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EU standard toxic symbol, as defined by Directive 67/548/EEC. skull and crossbones became a standard symbol for poison.
In the context of biology, poisons are substances that can cause disturbances to organisms,[1] usually by chemical reaction or other activity on the molecular scale, when a sufficient quantity is absorbed by an organism. Legally and in hazardous chemical labeling, poisons are especially toxic substances; less toxic substances are labeled "harmful", "irritant", or not labeled at all.
In medicine (particularly veterinary) and in zoology, a poison is often distinguished from a toxin and a venom. .Toxins are poisons produced via some biological function in nature, and venoms are usually defined as biological toxins that are injected by a bite or sting to cause their effect, while other poisons are generally defined as substances which are absorbed through epithelial linings such as the skin or gut.^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

Contents

Terminology

Some poisons are also toxins, usually referring to naturally produced substances, such as the bacterial proteins that cause tetanus and botulism. .A distinction between the two terms is not always observed, even among scientists.^ Sexy Scent  Pheromone Many scientists have proven that pheromone makes a Sexual response (strong attraction) between the two opposite sexes in human as well as animals.
  • FIORA Love Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC fioramall.com [Source type: General]

Animal toxins that are delivered subcutaneously (e.g. by sting or bite) are also called venom. .In normal usage, a poisonous organism is one that is harmful to consume, but a venomous organism uses poison to defend itself while still alive.^ One of the most popular in this case is rhus tox, which is made from poison oak itself, encapsulating completely the homeopathic philosophy that "like cures like."

^ Storing potentially harmful products out of sight and reach - in cabinets with safety locks - is one of the best ways to prevent poisonings.

^ It is not possible to use or apply poison in any quantity smaller than one dose.

A single organism can be both venomous and poisonous.
.The derivative forms "toxic" and "poisonous" are synonymous.^ Toxicity and Medicine The poison dart frog seizes certain chemicals from preys like, ants and mites to derive its toxicity.
  • Poison Dart Frog Facts 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.buzzle.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Within chemistry and physics, a poison is a substance that obstructs or inhibits a reaction, for example by binding to a catalyst. For an example, see nuclear poison.
Paracelsus, the father of toxicology, once wrote: "Everything is poison, there is poison in everything. .Only the dose makes a thing not a poison."^ NOTE: It's the dose that makes the poison.
  • Washington Poison Center - Plant List 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.wapc.org [Source type: General]

^ In addition to poison ivy, other things which contact the skin such as clothing, shampoo, jewelry, make-up, and deodorants can also cause allergic contact dermatitis.
  • Poison Ivy Immunology 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.bio.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poison Ivy Immunology 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.health2us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is why you don't make being a celebrity the only thing you do with your life.
  • BLABBERMOUTH.NET - BRET MICHAELS Injury Photos Released 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.roadrunnerrecords.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The phrase "poison" is often used colloquially to describe any harmful substance, particularly corrosive substances, carcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and harmful pollutants, and to exaggerate the dangers of chemicals. The legal definition of "poison" is stricter. A medical condition of poisoning can also be caused by substances that are not legally required to carry the label "poison".

Uses of poison

"Poisoning of Queen Bona" by Jan Matejko.
Throughout human history, intentional application of poison has been used as a method of assassination, murder, suicide, and execution.[2][3] As a method of execution, poison has been ingested, as the ancient Athenians did (see Socrates), inhaled, as with carbon monoxide or hydrogen cyanide (see gas chamber), or injected (see lethal injection). Many languages describe lethal injection with their corresponding words for "poison shot". Poison's lethal effect can be combined with its allegedly magical powers; an example is the Chinese gu poison. Poison was also employed in gunpowder warfare. For example, the 14th century Chinese text of the Huolongjing written by Jiao Yu outlined the use of a poisonous gunpowder mixture to fill cast iron grenade bombs.[4]
.On the whole, however, poisons are usually not used for their toxicity, but may be used for their other properties.^ While conventional wisdom notes that the use of calamine lotion is a must for treating cases of poison ivy, there are actually a couple of other routes to go.

^ It usually takes a year or so before the toxic properties weather away.
  • UCONN IPM: Integrated Pest Management:Poison Ivy 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.hort.uconn.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During periods of emergencies and power outages, carbon monoxide poisonings increase because of the use of generators and other alternative heating sources.
  • News:Upstate New York Poison Center 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.upstate.edu [Source type: General]

.The property of toxicity itself has limited non-lethal applications: mainly for controlling pests and weeds, cleaning and maintenance, and for preserving building materials and food stuffs.^ This is mixed with water and sprayed on vegetation, trees, buildings, can be added to ponds and most of all, it is non-harmful and non-toxic.
  • Pigeon Poison | Bird-X 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC blog.bird-x.com [Source type: General]

^ Most pest control companies check bait stations monthly and never clean the stations.
  • Mr. Pack Rat - Problem with Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.mrpackrat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Where possible, specific agents which are less poisonous to humans have come to be preferred, but exceptions such as phosphine continue in use.
.Most poisonous materials still in use are used for their chemical or physical properties other than being poisonous.^ We're glad he's ok -- and sorry he's hurt, but nothing was funnier than his hat being left in the middle of the stage while casts from the other shows danced around it.
  • iVillage | Bret Michaels Injured at the Tony Awards - iVillage 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.ivillage.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common way of dealing with a poison message is to move it out of the main queue and into some other queue where no processing will take place.
  • Nicholas Allen's Indigo Blog : MSMQ and Poison Messages 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC blogs.msdn.com [Source type: General]

^ Perhaps the most recognized symbol of death, the pirate flag's skull and crossbones, was often used on poison labels starting in the mid-1800s.
  • COLLECTING POISON BOTTLES 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.his-church.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Killer Collection... Poison Bottles 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.go-star.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many over-the-counter medications, such as aspirin and Tylenol, are quite toxic if ingested in sufficiently large quantities.^ In 2007, the ASPCA Animal Poison Control Center received 89,000 calls related to pets ingesting over-the-counter and prescription medications.
  • Poison Control 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.pacc911.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After their pet has eaten a large quantity of chocolate, many pet owners assume their pet is unaffected.
  • Poison Control 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.pacc911.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most pain medications such as aspirin or Tylenol can be deadly to cats and harmful to dogs.
  • Poison and Drug Information Center - College of Pharmacy - University of Arizona 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.pharmacy.arizona.edu [Source type: General]
  • POISON IN DOGS! - Chinaroad Lowchens of Australia 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.lowchensaustralia.com [Source type: General]

Alcohol is also toxic if too much is ingested in a short enough time. .In laboratory environments, where specific chemical properties are often required, the most effective, easiest, safest, or cheapest option for use in a chemical synthesis may be a poisonous material.^ The material on this site may not be reproduced, except for personal, non-commercial use, and may not be distributed, transmitted, cached or otherwise used except with the prior written permission of ParadeNet.
  • Bret Michaels to Tonys 'There's No Lawsuit' | Parade.com 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.parade.com [Source type: General]
  • Bret Michaels Irked by Neil Patrick Harris Joke | Parade.com 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.parade.com [Source type: General]

^ Pack rats are wild animals most effectively dealt with by understanding their behavior and creating an environment around a home that minimizes their activity.
  • Mr. Pack Rat - Problem with Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.mrpackrat.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perhaps the most recognized symbol of death, the pirate flag's skull and crossbones, was often used on poison labels starting in the mid-1800s.
  • COLLECTING POISON BOTTLES 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.his-church.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • A Killer Collection... Poison Bottles 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.go-star.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a toxic substance possesses these properties more exactly than a non-toxic one, the toxic substance is superior.^ There has to be more substance than that.
  • NY PIX Morning News Blog – WPIX-TV 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC weblogs.wpix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patch: If more than one used at a time, can be toxic.
  • West Virginia Poison Center Media Information 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.wvpoisoncenter.org [Source type: General]

^ Angelina and Brad's "DARK ­SECRETS" include more than one affair, says Star.

Chromic acid is an example of such a "simple to use" reagent, but reactivity, in particular, is important. Hydrogen fluoride (HF), for example, is both poisonous and extremely corrosive. However, it has a high affinity (free energy) for silicon, which is exploited by using HF to etch glass or to manufacture silicon semiconductor chips.
.On the other hand, certain medical treatments actually make deliberate use of the toxicity of certain substances.^ It absorbs irritants in the stomach and intestines, which make it useful for other conditions, as well, such as diarrhea, indigestion and intestinal gas.
  • poison | DailyPuppy.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.dailypuppy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are several poison ivy treatments available, some you can buy at the drug store, others which were handed down from our ancestors.
  • Poison Ivy Treatments - Poison Ivy - Poison Ivy Cure 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.questionsonhealth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you don't want to use chemicals, removing it with your hands would be your only other option.
  • Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac Information :: New developments on Poison ivy, poison oak, poison sumac Treatments from DermaTechRx Research Center 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC dermatechrx.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Antibiotics (originally harvested from organisms but now artificially produced in laboratories) are highly disruptive to the biochemistry of micro-organisms while having almost no direct effect upon humans. Similarly, the drugs used in chemotherapy are quite toxic; the reason chemotheraputic drugs have far more severe side effects than antibiotics is that their toxicity is not as narrowly tailored. .Their benefit arises from the fact that they are—hopefully—more toxic to cancerous cells than normal ones.^ If more than one person suffers, what have they consumed in common?
  • WMI - Article Archives: Name Your Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.nols.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Patch: If more than one used at a time, can be toxic.
  • West Virginia Poison Center Media Information 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.wvpoisoncenter.org [Source type: General]

^ In fact, after more than 20 years in the business this award winning, multi platinum superstar's career continues to move at warp speed.
  • Poison Rock Band 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Rock My World - Bret Michaels - CD - Buy.com 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.buy.com [Source type: General]

.Such substances could be classified as poisons under the categories defined above, as they are generally artificial in nature, but are not generally discussed as such.^ Local chemists and druggists found they could produce cleaning compounds, insect killers, vermin poison, etc.
  • COLLECTING POISON BOTTLES 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.his-church.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They're not very striking on this one but poison ivy can have a very striking fall foliage color under the right conditions, ranging from yellow, to orange, to red even.
  • Poison Ivy - How to Identify Poison Ivy Plants Video - About.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC video.about.com [Source type: General]

^ Each year, approximately 2.4 million people - more than half under age 6 - swallow or have contact with a poisonous substance.

Biological poisoning

.Acute poisoning is exposure to a poison on one occasion or during a short period of time.^ Poisoning to you or a loved one can be prevented take this time to learn the dangers and steps to protect your family.
  • Alaska Division of Public Health 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.hss.state.ak.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During periods of emergencies and power outages, carbon monoxide poisonings increase because of the use of generators and other alternative heating sources.
  • News:Upstate New York Poison Center 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.upstate.edu [Source type: General]

^ According to Billboard , "one cannot deny the major effect that Poison had on the music industry during their heyday".
  • Poison Tickets - Poison Dates, Poison Events 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ticketnetwork.com [Source type: General]

Symptoms develop in close relation to the exposure. Absorption of a poison is necessary for systemic poisoning. In contrast, substances that destroy tissue but do not absorb, such as lye, are classified as corrosives rather than poisons.
.Chronic poisoning is long-term repeated or continuous exposure to a poison where symptoms do not occur immediately or after each exposure.^ An allergic reaction to poison ivy will not occur with the first exposure, and subsequent exposures may not result in an allergic reaction for a few hours, or even a few days later.
  • Poison Ivy Treatments - Poison Ivy - Poison Ivy Cure 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.questionsonhealth.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lead poisoning symptoms in horses can range from diarrhea and weight loss due to chronic poisoning.
  • poison | DailyPuppy.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.dailypuppy.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vomiting can often aggravate the poisoning and cause even greater long-term damage.

The patient gradually becomes ill, or becomes ill after a long latent period. Chronic poisoning most commonly occurs following exposure to poisons that bioaccumulate such as mercury and lead.
.Contact or absorption of poisons can cause rapid death or impairment.^ It explores an incident in which Earth passes through a band of poison gas which causes the death of all humanity except for the characters who are the focus of the story.
  • Internet Archive: Free Download: The Poison Belt 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: General]

^ Poison: Any substance that can cause severe distress or death if ingested, breathed in, or absorbed through the skin.
  • Poison definition - Medical Dictionary definitions of popular medical terms easily defined on MedTerms 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.medterms.com [Source type: General]

^ In addition to poison ivy, other things which contact the skin such as clothing, shampoo, jewelry, make-up, and deodorants can also cause allergic contact dermatitis.
  • Poison Ivy Immunology 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.bio.umass.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poison Ivy Immunology 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.health2us.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Agents that act on the nervous system can paralyze in seconds or less, and include both biologically derived neurotoxins and so-called nerve gases, which may be synthesized for warfare or industry.
Inhaled or ingested cyanide, used as a method of execution in gas chambers, almost instantly starves the body of energy by inhibiting the enzymes in mitochondria that make ATP. Intravenous injection of an unnaturally high concentration of potassium chloride, such as in the execution of prisoners in parts of the United States, quickly stops the heart by eliminating the cell potential necessary for muscle contraction.
Most biocides, including pesticides, are created to act as poisons to target organisms, although acute or less observable chronic poisoning can also occur in non-target organism, including the humans who apply the biocides and other beneficial organisms. For example, the herbicide 2,4-D imitates the action of a plant hormone, to the effect that the lethal toxicity is specific to plants. Indeed, 2,4-D is not a poison, but classified as "harmful" (EU).
Many substances regarded as poisons are toxic only indirectly, by toxication. An example is "wood alcohol" or methanol, which is not poisonous itself, but is chemically converted to toxic formaldehyde and formic acid in the liver. Many drug molecules are made toxic in the liver, and the genetic variability of certain liver enzymes makes the toxicity of many compounds differ between individuals.
.The study of the symptoms, mechanisms, treatment and diagnosis of biological poisoning is known as toxicology.^ The patients constitution is more important than the symptoms in choosing the best homeopathic treatment, but for people with skin problems, poison ivy is often included in the regimen.

^ Skin Test For Allergy - Eczema - Get information about eczema causes, skin symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
  • Poison Ivy, Oak & Sumac: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention on MedicineNet.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poison Ivy, Oak & Sumac: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention on MedicineNet.com About Us .
  • Poison Ivy, Oak & Sumac: Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention on MedicineNet.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.medicinenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Exposure to radioactive substances can produce radiation poisoning, an unrelated phenomenon.

Poisoning management

  • Poison Control Centers (reachable at 1-800-222-1222 in the US) worldwide) provide immediate, free, and expert treatment advice and assistance over the telephone in case of suspected exposure to poisons or toxic substances.

Initial management

  • Initial management for all poisonings includes ensuring adequate cardiopulmonary function and providing treatment for any symptoms such as seizures, shock, and pain.
  • Poisons that have been injected (e.g. from the sting of poisonous animals) can be treated by binding the affected body part with a pressure bandage and by placing the affected body part in hot water (with a temperature of 50°C). The pressure bandage makes sure the poison is not pumped troughout the body and the hot water breaks down the poison. This treatment however only works with poisons that are composed of protein-molecules.[5]

Decontamination

.
  • If the toxin was recently ingested, absorption of the substance may be able to be decreased through gastric decontamination.^ A ny substance you inhale, ingest, absorb through your skin, or get injected into your body can cause a malfunction in normal biological processes.
    • WMI - Article Archives: Name Your Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.nols.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Exposure to toxins can be by inhaling, ingesting (consuming or licking), skin contact (including through pads of feet) or from long-term exposures.

    ^ Pets may also ingest these toxins by grooming themselves after they have been exposed to these products.

    This may be achieved using activated charcoal, gastric lavage, whole bowel irrigation, or nasogastric aspiration. Routine use of emetics (syrup of Ipecac), cathartics or laxatives are no longer recommended.
    • Activated charcoal is the treatment of choice to prevent absorption of the poison. It is usually administered when the patient is in the emergency room or by a trained emergency healthcare provider such as a Paramedic or EMT. However, charcoal is ineffective against metals such as sodium, potassium, and lithium, and alcohols and glycols; it is also not recommended for ingestion of corrosive chemicals such as acids and alkalis.[6]
    • Whole bowel irrigation cleanses the bowel, this is achieved by giving the patient large amounts of a polyethylene glycol solution. .The osmotically balanced polyethylene glycol solution is not absorbed into the body, having the effect of flushing out the entire gastrointestinal tract.^ A ny substance you inhale, ingest, absorb through your skin, or get injected into your body can cause a malfunction in normal biological processes.
      • WMI - Article Archives: Name Your Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.nols.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ If you're going to drink, you can't kid yourself and drink an entire bottle of Jack Daniels and pass out, because you can go into insulin shock and never know it."
      • Bret Michaels, Diabetic Lead Singer of - Diabetes Health 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.diabeteshealth.com [Source type: General]

      ^ Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) : "contaminated with a very potent carcinogen; dioxane and very easily absorbed through the skin," states Dr. Epstein.

      Its major uses are following ingestion of sustained release drugs, toxins that are not absorbed by activated charcoal (i.e. lithium, iron), and for the removal of ingested packets of drugs (body packing/smuggling).[7]
    • Gastric lavage, commonly known as a stomach pump, is the insertion of a tube into the stomach, followed by administration of water or saline down the tube. The liquid is then removed along with the contents of the stomach. .Lavage has been used for many years as a common treatment for poisoned patients.^ I have been a fan of Poison for many years.
      • Poison Perfume for Women by Christian Dior at FragranceNet.com® 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.fragrancenet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Many pet poisonings are the result of exposures to common household cleaning agents.

      ^ Posted by Ann M. Banks at June 20, 2008 5:45 PM I have enjoyed Bret and Poison for many years!
      • NY PIX Morning News Blog – WPIX-TV 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC weblogs.wpix.com [Source type: General]

      .However, a recent review of the procedure in poisonings suggests no benefit.^ No recent reviews.
      • Poison Ivy - Movie Reviews, Photos & Videos, Layouts & Wallpapers, Fan Club 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.flixster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ In general, however, there are no distinguishing characteristics to warn an unsuspecting individual that a vine is poison ivy.
      • Poison Ivy Control 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.for.msu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [8] It is still sometimes used if it can be performed within 1 h of ingestion and the exposure is potentially life threatening.
    • Nasogastric aspiration involves the placement of a tube via the nose down into the stomach, the stomach contents are then removed via suction. .This procedure is mainly used for liquid ingestions where activated charcoal is ineffective, e.g.^ Why?: By the time you realize you have a poisoned victim, much of the toxin has already passed out of the stomach, and there are no contraindications for the use of activated charcoal.
      • WMI - Article Archives: Name Your Poison 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.nols.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Want to see what you can use activated charcoal for?
      • Tag: Poison - Explore content tagged Poison on eHow.com 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.ehow.com [Source type: General]

      ethylene glycol poisoning.
    • Emesis (i.e. induced by ipecac) is no longer recommended in poisoning situations, because vomiting is ineffective at removing poisons.[9]
    • Cathartics were postulated to decrease absorption by increasing the expulsion of the poison from the gastrointestinal tract. There are two types of cathartics used in poisoned patients; saline cathartics (sodium sulfate, magnesium citrate, magnesium sulfate) and saccharide cathartics (sorbitol). .They do not appear to improve patient outcome and are no longer recommended.^ Even the white lines and the gaps between them were much longer than they appeared from the car: the length of her whole body, were she to lie down in the road.
      • Poison | Books | guardian.co.uk 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

      ^ Anonymous Posted on 2 September 2008 I hate reformulations too, although they can't always help it — some ingredients are no longer available or are restricted.
      • The Christian Dior Poisons, part 1: Poison and Tendre Poison :: Now Smell This 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.nstperfume.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ They have a short shaft connecting them to the main leaf stem or petiole, while the middle leaflet appears to have a longer stem.
      • Missouri's Most Irritiating Plant 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC mdc.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      [10]

Antidotes

Some poisons have specific antidotes:
Poison/Drug Antidote paracetamol (acetaminophen) N-acetylcysteine
vitamin K anticoagulants, e.g. warfarin vitamin K
opioids naloxone
iron (and other heavy metals) desferrioxamine, Deferasirox or Deferiprone
benzodiazepines flumazenil
ethylene glycol ethanol or fomepizole, and thiamine
methanol ethanol or fomepizole, and folinic acid
cyanide amyl nitrite, sodium nitrite and sodium thiosulfate
Organophosphates Atropine and Pralidoxime
Magnesium Calcium Gluconate
Calcium Channel Blockers (Verapamil, Diltiazem) Calcium Gluconate
Beta-Blockers (Propranolol, Sotalol) Calcium Gluconate and/or Glucagon
Isoniazid Pyridoxine
Atropine Physostigmine
Thallium Prussian blue

Enhanced excretion

Further treatment

  • In the majority of poisonings the mainstay of management is providing supportive care for the patient, i.e. treating the symptoms rather than the poison.

Epidemiology

Disability-adjusted life year for poisonings per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.[11]
     no data      less than 10      10-90      90-170      170-250      250-330      330-410      410-490      490-570      570-650      650-700      700-880      more than 880

See also

References

  1. ^ poison at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. ^ Kautilya suggests employing means such as seduction, secret use of weapons, poison etc. S.D. Chamola, Kautilya Arthshastra and the Science of Management: Relevance for the Contemporary Society, p. 40. ISBN 8178711265.
  3. ^ Kautilya urged detailed precautions against assassination—tasters for food, elaborate ways to detect poison. "Moderate Machiavelli? Contrasting The Prince with the Arthashastra of Kautilya". Critical Horizons, vol. 3, no. 2 (September 2002). Brill Academic Publishers. ISSN 1440-9917 (Print) 1568-5160 (Online). DOI: 10.1163/156851602760586671.
  4. ^ Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 5, Part 7. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd. Page 180.
  5. ^ Complete diving manual by Jack Jackson
  6. ^ Chyka PA, Seger D, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2005). "Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal". Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43 (2): 61–87. PMID 15822758. 
  7. ^ "Position paper: whole bowel irrigation". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (6): 843–54. 2004. doi:10.1081/CLT-200035932. PMID 15533024. 
  8. ^ Vale JA, Kulig K; American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists. (2004). "Position paper: gastric lavage". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (7): 933–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-200045006. PMID 15641639. 
  9. ^ American Academy of Clinical Toxicology; European Association of Poisons Centres Clinical Toxicologists (2004). "Position paper: Ipecac syrup". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (2): 133–43. doi:10.1081/CLT-120037421. PMID 15214617. 
  10. ^ Toxicology, American Academy of Clinical (2004). "Position paper: cathartics". J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42 (3): 243–53. doi:10.1081/CLT-120039801. PMID 15362590. 
  11. ^ "WHO Disease and injury country estimates". World Health Organization. 2004. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/global_burden_disease/estimates_country/en/index.html. Retrieved Nov. 11, 2009. 

External links


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. .This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.^ These terms and conditions regarding your use of the Site constitute a legally binding agreement between you and the Site and the Parent Companies.
  • Bret Michaels Gets Taken Out at the Tonys | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ If any third party site obtains or collects Personal Information from you, in no event shall we assume or have any responsibility or liability.
  • Bret Michaels Gets Taken Out at the Tonys | SPIKE 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ (If you haven't left a comment here before, you may need to be approved by the site owner before your comment will appear.
  • NY PIX Morning News Blog – WPIX-TV 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC weblogs.wpix.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

POISON. An exact definition of the word "poison" (derived through Fr. from Lat. potio, potionem, a drink; i.e. a deadly draught) is by no means easy. There is no legal definition of what constitutes a poison, and the definitions usually proposed are apt to include either too much or too little. .Generally, a poison may be defined to be a substance having an inherent deleterious property, rendering it capable of destroying life by whatever avenue it is taken into the system; or it is a substance which when introduced into the system, or applied externally, injures health or destroys life irrespective of mechanical means or direct thermal changes.^ I'm leaning on giving Hogan a chance on breathing life into TNA. And by that I dont mean hogan PHYSICALLY, I mean Hogan CREATIVELY. .
  • Ring Posts: Surreal Bret Hart-Shawn Michaels embrace highlights Raw - Ring Posts is a Baltimore Sun blog about wrestling - baltimoresun.com 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC weblogs.baltimoresun.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In popular language a poison is a substance capable of destroying life when taken in small quantity; but a substance which destroys life by mechanical means as, e.g. powdered glass, is not, strictly speaking, a poison.
The subject of toxicology forms one of the most important branches of medical jurisprudence. The medical jurist should be familiar with the nature and actions of poisons, the symptoms which they produce, the circumstances which modify their working, the pathological results of their action, and the methods of combating these.
Table of contents

Action of Poisons

Poisons may exert a twofold action. .This may be either local, or remote, or both local and remote.^ Any unauthorized or prohibited use of any Material may subject you to civil liability, criminal prosecution, or both, under applicable federal, state and local laws.
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.The local action of a poison is usually one of corrosion, inflammation, or a direct effect upon the sensory or motor nerves.^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

.The remote actions of poisons are usually of a specific character, though some writers group the remote effects of poisons under two heads, and speak of the common and the specific remote effects of a poison..^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

.The local action of a poison of the corrosive class is usually so well marked and obvious that the fact of the administration of a poison of this class is generally unmistakable.^ "Well, I'd say the one marked ‘Drink Me' should be the poison and ‘Eat Me' should be the antidote.

The same may be said, in a less degree, of the irritant poisons, especially the mineral irritants; but here the symptoms sometimes so closely simulate those of natural disease as to render the recognition of the administration of poison a matter of difficulty. Hence an accurate acquaintance with the remote specific effects of the various poisons is indispensable to the medical jurist. The class of poisons which has been administered or taken will thus be suggested to his mind by the observation of the symptoms; and not unfrequently the specific poison taken will be suspected. .It is almost universally admitted that absorption of a poison is necessary for the production of its specific remote effects, and the old notion that a poison may kill, by its action through the nervous system, without absorption, is abandoned.^ He knew she was worried, that she'd just sat at his bedside for eight solid hours, that without an antidote to whatever poison was coursing through his system, he'd probably be dead before the sun set.

Modifying Circumstances

The ordinary action of a poison may be greatly modified by the largeness of the dose, by the slate of aggregation, admixture, or of chemical combination of the poison, by the part or membrane to which it is applied, and by the condition of the patient. .Thus, for example, opium may be a medicine or a poison, according to the dose in which it is given; and a dose of the drug which may be beneficial to an adult in certain states of the system may be fatal to a child, or to an adult when suffering from some forms of disease.^ Further, if you delete or disable Tracking Technologies, you may not have access to certain features of the Site and some of our other services may not function properly.
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^ Some jurisdictions do not allow for the exclusion of certain warranties or certain limitations on damages and remedies; accordingly some of the exclusions and limitations described in this Agreement may not apply to you.
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All barium salts, again, are poisonous, except the quite insoluble sulphate. The simple cyanides, and many double cyanides, are highly poisonous; but yellow prussiate of potash, which is a double cyanide of iron and potassium, is almost without action upon the system. The part or tissue to which a poison is applied greatly effects the activity of a poison, owing to the varying rapidity with which absorption takes place through the cutaneous, mucous and serous surfaces, and by the other tissues of the body. Curare, an arrow poison, may be swallowed in considerable quantity without appreciable result, whilst a minute quantity of the same substance introduced into a wound is speedily fatal. Idiosyncrasy has an important bearing in toxicology. .Pork, mutton, certain kinds of fish, more especially shell-fish so-called, and mushrooms have each produced all the symptoms of violent irritant poisoning, whilst other persons who have partaken of the same food at the same time have experienced no ill effects.^ In grad school we called it that all the time!
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^ He seemed to be showing no ill effects as he stared at McMahon at the end of the show.
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^ Welcome, again, to Chewing on Poison Ivy…hope I gave you a little food for thought today, and I’ll see you next time, when we’ll start looking at what makes other women in the pop culture world tick.
  • Chewing On Poison Ivy: A Wizard Universe Blog 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC ivy.wizarduniverse.com [Source type: General]

.Some persons are stated, on good authority, to be capable of taking with impunity such poisons as opium, corrosive sublimate, or arsenic, in enormous doses - and this irrespective of habit, which is known to have such an influence in modifying the effects of some poisons, notably the narcotics.^ Poison should take some tips.
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^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

^ However, Personal Information that is necessary to check eligibility, such as date of birth or age, cannot be deleted, but may be modified with sufficient verification of the correct information.
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A tolerance of poisons is sometimes engendered by disease, so that a poison may fail to produce its customary effect. .Thus, opium is tolerated in large quantities in tetanus and in delirium tremens; and mercurial compounds may in some febrile affections fail to produce the usual constitutional effects of the metal.^ Unfortunately, your home computer may cause some glitches that effect how you see our Site -- and that is beyond our control.
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On the other hand, diseases which impede the elimination of a poison may intensify its effects.
The evidence that a poison has been administered is based upon the symptoms produced, on the appearances met with in the body after death, on the analysis of articles of food and drink, of excreta and ejecta, and of the organs of the body after death, and on physiological experiments made with substances extracted from the same articles. .These physiological experiments are usually made upon animals, but in some cases, as for instance when aconite has to be searched for, the physiological experiments must be made also upon the human subject.^ Your use of the Site is subject to all applicable local, state, national laws and regulations and, in some cases, international treaties.
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.The evidence obtained from one or more of these sources, as compared with the properties or effects of various known poisons, will enable the medical jurist to form an opinion as to the administration or non-administration of a poison.^ "One of these is the poison; the other, the antidote."

.The symptoms exhibited by the patient during life rarely fail to afford some clue to the poison taken.^ Avenged Sevenfold Drummer Found Dead I Want Some Rare Poison Demos!
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.Persons may, however, be found dead of whose history nothing can be learned.^ However, Personal Information that is necessary to check eligibility, such as date of birth or age, cannot be deleted, but may be modified with sufficient verification of the correct information.
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.Here post mortem appearances, chemical analysis, and, it may be, physiological experiments, are all-important for the elucidation of the nature of the case.^ Have sat here for last hour reading every post before mine, and found all othem quite interesting and entriguing.
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.Poisoning may be acute or chronic. The general conditions which should arouse a suspicion of acute poisoning are the sudden onset of serious and increasingly alarming symptoms in a person previously in good health, especially if there be pain in the region of the stomach, or, where there is complete prostration of the vitil powers, a cadaveric aspect, and speedy death.^ Then there would be nothing left except revenge and pain and death.

^ There were Poison T-shirts, unison singing of Nothing But A Good Time & Every Rose Has Its Thorn .
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In all such cases the aid of the analytical chemist must be called in either to confirm well-founded or to rebut ill-founded suspicions.
The mode of treatment to be adopted in the case of poisoned persons varies greatly according to the nature of the poison. The first indication, when the poison has been swallowed, is to evacuate the stomach; and this may usually be done by means of the stomach-pump when the poison is not of the corrosive class; or the stomach may be gently washed out by means of a funnel and flexible siphon-tube. In many cases emetics are valuable. Antidotes and counter-poisons may then be given. The former are such substances as chalk to neutralize the mineral acids and oxalic acid; the latter have a physiological counteraction, and are such as atropine, which is a counter-poison to morphia. These may usually be administered most effectively by hypodermic injection. The stomach may to a certain degree be protected from the injurious effects of irritants by the administration of mucilaginous drinks; alkaloids may be rendered sparingly soluble by means of astringent substances containing tannin; and pain may be relieved by means of opium, unless contra-indicated by the nature of the poison. The effects of the convulsant poisons, such as strychnine, may be combated by means of the inhalation of chloroform.
The classification of poisons is a matter of difficulty. .Various attempts have been made to classify them scientifically, but with no signal success; and perhaps the best system is that which groups the various poisons according to the more obvious symptoms which they produce.^ No-they`re more concerned about their damn make-up.
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^ Poison: Information and Much More from Answers.com Poison is an American glam metal band which originally achieved popular success in the .....
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.Our knowledge of the more intimate action of poisons is still too imperfect to admit of any useful classification according to the manner in which they specifically affect the vital organs.^ TNA actually has ring action more than WWE, but using all the "old names" i.e.
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^ According to her Post-crisis origin, Professor Jason Woodrue used Pam as his personal experimental piñata, eventually turning her into Poison Ivy.
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^ Even though WWE didn't use Bret the right way all throughout the show, and even though TNA had more suprises, TNA still has a long way to go.
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Poisons may in the manner indicated be classified as (I) Corrosives, (2) Irritants, (3) Neurotics, and (4) Gaseous Poisons. i. Corrosives. The typical member of this class is corrosive sublimate, the soluble chloride of mercury. In it are included also the concentrated mineral acids (sulphuric, nitric and hydrochloric); oxalic acid; the alkalies (potash, soda, and ammonia) and their carbonates; acid, alkaline, and corrosive salts of the metals (such as bisulphate of potash, alum, butter of antimony and nitrate of silver); also carbolic acid.
The symptoms produced by the mineral acids and the alkalies are almost altogether referable to local action; but some corrosive poisons, such as carbolic acid, produce, besides a local action, remote and specific constitutional effects. The symptoms of corrosive poisoning are marked and unmistakable, except in infants. Immediately on swallowing the corrosive substance, an acid, caustic or metallic burning sensation is experienced in the mouth, fauces, gullet and region of the stomach, and this speedily extends over the whole belly; as a rule vomiting speedily follows. In the case of the mineral acids, and in oxalic acid poisoning, the vomit is so acid that if it falls upon a marble or concrete floor effervescence ensues. No relief follows the evacuation of the stomach. The ejected matters contain blood, and even fragments of the corroded walls of the alimentary canal. The belly becomes distended with gas and horribly tender. High fever prevails. The mouth is found to be corroded. Death usually ensues within a few hours; or, if the patient survives, he or she may perish miserably, months after the poison was taken, through starvation consequent upon the gradual contraction of the gullet, brought about by its corrosion and subsequent healing.
The treatment of corrosive poisoning consists in very gently emptying and washing out the stomach by means of a soft siphontube. The stomach-pump cannot be used with safety in consequence of the weakening of the walls of the stomach by corrosion. Demulcents and opiates may be subsequently administered. After death from corrosive poisoning the walls of the stomach are found corroded and even perforated.
i. Corrosive Sublimate. - Here all the signs and symptoms of corrosive poisoning are produced in their severest form. A grain or two of this poison may prove fatal. Fortunately there is an efficient antidote in white of egg, the albumen of which, if administered at once, renders the salt insoluble. The eggs should be divested of their yolks, beaten up with water, and given promptly, repeatedly, and abundantly, followed by emetics. .Poisoning by corrosive sublimate may be followed by the specific toxic effects of mercury, such as salivation and tremor.^ Additional Information may be requested depending on the specific Promotion, but submission of such Information may be optional.
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^ Additional Information may be requested for specific Promotions, such as a user's preferences regarding goods or services, choices of music or artists, or other similar survey information.
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^ Optional information may be requested for specific promotions, such as a user's preferences regarding goods or services, choices of music or artists, or other similar survey information.
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Workers in mercury, such as water-gilders, looking-glass makers, and the makers of barometers and thermometers, are apt to suffer from a peculiar form of shaking palsy, known as "the trembles," or mercurial tremor. .This disease affects most frequently those who are exposed to mercurial fumes.^ And to those who also suffer from diabetes, he urges, "Accept that you have the disease.
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The victim is affected with tremors when an endeavour is made to exert the muscles, so that he is unable, for instance, to convey a glass of water to the lips steadily, and when he walks he breaks into a dancing trot. The treatment consists in removal from the mercurial atmosphere, baths, fresh air, and the administration of iron and other tonics.
2. Mineral Acids. - These are oil of vitriol or sulphuric acid, aqua fortis or nitric acid, and spirit of salt or hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. These, when taken in a concentrated form, produce wellmarked symptoms of corrosion. When they are diluted, the symptoms are those of an irritant poison. Nitric acid stains the mouth and skin of a yellow colour. The treatment consists in the administration of the alkalies or other carbonates, chalk, whiting, or even uncoloured plaster scraped off the walls or ceiling, with the view of neutralizing the acid.
3. Oxalic acid is a vegetable acid. When taken in the state of concentrated solution it acts as a corrosive, but when diluted as an irritant. But it also exerts a specific effect, killing the patient by cardiac syncope not unfrequently within a few minutes. .When a person after taking a crystalline substance, tasting strongly acid, dies within 15 or 30 minutes, after the manifestation of great weakness, small pulse and failure of the heart's power, poisoning by oxalic acid is almost certain.^ If it had been someone else that LeBarge had asked Rick to kill in order to save his brother's life, Town was almost certain that person wouldn't still be walking around or breathing.

The treatment consists in promptly administering an emetic, followed by chalk, whiting, or any substance containing carbonate of calcium. The alkaline carbonates are valueless, for the alkaline oxalates are almost as poisonous as oxalic acid itself.

4. The Alkalis

Caustic potash and caustic soda produce symptoms resembling those of the mineral acids, except that purging is a usual accompaniment.
5. Carbolic acid when taken in the form of a concentrated liquid acts as a corrosive, causing whitening and shrinking of all the animal membranes with which it comes in contact. .The patient, however, becomes speedily comatose, the poison acting profoundly upon the great nervous centres.^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

A curious phenomenon - black or dark green urine - is commonly observed after the administration of this poison. Saccharated lime-water, diluted and drunk freely, and a solution of sulphate of soda are perhaps the most useful remedies.
2. Irritant Poisons. Irritant poisons are of two classes - metallic irritants and vegetable and animal irritants, these latter being for convenience grouped together. .Perhaps none of the irritants act purely as such, the irritant symptoms being usually accompanied by well-marked effects upon the nervous system.^ They were also usually accompanied by an enormous bill that A.J. ultimately ended up being responsible for.

An irritant is a substance which causes inflammation of the part to which it is applied - usually the alimentary canal. Arsenic is by far the most important of the metallic irritants. Other irritants are the moderately diluted acids, many metallic salts, such as those of antimony, lead, copper, zinc and chromium. Elaterium, gamboge, aloes, colocynth and croton oil are good examples of vegetable irritants; and cantharides of animal irritants. Animal and vegetable food when decomposed, or infested with certain organisms known as bacteria, may produce violent irritant symptoms. .The symptoms produced by irritant poisons are usually more slow in their development than where a corrosive has been administered.^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

Usually, after an interval, greater or less according to the specific nature of the irritant swallowed, a burning pain is felt in the mouth, throat and gullet, with a sense of constriction of the parts, and followed by burning pain in the region of the stomach. This is increased, and not alleviated, by pressure, a mark which serves to distinguish the attack from one of ordinary colic. Nausea, vomiting and thirst ensue, speedily followed by distension of the whole abdomen, which is exceedingly tender to the touch. Ordinarily the vomiting is followed by profuse diarrhoea. Should the poison not be speedily eliminated in the vomited and faecal matters, inflammatory fever sets in, followed by collapse; and death may ensue in a few hours.
There is danger of confounding irritant poisoning with some forms of natural disease, such as gastritis and gastric ulcer, colic, peritonitis, cholera and rupture of the intestines.
1. Arsenic is a specific irritant poison. Almost all the compounds of this metal are poisonous. The term "arsenic" is, however, most commonly applied, not to the metal itself, but to its lower oxide, arsenious oxide, which is also known as white arsenic. By whatever channel arsenic is introduced into the system, it invariably affects specifically the stomach and intestines, causing congestion or inflammation. The common sources of arsenical poisoning are the taking of white arsenic, which causes acute poisoning, and the inhalation of dust from arsenical wall-papers and textile fabrics, whereby a chronic form of poisoning is induced.
The symptoms and treatment of arsenical poisoning are described under Arsenic (q.v.).
Arsenic-eating, or the ability of some persons to take relatively large doses of arsenic habitually, is a well-established fact. The cause of this singular immunity from the ordinary results of arsenic is unknown.

2. Lead

.The salts of lead, more especially the acetate (sugar of lead), are irritant poisons of no very great activity; and, though occasionally death ensues, recovery is the rule.^ Links to More About Bret Michaels-Lead Singer For Poison  .
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^ More Great Poison Related Lenses  .
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Chrome yellow, or lead chromate, is a powerful irritant poison. All chromates are, indeed, irritant poisons. (See Lead Poisoning.) 3. Copper. - The soluble salts of copper, such as blue vitriol (the sulphate) and verdigris (subcarbonate and subacetate), are emetic and irritant salts. Their emetic effects usually, but not invariably, secure their prompt rejection by the stomach. Occasionally fatal effects have resulted from their administration. Copper becomes accidentally mixed with articles of dietary in a variety of modes. It is also used for improving the colour of preserved fruits and vegetables. Its deleterious properties when thus used in minute quantities have been both asserted and denied. There is, however, a large body of evidence in favour of the at all events occasional poisonous effects of minute quantities of copper.
4. Zinc salts and barium salts, except the quite insoluble barium sulphate, are irritant poisons; and barium compounds act also upon the central nervous system.
5. Chromates, e.g. bichromate of potash, are violent irritants. Chrome yellow, or lead chromate, has already been mentioned.

6. Phosphorus

Of the two chief forms of the elements - the yellow or ordinary and the red or amorphous - the former only is poisonous. Rarely there is met with a chronic form of poisoning among workers in the material, arising from the inhalation of phosphorus vapours. Its special characteristic is a peculiar necrosis or death of the bony structure of the lower jaw. Acute phosphorus poisoning is more common. Phosphorus is used fot tipping matches, and is also the basis of several vermin destroyers.
(See Phosphorus and Match.) 7. Vegetable Irritants. - These produce drastic purgative effects. Frequently the nature of the illness may be ascertained by the discovery of portions of the vegetable substance - recognizable by the microscope - in the matters ejected by the patient.
8. Cantharides. - The administration of cantharides (q.v.) is followed by vomiting, purging, strangury, or even entire inability to pass the urine. In the ejecta portions of the shining elytra or wing-cases of the fly may often be recognized. There is often great excitement of the sexual proclivities. The active principle of the fly, cantharidin, may be extracted from suspected matters by means of chloroform, and the residue left after the evaporation of this blisters the lip or any tender mucous surface to which it is applied. Demulcent remedies, with opiate enemata and injections, afford the best relief by way of treatment.
3. Neurotics. i. Prussic or Hydrocyanic Acid. - .Hydrocyanic acid is one of the best known poisons, and a very deadly one.^ Poison - I Won't Forget You [1986] One of the best videoclip ever made.
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In the pure state it is said to kill with lightning-like rapidity. It is met with in commerce only in a dilute state. In Great Britain two kinds of acid are commonly sold - the pharmacopoeial acid, containing 2% of anhydrous prussic acid, and Scheele's acid, containing 4 to 5%. Less than a teaspoonful of the 2% acid has caused death. .Given in fatal doses, the symptons of prussic-acid poisoning set in with great rapidity; and, in consequence of the readiness with which the poison is absorbed from the stomach and diffused through the circulation, the onset of symptoms is reckoned by seconds rather than by minutes.^ Ideas for great lenses you could build Ready, set, start your own lens!
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.Occasionally the victim may be able to perform a few voluntary actions before alarming symptoms are developed.^ After his family relocated from Butler to Mechanicsburg, Michaels performed in a few bands before forming Paris in 1984.
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There is first a very brief stage of difficult breathing, and slow action of the heart, with a tendency for the organ to stop in the state of dilatation. With widely-dilated pupils of the eye, the patient is then seized with violent irregular convulsive movements. The rhythm of the respiratory movements is disturbed, and the countenance becomes of a bluish cast. The patient now sinks to the ground with complete loss of muscular power; and the third or asphyxial stage is reached, in which there are slow gasping respirations, loss of pulse, and paralysis of motion. Death is frequently preceded by muscular spasms. The foudroyant character of the illness, and the speedy death of the patient, coupled with the peculiar odour of the acid in the breath and atmosphere around the body, seldom leave any doubt as to the nature of the case. The treatment consists in inhalation of fumes of strong ammonia, drinks of warm and cold water alternately, friction of the limbs, and artificial respiration. The subcutaneous injection of atropine, which acts as a cardiac stimulant, may prove serviceable.
Other soluble cyanides, more especially cyanide of potassium, a salt largely used in photography and in the arts, are equally poisonous with hydrocyanic acid. (See Prussic Acid.) 2. Opium. - In consequence of the extent to which opium, its preparations, and its active alkaloid morphia are used for the relief of pain, poisoning by opium is of frequent occurrence. It is largely used by suicides; and children, being very susceptible to its influence, frequently die from misadventure after administration of an overdose of the drug. The ordinary preparations of opium are the drug itself, which is the inspissated juice of the oriental poppy, and the tincture, commonly known as laudanum. Opium contains a variety of more or less active principles, the chief of which is the alkaloid morphia, which is present in good opium to the extent of about io % in combination with meconic acid, which is physiologically inactive. Opium is largely used by Eastern nations for smoking, and there is great discrepancy of opinion as to the extent to which opium smoking is deleterious. The preponderance of opinion is in favour of the view that opium smoking is a demoralizing, degrading, and pernicious habit, and that its victims are sufferers both in body and mind from its use. (See Opium and Morphine.) 3. Strychnine and Strychnine-yielding Plants. - .The alkaloids strychnine and brucine, as well as all the plants in which they are found, all act in the same manner, being highly poisonous, and causing death after spasms of a severe character.^ II and they all say the same things.
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^ At first it was an incoherent jumble of sounds, but slowly they could make out a few words, the most prominent of all being "Rick."

^ Also, its a sextagon in the TNA, and its great to see all my old favorites on the same show, even if they are all over 70 years old!
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Many verminkillers contain strychnine as their active ingredient.
.Strychnine, and all substances containing that alkaloid, produce their effects within a very few minutes - usually within ten or fifteen minutes.^ Instead, he and Town were tied together in an empty warehouse, A.J. was lying in a hospital bed halfway across town, and they were all very likely to be dead in a few hours.

^ He's just started getting more restless within the last ten minutes or so.

The patient complains of stiffness about the neck, and his aspect exhibits terror. There is an impression of impending calamity or death. .Very speedily the head is jerked back, the limbs extended, the back arched (opisthotonos), so that the body may rest on the head and heels only.^ He knew his limbs shouldn't feel heavy, yet he couldn't move his body or even lift his head.

^ He closed his eyes for a moment and let his head rest back on the seat.

^ MRS.fakealot.Wake up and get mindy back dude.I may only be 11,but man where you stupid, mindy is real taya is fake.
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In a few moments these s y mptoms pass off, and there is complete relaxation of the spasm. The spasmodic condition speedily returns, and is brought about by the slightest touch or movement of the patient. .Accessions and remissions of the tetanic state ensue rapidly till the patient succumbs, usually within half an hour of the administration of the poison.^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

The best treatment is to put, and keep, the patient under the influence of chloroform till time is given for the excretion of the alkaloid, having previously given a full dose of chloral hydrate.
(See Strychnine.) 4. Aconite Poisoning. - .The ordinary blue rocket, wolfsbane or monkshood, Acontium Napellus, and an alkaloid extracted from it, aconitine, are perhaps the most deadly of known poisons.^ Born in Brooklyn,New York as Bruce Anthony Johannesson, C.C. DeVille is most known as the guitarest for "POISON".
  • Poison Rock Band 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Onesixteenth of a grain of aconitine has proved fatal to a man. All the preparations of aconite produce a peculiar burning, tingling, and numbness of the parts to which they are applied. .When given in large doses they produce violent vomiting, as a rule, more or less paralysis of motion and sensation, and great depression of the heart, usually ending in death from syncope.^ They were also usually accompanied by an enormous bill that A.J. ultimately ended up being responsible for.

^ Since 1999, the original lineup has more or less stayed together, mounting largely successful summer nostalgia tours into the new millennium.
  • Poison Rock Band 23 January 2010 12:31 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Intelligence remains unaffected till almost the last. The treatment consists in the hypodermic injection of digitalin, which is a counter-poison in its action upon the heart. The root of aconite has been eaten in mistake for that of horse-radish.

5. Belladonna

The belladonna or deadly nightshade, Atropa Belladonna, contains an alkaloid, atropine, which is largely used by oculists to procure dilatation of the pupils of the eye. The bright scarlet berries of the plant have been eaten by children, who are attracted b y their tempting appearance. Belladonna produces dilatation of the pupils, rapid pulse, hot dry flushed skin, with an eruption not unlike that of scarlatina, soreness of the throat, with difficulty of swallowing, intense thirst, and gay, mirthful delirium. The treatment consists in evacuation of the poison by means of the stomach-pump, and the hypodermic injection of morphia as a counter-poison.
.4. Gaseous Poisons. The effects of these are varied - some of them acting as irritants, while others have a specific effect, apparently in consequence of their forming chemical compounds with the red pigment of the blood, and thus destroying its capability of acting as a carrier of oxygen.^ "You loved him," A.J. said simply, looking over what appeared to be some kind of order form or invoice for laboratory chemicals.

^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

^ "One of these is the poison; the other, the antidote."

i. Chlorine and bromine act as powerful irritants. They provoke spasm of the glottis when inhaled, and subsequently induce inflammation of the respiratory mucous membrane, which may prove speedily fatal. Inhalation of diluted ammonia vapour is the best remedy.
2. Hydrochloric or muriatic acid gas and hydrofluoric or fluoric acid gas are irritating and destructive to life. The former is more destructive to vegetable life than even chlorine. They are emitted in many processes of manufacture, and especially in the manufacture of carbonate of soda from common salt by Le Blanc's process, in the salt-glazing of earthenware, and in the manufacture of artificial manures.
3. Sulphurous Acid Gas. - The gas given off by burning sulphur is most suffocating and irritating. Its inhalation, even in a highly diluted state, may cause speedy death from spasmodic closure of the glottis.
4. Nitrous vapours, or gaseous oxides of nitrogen (except nitrous oxide), are given off from galvanic batteries excited by nitric acid; also in the process of etching on copper. They produce, when diluted, little immediate irritation, but are exceedingly dangerous, setting up extensive and fatal inflammation of the lungs.
5. Ammonia gas is highly irritant, but does not often prove fatal.
6. Carbon dioxide gas is heavier than atmospheric air, is totally irrespirable when pure, and is fatal when present in large quantities in respired air. It is given off from burning fuel, accumulates in pits and wells as choke-damp, and constitutes the deadly afterdamp of coal-mines. It is also formed during alcoholic fermentation, and hence accumulates in partially filled vats in which fermented liquors are stored. When it is breathed in a concentrated state, death is almost instantaneous. .Persons descending into wells foul with this gas sink down powerless, and are usually dead before they can be removed from the vitiated atmosphere.^ If someone bothers me personally, usually I’ll just ignore ‘em…unless they get between me and my Admiral, and which point fireballs fly.
  • Bret Michaels Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They could hear A.J.'s sputtering cough in the background, and Rick knew that he didn't have long before A.J. would be slipping into eternal darkness as LeBarge just had.

In these cases there is true asphyxia; but carbonic acid is also a narcotic gas. .Persons exposed to an atmosphere partially composed of this gas, but not long enough to produce fatal results, are affected with stertorous breathings, oppression, flushed face, prominent eyes, swollen tongue and feeble pulse.^ His face was flushed and his usually clear blue eyes looked cloudy, distant.

^ "Apparently just long enough to figure out what kind of personal betrayal would be the most fitting."

The proper treatment is removal from the foul atmosphere, alternate cold and tepid douches to the chest, friction of the limbs and trunk, and artificial respiration. When animation is restored the patient should be put to bed and kept quiet, but should be carefully watched in case of relapse.
7. Carbon monoxide gas is given off by burning charcoal and other forms of fuel, mixed with carbonic acid. .The poisonous effects of charcoal fumes are perhaps due rather to the more poisonous carbonic oxide than to the less poisonous carbonic acid.^ The climb down through the skylight had been less than graceful and more than a little noisy.

^ He trusted them more than he trusted most of his officers, and there was no one he would rather have backing him up when it came down to the wire.

^ "It's a rather slow-acting poison–it usually takes about 24 hours for a patient to succumb to its effects completely.

An atmosphere containing less than i % of carbonic oxide would doubtless be fatal if breathed for many minutes. Carbonic oxide forms with haemoglobin, the red pigment of the blood, a bright scarlet compound. The compound is very stable, and the oxide cannot be displaced by atmospheric oxygen. Hence the blood after death from the inhalation of carbonic oxide is of a bright arterial hue, which it retains on exposure to air.
8. Coal-gas acts as an asphyxiant and narcotic. The appearances met with after death - more especially the fluid state of the blood - are similar to those observed after death from carbonic oxide gas, which is a constituent of coal-gas, and to which the chief effect of coal-gas may be due.
9. Sulphuretted hydrogen gas is highly poisonous by whatever channel it gains access to the body. In a concentrated form it produces almost instant death from asphyxia. Even in a diluted state it produces colic, nausea, vomiting and drowsiness. This may pass into insensibility with lividity and feeble respiration. The skin is cold and clammy, or bathed in perspiration. The red blood corpuscles are disintegrated. The treatment consists in removal from the contaminated atmosphere, friction to the surface of the body, warmth, and the administration of stimulants. The inhalation of chlorine gas has been recommended on chemical grounds; but it must be remembered that chlorine is itself poisonous.
10. Anaesthetics. - Nitrous oxide, or laughing gas, and the gases or vapours of other anaesthetic substances, such as chloroform, may, if improperly administered, produce death by asphyxia, and perhaps otherwise. Obviously, as a rule, medical assistance is at hand. The treatment consists in artificial respiration, and the use of galvanic current.
11. Vapours of Hydrocarbons. - The volatile vapours of the natural hydrocarbons known as benzoline, petroleum, &c., are poisonous when inhaled for lengthened periods. (T. S.*)


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

  1. Heb. hemah, "heat," the poison of certain venomous reptiles (Deut 32:24, 33; Job 6:4; Ps 584), causing inflammation.
  2. Heb. rosh, ."a head," a poisonous plant (Deut 29:18), growing luxuriantly (Hos 10:4), of a bitter taste (Ps 6921; Lam 3:5), and coupled with wormwood; probably the poppy.^ Reply ByGreatThorsBeard says: June 29, 2009 at 10:07 pm aww…i like poison… .
    • Bret Michaels Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    This word is rendered "gall", q.v., (Deut 29:18; 32:33; Ps 6921; Jer 8:14, etc.), ."hemlock" (Hos 10:4; Amos 6:12), and "poison" (Job 20:16), "the poison of asps," showing that the rosh was not exclusively a vegetable poison.
  3. In Rom 3:13 (comp.^ Reply WhoaNellie > ZAP! < Dot Org says: June 24, 2009 at 12:16 pm It’s a dirty job, but… .
    • Bret Michaels Fail - FAIL Blog: Epic Fail Pictures and Videos of Owned, Pwnd and Fail Moments 10 February 2010 12:38 UTC failblog.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Job 20:16; Ps 1403), James 3:8, as the rendering of the Greek ios.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

Simple English

[[File:|right|thumb|150px|The skull and crossbones symbol is traditionally used to label something with poison in it.]]

In biology, poisons are substances that can cause problems to organisms.[1] This is usually done by a chemical reaction. The effect of the poison varies with the quantity that is absorbed by the organism. A dose of poison can cause harmful effects or injuries and sometimes even death. Stuff or substance which has the properties of a poison is poisonous or toxic. If poisoning causes death, it is lethal poison.

Legally and in hazardous chemical labeling, poisons are especially toxic substances. Less toxic substances are labeled "harmful", "irritant", or not labeled at all.

In medicine and zoology, toxins and venoms are different from poisons. Toxins are the result of a biological process. Certain organisms use venoms for hunting, or as a defense. If an organism is poisonous, it is harmful to eat. If it is venomous, it has a harmful bite or sting.

Very often, it is only the quantity of a substance that makes the difference. Drinking alcoholic drinks may lead lead to aggressive behaviour, problems with speech, and different forms of amnesia. This effect is called intoxication. People who drink even more often are in shock. At the same time, alcohol can be used as a disinfectant.

Another example: Drinking water may be deadly: Drinking about ten litres of waters can lead to death for an adult. Water is not poisonous, it is the effect it has, that is, in this case. People will die from a lack of sodium. Drinking the water in smaller doses will give the body time to replace the sodium it loses.

Sometimes, poisons have an antidote. The antidote of a poison will slow or reverse its effects. Note that the antidote may itself be a poison. As an example, Atropine can be used as an antidote against certain nerve gases, like tabun or sarine, or against certain insecticides. It is also used as a drug, In high doses, Atropine is a poison. Atropine is a core medicine in the World Health Organization's "Essential Drugs List".[2]

There are other types of dangerous materials. These are:

Pollution also sometimes is poisonous. For example, large amounts of potato peeling scraps or milk can kill organisms in waterways, because they contain so much nutrients for microbes that the microbes consume all oxygen from the waterway.

Poison gas

In wars, some countries use poison gases against their enemies. Poison gases such as chlorine gas and mustard gas were used in World War I. Corrosive poison gases cause serious burns to the skin, eyes, and lungs. Nerve agents can kill by poisoning.

References

  1. poison at Dorland's Medical Dictionary
  2. "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines" (PDF). World Health Organization. March 2005. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/hq/2005/a87017_eng.pdf. Retrieved 2006-03-12. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 28, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Bret Michaels, which are similar to those in the above article.








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