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Poison Ivy
Promotional art for Batman: Gotham Knights #15 cover.
Brian Bolland, artist.
Publication information
Publisher DC Comics
First appearance Batman #181 (June 1966)
Created by Robert Kanigher
Sheldon Moldoff
In-story information
Alter ego Pamela Lillian Isley
Team affiliations Injustice League
Injustice Gang
Secret Society of Super Villains
Suicide Squad
Abilities * Expertise in botany and toxicology
  • Uncanny ability to control plant life
  • Can secrete various floral toxins to injure or intoxicate
  • Immunity to all toxins, bacteria, and viruses
  • Semi-mystical connection to the plant world through a force called the Green

Poison Ivy (Pamela Lillian Isley) is a fictional character, a DC Comics supervillainess who is primarily an enemy of Batman. Created by Robert Kanigher and Sheldon Moldoff, she first appeared in Batman #181 (June 1966).

Poison Ivy is depicted as one of the world's most prominent eco-terrorists. She is obsessed with plants, botany, and environmentalism. She uses toxins from plants and her own bloodstream for her criminal activities, which are usually aimed at protecting the natural environment. Fellow villain Harley Quinn is her recurring partner-in-crime and possibly her only human friend. She is best known as a villain of Batman and plays an important role in his rogue gallery.

In the 1997 film, Batman & Robin, she was portrayed by Uma Thurman. Poison Ivy has been featured in the television series, Batman: The Animated Series and The Batman, by voice actresses Diane Pershing and Piera Coppola respectively.

IGN's list of the Top 100 Comic Book Villains of All Time ranked Poison Ivy as #64.[1]


Publication history

The first appearance of Poison Ivy, in Batman#181

Following the character's initial appearance, Poison Ivy continued to appear in the various Batman comic book series and had a major role in Suicide Squad and the Black Orchid miniseries. An origin story was later retconned for her.

The character was partly inspired by the short story Rappaccini's Daughter,[2] written by Nathaniel Hawthorne. Robert Kanigher has stated that she was originally modeled after Bettie Page.[3] Artists such as Jim Lee draw her in a green form-fitting one-piece bathing suit.[4][5][6]

Fictional character history


Dr. Pamela Lillian Isley, a promising botanist from Seattle, is seduced by Marc LeGrande into assisting him with the theft of an Egyptian artifact containing ancient herbs. Fearing she would implicate him in the theft, he attempts to poison her with the herbs, which are deadly and untraceable. She survives this murder attempt and discovers she has acquired an immunity to all natural toxins and diseases.[7]

Post-Crisis: Life in Seattle and Gotham

Her origins were revised in Shadow of the Bat Annual #3. Pamela Isley grows up wealthy with emotionally distant parents. She later studies advanced botanical biochemistry at a university with Alec Holland under Dr. Jason Woodrue. Isley, a timid, shy girl, is easily seduced by her professor. Woodrue injects Isley with poisons and toxins as an experiment, causing her transformation.[8] She nearly dies twice as a result from these poisonings, driving her insane. Later Woodrue flees from the authorities, leaving Isley in the hospital for six months. Enraged at the betrayal, she suffers from violent mood swings, being sweet one moment and like poison the next. When her boyfriend has a car accident after mysteriously suffering from a massive fungal overgrowth, Isley drops out of school and leaves Seattle, eventually settling in Gotham City.[9]

She begins her criminal career by threatening to release her suffocating spores into the air unless the city meets her demands. Batman, who appears in Gotham that very same year, thwarts her scheme, and she is incarcerated in Arkham Asylum.[10] From this point on, she has a kind of obsession with Batman, he being the only person she could not control. Over the years, she develops plant-like superpowers, the most noticeable being a lethal toxin in her lips; she is able to literally kill with a kiss.

In subsequent issues, she states that she only started a life of crime to attain sufficient funds to find a location to be alone with her plants, undisturbed by humanity. A few years later, she attempts to leave Gotham forever, escaping Arkham to settle on a desert island in the Caribbean. She transforms the barren wasteland into a second Eden, and is, for the first time in her life, happy. It is soon firebombed, however, when an American-owned corporation tests their weapons systems out on what they think is an abandoned island. Ivy returns to Gotham with a vengeance, punishing those responsible. After being willingly apprehended by Batman, she resolves that she can never leave Gotham, at least not until the world was safe for plants. From then on, she dedicates herself to the impossible mission of "purifying" Gotham.[11]

At one point, Batman travels to Seattle to ascertain information on Pamela Isley's life before she became Poison Ivy. Here, Batman states that both of Pamela's parents are dead. When and why they died has been left undetermined.[9]

While in Arkham, Poison Ivy receives a message through flowers that someone is to help her escape. That night, two women, Holly and Eva, successfully break Ivy out and bring her back to their employer. She is less than happy to discover that it is the Floronic Man, formerly known as Dr. Jason Woodrue, her former college professor that conducted the experiments on her. The only human portion of him remaining is his head, while the rest of his body is plant-based.

After striking a deal with him in the underground tunnels of Gotham, Ivy receives a trunk full of money in return for samples of her DNA. Woodrue intends to combine their DNA to create a "child", all while flooding the streets of Gotham with high-powered marijuana. The purpose of this is to create a world economy run on hemp and to have their offspring control it. Batman intervenes, but is overcome by Woodrue's henchwomen, Holly and Eva. However, Ivy turns on Floronic Man and lets Batman go to fight the intoxicated maniac. In the end, Batman decapitates the Floronic Man, and Ivy escapes with her money.[12]

At times, Ivy demonstrates positive, even maternal traits. When Gotham City is destroyed in an earthquake, rather than fight over territory like most of Batman's enemies, she holds dominion over Robinson Park and turns it into a tropical paradise. Sixteen children who are orphaned during the quake come to live with her, as she sympathizes with them, having suffered a traumatic childhood herself.[13] She cares for them like sons and daughters, despite her usual misanthropy.

That winter, Clayface (Basil Karlo) pays Ivy a visit, hoping to form a bargain with her. This would entail her growing fruits and vegetables, having the orphans harvest them, and him selling the produce to the highest bidder. She wants nothing to do with the plan, and she attempts to kill him with a kiss. Clayface overpowers her, however, and imprisons Ivy and the orphans for six months in a chamber under the park's lake. He feeds her salt and keeps her from the sun to weaken her. Eventually, Batman comes and discovers the imprisoned orphans and Ivy. The two agree to work together to take Karlo down. Batman battles Clayface and instructs Robin to blow up the lake bed above, allowing the rushing water to break apart the mud, effectively freeing Ivy. She fights Karlo, ensnaring him in the branches of a tree and fatally kissing him. She then proceeds to sink him down into the ground, where he becomes fertilizer for Ivy's plants. Batman, originally intending to take the orphans away from Ivy, recognizes that staying with her is what is best for them, and they remain in her care until the city is restored. Also, as part of a bargain to keep her freedom, Batman arranges it so that Ivy provides fresh produce to the starving hordes of earthquake survivors.[4][14] Soon after, Ivy finds Harley Quinn, who had almost been murdered by the Joker, among the debris of the earthquake and nurses her back to health. The two have been best friends and partners-in-crime ever since.[15]

After Gotham City is reopened to the public, the city council wants to evict her from the park and send her back to Arkham Asylum, as they are uncomfortable with the thought of a "psychotic eco-terrorist controlling the equivalent of 30-odd square blocks." They also mistakenly believe that the orphans in Ivy's care are hostages. The Gotham City Police Department threaten to spray the park with R.C. Sixty, a powerful herbicide that most certainly would have killed every living plant in the park, including Ivy, and more than likely do harm to the children. Ivy refuses to leave the park to the city and let them destroy the paradise she had created, so she chooses martyrdom. It is only after Rose, one of the orphans, is accidentally poisoned by Ivy that the hardened eco-terrorist surrenders herself to the authorities in order to save the girl's life. Batman says that, as much as she would hate to admit it, Ivy is still more human than plant.[16]

Later on, she and other Gotham characters are manipulated by the Riddler and Hush. Her task is to hypnotize both Superman and Catwoman, using Catwoman to steal ransom money from Killer Croc after the original plan is interrupted by Batman while Superman serves as a 'bodyguard' when she hides in Metropolis; however, she abandons Catwoman to be killed by Killer Croc, and Batman is able to keep Superman busy in a fight- aided by the kryptonite ring he was given long ago- long enough for the Man of Steel to break out of the spell. Soon afterwards, the Riddler, who is being chased and attacked by Hush, approaches Ivy and seeks her protection. Ivy, who is angered by the manipulation, battles the Riddler physically and psychologically. She comes to physically dominate her opponent, humiliating Riddler and temporarily breaking his spirit.[17]

Poison Ivy comes to believe that her powers are killing the children she had looked after, so she seeks Bruce Wayne's help to reverse her powers and make her a normal human being once more. Soon after, she is convinced by Hush to take another serum to restore her powers and apparently dies in the process. However, when her grave is visited shortly thereafter, it is covered with ivy, creating the impression her death would be short-lived.[18][19][20][21][22][23]

Shortly after, Poison Ivy appears briefly in Robinson Park, killing two corrupt cops who killed one of her orphans (although whether this takes place before or after the aforementioned storyline is unknown).[24]

"One Year Later", Ivy is alive and active. Her control over flora has increased, referred to as being on a par with Swamp Thing or Floronic Man. She also appears to have resumed her crusade against the corporate enemies of the environment with a new fanaticism, regarding Batman no longer as a main opponent, but as a "hindrance."[25]

After arriving back from a year-long absence, Batman discovers that Ivy has been feeding people including "tiresome lovers", "incompetent henchmen", and those who "returned her smile" to a giant plant which would digest the victims slowly and painfully. She refers to these murders as a "guilty pleasure". In an unprecedented event, her victims' souls merge with the plant, creating a botanical monster called Harvest, who seeks revenge upon Ivy. With the intervention of Batman, however, she is saved. Ivy is left in critical condition, and the whereabouts of Harvest are unknown.[25]

In Countdown #37, the Piper and the Trickster are hiding out in a greenhouse, picking fruits and vegetables from the plants. They run into Ivy, who is talking to her plants (presumably being told that Piper and Trickster hurt them), to which she reacts by tying them up in vines with the intention of killing them. She is then shown to have joined the Injustice League Unlimited and is one of the villains featured in Salvation Run.[26]

In the "Battle For The Cowl" storyline, she is coerced by a new Black Mask into joining his group of villains that aims to take over Gotham. She and Killer Croc unsuccessfully attempt to murder Damian Wayne.

Shortly after, she escapes from Black Mask's control and forms an alliance with Catwoman and Harley Quinn, leading into the ongoing series Gotham City Sirens.

Gotham City Sirens

During Hush's ploy to hurt Batman through hurting his loved ones, Hush kidnaps Catwoman and surgically removes her heart. After being saved by Batman, she is operated on by some of the most gifted surgeons in the world, including Doctor Mid-Nite and Mr. Terrific. Zatanna also gives her a magic antidote to help heal her wounds. In order to get even with Hush, Selina enlists the help of Poison Ivy, Harley Quinn, Oracle, Holly Robinson, and Slam Bradley to track down all of Hush's accounts, pilfer them, and leave him penniless. Selina pays Holly, Harley, and Ivy over $30 million each, hoping that they would use the funds to leave Gotham to start fresh somewhere else.[27] However, Harley uses her money to go on a shopping spree, while Ivy gives her money away to organizations in Madagascar and Costa Rica for reforestation.

After rescuing Catwoman from Boneblaster, a new villain trying to make a name for himself, Poison Ivy takes Catwoman back to Edward Nigma's townhouse. When there, Catwoman sees that Ivy has been keeping the Riddler under mind control so that she and Harley could use his townhouse as a hideout. Here, Catwoman decides that with Gotham City more dangerous than ever with all the gang wars and a new Batman, a partnership with the other two women would be advantageous. However, Ivy fears that Catwoman has lost her edge and prowess, and consults with Zatanna on the nature of Catwoman's injuries. Zatanna responds that Catwoman has psychological wounds that would need healing. Ivy resolves that she and Harley would provide Catwoman with "positive female reinforcement". The three then agree to become a team. However, Harley and Ivy have one condition: they demand that Catwoman reveal to them the true identity of Batman.

Eventually, Ivy and the other Sirens ambush the Riddler at his office (with Ivy using her plants to truss and gag his secretary), telling him that they've been framed for the murder of a young nurse. He agrees to help clear their names, and during the discussion Ivy reveals that she has recently taken up a job at the Gotham divison of S.T.A.R. Labs under an assumed name.[28]

Teams and alliances

  • Her best friend is the Joker's sidekick Harley Quinn. Unlike most villain team-ups, their partnership seems to be genuinely rooted in friendship, and Ivy sincerely wants to save Harley from her abusive relationship with the Joker. Ivy sympathizes with Harley, as Harley is mistreated by the man she loves, just as Ivy was by Jason Woodrue. She has expressed disdain for the Joker, primarily due to his treatment of Harley.
  • The partnership between Harley and Ivy has also at times included Catwoman, such as in episodes and issues of the Gotham Girls webtoon and comic book series. In the mainstream DC Universe, the three form an alliance in the pages of Gotham City Sirens.[27]
  • Despite having different motivations than the rest of Batman's rogues gallery, Ivy is not above forming alliances with the other villains if it suits her goals.[6][33][34][35]

Powers and abilities

The dangerous experiments placed a deliberate overdose of plant and animal based toxins into her blood stream that make her touch deadly and allowed her to boost her immunity to all poisons, viruses, bacteria, and fungi. This immunity also includes Joker venom.[36] Some comics have even gone so far as to depict her as more plant than human, breathing CO2 and requiring sunlight to survive. Despite retaining in her earlier apperances her caucasian, red-haired apperance, in time the amount of vegetal toxins and chlorophyll in her tissue tinted her skin permanently green. After years of practice she regained the ability to consciously control her apperance, restoring herself to an almost, fully human facade, with only her lips and eyes tinted a bright shade of green.

Ivy's body produces pheromones that make people susceptible to mind control around her, although strong-minded people like Batman are usually capable of resisting. She was even once able to control Superman with the use of kryptonite.[6][31]

She specializes in hybrids and can create the most potent toxins in Gotham City. Often these toxins are secreted from her lips and administered in her preferred way, a poisonous kiss, usually after professing false love or affection for her victim. They come in a number of varieties, from mind-controlling drugs to instantly fatal toxins.

In some adaptations, she can control plants with her mind. For example, while in Arkham, she is able to manipulate and animate plants, using roots to form supports for a tunnel she and another inmate named Magpie are digging to escape, and also spawning glowing fungi to entertain Magpie.[37]

Poison Ivy is identified by the Swamp Thing as a being with an elemental mystical component, whom he calls the 'May Queen'.[38] Writers have not referred to her in this way in quite some time. Ivy also shows capabilities of using the Green to communicate over great distances, as she manifests in a vase of roses in Zatanna's dressing room to talk to the magician.[39]

Poison Ivy carries, on her current costume, a certain amount of live vines: coupled with her natural ability to commune with plant life, they act as weaponry, or defensive/grabbing appendages. Their supply is however limited.[40]

Ivy's capabilities were greatly reduced in Batman: The Animated Series; her only physical power is an immunity to poison. Her deadly kiss was only possible with a special lipstick poisoned with toxins extracted from a plant.[41] She admits to having a "hyperactive immune system" which prevents her from having children.[42] In The Batman, she can even exhale mind-controlling spores in the form of a blown kiss.

Other versions

  • In JLA: Created Equal, Ivy and Swamp Thing team up to mentally travel through the Green, to try and discover what exactly caused the event which wiped out almost every male on the planet. But the trip is too much for her and it shatters her mind.
  • In Batman: Crimson Mist, Ivy is one of the many villains whom the now vampiric Batman kills for blood.
  • In Batman & Demon: A Tragedy, Ivy is characterized as an almost-elfen healer in the Celtic fantasy Elseworlds tale. She gives Bruce Wayne a cure for his night terrors, only to be slaughtered by the Demon.
  • In JLA/Avengers #3, Poison Ivy appears as a servant of Krona and attacks Aquaman and the Vision as a part of a group of villains. Poison Ivy strangles Aquaman in vines but is blasted by Iron Man and defeated.
  • In Justice League International Annual #5, published under the Elseworlds banner, Ivy is one of ten superhumans who has made herself known to the public. In this story, Ivy has the power to seduce and control men, as well as the ability to secrete poison from her touch, willingly.

In other media


DC animated universe

Poison Ivy as she appears in Batman: The Animated Series.
  • Poison Ivy appears in Batman: The Animated Series voiced by Diane Pershing. She first appears in "Pretty Poison" where she is involved an assassination attempt on Harvey Dent, as retribution for construction over the last habitat of a rare flower.[41] In the earlier days of the animated series, her metahuman characteristics, such as her immunity to toxins, were stated on many occasions, portraying her as a human with an extreme affinity for plants. She mentions in "House and Garden", in which she ostensibly reforms, that her unique condition has left her unable to bear children.[42]
  • In the second series, she was aesthetically revamped to look more plant-like, her skin turning grayish-white.[43] Ivy also became more humorous and seductive in personality, coinciding with her genuinely friendly relationship with Harley Quinn. Her fanatical mindset regarding the despoiling of plants and the ecosphere was also greatly reduced. She supposedly dies in a shipwreck in the episode "Chemistry".[44]
  • She apparently survives the shipwreck and returns in the Static Shock episode "Hard As Nails" with Diane Pershing reprising her role. She and Harley open a "support and cure" website that would lure female metahumans to Gotham claiming that it's a clinic to cure metahumans. When Static pursues a fellow classmate that calls herself Nails to Gotham, he ended up running into Batman and ended up ambushed by Harley and Ivy. When it came to a heist upon a ship carrying gold, she and Harley doublecross her only for Static and Batman to save her. During conflict, Static's powers couldn't work on Poison Ivy's plants but weren't immune to Nails' claws. Poison Ivy and Harley Quinn were defeated in the end.
  • Poison Ivy had a co-starring role in Gotham Girls web-toon.
  • In the episode "A Better World", on the Justice League series, Poison Ivy (again voiced by Diane Pershing) appears only once in a lobotomized form in an alternate universe. She is a prisoner at Arkham Asylum, and she is also allowed to work as the prison's gardener. Bruce Timm stated that he had turned down pitches for Poison Ivy episodes on Justice League so they could focus on new characters and storylines, only bringing back a minimal number of villains from previous shows[45]

The Batman

Poison Ivy in The Batman.
  • Piera Coppola voiced Poison Ivy in the animated TV show, The Batman, complete with a new origin and rose-like hairstyle and dress, and with stronger ties to Barbara Gordon. In this incarnation, Poison Ivy is a high school student and environmental activist, but she was also Barbara Gordon's best friend. Prior to her first appearance, she was sentenced to a youth detention center repeatedly for delinquent acts during her protests. She convinces Barbara to help her with her "protests," which were actually scouting missions on polluting companies for her hired mercenary, the corporate saboteur Temblor. She uses a voice scrambler in order to recruit Temblor to carry out her missions of ecoterrorism. During one such mission, a plant mutagen (referred to as "chlorogene") falls on her during a battle between Temblor and the Batman. She awakes in an ambulance afterward and manifests powers similar to her other incarnations, most notably psionic plant control, and an ability to exhale mind-controlling spores when she blows a kiss at her desired target. She swiftly turns her powers to furthering her ecoterrorist career, and takes the name Poison Ivy, before being stopped by Batman and Barbara in her debut as Batgirl. In the fifth season premiere, she is forced into helping Lex Luthor take control of Superman by using her mind-controlling spores and lacing them with kryptonite dust.

Batman: The Brave and the Bold

  • Poison Ivy appears in the Batman: The Brave and the Bold episode "Chill of the Night", voiced by Jennifer Hale. Ivy appears among other villains in a bidding for a supersonic weapon held by arms dealer Joe Chill. When a terrified Chill asks the villains for protection against an enraged Batman, and somewhat admits his role in creating him, Ivy and the others attempt to murder Chill. The villains were foiled by Batman.


Uma Thurman as Poison Ivy in Batman & Robin.
  • Uma Thurman played Poison Ivy in the film Batman & Robin. In the movie, Pamela Isley is shown researching in a South American lab, where she discovers the theft of certain plant toxins from her lab. Investigating, she discovers her boss Jason Woodrue, offering up Bane, a soldier enhanced by Venom, a toxin-derived chemical, to various bidders. Bane lashes out, and Isley is revealed in the fracas. Woodrue asks her to join him, but when she declines, he attempts to kill her by throwing her into a shelf full of chemicals (including a canister labeled Venom, the same drug that creates Bane). Isley rises moments later, having been infused with the plant chemicals that she was thrown into. She kills Woodrue with a poisonous kiss and escapes the burning camp with Bane. Soon after, she appears in Gotham using both identities, Isley and Ivy, sparking friction between Batman and Robin — Robin proving more susceptible to her pheromones than Batman and thus becoming easily jealous — and breaks the recently imprisoned Mr. Freeze out of Arkham to form an alliance. Believing she is the dominant woman, she unplugs his wife's life-support system and claims that Batman did it, using this to encourage Freeze to begin a plan to freeze the entire Earth and then replace human life with her mutated plants, the two of them serving as the rulers. However, although she captures Batman and Robin with her plants, she is defeated by the new Batgirl, her deception subsequently being revealed to Freeze in Arkham, who has personally sworn to make her life "a living hell."

Video games

Poison Ivy has appeared in most of the Batman video games over the years. She appeared as a boss in:

In most of these games, Ivy does not fight Batman directly and usually watches in the background while Batman fights one of her plant monsters. In The Adventures of Batman & Robin for the Sega CD and Batman: Vengeance, Diane Pershing reprised her role from Batman: The Animated Series.[49]

  • She also has a cameo appearance in Batman: Rise of Sin Tzu, where she was a hallucination in the Scarecrow boss-fight and appeared in a cutscene, also there was an unlockable 3D Model in the Trophy Room.
  • In Batman: Gotham City Racer, Poison Ivy's vehicle was playable.
  • In late June 2008 it was revealed in a Batman comic that she was a playable character in Lego Batman: The Videogame.[50] Her sound effects are done by Vanessa Marshall. In the game she can kill foes with a poison kiss and attack from a distance by blowing green poison pheromones at her enemies. Poison Ivy also seems to have the power to grow plants by blowing her pheromones over plant pots indicated with an aura of love hearts; she can double jump and gain access to certain areas by blowing love pheromones at guards.
  • Poison Ivy appears in Batman: Arkham Asylum voiced by Tasia Valenza. Her appearance was revamped to the naked-goddess persona, wearing only an orange prison-issued shirt and foliage panties. In the game, Poison Ivy has her own specialised cell in which a red substance can be seen floating inside off. This is presumably to stop any flora escaping the cell allowing her to break out. When Harley Quinn releases Ivy from her cell, she makes her way to the botanical gardens where she awaits Batman. When one of Ivy's minion vines attempt to attack Batman, he crushes the thin vine with his hand. This causes Ivy to break down in agony, revealing she has been in the dark too long and has obviously been weakened. Later on in the game she reveals she will kill the Joker (who has full control of Arkham Asylum) after she has killed Batman. After a battle between Ivy and Batman, Ivy is defeated and can be seen falling into the earth alongside her giant plant-monster. After the game is finished, Ivy is seen being returned to her cell.


The New Batman Adventures version of Poison Ivy. Cover to Gotham Girls #2. Art by Shane Glines.
  • In issue #16 of Batman Adventures (vol. 2), a shocking revelation is made in a short story "The Flower Girl". After too many years of exposing herself to toxins, and modifying her own DNA to the point of losing most of her humanity, a dying Poison Ivy makes her way to a Dr. Holland, who is practicing science in a remote rural cottage. Barely alive, she pleas to Holland to save her life, but he explains to her that there is nothing he can do. Shortly after, she dies in his arms, and collapses into a pile of dead plants. Holland's grieving is interrupted by another Pamela Isley, whose character design matches her appearance in Batman: The Animated Series, rather than her later redesign. She states that this Ivy was a vegetable creature from a few years back, that she had created as a distraction for Batman, in order to escape from her old supervillain life in Gotham. She also says that Harley would miss her, and would be lonely if she was not around. This leads readers to believe[citation needed] that the revamped Poison Ivy that appeared in The New Batman Adventures, as well as the subsequent stories that followed, was a copy all along, and that the real Pamela Isley had left her life of crime to run away during the two year gap between both series. The comic ends with the original Pamela Isley saying "I hope it didn't cause too much trouble”.
  • The character also co-starred in the three-issue comic book miniseries Harley and Ivy, and was given her swan song in the critically acclaimed[citation needed] The Batman Adventures comic book series, which contains stories about Batman's adventures in Gotham City after a break from the Justice League.

See also


  • Daniels, Les. Batman: The Complete History. Chronicle Books, 1999. ISBN 0-8118-4232-0
  • Beatty, Scott, et al., The Batman Handbook: The Ultimate Training Manual. Quirk Books, 2005. ISBN 1-59474-023-2


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  42. ^ a b "House and Garden". Paul Dini, Boyd Kirkland, Dong Yang. Batman: The Animated Series. Fox. 1994-05-02. No. 70, season 2.
  43. ^ Batman: The Animated Series Volume Four. [DVD]. Warner Brother Home Video. 2005. 
  44. ^ "Chemistry". Stan Berkowitz, Butch Lukic, Koko Yang, Dong Yang. The New Batman Adventures. The WB. 1998-10-24. No. 22, season 2.
  45. ^ The Villains of the Justice League
  46. ^ "Game Stop - Batman Vengeance". Game Stop. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  47. ^ "Game Stop - Batman: Dark Tomorrow". Game Stop. Retrieved 2008-05-08. 
  48. ^
  49. ^ "Batman Vengeance - MobyGames". Moby Games. Retrieved 2008-05-10. 
  50. ^ Game Informer features a two-page gallery of the many heroes and villains who appear in the game with a picture for each character and a descriptive paragraph. See "LEGO Batman: Character Gallery," Game Informer 186 (October 2008): 93.

External links

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