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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Monocots
(unranked): Commelinids
Order: Poales

See text

Setaria verticillata from family Poaceae

Poales is a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, and includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges. Sixteen plant families are currently recognized by botanists to be part of Poales.

Recent studies (e.g., Bremer, 2000) place the origin of the Poales in South America nearly 115 million years ago. The earliest known fossils include pollen and fruits that have been dated to the late Cretaceous. The flowers are typically small, enclosed by bracts, and arranged in an inflorescence (except in the genus Mayaca, with solitary terminal flowers). The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the seeds usually contain starch.

The APG II system (2003) accepts the order and places it in a clade called commelinids, in the monocots. It uses this circumscription:

The earlier APG system (1998) adopted the same placement, although it used the spelling "commelinoids", and used the following circumscription (i.e., it did not include the plants in families Abolbodaceae, Bromeliaceae and Mayacaceae in the order):

  • order Poales
    family Anarthriaceae
    family Centrolepidaceae
    family Cyperaceae
    family Ecdeiocoleaceae
    family Eriocaulaceae
    family Flagellariaceae
    family Hydatellaceae
    family Joinvilleaceae
    family Juncaceae
    family Poaceae
    family Prioniaceae
    family Restionaceae
    family Sparganiaceae
    family Thurniaceae
    family Typhaceae
    family Xyridaceae

The morphology-based Cronquist system did not include an order named Poales, assigning these families to the orders Bromeliales, Cyperales, Hydatellales, Juncales, Restionales and Typhales.

In early systems an order including the grass family did not go by the name Poales but by a descriptive botanical name such as Graminales in the Engler system (update of 1964) and in the Hutchinson system (first edition, first volume, 1926), Glumiflorae in the Wettstein system (last revised 1935) or Glumaceae in the Bentham & Hooker system (third volume, 1883).


By far the most important family economically is the family of grasses (Poaceae, syn. Gramineae), which includes barley, maize, millet, rice, and wheat. It is also the largest family in the order, far outnumbering its competitors:

  • Poaceae: 12,070 species
  • Cyperaceae: 5,000 species
  • Bromeliaceae: 1,400 species
  • Eriocaulaceae: 1,150 species


  • Bremer, K. (2000). Gondwanan Evolution of the Grass Alliance of Families (Poales). Evolution 56: 1374-1387. [Available online: Abstract ]
  • Judd, W. S., C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue (2002). Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. pp. 276-292 (Poales). Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0 .
  • Linder, H. Peter and Paula J. Rudall. 2005. Evolutionary History of the Poales. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36: 107-124.
  • Small, J. K. (1903). Flora of the Southeastern United States, 48. New York, U.S.A.

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary




Proper noun

Wikipedia has an article on:



  1. (botany) A taxonomic order, within subclass Commelinidae - the bromeliads, grasses, restios, rushes, and sedges etc.
Wikispecies has information on:


See also

  • Anarthriaceae
  • Bromeliaceae
  • Centrolepidaceae
  • Cyperaceae
  • Ecdeiocoleaceae
  • Eriocaulaceae
  • Flagellariaceae
  • Hydatellaceae
  • Joinvilleaceae
  • Juncaceae
  • Mayacaceae
  • Poaceae
  • Rapateaceae
  • Restionaceae
  • Sparganiaceae
  • Thurniaceae
  • Typhaceae
  • Xyridaceae


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies


Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Monocots
Cladus: Commelinids
Ordo: Poales
Familiae: Anarthriaceae - Bromeliaceae - Centrolepidaceae - Cyperaceae - Ecdeiocoleaceae - Eriocaulaceae - Flagellariaceae - Hydatellaceae - Joinvilleaceae - Juncaceae - Mayacaceae - Poaceae - Rapateaceae - Restionaceae - Sparganiaceae - Thurniaceae - Typhaceae - Xyridaceae

Note: the APWebsite places the Hydatellaceae elswhere.


Poales Small (1903)


  • Avenales
  • Bromeliales
  • Centrolepidales
  • Cyperales Wettst.
  • Eriocaulales Nakai
  • Flagellariales
  • Juncales Dumort.
  • Mayacales
  • Rapateales
  • Restionales
  • Typhales Dumort.
  • Xyridales

Vernacular names

Ελληνικά: Ποώδη
Русский: Злакоцветные
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Poales on Wikimedia Commons.

Simple English

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Poales

See text

Poales is a taxonomic order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons. The order includes families of plants such as the grasses, bromeliads, and sedges.

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Look up Poales in Wikispecies, a directory of species

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