli (tiny air sacs) are filled with fluid.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

^ In about 20% of patients who are hospitalized for pneumonia, this fluid builds up around the lung.

The alveolus on the left is normal, while the alveolus on the right is full of fluid from pneumonia.
.Symptoms of pneumonia need immediate medical evaluation.^ Persons with symptoms of pneumonia need immediate medical evaluation.

^ Symptoms of pneumonia need immediate medical evaluation.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Individuals with symptoms of pneumonia need medical evaluation.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.Physical examination by a health care provider may reveal fever or sometimes low body temperature, an increased respiratory rate, low blood pressure, a high heart rate, or a low oxygen saturation, which is the amount of oxygen in the blood as indicated by either pulse oximetry or blood gas analysis.^ Symptoms of pneumonia indicating a medical emergency include high fever, a rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, bluish-skin, and mental confusion.

^ Chemoprophylaxis also can be offered to unvaccinated staff who provide care to persons at high risk.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pheochromocytomas are usually benign (not cancer) but can cause high blood pressure, pounding headaches, heart palpitations, flushing of the face, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

People who are struggling to breathe, who are confused, or who have cyanosis (blue-tinged skin) require immediate attention.
.Findings from physical examination of the lungs may be normal, but often show decreased expansion of the chest on the affected side, bronchial breathing on auscultation with a stethoscope (harsher sounds from the larger airways transmitted through the inflamed and consolidated lung), and rales (or crackles) heard over the affected area during inspiration.^ Sounds in the chest that may indicate pneumonia are the following: Rales (a bubbling or crackling sound).

^ A more than normal amount of thick mucus made by the cells lining the upper airways and lungs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This may cause a decrease in the amount of oxygen that blood can absorb from air breathed into the lung.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Percussion may be dulled over the affected lung, but increased rather than decreased vocal resonance (which distinguishes it from a pleural effusion).^ This may cause a decrease in the amount of oxygen that blood can absorb from air breathed into the lung.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications of pneumonia, including pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and abscesses.

^ Aplastic anemia (decreased production of blood cells) may lead to PNH, and people with this disorder are at increased risk of acute myelogenous leukemia.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9] .While these signs are relevant, they are insufficient to diagnose or rule out a pneumonia; moreover, in studies it has been shown that two doctors can arrive at different findings on the same patient.^ While these signs are relevant, they are insufficient to diagnose or rule out a pneumonia; moreover, in studies it has been shown that two doctors can arrive at different findings on the same patient.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About a dozen different viruses including the same viruses that cause influenza are responsible for half of all cases of pneumonia.
  • dreddyclinic.com - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.dreddyclinic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Particularly for worried moms, this may seem counterintuitive, but a new study suggests that children with severe pneumonia can be treated just as effectively at home as they can be in a hospital.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

[10][11]

Cause

.Upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope.^ An X-ray showing normal lungs.

^ Upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.The white spaces are alveoli that contain air.^ A buildup of fluid in the alveoli (air spaces) in the lungs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope.^ It also shows pneumonia that’s affecting the lower lobe of the left lung.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Upper panel shows a normal lung under a microscope.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Lower panel shows a lung with pneumonia under a microscope.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

The alveoli are filled with inflammation and debris.
.Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.^ Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PNEUMONIA Pneumonia is a general term that refers to an infection of the lungs, which can be caused by a variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites.

^ Determining which microorganism is causing an individual's pneumonia is an important step in deciding treatment type and length.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

.When pneumonias are grouped this way, infectious causes are the most common type.^ Less common causes of infectious pneumonia include fungi and parasites .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This type of pneumonia has caused serious outbreaks.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

.The symptoms of infectious pneumonia are caused by the invasion of the lungs by microorganisms and by the immune system's response to the infection.^ Acute bronchitis is an infection in the passages that carry air from the throat to the lung causing a cough that produces phlegm.

^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

.Although more than one hundred strains of microorganism can cause pneumonia, only a few are responsible for most cases.^ Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Although over one hundred strains of microorganism can cause pneumonia, only a few of them are responsible for most cases.
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^ In one study, it was the cause of 14% of cases in a group of children with pneumonia.

.The most common causes of pneumonia are viruses and bacteria.^ Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( M. pneumoniae ) is the most common nonbacterial pneumonia.

^ It is likely to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia-causing bacteria.

^ Bacteria are the most common causes of pneumonia, but these infections can also be caused by other microbial organisms.

.Less common causes of infectious pneumonia are fungi and parasites.^ If these defenses are weakened or damaged, however, bacteria or other organisms, such as viruses, fungi, and parasites, can gain the upper hand, producing pneumonia.

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

^ Infectious agents reach the lungs and cause pneumonia through different routes: Most often, organisms that cause pneumonia enter the lungs after being inhaled into the airways.

Viruses

.Viruses invade cells in order to reproduce.^ Viruses must invade cells in order to reproduce.
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^ Viruses invade cells in order to reproduce.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Typically, a virus reaches the lungs when airborne droplets are inhaled through the mouth and nose.^ The physician inserts a fiberoptic tube into the lower respiratory tract through the nose or mouth.

^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

^ Infectious agents reach the lungs and cause pneumonia through different routes: Most often, organisms that cause pneumonia enter the lungs after being inhaled into the airways.

.Once in the lungs, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and alveoli.^ Once in the lungs, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and alveoli.
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^ Once the invading organisms are in your lungs, white blood cells — a key part of your immune system — begin to attack them.
  • Pneumonia - MayoClinic.com 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: General]

^ Once inside the alveoli, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli through connecting pores.
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.This invasion often leads to cell death, either when the virus directly kills the cells, or through a type of cell controlled self-destruction called apoptosis.^ This invasion often leads to cell death, either when the virus directly kills the cells, or through a type of cell controlled self-destruction called apoptosis.

^ This invasion often leads to cell death, either when the virus directly kills the cells, or through a type of cell self-destruction called apoptosis .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This invasion often leads to cell death, either when the virus directly kills the cells, or through a type of cell controlled self-destruction called apoptosis .
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the immune system responds to the viral infection, even more lung damage occurs.^ An inflammatory infection that occurs in the lung.

^ When the immune system responds to the viral infection, even more lung damage occurs.
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^ In people who do not improve, doctors look for unusual organisms, resistance to the antibiotic used for treatment, infection with a second organism, or some other disorder (such as a problem with the immune system or a lung abnormality) that is delaying recovery.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Pneumonia: Merck Manual Home Edition 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.merck.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.White blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, activate certain chemical cytokines which allow fluid to leak into the alveoli.^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A PMN is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This combination of cell destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the normal transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream.^ The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and interrupt normal oxygen transportation.
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^ This combination of cell destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the normal transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Pneumonia fills the lung's alveoli with fluid, keeping oxygen from reaching the bloodstream.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses affect other organs and thus disrupt many body functions.^ In addition to damaging the lungs, many viruses affect other organ s and thus can disrupt many different body functions.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It makes hormones that affect other glands and many body functions, especially growth.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses affect other organs and thus disrupt many body functions.
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.Viruses can also make the body more susceptible to bacterial infections; for which reason bacterial pneumonia often complicates viral pneumonia.^ Viral pneumonias may make a person susceptible to bacterial pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia, Robert Wood Johnson University Hospital, New Brunswick, NJ, 08903 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.rwjuh.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia in this setting often follows a viral respiratory infection.

^ Complications are more frequently associated with bacterial pneumonia than with viral pneumonia.
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.Viral pneumonia is commonly caused by viruses such as influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, and metapneumovirus.^ Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of pneumonia in infants and people with damaged immune systems.

^ Viruses that can cause or lead to pneumonia include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster (the cause of chicken pox), and adenovirus.

^ In fact, one study suggests that common liquid dish washing soaps are up to 100 times more effective than antibacterial soaps in killing respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which is known to cause pneumonia.

.Herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of pneumonia except in newborns.^ Viral pneumonia is pneumonia caused by a virus.

^ Herpes simplex virus .
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Herpes simplex virus is a rare cause of pneumonia except in newborns.
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.People with weakened immune systems are also at risk of pneumonia caused by cytomegalovirus (CMV).^ Pneumonia - weakened immune system .
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Pneumonia - weakened immune system * .
  • FloridaHealthFinder.gov | Health Encyclopedia | Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.floridahealthfinder.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are caused by microbes that are harmless to people with healthy immune systems.

Bacteria

The bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae, a common cause of pneumonia, photographed through an electron microscope.
.Bacteria typically enter the lung when airborne droplets are inhaled, but can also reach the lung through the bloodstream when there is an infection in another part of the body.^ Typically, a virus reaches the lungs when airborne droplets are inhaled through the mouth and nose.

^ Bacteria typically enter the lung when airborne droplets are inhaled, but they can also reach the lung through the bloodstream when there is an infection in another part of the body.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteria typically enter the lung when airborne droplets are inhaled, but can also reach the lung through the bloodstream when there is an infection in another part of the body.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.Many bacteria live in parts of the upper respiratory tract, such as the nose, mouth and sinuses, and can easily be inhaled into the alveoli.^ Antibiotics may be required for upper respiratory tract infections only under certain situations, such as the following: In patients, particularly small children or the elderly, who have medical conditions that put them at high risk for complications from such infections.

^ If these defenses are weakened or damaged, however, bacteria or other organisms, such as viruses, fungi, and parasites, can gain the upper hand, producing pneumonia.

^ The physician inserts a fiberoptic tube into the lower respiratory tract through the nose or mouth.

.Once inside, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli through connecting pores.^ Once in the lungs, the virus invades the cells lining the airways and alveoli.
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^ Once inside the alveoli, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli through connecting pores.
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^ Once inside, bacteria may invade the spaces between cells and between alveoli through connecting pores.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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.This invasion triggers the immune system to send neutrophils, a type of defensive white blood cell, to the lungs.^ A polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and also release cytokines, causing a general activation of the immune system.^ The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and they also release cytokine s, causing a general activation of the immune system.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and also release cytokines, causing a general activation of the immune system.

^ The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and they also release cytokines, causing a general activation of the immune system.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This leads to the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia.^ Bacterial pneumonia This is the most common type of pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia - Germs that cause pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.consumerreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is the most common type of bacterial pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia - Germs that cause pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.consumerreports.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This leads to the fever, chills, and fatigue common in bacterial and fungal pneumonia.

.The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and interrupt normal oxygen transportation.^ This combination of cell destruction and fluid-filled alveoli interrupts the normal transportation of oxygen into the bloodstream.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ As the lungs fill with fluid, oxygen has trouble reaching the blood.
  • Colloidal silver for Pneumonia treatment 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.colloidsforlife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The neutrophils, bacteria, and fluid from surrounding blood vessels fill the alveoli and interrupt normal oxygen transportation.
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.Bacteria often travel from an infected lung into the bloodstream, causing serious or even fatal illness such as septic shock, with low blood pressure and damage to multiple parts of the body including the brain, kidneys, and heart.^ Among the bacteria are those that cause serious respiratory infections, including pneumonia.

^ Pheochromocytomas are usually benign (not cancer) but can cause high blood pressure, pounding headaches, heart palpitations, flushing of the face, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These guidelines are divided into those for patients at risk for VAP caused by multidrug-resistant organisms and those for patients without such risk.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Bacteria can also travel to the area between the lungs and the chest wall (the pleural cavity) causing a complication called an empyema.^ The area in the front part of the chest between the lungs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The narrow zone between these two pleural membranes normally contains a tiny amount of fluid that helps lubricate the lung.

^ It may reveal the following: White areas in the lung called infiltrates, which indicate infection.

.The most common causes of bacterial pneumonia are Streptococcus pneumoniae and "atypical" bacteria.^ The most common form of pneumonia is pneumococcal pneumonia .

^ Walking pneumonia is usually caused by a virus or by atypical bacteria.
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^ CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.
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  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

Atypical bacteria are parasitic bacteria that live intracellular or do not have a cell wall. .Moreover they cause generally less severe pneumonia, thus atypical symptoms, and respond to different antibiotics than other bacteria.^ Walking pneumonia is usually caused by a virus or by atypical bacteria.
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^ Different types of germs cause different types of symptoms.

^ Pneumonias can be classified in several different ways.
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.The types of Gram-positive bacteria that cause pneumonia can be found in the nose or mouth of many healthy people.^ An aggressive (fast-growing) type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in which too many lymphoblasts (immature white blood cells) are found in the lymph nodes and the thymus gland.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), a second-generation quinolone, remains the most potent quinolone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria but is not very effective for gram-positive bacteria.

^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

.Streptococcus pneumoniae, often called "pneumococcus", is the most common bacterial cause of pneumonia in all age groups except newborn infants.^ Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( M. pneumoniae ) is the most common nonbacterial pneumonia.

^ The following are common gram-positive bacteria: The most common cause of pneumonia is the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called S. pneumoniae or pneumococcal pneumonia ).

^ Influenza viruses cause disease in all age groups (3,4).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Pneumococcus kills approximately one million children annually, mostly in developing countries.^ Approximately 5 million cases of pneumonia occur annually.
  • http://www.jointcommissionreport.org/safetyperformance/pneumonia-care-performance.aspx 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.jointcommissionreport.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia and WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.

^ Prevention of diarrhea and pneumonia by zinc supplementation in children in developing countries: Pooled analysis of randomized controlled trials.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Another important Gram-positive cause of pneumonia is Staphylococcus aureus, with Streptococcus agalactiae being an important cause of pneumonia in newborn babies.^ Abscesses are more common with Staphylococcus aureus or Klebsiella pneumoniae , and uncommon with Streptococcus pneumoniae .

^ The most common gram-negative species causing pneumonia is Haemophilus influenzae (generally occurring in patients with chronic lung disease, older patients, and alcoholics).

^ The following are common gram-positive bacteria: The most common cause of pneumonia is the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called S. pneumoniae or pneumococcal pneumonia ).

.Gram-negative bacteria cause pneumonia less frequently than gram-positive bacteria.^ The stains determine if they are gram-negative or gram-positive bacteria.

^ Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), a second-generation quinolone, remains the most potent quinolone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria but is not very effective for gram-positive bacteria.

^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

.Some of the gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Moraxella catarrhalis.^ High-risk gram-negative bacteria include the following: Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

^ Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of pneumonia that occurs in the hospital (nosocomial pneumonia).

^ Other gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include E. coli (a cause in newborns), Proteus (found in several damaged lung tissue), and Enterobacter .

.These bacteria often live in the stomach or intestines and may enter the lungs if vomit is inhaled.^ These bacteria often live in the stomach or intestines and may enter the lungs if vomit is inhaled.
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^ Secondary pneumonia may follow initial lung damage from a noxious chemical or other insult (superinfection), or may result from hematogenous spread of bacteria from a distant focus.
  • Pneumonia - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.health-diseases.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Infectious agents reach the lungs and cause pneumonia through different routes: Most often, organisms that cause pneumonia enter the lungs after being inhaled into the airways.

."Atypical" bacteria which cause pneumonia include Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila.^ Legionella is sometimes categorized as an atypical pneumonia.

^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

^ Legionnaire's disease, first diagnosed in 1976, is caused by the organism Legionella pneumophila, and is acquired by breathing droplets of contaminated water.

Fungi

.Fungal pneumonia is uncommon, but it may occur in individuals with immune system problems due to AIDS, immunosuppresive drugs, or other medical problems.^ PT-100 may help the immune system block the growth of cancer cells.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It also prevents the growth of blood vessels needed for tumors to grow and may make tumor cells more sensitive to other anticancer drugs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Purple coneflower may interfere with treatment that uses the immune system to fight cancer.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The pathophysiology of pneumonia caused by fungi is similar to that of bacterial pneumonia.^ Fungi can also cause pneumonia.
  • GHI - Health & Wellness: Pneumonia (The Basics) 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ghi.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The pathophysiology of pneumonia caused by fungi is similar to that of bacterial pneumonia.
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^ Bacterial pneumonia is usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, and it can be...
  • Pneumonia - Kosmix : Reference, Videos, Images, News, Shopping and more... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC health.kosmix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Fungal pneumonia is most often caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, blastomyces, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jiroveci, and Coccidioides immitis. Histoplasmosis is most common in the Mississippi River basin, and coccidioidomycosis in the southwestern United States.

Parasites

.A variety of parasites can affect the lungs.^ A variety of parasites can affect the lungs.
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^ Pneumonia can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria , viruses , fungi , or parasites , and chemical or physical injury to the lungs.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pneumonia can result from a variety of causes, including infection with bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, and chemical or physical injury to the lungs.

.These parasites typically enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed.^ These parasites typically enter the body through the skin or by being swallowed.
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  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemical pneumonia Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis) is caused by chemical toxins such as pesticides, which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact.

^ Infectious agents reach the lungs and cause pneumonia through different routes: Most often, organisms that cause pneumonia enter the lungs after being inhaled into the airways.

.Once inside, they travel to the lungs, usually through the blood.^ Once inside, they travel to the lungs, usually through the blood.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Once inside the body, they travel to the lungs, usually through the blood.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ They occur when pockets of pus form around or inside the lung.

.There, as in other cases of pneumonia, a combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation.^ There, as in other cases of pneumonia, a combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ There, as in other types of pneumonia, a combination of cellular destruction and immune response causes disruption of oxygen transportation.
  • PNEUMONIA 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Staphylococcus aureus , Moraxella catarrhalis , Streptococcus pyogenes , Neisseria meningitidis , Klebsiella pneumoniae , or Haemophilus influenzae are other bacteria that can cause pneumonia.

.One type of white blood cell, the eosinophil, responds vigorously to parasite infection.^ A polymorphonuclear leukocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Eosinophils in the lungs can lead to eosinophilic pneumonia, thus complicating the underlying parasitic pneumonia.^ In some persons, influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions (e.g., pulmonary or cardiac disease) or lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia or primary influenza viral pneumonia (22).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications of pneumonia, including pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and abscesses.

^ Severe hemoptysis (coughing up blood) is another potentially serious complication of pneumonia, particularly in patients with other lung problems such as cystic fibrosis.

.The most common parasites causing pneumonia are Toxoplasma gondii, Strongyloides stercoralis, and Ascariasis.^ Mycoplasma pneumoniae ( M. pneumoniae ) is the most common nonbacterial pneumonia.

^ It is likely to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia-causing bacteria.

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

Idiopathic

.Idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (IIP) are a class of diffuse lung diseases.^ The most common gram-negative species causing pneumonia is Haemophilus influenzae (generally occurring in patients with chronic lung disease, older patients, and alcoholics).

^ Consequently in some patients, particularly if the pneumonia is not diffuse and involves the left lung or upper lobes, the diagnosis of VAP could be missed by blind sampling.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is common in pneumonia patients with chronic or severe lung disease.

.In some types of IIP, e.g.^ In some types of IIP, e.g.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some types of IIP the cause of the pneumonia is known, e.g.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

some types of .usual interstitial pneumonia, the cause, indeed, is unknown or idiopathic.^ Pulmonary edema is usually caused by heart problems, but it can also be caused by high blood pressure, pneumonia, certain toxins and medicines, or living at a high altitude.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia is usually caused by infection but may also be caused by radiation therapy, allergy, or irritation of lung tissue by inhaled substances.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In some types of IIP the cause of the pneumonia is known, e.g.^ This type of pneumonia has caused serious outbreaks.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ In some types of IIP the cause of the pneumonia is known, e.g.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of the gram-negative bacteria that cause pneumonia include Haemophilus influenzae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Moraxella catarrhalis .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

desquamative interstitial pneumonia is caused by smoking, and the name is a misnomer.

Diagnosis

.
Pneumonia as seen on chest x-ray. A: Normal chest x-ray.
^ A chest x-ray is nearly always taken to confirm a diagnosis of pneumonia.

B: Abnormal chest x-ray with shadowing from pneumonia in the right lung (white area, left side of image).
CT of the chest demonstrating right sided pneumonia ( left side of the image ).
.If pneumonia is suspected on the basis of a patient's symptoms and findings from physical examination, further investigations are needed to confirm the diagnosis.^ Diagnosis of pneumonia in mechanically ventilated patients.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Radiologic Diagnosis While the portable chest radiograph still remains a mandatory component in the diagnosis of ventilated patients with suspected pneumonia, as with clinical criteria for diagnosing VAP, it too has problems with both sensitivity and specificity.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Further studies are needed to determine multiple-dose pharmacokinetics and the most appropriate dosages for patients with renal insufficiency.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Information from a chest X-ray and blood tests are helpful, and sputum cultures in some cases.^ The fluid is then tested using blood cell counts, Gram stains, cultures, and chemical tests.

^ Although VAP spreads to the blood or pleural space in <10% of cases, if an organism known to cause pneumonia is cultured in the setting of clinically suspected pneumonia, treatment is warranted.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A urine test can be used to diagnose some cases of Legionnaire's disease.

.The chest X-ray is typically used for diagnosis in hospitals and some clinics with X-ray facilities.^ The chest X-ray is typically used for diagnosis in hospitals and some clinics with X-ray facilities.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A chest x-ray is nearly always taken to confirm a diagnosis of pneumonia.

^ In some cases, chest CT ( computed tomography ) can reveal pneumonia that is not seen on chest x-ray.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in a community setting (general practice), pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and physical examination alone.^ However, in a community setting (general practice), pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and physical examination alone.

^ However, in a community setting ( general practice ), pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and physical examination alone.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is called community-based pneumonia.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Diagnosing pneumonia can be difficult in some people, especially those who have other illnesses.^ It explains how many people will be in the study, who is eligible to take part in it, what study drugs or other interventions will be given, what tests will be done and how often, and what information will be collected.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Occasionally a chest CT scan or other tests may be needed to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses.^ Occasionally a chest CT scan or other tests may be needed to distinguish pneumonia from other illnesses.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Chest CT scan.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Pneumonia may also occur from chemical or physical injury to the lungs, or indirectly due to another medical illness, such as lung cancer or alcohol abuse .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

Investigations

.An important test for pneumonia in unclear situations is a chest x-ray.^ An important test for pneumonia in unclear situations is a chest x-ray .
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A chest x ray is the best test for diagnosing pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Chest X-ray showing pneumonia .
  • Pneumonia - MayoClinic.com 16 September 2009 12:40 UTC www.mayoclinic.com [Source type: General]

.Chest x-rays can reveal areas of opacity (seen as white) which represent consolidation.^ It may reveal the following: White areas in the lung called infiltrates, which indicate infection.

.Pneumonia is not always seen on x-rays, either because the disease is only in its initial stages, or because it involves a part of the lung not easily seen by x-ray.^ Pneumonia is not always seen on x-rays, either because the disease is only in its initial stages, or because it involves a part of the lung not easily seen by x-ray.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It may involve part or all of the lungs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia kills babies only because of lack of political will.
  • Pssst. Pneumonia. Pass it on. - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.In some cases, chest CT (computed tomography) can reveal pneumonia that is not seen on chest x-ray.^ A chest x-ray is nearly always taken to confirm a diagnosis of pneumonia.

^ Computed tomography (CT) scans or MRIs may be obtained in the following circumstances: If x-ray results are unclear.

^ Some experts even believe it causes 29% to 47% of all pneumonia cases.

.X-rays can be misleading, because other problems, like lung scarring and congestive heart failure, can mimic pneumonia on x-ray.^ Pulmonary edema is usually caused by heart problems, but it can also be caused by high blood pressure, pneumonia, certain toxins and medicines, or living at a high altitude.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Died, from pneumonia and congestive heart failure , in Sibley Memorial Hospital , Washington , D.C., January 28, 2007 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

^ Died, of pneumonia and congestive heart failure , in the Bethesda Naval Hospital , Bethesda, Montgomery County , Md., August 5, 1956 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

[13] Chest x-rays are also used to evaluate for complications of pneumonia (see below.)
.If antibiotics fail to improve the patient's health, or if the health care provider has concerns about the diagnosis, a culture of the person's sputum may be requested.^ A collection of information about a person’s health.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chemoprophylaxis also can be offered to unvaccinated staff who provide care to persons at high risk.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A patient advocate helps resolve issues about health care, medical bills, and job discrimination related to a patient's medical condition.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Sputum cultures generally take at least two to three days, so they are mainly used to confirm that the infection is sensitive to an antibiotic that has already been started.^ Sputum cultures generally take at least two to three days, so they are mainly used to confirm that the infection is sensitive to an antibiotic that has already been started.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ This test may be less useful if you have already started using antibiotics.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the start of the home remedy treatment under this diet, the patient should have to comply with the rule that they have to take in raw juices for about five or ten days.
  • Pneumonia Home Remedies - Pneumonia Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A blood sample may similarly be cultured to look for bacteria in the blood.^ In the laboratory, the sputum sample may be used as follows: A Gram's stain is made, which may reveal the presence of bacteria and whether they are gram-negative or positive.

^ Taking supplements of acidophilus or eating yogurt with active cultures may help restore healthy bacteria that offset the risk for such infections.

^ A PA may take medical histories, do physical exams, take blood and urine samples, care for wounds, and give injections and immunizations.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Any bacteria identified are then tested to see which antibiotics will be most effective.^ Any bacteria identified are then tested to see which antibiotics will be most effective.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ If a bacterium is suspected, a culture and sensitivity test can be performed to identify the type of bacteria, and then choose the proper antibiotics.
  • Pneumonitis & Pneumonia (Infection/Inflammation) in Dogs 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonitis & Pneumonia (Lung Infections/Inflammation) in Cats 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.peteducation.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Ciprofloxacin (Cipro), a second-generation quinolone, remains the most potent quinolone against Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria but is not very effective for gram-positive bacteria.

.A complete blood count may show a high white blood cell count, indicating the presence of an infection or inflammation.^ Blood tests may be used for the following: White blood cell count.

^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ High levels indicate infection.

.In some people with immune system problems, the white blood cell count may appear deceptively normal.^ Blood tests may be used for the following: White blood cell count.

^ A plasmacyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A phagocyte is a type of white blood cell.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Blood tests may be used to evaluate kidney function (important when prescribing certain antibiotics) or to look for low blood sodium.^ Blood tests may be used for the following: White blood cell count.

^ It may reduce absorption of certain antibiotics.

^ The fluid is then tested using blood cell counts, Gram stains, cultures, and chemical tests.

.Low blood sodium in pneumonia is thought to be due to extra anti-diuretic hormone produced when the lungs are diseased (SIADH).^ Symptoms of pneumonia indicating a medical emergency include high fever, a rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, bluish-skin, and mental confusion.

^ It is common in pneumonia patients with chronic or severe lung disease.

^ Anyone at risk for serious complications, including people with heart disease, lung problems, immune deficiencies, diabetes, kidney disease, or chronic blood disease.

.Specific blood serology tests for other bacteria (Mycoplasma, Legionella and Chlamydophila) and a urine test for Legionella antigen are available.^ Alcohol also interferes with the actions of macrophages, the white blood cells that destroy bacteria and other microbes.

^ A rise in the blood level of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) in prostate cancer patients after treatment with surgery or radiation.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, people harbor many bacteria, and sputum and blood tests are not always effective in distinguishing between harmless and harmful microscopic agents.

.Respiratory secretions can also be tested for the presence of viruses such as influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and adenovirus.^ Viruses that can cause or lead to pneumonia include influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster (the cause of chicken pox), and adenovirus.

^ Glezen WP, Taber LH, Frank AL, Kasel JA. Risk of primary infection and reinfection with respiratory syncytial virus.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Between 2% to 9% of hospitalized pneumonia cases in the elderly may be due to respiratory syncytial virus.

.Liver function tests should be carried out to test for damage caused by sepsis.^ Died of liver damage caused by cancer treatment, and pneumonia , at Brigham and Women's Hospital , Boston, Suffolk County , Mass., January 18, 1997 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

[9]

Combining findings

One study created a prediction rule that found the five following signs best predicted infiltrates on the chest radiograph of 1134 patients presenting to an emergency room:[14]
  • Temperature > 100 degrees F (37.8 degrees C)
  • Pulse > 100 beats/min
  • Rales/crackles
  • Decreased breath sounds
  • Absence of asthma
The probability of an infiltrate in two separate validations was based on the number of findings:
  • 5 findings - 84% to 91% probability
  • 4 findings - 58% to 85%
  • 3 findings - 35% to 51%
  • 2 findings - 14% to 24%
  • 1 findings - 5% to 9%
  • 0 findings - 2% to 3%
.A subsequent study[15] comparing four prediction rules to physician judgment found that two rules, the one above[14] and also[16] were more accurate than physician judgment because of the increased specificity of the prediction rules.^ Some experts argue, however, that a lung tap offers a more accurate solution than other methods for identifying bacteria and the risk it poses is slight.

^ One of four pea-sized glands found on the surface of the thyroid.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In one study of PSB, having fewer than 10% neutrophils on direct examination was uniformly associated with negative cultures, a finding that would contribute significantly to the specificity and positive predictive value of the procedure ( 142 ).
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Differential diagnosis

.Several diseases and/or conditions can present with similar clinical features to pneumonia and as such care must be taken in the proper diagnosis of the disease.^ Several diseases and/or conditions can present with similar clinical features to pneumonia and as such care must be taken in the proper diagnosis of the disease.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pneumonia 'Legionnaire's disease' is caused by the bacterium Legionella pneumophila and is found in faulty air conditioning units of large buildings e.g.

^ Entities such as cancers, pulmonary edema, pulmonary embolus, pulmonary hemorrhage, connective tissue diseases, or drug toxicity may mimic the clinical and radiographic appearance of pneumonia.

.Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma can present with a polyphonic wheeze, similar to that of pneumonia.^ In some persons, influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions (e.g., pulmonary or cardiac disease) or lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia or primary influenza viral pneumonia (22).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Died, of a pulmonary embolism , while hospitalized for pneumonia and suffering from Parkinson's disease , in Naples Community Hospital , Naples, Collier County , Fla., April 11, 2003 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

^ During influenza epidemics, deaths can increase from influenza and pneumonia as well as from exacerbations of cardiopulmonary conditions and other chronic diseases.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Pulmonary edema can be mistaken for pneumonia (and vice versa), especially in the elderly, due to its similar symptoms and signs.^ Between 2% to 9% of hospitalized pneumonia cases in the elderly may be due to respiratory syncytial virus.

^ Studies indicate that RSV pneumonia may also be more common than previously thought in adults, especially the elderly.

^ Pulmonary edema is usually caused by heart problems, but it can also be caused by high blood pressure, pneumonia, certain toxins and medicines, or living at a high altitude.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Other diseases to be taken into consideration include bronchiectasis, lung cancer and pulmonary emboli.^ Mutations (changes) in the gene that makes PTEN tyrosine phosphatase are found in many types of cancer and other diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Treatment given to relieve the symptoms and reduce the suffering caused by cancer and other life-threatening diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Relief of symptoms and suffering caused by cancer and other life-threatening diseases.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Prevention

.There are several ways to prevent infectious pneumonia.^ Pneumonias can be classified in several different ways.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonias can be classified in several ways.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research shows that there are several ways to prevent pneumonia in newborn infants.

.Appropriately treating underlying illnesses (such as AIDS) can decrease a person's risk of pneumonia.^ However, among such persons, the vaccine can be effective in preventing secondary complications and reducing the risk for hospitalization and death (31,40,41).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In some persons, influenza can exacerbate underlying medical conditions (e.g., pulmonary or cardiac disease) or lead to secondary bacterial pneumonia or primary influenza viral pneumonia (22).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Influenza vaccine is strongly recommended for any person aged greater than or equal to 6 months who -- because of age or underlying medical condition -- is at increased risk for complications of influenza.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Smoking cessation is important not only because it helps to limit lung damage, but also because cigarette smoke interferes with many of the body's natural defenses against pneumonia.^ Smoking cessation is important not only because it helps to limit lung damage, but also because cigarette smoke interferes with many of the body's natural defenses against pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia is not always seen on x-rays, either because the disease is only in its initial stages, or because it involves a part of the lung not easily seen by x-ray.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, antibiotics are not useful for viral pneumonia, although they sometimes are used to treat or prevent bacterial infections that can occur in lungs damaged by a viral pneumonia.

.Research shows that there are several ways to prevent pneumonia in newborn infants.^ Pneumonias can be classified in several different ways.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonias can be classified in several ways.
  • Pneumonia encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Research shows that there are several ways to prevent pneumonia in newborn infants.

.Testing pregnant women for Group B Streptococcus and Chlamydia trachomatis, and then giving antibiotic treatment if needed, reduces pneumonia in infants.^ If the pneumonia is severe enough for hospitalization, the standard treatment is intravenous administration of antibiotics for five to eight days.

^ Pneumonia poses a special hazard for pregnant women.

^ These studies test the best way to give a new treatment (for example, by mouth, intravenous infusion, or injection) and the best dose.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Suctioning the mouth and throat of infants with meconium-stained amniotic fluid decreases the rate of aspiration pneumonia.
.Vaccination is important for preventing pneumonia in both children and adults.^ Murphy BR. Use of live attenuated cold-adapted influenza A reassortant virus vaccines in infants, children, young adults, and elderly adults.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This vaccine does not prevent influenza, but it may help prevent pneumonia in people who are susceptible to sever flus.

^ Chlamydia pneumoniae , Mycoplasma pneumoniae , and the respiratory syncytial virus are becoming important suspects in many cases of severe adult asthma.

.Vaccinations against Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae in the first year of life have greatly reduced the role these bacteria play in causing pneumonia in children.^ All children under five should be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae.

^ This antibiotic is useful against many S. pneumoniae bacteria but not against H. influenzae.

^ It is likely to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia-causing bacteria.

.Vaccinating children against Streptococcus pneumoniae has also led to a decreased incidence of these infections in adults because many adults acquire infections from children.^ Vaccination is important for preventing pneumonia in both children and adults.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults.
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^ A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae is also available for adults.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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.Hib vaccine is now widely used around the globe.^ Increasing vaccination coverage among these high-risk groups now is the highest priority for expanding influenza vaccine use.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The childhood pneumococcal vaccine is still as of 2009 predominantly used in high-income countries, though this is changing.^ Persons at high risk for complications of influenza still can be vaccinated after an outbreak of influenza A has begun in a community.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, Nicaragua is one of 11 countries which has been approved for GAVI funding to use the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.
  • Pssst. Pneumonia. Pass it on. - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Increasing vaccination coverage among these high-risk groups now is the highest priority for expanding influenza vaccine use.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In 2009, Rwanda became the first low-income country to introduce pneumococcal conjugate vaccine into their national immunization program.^ By the end of this year, nearly every one of the world’s 72 poorest countries will have Hib vaccine in their routine immunization program or have a date for its inclusion and next month we’ll see the first of these low-income countries, Rwanda, introduce the new life-saving pneumococcal vaccines.
  • Pssst. Pneumonia. Pass it on. - Nicholas D. Kristof Blog - NYTimes.com 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC kristof.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Childhood immunizations, including the recently released heptavalent pneumococcal vaccine, help decrease the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The vaccine for children is called the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) (What is a PDF document?
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]
.A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae is also available for adults.^ The effectiveness of vaccination against influenza in healthy, working adults.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The vaccinations protect against influenza in between 70% and 100% of healthy adults when the virus and the vaccine are well matched.

^ Even in people with a weaker response, however, the vaccine is usually protective against serious flu complications, particularly pneumonia, if such people get the flu.

.In the U.S., it is currently recommended for all healthy individuals older than 65 and any adults with emphysema, congestive heart failure, diabetes mellitus, cirrhosis of the liver, alcoholism, cerebrospinal fluid leaks, or those who do not have a spleen.^ A reduction in dosage to 100 mg/day of rimantadine is recommended for persons who have severe hepatic dysfunction or those with creatinine clearance <=10 mL/min.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Died, from pneumonia and congestive heart failure , in Sibley Memorial Hospital , Washington , D.C., January 28, 2007 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

^ Died, of pneumonia and congestive heart failure , in the Bethesda Naval Hospital , Bethesda, Montgomery County , Md., August 5, 1956 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

.A repeat vaccination may also be required after five or ten years.^ A repeat vaccination may also be required after five or ten years.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Older people who have had transplant operations or those with kidney disease may require a revaccination after six years.

^ Estimates of the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia range from four to five million cases per year, with about 25% requiring hospitalization.

[18]
.Influenza vaccines should be given yearly to the same individuals who receive vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae.^ Influenza vaccine does not affect the safety of mothers who are breastfeeding or their infants.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Pregnant women who have medical conditions that increase their risk for complications from influenza should be vaccinated before the influenza season -- regardless of the stage of pregnancy.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Persons at high risk who received the previous season's vaccine before travel should be revaccinated with the current vaccine in the following fall or winter.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, health care workers, nursing home residents, and pregnant women should receive the vaccine.^ In addition, health care workers, nursing home residents, and pregnant women should receive the vaccine.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Nursing home resident .
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pregnant women who have medical conditions that increase their risk for complications from influenza should be vaccinated before the influenza season -- regardless of the stage of pregnancy.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[19] .When an influenza outbreak is occurring, medications such as amantadine, rimantadine, zanamivir, and oseltamivir can help prevent influenza.^ Use of an antiviral agent (amantadine or rimantadine) is an option for preventing influenza A among such persons.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Primary care includes physical exams, treatment of common medical conditions, and preventive care such as immunizations and screenings.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Such patients should be monitored closely if amantadine or rimantadine chemoprophylaxis is administered.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[20][21]

Treatment

.Most cases of pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization.^ Most cases of pneumonia can be treated without hospitalization.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Most people with pneumonia can be treated at home.

^ For most people, pneumonia can be treated at home.
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.Typically, oral antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care are sufficient for complete resolution.^ Typically, oral antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care are sufficient for complete resolution.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Antibiotics, rest, fluids, and home care are all that you need in order to recover.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

.However, people with pneumonia who are having trouble breathing, people with other medical problems, and the elderly may need more advanced treatment.^ In elderly people the manifestations of pneumonia may not be typical.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia is more serious in this group, because they often have and may develop other medical problems.
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^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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.If the symptoms get worse, the pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, or complications occur, the person will often have to be hospitalized.^ If the symptoms get worse, the pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, or complications occur, the person will often have to be hospitalized.

^ If pneumonia does not improve with home treatment, symptoms get worse, or signs of complications of pneumonia develop, you may have to go to the hospital.
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Home treatment is important for recovery from pneumonia .
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bacterial

.Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

^ Dozens of antibiotics are available that can treat most cases of pneumonia in or out of the hospital, but it is sometimes difficult for the physician to select the best drug.

^ It is has been approved for treating community acquired pneumonia and is showing great promise in treating many of the otherwise antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains.

.The antibiotic choice depends on the nature of the pneumonia, the most common microorganisms causing pneumonia in the local geographic area, and the immune status and underlying health of the individual.^ Treatment depends on the cause of pneumonia; bacterial pneumonia is treated with antibiotics.

^ Pneumonia can be caused by microorganisms, irritants and unknown causes.
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^ CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.
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  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

.Treatment for pneumonia should ideally be based on the causative microorganism and its known antibiotic sensitivity.^ Although antibiotics are available that can destroy a wide spectrum of organisms, it would be preferable to use an antibiotic that can target the specific microorganism causing the pneumonia.

^ If the pneumonia is severe enough for hospitalization, the standard treatment is intravenous administration of antibiotics for five to eight days.

^ Needless to say, antibiotics are warranted if the coughing is caused by pneumonia.

.However, a specific cause for pneumonia is identified in only 50% of people, even after extensive evaluation.^ However, a specific cause for pneumonia is identified in only 50% of people, even after extensive evaluation.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed by Carl Friedländer and Albert Fränkel in 1882 and 1884, respectively.
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^ Pneumonia is a common illness, occurs in all age groups, and is a leading cause of death among the elderly and people who are chronically ill.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

.March 2009" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Because treatment should generally not be delayed in any person with a serious pneumonia, empiric treatment is usually started well before laboratory reports are available.^ Persons at high risk who received the previous season's vaccine before travel should be revaccinated with the current vaccine in the following fall or winter.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These local reactions generally are mild and rarely interfere with the person's ability to conduct usual daily activities.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The daily dose of amantadine for persons aged greater than or equal to 65 years should not exceed 100 mg for prophylaxis or treatment, because renal function declines with increasing age.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In the United Kingdom, amoxicillin and clarithromycin or erythromycin are the antibiotics selected for most patients with community-acquired pneumonia; patients allergic to penicillins are given erythromycin instead of amoxicillin.^ Most patients with mild pneumonia can be treated at home with oral antibiotics.

^ Modification of empiric antibiotic treatment in patients with pneumonia acquired in the intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Typical bacterial, community acquired pneumonias for example, are usually caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , or Moraxella catarrhalis , which have traditionally been treated with penicillin or other standard antibiotics.

[22] .In North America, where the "atypical" forms of community-acquired pneumonia are becoming more common, macrolides (such as azithromycin and clarithromycin), the fluoroquinolones, and doxycycline have displaced amoxicillin as first-line outpatient treatment for community-acquired pneumonia.^ Other organisms, such as atypical bacteria called Chlamydia or Mycoplasma pneumonia are also common causes of community-acquired pneumonia.

^ An oral macrolide, either erythromycin, clarithromycin, or azithromycin, is the first choice for children or young people with mild to moderate atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma or Chlamydia , without other medical problems.

^ See more articles cited in this paragraph Pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones against Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired respiratory tract infections.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[23] .The duration of treatment has traditionally been seven to ten days, but there is increasing evidence that shorter courses (as short as three days) are sufficient.^ The duration of treatment has traditionally been seven to ten days, but there is increasing evidence that shorter courses (as short as three days) are sufficient.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ At the start of the home remedy treatment under this diet, the patient should have to comply with the rule that they have to take in raw juices for about five or ten days.
  • Pneumonia Home Remedies - Pneumonia Treatment - Natural Remedies & Cure for Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.natural-homeremedies.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A short course (6 to 8 days) can be administered to patients with VAP but is dependent on the patient physiologic response to treatment along with which organisms have been recovered (see above) ( 32 , 144 ).
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[24][25][26]
.Antibiotics for hospital-acquired pneumonia include third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, and vancomycin.^ Hospital-acquired pneumonia.

^ Powerful antibiotics used against these organisms include the fourth-generation cephalosporin cefepime or carbapenems, such as meropenem.

^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

[27] .These antibiotics are usually given intravenously.^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

.Multiple antibiotics may be administered in combination in an attempt to treat all of the possible causative microorganisms.^ Multiple antibiotics may be administered in combination in an attempt to treat all of the possible causative microorganisms.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Pneumonia caused by a virus usually cannot be treated with antibiotics.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

.Antibiotic choices vary from hospital to hospital because of regional differences in the most likely microorganisms, and because of differences in the microorganisms' abilities to resist various antibiotic treatments.^ Also, hospitals tend to have more germs that are resistant to antibiotics (antibiotics are a treatment for pneumonia).
  • Pneumonia: Know the Facts For Infection Prevention | Womens Health Base 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.womenshealthbase.com [Source type: General]

^ Antibiotic choices vary from hospital to hospital because of regional differences in the most likely microorganisms, and because of differences in the microorganisms' abilities to resist various antibiotic treatments.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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^ Hospital-acquired microorganisms may include resistant bacteria such as MRSA, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, and Serratia.

.People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen.^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen.

^ People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum, or phlegm and a high fever that may be accompanied by shaking chills.

.Those who are extremely sick may require intensive care, including endotracheal intubation and artificial ventilation.^ Randomized, controlled trial of selective digestive decontamination in 600 mechanically ventilated patients in a multidisciplinary intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, daily interruption of sedation results in a reduced incidence of intensive care unit complications, in which VAP was included ( 127 , 180 ).
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Prolongation of hospital stay and extra costs due to ventilator-associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Over the counter cough medicine has not been found to be helpful in pneumonia.^ WHERE ELSE CAN HELP FOR PNEUMONIA BE FOUND? .

[28]

Viral

.Viral pneumonia caused by influenza A may be treated with rimantadine or amantadine, while viral pneumonia caused by influenza A or B may be treated with oseltamivir or zanamivir.^ The currently licensed agents are amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride, which are chemically related antiviral drugs with specific activity against influenza A viruses but not influenza B viruses.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The screening of epidemic strains of influenza A has rarely detected amantadine- and rimantadine-resistant viruses (138,143).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, the use of influenza-specific antiviral drugs (amantadine or rimantadine) for chemoprophylaxis or therapy of influenza A infection is an important adjunct to vaccine (see Recommendations for the Use of Antiviral Agents for Influenza A).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These treatments are beneficial only if they are started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.^ These treatments are beneficial only if they are started within 48 hours of the onset of symptoms.

^ Recent studies have found neuraminidase inhibitors to be 67%-82% effective in preventing laboratory-confirmed infection when administered as prophylaxis (144,145) and to reduce the duration of illness by 1-1.5 days when started within 36-48 hours of illness onset.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When administered as treatment within 48 hours of illness onset in healthy adults, amantadine and rimantadine can reduce the severity and duration of signs and symptoms of influenza A illness.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Many strains of H5N1 influenza A, also known as avian influenza or "bird flu," have shown resistance to rimantadine and amantadine.^ The screening of epidemic strains of influenza A has rarely detected amantadine- and rimantadine-resistant viruses (138,143).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Use of an antiviral agent (amantadine or rimantadine) is an option for preventing influenza A among such persons.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Amantadine and rimantadine protect against the influenza A infection itself in about half of individuals.

.There are no known effective treatments for viral pneumonias caused by the SARS coronavirus, adenovirus, hantavirus, or parainfluenza virus.^ Although VAP spreads to the blood or pleural space in <10% of cases, if an organism known to cause pneumonia is cultured in the setting of clinically suspected pneumonia, treatment is warranted.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ When patients have failed standard treatments for no known reason.

^ In adults, herpes simplex virus, adenoviruses, and varicella-zoster (the cause of chicken pox) are generally causes of pneumonia only in people with impaired immune systems.

Aspiration

.There is no evidence to support the use of antibiotics in chemical pneumonitis without bacterial superinfection.^ However, there are no data to support the routine administration of antifungal therapy when Candida species are found in pulmonary secretions of mechanically ventilated patients.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At this time we do not support the routine use of endotracheal tubes with subglottic suction capabilities, rotational beds, in-line suction systems, rotational antibiotic schemes, or selective gut decontamination.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.If infection is present in aspiration pneumonia, the choice of antibiotic will depend on several factors, including the suspected causative organism and whether pneumonia was acquired in the community or developed in a hospital setting.^ Community-acquired (pneumonia contracted outside the hospital).

^ Among the bacteria are those that cause serious respiratory infections, including pneumonia.

^ If the organism causing the pneumonia is not known, was the disorder community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) or hospital-acquired (also called nosocomial)?

.Common options include clindamycin, a combination of a beta-lactam antibiotic and metronidazole, or an aminoglycoside.^ The beta-lactam antibiotics share common chemical features and include penicillins, cephalosporins, and some newer similar agents.

[29] .Corticosteroids are commonly used in aspiration pneumonia, but there is no evidence to support their use either.^ Virtually no antibiotics for colds are necessary, even with persistent cough and thick, green mucus, unless there is evidence of an accompanying infection.

^ Some precautions are as follows: At this time there are no standards or quality controls available for echinacea (including what part of the plant to use) or any other herbal remedies.

^ Long-term use of corticosteroids and other medications that suppress the immune system increase the susceptibility to these pneumonias.

[29]

Complications

Sometimes pneumonia can lead to additional complications. .Complications are more frequently associated with bacterial pneumonia than with viral pneumonia.^ Complications are more frequently associated with bacterial pneumonia than with viral pneumonia.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]
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  • Pneumonia Clinical Trials 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.clinicalconnection.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Viral pneumonia usually is less severe than bacterial pneumonia.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk for pneumonia in smokers of more than a pack a day is three times that of nonsmokers.

The most important complications include:

Respiratory and circulatory failure

.Because pneumonia affects the lungs, often people with pneumonia have difficulty breathing, and it may not be possible for them to breathe well enough to stay alive without support.^ Pneumonia affects the lungs in 2 ways.

^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen.

.Non-invasive breathing assistance may be helpful, such as with a bi-level positive airway pressure machine.^ Taking supplements of acidophilus or eating yogurt with active cultures may help restore healthy bacteria that offset the risk for such infections.

^ Review Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation to treat respiratory failure resulting from exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In other cases, placement of an endotracheal tube (breathing tube) may be necessary, and a ventilator may be used to help the person breathe.^ Education may include instruction about breathing exercises, nutrition, use of medicines, and ways for the patient to reduce stress and save energy.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In advanced cases, the patient's skin may become bluish (cyanotic), breathing may become labored and heavy, and the patient may become confused.

^ In rare cases, infection may spread from the lungs to the heart and can even spread throughout the body, sometimes causing abscesses in the brain and other organs.

.Pneumonia can also cause respiratory failure by triggering acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), which results from a combination of infection and inflammatory response.^ Pulmonary infection during the acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Among the bacteria are those that cause serious respiratory infections, including pneumonia.

^ Pneumonia in acute respiratory distress syndrome.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The lungs quickly fill with fluid and become very stiff.^ The lungs quickly fill with fluid and become very stiff.

^ Frequently, it is described as lung parenchyma/alveolar (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) inflammation and (abnormal) alveolar filling with fluid.

^ The air sacs (alveoli) in the lungs fill with fluid and pus, making it difficult for the person affected to breathe.

.This stiffness, combined with severe difficulties extracting oxygen due to the alveolar fluid, create a need for mechanical ventilation.^ This stiffness, combined with severe difficulties extracting oxygen due to the alveolar fluid, create a need for mechanical ventilation.

^ Frequently, it is described as lung parenchyma/alveolar (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) inflammation and (abnormal) alveolar filling with fluid.

^ People who have difficulty breathing due to pneumonia may require extra oxygen .
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

Pleural effusion. .Chest x-ray showing a pleural effusion.^ Chest x-ray showing a pleural effusion.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Indications for chest radiographs include ambiguous clinical findings, prolonged pneumonia, pneumonia that is unresponsive to antibiotic therapy, and the possibility of complications such as pleural effusions.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A chest x-ray will show any signs of fluid in the lungs.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.The A arrow indicates "fluid layering" in the right chest.^ The A arrow indicates "fluid layering" in the right chest.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ An abnormal collection of fluid between the thin layers of tissue (pleura) lining the lung and the wall of the chest cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung.^ The B arrow indicates the width of the right lung.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The A arrow indicates "fluid layering" in the right chest.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

The volume of useful lung is reduced because of the collection of fluid around the lung.
.Sepsis and septic shock are potential complications of pneumonia.^ Severe hemoptysis (coughing up blood) is another potentially serious complication of pneumonia, particularly in patients with other lung problems such as cystic fibrosis.

.Sepsis occurs when microorganisms enter the bloodstream and the immune system responds by secreting cytokines.^ Sepsis occurs when microorganisms enter the bloodstream and the immune system responds by secreting cytokines.

^ The neutrophils engulf and kill the offending organisms, and also release cytokines, causing a general activation of the immune system.

^ It usually occurs together with a human herpesvirus in people who have weakened immune systems, such as in AIDS. .
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Sepsis most often occurs with bacterial pneumonia; Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause.^ It grows slowly, is more common in women than in men, and often occurs before age 45.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Individuals with sepsis or septic shock need hospitalization in an intensive care unit.^ Individuals with sepsis or septic shock need hospitalization in an intensive care unit.

^ Have to go to an intensive care unit.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hospitalization in intensive care.

.They often require intravenous fluids and medications to help keep their blood pressure from dropping too low.^ They also help blood vessels grow.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Different prostaglandins control blood pressure, contraction of smooth muscles, and other processes within tissues where they are made.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Symptoms of pneumonia indicating a medical emergency include high fever, a rapid heart rate, low blood pressure, bluish-skin, and mental confusion.

.Sepsis can cause liver, kidney, and heart damage, among other problems, and it often causes death.^ Sepsis can cause liver, kidney, and heart damage, among other problems, and it often causes death.

^ Sepsis most often occurs with bacterial pneumonia ; Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Have other health problems, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease , heart failure , asthma , diabetes , long-term (chronic) kidney failure, or chronic liver disease.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pleural effusion, empyema, and abscess

.Occasionally, microorganisms infecting the lung will cause fluid (a pleural effusion) to build up in the space that surrounds the lung (the pleural cavity).^ Pleural effusion (fluid build-up in the space between the lungs and the lining around it).

^ A build-up of mucus in the peritoneal cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This prevents the buildup of fluid in the pleural cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.If the microorganisms themselves are present in the pleural cavity, the fluid collection is called an empyema.^ This prevents the buildup of fluid in the pleural cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Chest tubes are needed if empyema is present in order to drain the infected pleural fluid, but they are not required for pneumonia or abscesses.

^ An abnormal collection of fluid between the thin layers of tissue (pleura) lining the lung and the wall of the chest cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

.When pleural fluid is present in a person with pneumonia, the fluid can often be collected with a needle (thoracentesis) and examined.^ Microscopic examination of intracellular organisms in protected bronchoalveolar mini-lavage fluid for the diagnosis of ventilator-associated pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Complications of pneumonia, including pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and abscesses.

^ Chest tubes are needed if empyema is present in order to drain the infected pleural fluid, but they are not required for pneumonia or abscesses.

.Depending on the results of this examination, complete drainage of the fluid may be necessary, often requiring a chest tube.^ Removing the chest tubes occasionally causes the lung to collapse requiring the reintroduction of a chest tube to inflate the lung.

^ Chest tubes are needed if empyema is present in order to drain the infected pleural fluid, but they are not required for pneumonia or abscesses.

.In severe cases of empyema, surgery may be needed.^ In very severe cases of pneumonia or when the diagnosis is unclear in specific cases, particularly in patients with damaged immune systems, a lung biopsy may be required.

^ It should be noted that home care may be possible even in severe cases, when there is good support and available home nursing services.

.If the fluid is not drained, the infection may persist, because antibiotics do not penetrate well into the pleural cavity.^ If the fluid is not drained, the infection may persist, because antibiotics do not penetrate well into the pleural cavity.

^ This prevents the buildup of fluid in the pleural cavity.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If the microorganisms themselves are present in the pleural cavity, the fluid collection is called an empyema.

.Rarely, bacteria in the lung will form a pocket of infected fluid called an abscess.^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

^ In rare cases, infection may spread from the lungs to the heart and can even spread throughout the body, sometimes causing abscesses in the brain and other organs.

^ Complications of pneumonia, including pleural effusions (fluid around the lungs) and abscesses.

.Lung abscesses can usually be seen with a chest x-ray or chest CT scan.^ Lung abscesses can usually be seen with a chest x-ray or chest CT scan.

^ Pneumonia is not always seen on x-rays, either because the disease is only in its initial stages, or because it involves a part of the lung not easily seen by x-ray.

^ A chest X-ray is almost always done to check for changes in the lungs that may mean pneumonia and to look for other causes of your symptoms.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Abscesses typically occur in aspiration pneumonia and often contain several types of bacteria.^ In hospitalized patients, sputum or blood tests often indicate the presence of bacteria or other organisms, but such agents do not necessarily indicate pneumonia.

^ Severe abdominal pain may accompany pneumonia occurring in the lower lobes of the lung.

^ The mouth harbors a mixture of bacteria that is harmless in its normal location but can cause a serious condition called aspiration pneumonia if it reaches the lung.

.Antibiotics are usually adequate to treat a lung abscess, but sometimes the abscess must be drained by a surgeon or radiologist.^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

^ Dozens of antibiotics are available that can treat most cases of pneumonia in or out of the hospital, but it is sometimes difficult for the physician to select the best drug.

^ In rare cases, infection may spread from the lungs to the heart and can even spread throughout the body, sometimes causing abscesses in the brain and other organs.

Prognosis

.With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia can be cleared within two to four weeks.^ CAP is the most common type of pneumonia.

^ With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia can be cleared within two to four weeks.

^ With treatment, most types of bacterial pneumonia can be cured within one to two weeks.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

[30] .Viral pneumonia may last longer, and mycoplasmal pneumonia may take four to six weeks to resolve completely.^ Protection lasts for over six years in most people, although the protective value may be lost at a faster rate in elderly people than in younger adults.

^ Having had prior and prolonged antibiotic therapy, particularly within the past four to six weeks.

[30] .The eventual outcome of an episode of pneumonia depends on how ill the person is when he or she is first diagnosed.^ How is pneumonia diagnosed?
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The eventual outcome of an episode of pneumonia depends on how ill the person is when he or she is first diagnosed.
  • Pneumonia at AllExperts 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Academic]

^ How long you are contagious depends on what is causing the pneumonia and whether you get treatment.
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30]
.In the United States, about one of every twenty people with pneumococcal pneumonia die.^ Respiratory failure is one of the most important causes of death in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

^ Aside from specific conditions that predispose one to pneumonia, people who are hospitalized have a higher risk for pneumonia than those who are not.

^ Each year in the United States alone 160 million prescriptions are written for antibiotics equal to about 25,000 tons of these drugs.

.In cases where the pneumonia progresses to blood poisoning (bacteremia), just over 20% of sufferers die.^ Although VAP spreads to the blood or pleural space in <10% of cases, if an organism known to cause pneumonia is cultured in the setting of clinically suspected pneumonia, treatment is warranted.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bacteremia (bacteria in the blood) is the most common complication of Streptococcus pneumoniae , but rarely does this infection spread to other sites.

[31]
.The death rate (or mortality) also depends on the underlying cause of the pneumonia.^ The death rate (or mortality) also depends on the underlying cause of the pneumonia.

^ Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine," appreciated the morbidity and mortality of pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918.

^ In the United States, pneumonia is the fifth leading cause of death [Natl Vital Stat Report 47 (25), 10/5/1999].

.Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma, for instance, is associated with little mortality.^ Pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma, for instance, is associated with little mortality.

^ Elderly individuals, however, are at particular risk for pneumonia and associated mortality.

^ Symptoms of pneumonia not caused by bacteria (nonbacterial) include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and little mucus when you cough.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, about half of the people who develop methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) pneumonia while on a ventilator will die.^ In the absence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant bacteria, the clinician should choose empirical therapy for Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus , and antibiotic-sensitive gram-negative enteric organisms.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost a third of people who receive the influenza vaccine develop redness or soreness at the injection site for one or two days afterward.

^ This vaccine does not prevent influenza, but it may help prevent pneumonia in people who are susceptible to sever flus.

[32] .In regions of the world without advanced health care systems, pneumonia is even deadlier.^ In regions of the world without advanced health care systems, pneumonia is even deadlier.

^ At least 11 children had died from pneumonia in Zamboanga City in the southern Philippines, and health officials say the number of cases of the deadly disease is alarmingly...
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ With the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics, modern surgical techniques, and intensive care in the twentieth century, mortality from pneumonia dropped precipitously in the developed world.

.Limited access to clinics and hospitals, limited access to x-rays, limited antibiotic choices, and inability to treat underlying conditions inevitably leads to higher rates of death from pneumonia.^ Limited access to clinics and hospitals, limited access to x-rays, limited antibiotic choices, and inability to treat underlying conditions inevitably leads to higher rates of death from pneumonia.

^ The death rate (or mortality) also depends on the underlying cause of the pneumonia.

^ Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial pneumonia.

.For these reasons, the majority of deaths in children under five due to pneumococcal disease occur in developing coutries.^ When new respiratory pathogens emerge or major flares of well-known respiratory diseases occur, information develops quickly and guidelines are altered on a real-time basis.

^ In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million deaths a year worldwide.

^ The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia and WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.

[12]
.Adenovirus can cause severe necrotizing pneumonia in which all or part of a lung has increased translucency radiographically, which is called Swyer-James Syndrome[33].^ It may involve part or all of the lungs.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasma and lung concentrations of ceftazidime administered in continuous infusion to critically ill patients with severe nosocomial pneumonia.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, pneumonia and influenza deaths might be increasing in part because the number of elderly persons is increasing (30).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Severe adenovirus pneumonia also may result in bronchiolitis obliterans, a subacute inflammatory process in which the small airways are replaced by scar tissue, resulting in a reduction in lung volume and lung compliance.^ PSB and BAL to the “gold standard” histopathologic findings and quantitative tissue culture results from the same areas of lungs of patients in the terminal phase of their illness.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ As with bronchoscopy, the procedure can also be used to treat the patient, removing damaging lung tissue and, in severe cases, removing the entire lobe (lobectomy).

^ Poses a risk for abscesses and severe lung tissue damage.

[33]

Clinical prediction rules

.Clinical prediction rules have been developed to more objectively prognosticate outcomes in pneumonia.^ Clinical prediction rules have been developed to more objectively prognosticate outcomes in pneumonia.

^ Resolution of ventilator-associated pneumonia: prospective evaluation of the clinical pulmonary infection score as an early clinical predictor of outcome.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In nosocomial pneumonia, optimizing antibiotics other than aminoglycosides is a more important determinant of successful clinical outcome, and a better means of avoiding resistance.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These rules can be helpful in deciding whether or not to hospitalize the person.^ These rules can be helpful in deciding whether or not to hospitalize the person.

^ These tests help identify the organism that is causing your symptoms and determine whether the bacteria may be resistant to the antibiotic.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A condition or finding that can be used to help predict whether a person’s cancer will respond to a specific treatment.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

Epidemiology

.Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world.^ Pneumonia is a common illness in all parts of the world.

^ Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of people each year in the United States.
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ Viral pneumonia is also a common complication of other illnesses such as colds, influenza, measles , herpes and chickenpox .

.It is a major cause of death among all age groups.^ Influenza viruses cause disease in all age groups (3,4).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Did you know that pneumonia is still a major cause of death among seniors?
  • Pneumonia | LIVESTRONG.COM 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

^ In 2003, the age-adjusted death rate caused by influenza and pneumonia was 22.0 per 100,000 persons.

.In children, many of these deaths occur in the newborn period.^ In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million deaths a year worldwide.

^ Vaccinating children against Streptococcus pneumoniae has also led to a decreased incidence of these infections in adults because many adults acquire infections from children.

.The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia.^ The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia and WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.

^ Research shows that there are several ways to prevent pneumonia in newborn infants.

^ Respiratory failure is one of the most important causes of death in patients with pneumococcal pneumonia.

[36] .Over two million children under five die each year worldwide.^ In children, the majority of deaths occur in the newborn period, with over two million deaths a year worldwide.

^ Viruses cause most cases of pneumonia in preschool-aged children (i.e., four months to five years of age).
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the future, detection of pneumococcal immune complexes may offer a rapid etiologic diagnosis in children older than two years.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and over 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.^ The World Health Organization estimates that one in three newborn infant deaths are due to pneumonia and WHO also estimates that up to 1 million of these (vaccine preventable) deaths are caused by the bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae, and 90% of these deaths take place in developing countries.

^ Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in the elderly.
  • Dirty air may raise pneumonia risk: study 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Typical pneumonia usually is caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae .
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

[37] .Mortality from pneumonia generally decreases with age until late adulthood.^ Mortality from pneumonia generally decreases with age until late adulthood.

^ CONCLUSION: Evidence from observational studies fails to confirm decreased mortality with early administration of antibiotics in stable patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

^ The effect of late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia in determining patient mortality.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Elderly individuals, however, are at particular risk for pneumonia and associated mortality.^ Elderly individuals, however, are at particular risk for pneumonia and associated mortality.

^ These groups are at lower risk, however, for more serious types of pneumonia.

^ Individuals with underlying illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, tobacco smoking, alcoholism, or immune system problems are at increased risk for pneumonia.

.Because of the very high burden of disease in developing countries and because of a relatively low awareness of the disease in industrialized countries, the global health community has declared November 2 to be World Pneumonia Day, a day for concerned citizens and policy makers to take action against the disease.^ Died, from cancer , heart disease , and pneumonia , in Thomas Jefferson University Hospital , Philadelphia, Philadelphia County , Pa., November 1, 1991 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

^ During World War II, he helped develop the Tiny Tim rocket, which was used against German tanks in the D-Day invasion of Normandy in 1944.
  • The Political Graveyard: Politicians Who Died of Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: General]

^ Some precautions against taking high doses of vitamin C include the following: High doses of vitamin C may cause headaches and intestinal and urinary problems and even kidney stones.

.In the United Kingdom, the annual incidence of pneumonia is approximately 6 cases for every 1000 people for the 18–39 age group.^ In most cases of pneumonia in young, otherwise healthy people with strong immune systems , treatment can be done at home.
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Viruses cause most cases of pneumonia in preschool-aged children (i.e., four months to five years of age).
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Epidemics of influenza occur during the winter months nearly every year and are responsible for an average of approximately 20,000 deaths per year in the United States (1,2).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.For those over 75 years of age, this rises to 75 cases for every 1000 people.^ Viruses cause most cases of pneumonia in preschool-aged children (i.e., four months to five years of age).
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Among children aged 0-4 years, rates have ranged from approximately 500 per 100,000 population for those with high-risk conditions to 100 per 100,000 population for those without high-risk conditions (26).
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Older people who have had transplant operations or those with kidney disease may require a revaccination after six years.

.Roughly 20–40% of individuals who contract pneumonia require hospital admission of which between 5–10% are admitted to a critical care unit.^ For patients who require hospitalization for pneumonia, the mortality rate is between 10% and 25%.

^ It should be noted, however, that codeine and other narcotics suppress coughing, so they should be used with care in pneumonia and often require monitoring.

^ Mild-to-moderate cases can be treated at home with oral antibiotics while severe pneumonia usually requires intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

.Similarly, the mortality rate in the UK is around 5–10%.^ For patients who require hospitalization for pneumonia, the mortality rate is between 10% and 25%.

[9]
.More cases of pneumonia occur during the winter months than during other times of the year.^ Viral pneumonia occurs more often in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More cases of pneumonia occur during the winter months than during other times of the year.

^ The risk for pneumonia in smokers of more than a pack a day is three times that of nonsmokers.

.Pneumonia occurs more commonly in males than females, and more often in Blacks than Caucasians due to differences in synthesizing Vitamin D from sunlight.^ Viral pneumonia occurs more often in the fall and winter than in the spring and summer.
  • Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children - September 1, 2004 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pneumonia occurs more commonly in males than females, and more often in Blacks than Caucasians.

^ Christian Gram's paper describing the procedure in 1884 helped differentiate the two different bacteria and showed that pneumonia could be caused by more than one microorganism.

.Individuals with underlying illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease, cystic fibrosis, emphysema, tobacco smoking, alcoholism, or immune system problems are at increased risk for pneumonia.^ Peak exposure to a harmful substance or radiation may increase the risk of certain diseases or conditions.
  • Dictionary of Cancer Terms - National Cancer Institute 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cancer.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Experts have identified this bacteria as a cause of certain pneumonias, particularly in people with lung problems, such as asthma or emphysema.

^ Influenza vaccine is strongly recommended for any person aged greater than or equal to 6 months who -- because of age or underlying medical condition -- is at increased risk for complications of influenza.
  • Prevention and Control of Influenza:Recommendations of the AdvisoryCommittee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) 20 September 2009 9:17 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[38] .These individuals are also more likely to have repeated episodes of pneumonia.^ These individuals are also more likely to have repeated episodes of pneumonia.

^ You are more likely to get pneumonia if you: .
  • Health: Pneumonia; Pneumonia is a lung infection that can make you very sick. ... 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.maimonidesmed.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • CIGNA - Pneumonia 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.cigna.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A prospective study 7 showed that patients with typical pneumonia were more likely than not to present with dyspnea and bronchial breath sounds on auscultation.
  • Diagnosis and Treatment of Community-Acquired Pneumonia - February 1, 2006 - American Family Physician 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.aafp.org [Source type: Academic]

.People who are hospitalized for any reason are also at high risk for pneumonia.^ People who are hospitalized for any reason are also at high risk for pneumonia.

^ People with infectious pneumonia often have a cough producing greenish or yellow sputum, or phlegm and a high fever that may be accompanied by shaking chills.

^ The study -- led by researchers at McMaster University in Canada and reported in the American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine -- looked at health data from 345 people who had been hospitalized for pneumonia within a two-year period.
  • Dirty air may raise pneumonia risk: study 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.nationalpost.com [Source type: General]

History

Head portrait drawing of an older bald man with a beard
Hippocrates, the ancient Greek physician known as the "father of medicine"
.The symptoms of pneumonia were described by Hippocrates (c.^ The symptoms of pneumonia were described by Hippocrates (c.

460 BC – 370 BC):
Peripneumonia, and pleuritic affections, are to be thus observed: If the fever be acute, and if there be pains on either side, or in both, and if expiration be if cough be present, and the sputa expectorated be of a blond or livid color, or likewise thin, frothy, and florid, or having any other character different from the common... .When pneumonia is at its height, the case is beyond remedy if he is not purged, and it is bad if he has dyspnoea, and urine that is thin and acrid, and if sweats come out about the neck and head, for such sweats are bad, as proceeding from the suffocation, rales, and the violence of the disease which is obtaining the upper hand.^ When pneumonia is at its height, the case is beyond remedy if he is not purged, and it is bad if he has dyspnoea, and urine that is thin and acrid, and if sweats come out about the neck and head, for such sweats are bad, as proceeding from the suffocation, rales, and the violence of the disease which is obtaining the upper hand.

^ If these defenses are weakened or damaged, however, bacteria or other organisms, such as viruses, fungi, and parasites, can gain the upper hand, producing pneumonia.

^ Appropriate antibiotic selection was defined by the 1998 Infectious Disease Society of America guidelines for the treatment of hospitalized pneumonia cases.

[39]
.However, Hippocrates referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients."^ However, Hippocrates himself referred to pneumonia as a disease "named by the ancients."

^ This information refers to the general prevalence and incidence of these diseases, not to how likely they are to be the actual cause of Pneumonia.

.He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas.^ He also reported the results of surgical drainage of empyemas.

Maimonides (1138–1204 AD) observed "The basic symptoms which occur in pneumonia and which are never lacking are as follows: acute fever, sticking [pleuritic] pain in the side, short rapid breaths, serrated pulse and cough."[40] This clinical description is quite similar to those found in modern textbooks, and it reflected the extent of medical knowledge through the Middle Ages into the 19th century.
.Bacteria were first seen in the airways of individuals who died from pneumonia by Edwin Klebs in 1875.[41] Initial work identifying the two common bacterial causes Streptococcus pneumoniae and Klebsiella pneumoniae was performed by Carl Friedländer[42] and Albert Fränkel[43] in 1882 and 1884, respectively.^ It is likely to be caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, the most common pneumonia-causing bacteria.

^ The following are common gram-positive bacteria: The most common cause of pneumonia is the gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae (also called S. pneumoniae or pneumococcal pneumonia ).

^ Bacterial community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is usually caused by the gram-positive bacteria Streptococcus pneumoniae .

.Friedländer's initial work introduced the Gram stain, a fundamental laboratory test still used to identify and categorize bacteria.^ The fluid is then tested using blood cell counts, Gram stains, cultures, and chemical tests.

^ In the laboratory, the sputum sample may be used as follows: A Gram's stain is made, which may reveal the presence of bacteria and whether they are gram-negative or positive.

^ It is often impossible to identify the specific culprit.Bacteria Many bacteria are categorized by the staining procedure used to visualize bacteria under a microscope.

Christian Gram's paper describing the procedure in 1884 helped differentiate the two different bacteria and showed that pneumonia could be caused by more than one microorganism.[44]
.Sir William Osler, known as "the father of modern medicine," appreciated the morbidity and mortality of pneumonia, describing it as the "captain of the men of death" in 1918, as it had overtaken tuberculosis as one of the leading causes of death in his time.^ It is one of the main causes of pneumonia that occurs in the hospital (nosocomial pneumonia).

^ Neisseria meningitidis is one of the most common causes of meningitis (central nervous system infection), but the organism has been reported in pneumonia, particularly in epidemics of military recruits.

^ In one study, it was the cause of 14% of cases in a group of children with pneumonia.

(The phrase was originally coined by John Bunyan with regard to consumption, or tuberculosis. [45]) However, several key developments in the 1900s improved the outcome for those with pneumonia. .With the advent of penicillin and other antibiotics, modern surgical techniques, and intensive care in the twentieth century, mortality from pneumonia dropped precipitously in the developed world.^ [Cochrane Database Syst Rev. Rotation and restricted use of antibiotics in a medical intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Impact of a rotating empiric antibiotic schedule on infectious mortality in an intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Rotation and restricted use of antibiotics in a medical intensive care unit.
  • Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention 28 January 2010 1:40 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Vaccination of infants against Haemophilus influenzae type b began in 1988 and led to a dramatic decline in cases shortly thereafter.^ The vaccinations protect against influenza in between 70% and 100% of healthy adults when the virus and the vaccine are well matched.

^ All children under five should be vaccinated against Haemophilus influenzae.

^ Vaccines against influenza currently employ inactivated (not live) viruses to produce an immune response that will then attack the active virus.

[46] .Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults began in 1977 and in children began in 2000, resulting in a similar decline.^ Vaccination is important for preventing pneumonia in both children and adults.

^ A vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae is also available for adults.

^ Vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults began in 1977 and in children began in 2000, resulting in a similar decline.

[47]

Image gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^ pneumonia at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  3. ^ World Health Organization. Global causes of under 5 mortality. http://www.who.int/entity/child_adolescent_health/media/causes_death_u5_neonates_2004.pdf.
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  6. ^ "UpToDate Inc.". http://www.uptodate.com/online/content/topic.do?topicKey=pedi_id/18313&selectedTitle=1~1&source=search_result. Retrieved ~~~~~. 
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  17. ^ PneumoADIP. Vaccine Introduction: Rwanda.
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  20. ^ Jefferson T, Deeks JJ, Demicheli V, Rivetti D, Rudin M (2004). "Amantadine and rimantadine for preventing and treating influenza A in adults". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (3): CD001169. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001169.pub2. PMID 15266442. 
  21. ^ Hayden FG, Atmar RL, Schilling M, et al. (October 1999). "Use of the selective oral neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir to prevent influenza". N. Engl. J. Med. 341 (18): 1336–43. doi:10.1056/NEJM199910283411802. PMID 10536125. http://content.nejm.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=short&pmid=10536125&promo=ONFLNS19. 
  22. ^ "2004 Pneumonia Guideline - Synopsis" (PDF). p. iv5. http://www.brit-thoracic.org.uk/Portals/0/Clinical%20Information/Pneumonia/Guidelines/MACAP2001gline.pdf. 
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  24. ^ Pakistan Multicentre Amoxycillin Short Course Therapy (MASCOT) pneumonia study group (2002). "Clinical efficacy of 3 days versus 5 days of oral amoxicillin for treatment of childhood pneumonia: a multicentre double-blind trial". Lancet 360 (9336): 835–41. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09994-4. PMID 12243918. 
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  26. ^ el Moussaoui R, de Borgie CA, van den Broek P, Hustinx WN, Bresser P, van den Berk GE, Poley JW, van den Berg B, Krouwels FH, Bonten MJ, Weenink C, Bossuyt PM, Speelman P, Opmeer BC, Prins JM. (2006). "Effectiveness of discontinuing antibiotic treatment after three days versus eight days in mild to moderate-severe community acquired pneumonia: randomised, double blind study". BMJ 332 (7554): 1355–8. doi:10.1136/bmj.332.7554.1355. PMID 16763247. 
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  39. ^ Hippocrates On Acute Diseases wikisource link
  40. ^ Maimonides, Fusul Musa ("Pirkei Moshe").
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1911 encyclopedia

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Simple English

Pneumonia is a disease of the lungs and the respiratory system. The lung contains many small bulbs, or sacs, called alveoli. These help to take out oxygen from the air. In the case of pneumonia, these bulbs become inflamed. They fill up with a fluid, and can no longer absorb as much oxygen as before.

Pneumonia can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. It can also be caused by chemical or physical damage done to the lungs. Other illnesses, like alcohol abuse or lung cancer, can also result in pneumonia.

People with pneumonia usually have difficulty breathing. They may also cough, or have pains in the chest area. The treatment of pneumonia depends on how the illness was caused. If it was caused by bacteria, antibiotics can be used to treat it.

People of all ages can have pneumonia. The disease is dangerous. Many people die from pneumonia, especially old people, or people with a weak immune system.

= Other types of pneumonia

=

SARS is a highly contagious and deadly type of pneumonia which first occurred in 2002 after initial outbreaks in China. SARS is caused by the SARS coronavirus, a previously unknown pathogen. New cases of SARS have not been seen since June 2003.
  • Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP)
BOOP is caused by inflammation of the small airways of the lungs. It is also known as cryptogenic organizing pneumonitis (COP).
  • Eosinophilic pneumonia
Eosinophilic pneumonia is invasion of the lung by eosinophils. Eosinophils are a particular kind of white blood cells. Eosinophilic pneumonia often occurs in response to infection with a parasite or after exposure to certain types of environmental factors.
  • Chemical pneumonia
Chemical pneumonia (usually called chemical pneumonitis) is caused by chemical toxins such as pesticides, which may enter the body by inhalation or by skin contact. When the toxic substance is an oil, the pneumonia may be called lipoid pneumonia.
  • Aspiration pneumonia
Aspiration pneumonia (or aspiration pneumonitis) is caused by getting oral or gastric contents into the lungs, either while eating, or after reflux or vomiting. The resulting lung inflammation is not an infection but can contribute to one, since the material aspirated may contain bacteria. Aspiration is a leading cause of death among hospital and nursing home patients, since they often cannot adequately protect their airways and may have otherwise impaired defense

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