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Polar Bear
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukarya
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Carnivora
Family: Ursidae
Genus: Ursus
Species: U. maritimus
Binomial name
Ursus maritimus
Phipps, 1774[2]
Polar bear range
Synonyms
Ursus eogroenlandicus
Ursus groenlandicus
Ursus jenaensis
Ursus labradorensis
Ursus marinus
Ursus polaris
Ursus spitzbergensis
Ursus ungavensis
Thalarctos maritimus
.The polar bear (Ursus maritimus) is a bear native largely within the Arctic circle encompassing the Arctic Ocean, its surrounding seas and surrounding land masses.^ Serosurvey of selected zoonotic agents in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ).
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Geographical variation in the polar bear Ursus maritimus Phipps.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) hibernate?
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is the world's largest carnivore species found on land.^ A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, skip to main .
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar Bears Black and white and huge all over, the polar bear is the largest land carnivore.

^ Vote Up Polar bears are the largest carnivores in the world.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.It is also the largest bear, together with the omnivorous Kodiak bear which is approximately the same size.^ It's part of a long-term effort to figure out whether the huge carnivores with the Kodiak bear, the largest on the planet are being hurt by global warming.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not meaningful to give average weights because there is a cline in size from Spitzbergen, where the bears are smallest, to the Bering Strait where they are largest.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .An adult male weighs around 350–680 kg (770–1,500 lb),[4] while an adult female is about half that size.^ Males are approximately twice the size of females.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult females weigh 330 to 550 pounds (150 to 250 kg) on average, although a pregnant female just prior to going into a maternity den could be double that weight.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult females with cubs of the year are known to avoid interaction with adult males, presumably because of potential predation by the males upon the cubs ( DeMaster & Stirling 1981 ) .
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although it is closely related to the brown bear, it has evolved to occupy a narrow ecological niche, with many body characteristics adapted for cold temperatures, for moving across snow, ice, and open water, and for hunting the seals which make up most of its diet.^ Seals, which are hunted on the ice, constitute the majority of a polar bear's prey.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A polar bear catches very few seals in the open water.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[5] .Although most polar bears are born on land, it spends most of its time at sea, hence its name meaning "maritime bear", and can hunt consistently only from sea ice, spending much of the year on the frozen sea.^ Polar bears are considered marine mammals because they spend most of their lives on sea ice.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the Inuit name for polar bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar climate: Arctic sea ice.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The polar bear is classified as a vulnerable species, with 8 of the 19 polar bear subpopulations in decline.^ Lawsuits for polar bears built on Endangered Species Act .
  • Polar Bear News | adn.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: General]

^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Department of Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne in December proposed listing polar bears as a "threatened" species.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .For decades, unrestricted hunting raised international concern for the future of the species; populations have rebounded after controls and quotas began to take effect.^ The concern is that in the next 45 years, which is about three generations, the loss of sea ice will cripple the bear population and diminish it to that of an endangered species.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For thousands of years, the polar bear has been a key figure in the material, spiritual, and cultural life of Arctic indigenous peoples, and the hunting of polar bears remains important in their cultures.^ It's not just about polar bears people.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perfect conditions for polar bear hunting.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear population has increased in the arctic over the last 20 years.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The IUCN now lists global warming as the most significant threat to the polar bear, primarily because the melting of its sea ice habitat reduces its ability to find sufficient food.^ Groups sue over polar bear listing .
  • Polar Bear News | adn.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: General]

^ The reason that environmentalist are concerned today is that polar bears face a loss of habitat because of global warming.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears join 'threatened' list .
  • Polar Bear News | adn.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: General]

The IUCN states, "If climatic trends continue polar bears may become extirpated from most of their range within 100 years."[7] On 14 May 2008, the United States Department of the Interior listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act.

Contents

Naming and etymology

.Constantine John Phipps was the first to describe the polar bear as a distinct species.^ This is her first Polar Bear ride on a bike.

^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Department of Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne in December proposed listing polar bears as a "threatened" species.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .He chose the scientific name Ursus maritimus, the Latin for 'maritime bear',[8] due to the animal's native habitat.^ Vote Up Scientific name is Ursus maritimus.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, skip to main .
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

^ Organochlorines affect the steroid hormone cortisol in free-ranging polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) at Svalbard , Norway .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

The Inuit refer to the animal as nanook,[9] (transliterated as nanuuq in the Inupiaq language,[10] and nanuuk in Siberian Yupik.) The bear is umka in the Chukchi language. .In Russian, it is usually called бе́лый медве́дь (bélyj medvédj, the white bear), though an older word still in use is ошку́й (Oshkúj, which comes from the Komi oski, "bear").^ Just last week, 17 polar bear occurrences were recorded by polar bear alert; an occurrence is recorded as any time there is a 'call out' usually from the polar bear alert hotline.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

^ White isn't averse to using elements that people can grasp and relate to, like vanishing sea ice and what that means for polar bear habitat and survival.
  • Riehl World View: The Polar Bear Pic They Won't Show You 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.riehlworldview.com [Source type: General]

^ Falling asleep while it is still snowing, the child wakes to find the footsteps of the bears leading off into the whiteness.

[11] .In French, the polar bear is referred to as ours blanc ("white bear") or ours polaire ("polar bear").^ It’s possible there’ll be fewer bears if the Arctic warms, but should preserving the current size of the polar-bear population be one of our top priorities?
  • Polar Bears and Seer Suckers - TierneyLab Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC tierneylab.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ice is melting off the coasts of Alaska which has been part of the habitat of the polar bears (also that of our Inuits aka.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It splits off a bit of distance for me on our longest ride of the Polar Bear season.

[12] .In the Norwegian administered Svalbard archipelago, the polar bear is referred to as Isbjørn ("ice bear").^ Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears live on pack ice (i.e.
  • Eating Polar Bears Is Okay in Greenland - Freakonomics Blog - NYTimes.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

.The polar bear was previously considered to be in its own genus, Thalarctos.^ The total polar bear population is generally considered to have remained stable since the 1980's [but see " Threats - Climate Change " below].
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are considered marine mammals because they spend most of their lives on sea ice.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telemetry data have proven that polar bears do not wander aimlessly on the ice, nor are they carried passively with the ocean currents as previously thought.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .However, evidence of hybrids between polar bears and brown bears, and of the recent evolutionary divergence of the two species, does not support the establishment of this separate genus, and the accepted scientific name is now therefore Ursus maritimus, as Phipps originally proposed.^ Reproductive biology and ecology of female polar bears Ursus maritimus .
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Serosurvey of selected zoonotic agents in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ).
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Geographical variation in the polar bear Ursus maritimus Phipps.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Taxonomy and evolution

.
Polar bears depend on sea ice as a platform for hunting seals.
^ Polar climate: Arctic sea ice.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Seals, which are hunted on the ice, constitute the majority of a polar bear's prey.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears live only in the Arctic and are totally dependent on the sea ice.
  • Polar Bears on Thin Ice | Greenpeace International 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

Large feet and short, stocky claws are adaptations to this environment.
.The bear family, Ursidae, is believed to have split off from other carnivorans about 38 million years ago.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ It splits off a bit of distance for me on our longest ride of the Polar Bear season.

^ We will need a good drop of about ten degrees for big numbers of bears to start moving in, especially considering how good shape they are in this year.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

The Ursinae subfamily originated approximately 4.2 million years ago. .According to both fossil and DNA evidence, the polar bear diverged from the brown bear, Ursus arctos, roughly 200,000 years ago.^ Polar bears evolved from their cousin, the giant brown bears of Alaska, about 200,000 years ago.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he earliest polar bear fossil is less than 100,000 years old.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA variation in brown bears and polar bears.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The oldest known polar bear fossil is less than 100,000 years old.^ The grand Polar Bear Banquet is less than 2 weeks away.

^ T he earliest polar bear fossil is less than 100,000 years old.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This time of the year is also when the seals the polar bear eats are most abundant and vulnerable to predation, especially the baby seals that have fattened up from their mother’s milk and have not learned to avoid predators.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fossils show that between ten to twenty thousand years ago, the polar bear's molar teeth changed significantly from those of the brown bear.^ Those “Crazy” Polar bears .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Security requirements over the various years of Polar Bear rides to this destination have ranged from showing your license, to checking your name against a pre-approved list of bears to a simple wave-through.

.Polar bears are thought to have diverged from a population of brown bears that became isolated during a period of glaciation in the Pleistocene.^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prove polar bear populations are shrinking.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[15]
.More recent genetic studies have shown that some clades of brown bear are more closely related to polar bears than to other brown bears,[16] meaning that the polar bear is not a true species according to some species concepts.^ I cover news related to Polar Bears and special reports on all 7 bear species .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Legislature wants polar bear study .
  • Polar Bear News | adn.com 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: General]

^ Some even say that there are a lot more polar bears.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .In addition, polar bears can breed with brown bears to produce fertile grizzly–polar bear hybrids,[15][18] indicating that they have only recently diverged and are genetically similar.^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[19] .However, because neither species can survive long in the other's ecological niche, and because they have different morphology, metabolism, social and feeding behaviors, and other phenotypic characteristics, the two bears are generally classified as separate species.^ They are not related, however, they were originally classified as "Bear Sloths" because of their Sloth-like c...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because the fur actually has no pigment, a bear may take on the yellow-orange hues of the setting and rising sun.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether or not Polar Bears become extinct because of Global Climate Change or other reasons, we need to address the larger question of: Do we care and why?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.When the polar bear was originally documented, two subspecies were identified: Ursus maritimus maritimus by Constantine J. Phipps in 1774, and Ursus maritimus marinus by Peter Simon Pallas in 1776.[20] This distinction has since been invalidated.^ Serosurvey of selected zoonotic agents in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ).
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Geographical variation in the polar bear Ursus maritimus Phipps.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) hibernate?
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

One fossil subspecies has been identified. .Ursus maritimus tyrannus—descended from Ursus arctos—became extinct during the Pleistocene.^ Body burdens and tissue concentrations of organochlorines in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) vary during seasonal fasts.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

U.m. tyrannus was significantly larger than the living subspecies.[15]
Polar bears investigate the submarine USS Honolulu 280 miles (450 km) from the North Pole.

Population and distribution

.The polar bear is found throughout the Arctic Circle and adjacent land masses .^ Polar bears are distributed throughout the circumpolar Arctic.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Mass and body-dimension relationships of polar bears in northern Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Due to the absence of human development in its remote habitat, it retains more of its original range than any other extant carnivore.^ Polar Bears are magnificent animals and hardley threatened any more that any other creature (including humans) on this plant due to climate change.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are more likely to hunt humans than other bears and attacks could, for instance, happen at hunting camps or weather stations.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, it "was thought" in 1993 that the lower range for the polar bear population was 2,000 bears greater than the upper range estimated in 1959.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .While they are rare north of 88°, there is evidence that they range all the way across the Arctic, and as far south as James Bay in Canada.^ Declaring something endangered even though there is no evidence that the numbers are any lower today then they ever have been is irresponsible!
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If more heat is radiated from the North, there is less heat left for the South.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Hudson Bay is considered part of Nunavut, Canada’s Inuit territory, Inuit can harvest beluga whales provided they are not in the mouth of the Churchill River.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

.They can occasionally drift widely with the sea ice, and there have been anecdotal sightings as far south as Berlevåg on the Norwegian mainland and the Kuril Islands in the Sea of Okhotsk.^ They have also been recorded as far south as St. Mathew Island and the Pribilof Islands in the Bering Sea and Newfoundland in Canada , and they have occasionally been seen in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada in years when heavy pack ice has been drifting farther to the south than normal (50N latitude).
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They inhabit the Arctic ice cap, islands, sea ice, and water and continental coastlines.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are classified as marine mammals because they spend most of their lives on sea ice, using it to hunt seals, breed and travel.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is difficult to estimate a global population of polar bears as much of the range has been poorly studied, however biologists use a working estimate of about 20,000-25,000 polar bears worldwide.^ Challenges in the estimation of population size for polar bears in western Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Canada hosts two-thirds of the world's estimated 25,000 polar bears.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The worldwide combined population estimate of polar bears is 21,500 to 25,000 in 20 populations ( IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, 2002) .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[22][1]
There are 19 generally recognized discrete subpopulations.[22][23] The subpopulations display seasonal fidelity to particular areas, but DNA studies show that they are not reproductively isolated.[24] .The thirteen North American subpopulations range from the Beaufort Sea south to Hudson Bay and east to Baffin Bay in western Greenland and account for about 70% of the global population.^ This is a very positive sign for the western Hudson Bay population given that in the lean years - when the last population study was released reporting a decline of 22% - there would only be 180 or so bears spotted in this survey.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

^ In comparison, only 1 - 3 % of the litters observed in the spring on the southeastern coast of Baffin Island, Svalbard, the Canadian High Arctic, or the Beaufort Sea were triplets.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most bears that show up in the Churchill area can be considered as the periphery of the western Hudson Bay population, usually young, old or nutritionally challenged.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

.The Eurasian population is broken up into the eastern Greenland, Barents Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, and Chukchi Sea subpopulations, though there is considerable uncertainty about the structure of these populations due to limited mark and recapture data.^ Not willing to give up on this floe, another site is selected, and there we penetrate the ice cover after only about 3.75 m.
  • Riehl World View: The Polar Bear Pic They Won't Show You 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.riehlworldview.com [Source type: General]

^ The concern is that in the next 45 years, which is about three generations, the loss of sea ice will cripple the bear population and diminish it to that of an endangered species.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea: A 30-year mark-recapture case history.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

Play fight of polar bears edit 1.avi.OGG
Polar bears play-fighting
.The range includes the territory of five nations: Denmark (Greenland), Norway (Svalbard), Russia, US (Alaska) and Canada.^ As a result of the population losses of polar bears due to over-hunting, an international agreement was reached between the five nations with polar bears ( Canada , Norway , USA , the former USSR and Denmark , which governed Greenland at that time).
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a result, an international agreement was reached in which the five nations with polar bears ( Canada , Norway , USA , the former USSR and Denmark /Greenland) agreed to prohibit unregulated hunting and to outlaw the hunting of the bears from aircraft and icebreakers.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organochlorines affect the steroid hormone cortisol in free-ranging polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) at Svalbard , Norway .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.These five nations are the signatories of the 1973 International Agreement for the Conservation of Polar Bears, which mandates cooperation on research and conservations efforts throughout the polar bear's range.^ Conserve the world's polar bear through research & education.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar Bears International is dedicated to the worldwide conservation of the polar bear through research and education.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bear research in Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Modern methods of tracking polar bear populations have been implemented only since the mid-1980s, and are expensive to perform consistently over a large area.^ Polar Bear Tracks -- paw print .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Prove polar bear populations are shrinking.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But our Polar Bear Grand Tour organizers made a ruling that since the sign-in form developed years ago only had four spaces for blood donations that was the cap.

[25] .The most accurate counts require flying a helicopter in the Arctic climate to find polar bears, shooting a tranquilizer dart at the bear to sedate it, and then tagging the bear.^ The polar bear occurs throughout the Arctic.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar climate: Arctic sea ice.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ But Professor Derocher and a graduate student, Seth Cherry, are shooting the animals with tranquilizer darts and fitting them with radio transmitters.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .In Nunavut, some Inuit have reported increases in bear sightings around human settlements in recent years, leading to a belief that populations are increasing.^ Does anybody realize that the polar bear population has increased from 5,000 in 1972 to 25,000 today!
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1972, they said, "No estimate of the total bear population was made by the meeting, but bears in some regions were reported as abundant and in certain regions as needing greater protection."
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Male polar bears become sexually mature around 4 - 5 years of age, but they usually do not mate successfully at that age.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Scientists have responded by noting that hungry bears may be congregating around human settlements, leading to the illusion that populations are higher than they actually are.^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 16th, 2008 4:18 pm ET Polar bears – around 25,000 (holding steady, declining, increasing, whatever); humans – over 6 billion (with a bullet).
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 16th, 2008 4:15 pm ET Polar Bear Population 1970 – 5000 Polar Bear Population 2008 – 25000 .
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25] .The Polar Bear Specialist Group of the IUCN takes the position that "estimates of subpopulation size or sustainable harvest levels should not be made solely on the basis of traditional ecological knowledge without supporting scientific studies."^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Challenges in the estimation of population size for polar bears in western Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is "traditional ecological knowledge" -- or what local people say about polar bears.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[26]
.Of the 19 recognized polar bear subpopulations, 8 are declining, 3 are stable, 1 is increasing, and 7 have insufficient data.^ Of the 19 different polar bear populations, 6-8 are increasing, 2-4 are stable, 5 don't have enough data on them, and only 4 are declining.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The reason that polar bear population has increased is because of environmental protection activities - especially the limits on hunting.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear alert program has been operating for just over forty years now, first initiated after bear encounters increased after the military withdrew from Churchill in the mid-60s.
  • Polar Bear Alley - Polar Bear Blog, Polar Bear News from Churchill, Manitoba 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.polarbearalley.com [Source type: General]

[6][22]

Habitat

Cub polar bear is nursing 2.OGG
A cub nursing
.The polar bear is often regarded as a marine mammal because it spends many months of the year at sea.^ Polar bears are considered marine mammals because they spend most of their lives on sea ice.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Marine denning of polar bears in Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bear research in the Beaufort Sea.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[27] .Its preferred habitat is the annual sea ice covering the waters over the continental shelf and the Arctic inter-island archipelagos.^ They inhabit the Arctic ice cap, islands, sea ice, and water and continental coastlines.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The favored habitat of the polar bear is on the annual ice that lies adjacent to the continental arctic coastlines or island archipelagoes .
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.These areas, known as the "Arctic ring of life", have high biological productivity in comparison to the deep waters of the high Arctic.^ In comparison, only 1 - 3 % of the litters observed in the spring on the southeastern coast of Baffin Island, Svalbard, the Canadian High Arctic, or the Beaufort Sea were triplets.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][28] .The polar bear tends to frequent areas where sea ice meets water, such as polynyas and leads (temporary stretches of open water in Arctic ice), to hunt the seals that make up most of its diet.^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Use of sea ice habitat by female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[29] .Polar bears are therefore found primarily along the perimeter of the polar ice pack, rather than in the Polar Basin close to the North Pole where the density of seals is low.^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The polar bear is the apical predator of the Arctic marine ecosystem, and their preferred habitat is the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean , where the ice edge and pressure ridges provide the best hunting grounds.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[30]
.Annual ice contains areas of water that appear and disappear throughout the year as the weather changes.^ In areas where ice coverage is subject to frequent change, a large multi-annual home range of which only a portion is used in any one season or year is an important part of the polar bear life history strategy.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Annual activity areas of female polar bears monitored by radio-tracking for multiyear periods varied among years.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radio-collared animals, however, seemed to use seasonally preferred or "core" regions every year, despite variation in annual activity area boundaries.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Seals migrate in response to these changes, and polar bears must follow their prey.^ Seals, which are hunted on the ice, constitute the majority of a polar bear's prey.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A must have book for polar bear lovers.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An excellent must-have book on polar bears .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] .In Hudson Bay, James Bay, and some other areas, the ice melts completely each summer (an event often referred to as "ice-floe breakup"), forcing polar bears to go onto land and wait through the months until the next freeze-up.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the largest denning areas for polar bears is the lowlands of Hudson Bay and James Bay.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Can't wait until next October!

[28] .In the Chukchi and Beaufort seas, polar bears retreat each summer to the ice further north that remains frozen year-round.^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Summer ice no longer remains solid for 3 years.

Biology and behavior

Physical characteristics

Polar bear skeleton
.The polar bear is the largest terrestrial carnivore, being twice as big as the Siberian Tiger.^ The polar bear is the largest living land carnivore ( Arkive 2004 ) .
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How big are polar bears paws?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Vote Up Polar bears are the largest carnivores in the world.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[31] .It shares the title of largest land predator (and largest bear species) with the Kodiak bear.^ A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, skip to main .
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

^ It's part of a long-term effort to figure out whether the huge carnivores with the Kodiak bear, the largest on the planet are being hurt by global warming.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the world's largest land predators, polar bears are primarily considered a marine mammal, spending as much time on the ice floes hunting seals as on land.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[32] .Adult males weigh 350–680 kg (770-1500 lbs) and measure 2.4–3 m (7.9–9.8 ft) in length.^ The study also determined that adult males weighed less and had smaller skulls than those captured and measured two decades ago .
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A typical female, weighing 150 - 175 kg (330 - 385 lb), needs to gain at least 200 kg (440 lb) of fat to have a successful pregnancy.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It can be up to 285 cm (9.3') long, stand 160 cm (5.2') high at the shoulder, and weigh up to 800 kg (1800 lb).
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .Adult females are roughly half the size of males and normally weigh 150–249 kg (330–550 lb), measuring 1.8–2.4 metres (5.9–7.9 ft) in length.^ Adult females weigh 150 - 300 kg (330 - 660 lb) and their total body length is 180 - 250 cm (5.9 - 8.2').
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At birth, polar bears weigh approximately 600 grams (Blix and Lentfer, 1979), but continue to grow rapidly, with adult males weighing from 300 to 800 kilograms and reaching 2.5 meters in length from the tip of the nose to the tail.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Adult females with cubs of the year are known to avoid interaction with adult males, presumably because of potential predation by the males upon the cubs ( DeMaster & Stirling 1981 ) .
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When pregnant, however, they can weigh as much as 499 kg (1,100 lb).^ A typical female, weighing 150 - 175 kg (330 - 385 lb), needs to gain at least 200 kg (440 lb) of fat to have a successful pregnancy.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cubs continue to grow rapidly through their first summer on the sea ice , and some weigh over 100 kg (220 lb) as they approach 1 year of age.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult females weigh 150 - 300 kg (330 - 660 lb) and their total body length is 180 - 250 cm (5.9 - 8.2').
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33] .The polar bear is among the most sexually dimorphic of mammals, surpassed only by the pinnipeds.^ A newborn polar bear is among the most undeveloped of mammal young.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[34] The largest polar bear on record, reportedly weighing 1,002 kg (2,210 lb), was a male shot at Kotzebue Sound in northwestern Alaska in 1960.[35]
Polar bears have evolved unique features for Arctic life, including furred feet that have good traction on ice.
.Compared with its closest relative, the brown bear, the polar bear has a more elongated body build and a longer skull and nose.^ Ie, more polar bears will die.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ T he tail of a polar bear is very small compared to the rest of his body.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[19] As predicted by Allen's rule for a northerly animal, the legs are stocky and the ears and tail are small.[19] .However, the feet are very large to distribute load when walking on snow or thin ice and to provide propulsion when swimming; they may measure 30 cm (12 in) across in an adult.^ Their feet are used to swim (used oar-like) and like snowshoes on the snow and ice.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They use very few resources in their home countries, yet add measurably to global warming by coming to the West.
  • Riehl World View: The Polar Bear Pic They Won't Show You 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.riehlworldview.com [Source type: General]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:15 pm ET But of course they won't link ice loss to emissions.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .The pads of the paws are covered with small, soft papillae (dermal bumps) which provide traction on the ice.^ They also have small, soft papillae on the bottoms of their feet which gives them traction on the ice when they run.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[19] .The polar bear's claws are short and stocky compared to those of the brown bear, perhaps to serve the former's need to grip heavy prey and ice.^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Seals, which are hunted on the ice, constitute the majority of a polar bear's prey.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Those “Crazy” Polar bears .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[19] .The claws are deeply scooped on the underside to assist in digging in the ice of the natural habitat.^ Its feet are partially webbed and have long, non-retractable claws which dig into snow and ice.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Despite a recurring Internet meme that all polar bears are left-handed,[37][38] there is no scientific evidence to support this claim.^ All the same, I do love the Polar Bears.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ So all of last Sunday's Polar Bears can thank Mike and Michele's very good luck for keeping us riding dry.

[39] .Unlike the brown bear, Polar Bears in captivity are rarely overweight or particularly large, possibly as a reaction to the warm temperatures of most zoos.^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What's happening polar bears in zoos?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear @ SD Zoo .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.The 42 teeth of a polar bear reflect its highly carnivorous diet.^ Polar bears are carnivores that mainly live on seals, but can also feed on birds, shellfish, rodents and walruses - anything they can catch and kill.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, skip to main .
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

[19] .The cheek teeth are smaller and more jagged than in the brown bear, and the canines are larger and sharper.^ The cheek teeth became smaller and more jagged and the canines larger and sharper for tearing apart it's favorite food, seal.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ And their claws are also shorter and more solid than the brown bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[19] The dental formula is:[19]
Dentition
3.1.4.2
3.1.4.3
.Polar bears are superbly insulated by up to 10 cm (3.9 in) of blubber,[36] their hide and their fur; they overheat at temperatures above 10 °C (50 °F), and are nearly invisible under infrared photography.^ Up Next Polar bear in London .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Up Next Freezing polar bear .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Up Next Polar bear with an attitude .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[40] .Polar bear fur consists of a layer of dense underfur and an outer layer of guard hairs, which appear white to tan but are actually transparent.^ Polar bear fur appears white when it is clean and in normal daytime sunlight.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, because the fur actually has no pigment, a bear may take on the yellow-orange hues of the setting and rising sun.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said polar bears in Nunavut are abundant and appear to be able to withstand current hunting levels.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .The guard hair is 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) over most of the body.^ Its thick winter coat, with glossy guard hairs and dense under-fur, and its thick layer of subcutaneous fat (5 - 10 cm (2 - 4") thick) protect it against the cold.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its body fat and its coat’s hollow, air-filled guard hairs aid buoyancy.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Polar bears gradually moult from May to August,[42] but, unlike other Arctic mammals, they do not shed their coat for a darker shade to camouflage themselves in the summer conditions.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Perfect conditions for polar bear hunting.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

.The hollow guard hairs of a polar bear coat were once thought to act as fiber-optic tubes to conduct light to its black skin, where it could be absorbed; however, this theory was disproved by recent studies.^ Recent studies have explicitly linked contaminants to polar bear health.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That's because their hair is hollow and not white but clear and their skin is black.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A polar bear has black skin, which helps it absorb and hold heat from the sunlight.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[43]
Polar bear diving in a zoo
A polar bear in a synthetic arctic zoo environment.
.The white coat usually yellows with age.^ The bear's coat became white to yellow and sometimes light brown depending on the time of year.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Its fur, usually white, sometimes appears yellow, due to oxidation.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.When kept in captivity in warm, humid conditions, the fur may turn a pale shade of green due to algae growing inside the guard hairs.^ The fur is white, but the shade may vary among white, yellow, grey, or almost brown, depending on the time of year or light conditions.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ That combo kept my fingers warm in any weather, especially when snuggled deep inside my hippo hands.

[44] .Males have significantly longer hairs on their forelegs, that increase in length until the bear reaches 14 years of age.^ The hairs of its waterproof coat are hollow which is a good insulator and increases the bear's buoyancy when swimming.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Yes, th polar bear population has INCREASED over the last 20 years regardless of hunting bans and "global warming".
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears have a normal life span of about 25 years for males and 30 years for females, although a small number of individuals may live longer (32 year old females have been aged in the wild).
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The male's ornamental foreleg hair is thought to attract females, serving a similar function to the lion's mane.^ This creates a functional sex ratio of three or more males per female that results in intensive competition among males for access to estrus females.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

[45]
.The polar bear has an extremely well-developed sense of smell, being able to detect seals nearly 1 mi (1.6 km) away and buried under 3 ft (0.91 m) of snow.^ It is thought that a polar bear can detect prey that is almost 1 km (0.6 mi) away and up to 1 m (3') under the compacted snow using its heightened sense of smell.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is the Polar bear being treated as a citizen?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears also eat harp seals and hooded seals, and they scavenge on carcasses of caribou, musk-oxen, whale, walrus (usually pups) and seal.
  • Animal Info - Polar Bear 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.animalinfo.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] Its hearing is about as acute as that of a human, and its vision is also good at long distances.[46]
.The polar bear is an excellent swimmer and individuals have been seen in open Arctic waters as far as 200 mi (320 km) from land.^ An excellent must-have book on polar bears .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ I enjoy writing and the antics of my fellow Polar Bears usually provide good fodder.

With its body fat providing buoyancy, it swims in a dog-paddle fashion using its large forepaws for propulsion.[47] .Polar bears can swim 6 miles/hour.^ Polar bears can swim for over 50 miles before even tiring.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Groups of old men swimming in icy water, otherwise known as Polar Bear Plunges , are a dime a dozen around the United States.
  • Polar Bear Plunge 28 January 2010 0:40 UTC www.2camels.com [Source type: News]

^ A polar bear is capable of traveling 19 miles or more per day for several days, although some are capable of much more than that.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.When walking, the polar bear tends to have a lumbering gait and maintains an average speed of around 5.5 km/h (3.5 m.p.h.^ Groups of old men swimming in icy water, otherwise known as Polar Bear Plunges , are a dime a dozen around the United States.
  • Polar Bear Plunge 28 January 2010 0:40 UTC www.2camels.com [Source type: News]

).[47]

Hunting and diet

.
The long muzzle and neck of the polar bear help it to search in deep holes for seals, while powerful hindquarters enable it to drag massive prey.
^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[48]
.The polar bear is the most carnivorous member of the bear family, and most of its diet consists of Ringed and Bearded Seals.^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, skip to main .
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

^ All Polar Cubs stayed home today, most of the Bears too.

[49] .The Arctic is home to millions of seals, which become prey when they surface in holes in the ice in order to breathe, or when they haul out on the ice to rest.^ They pulled them out for the ride home.

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[48] .Polar bears hunt primarily at the interface between ice, water, and air; they only rarely catch seals on land or in open water.^ If there is no ice they can't hunt.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Perfect conditions for polar bear hunting.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[50]
.The polar bear's most common hunting method is called still-hunting:[51] The bear uses its excellent sense of smell to locate a seal breathing hole, and crouches nearby in silence for a seal to appear.^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Perfect conditions for polar bear hunting.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .When the seal exhales, the bear smells its breath, reaches into the hole with a forepaw, and drags it out onto the ice.^ Did not NOAA recently come out with a report stating that the polar bear ice shelf is at its second largest point ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By doing this, the seals put a rich year-round food source within reach of a population of brown bears, who then started to live on the ice, evolving into something like the polar bear of today around 100,000 years ago.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ When the bay froze, they would disperse out onto the ice and spend the winter fishing.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[48] .The polar bear kills the seal by biting its head to crush its skull.^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears are carnivores that mainly live on seals, but can also feed on birds, shellfish, rodents and walruses - anything they can catch and kill.
  • POLAR BEARS - ARE THEY GOING EXTINCT? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.greatdreams.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[48] .The polar bear also hunts by stalking seals resting on the ice: Upon spotting a seal, it walks to within 100 yd (91 m), and then crouches.^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear walking .
  • Polar bear Stock Photos and Images. 2435 Polar bear pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 16 September 2009 11:41 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) hunting on the pack ice, Svalbard ...
  • Polar bear Stock Photos and Images. 2435 Polar bear pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 16 September 2009 11:41 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

If the seal does not notice, the bear creeps to within 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12 m) of the seal and then suddenly rushes forth to attack.[48] A third hunting method is to raid the birth lairs that female seals create in the snow.[51]
Polar bear at a whale carcass
.A widespread legend tells that polar bears cover their black noses with their paws when hunting.^ How big are polar bears paws?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ In Canada, polar bears are legally hunted.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar Bear Tracks -- paw print .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.This behavior, if it happens, is rare — although the story exists in native oral history and in accounts by early Arctic explorers, there is no record of an eyewitness account of the behavior in recent decades.^ Otherwise, how do you account for the fact that, as a species, polar bears have survived past warmer eras when there was NO polar ice at all?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as he was about to catch up to our time, there were no stirrers for the recently retrieved cream.

[47]
.Mature bears tend to eat only the calorie-rich skin and blubber of the seal, whereas younger bears consume the protein-rich red meat.^ They often eat only the high calorie blubber, which leads to the development of an insulating layer of fat, allowing the bears to store energy for times when food is scarce.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Persistent chlorinated cyclodiene compounds in ringed seal blubber, polar bear fat, and human plasma from Northern Qubec, Canada : identification and concentrations of photoheptachlor.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears mainly stalks young seals and can eat nearly 50 a year).
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[48] .For subadult bears which are independent of their mother but have not yet gained enough experience and body size to successfully hunt seals, scavenging the carcasses from other bears' kills is an important source of nutrition.^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, based on observer reports from Arctic villages, ships, and other sources, U.S. researchers came up with an estimate of 18,000 polar bears throughout the Arctic.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Subadults may also be forced to accept a half-eaten carcass if they kill a seal but cannot defend it from larger polar bears.^ When a polar bear kills a seal it immediately eats as much as it can and then leaves.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They also may scavenge carrion of seals, walruses, or whales.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.After feeding, polar bears wash themselves with water or snow.^ Now in the fall polar bears, nanuk, migrated toward the water.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Perhaps the Polar Bear were camouflaged with the snow, or perhaps under water at the time of the Bear Count.:-) .
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bears were washed 17 days later, but subsequently became anorectic and progressively more depressed.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[47]
.The polar bear is an enormously powerful predator.^ The GIANT 2010 THIN ICE CALENDAR by cabinfeverdavid The SMALL "Polar Bears are Cool" 2010 monthly cale by cabinfeverdavid Polar Bears Are Cool 2010 Huge Calendar by cabinfeverdavid powered by Zazzle.com .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Huge, powerful and fearless is Nanook, the polar bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The most powerful tornaq (after the Sedna, the Goddess of the sea, who was held to be the most powerful being of all) was that of a polar bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.It can kill an adult walrus, although it rarely attempts to as a walrus can be more than twice the bear's weight.^ CYP1A and CYP2B were a more reliable measure of exposure to CHC inducers than alkoxyresorufin O -dealkylase activities in polar bear.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact, oil activities promote programs that do more to PROTECT the polar bear than any other protection they receive.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As always the Knights of Columbus put out a generous and tasty buffet with more than enough food to feed a pack of bears.

[52] .Polar bears also have preyed on beluga whales, by swiping at them at breathing holes.^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears capture seals mainly by stalking them, by waiting for them to surface at a breathing hole or, in the spring, by digging out seal pups and sometimes adults from birth lairs beneath the snow.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A polar bear has a good sense of smell, sensing prey at a distance of about 20 miles.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

The whales are of similar size to the walrus and nearly as difficult for the bear to subdue. .Most terrestrial animals in the Arctic can outrun the polar bear on land as polar bears overheat quickly, and most marine animals the bear encounters can outswim it.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ The polar bear is the apical predator of the Arctic marine ecosystem, and their preferred habitat is the pack ice of the Arctic Ocean , where the ice edge and pressure ridges provide the best hunting grounds.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.In some areas, the polar bear's diet is supplemented by walrus calves and by the carcasses of dead adult walruses or whales, whose blubber is readily devoured even when rotten.^ Some even say that there are a lot more polar bears.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53]
.With the exception of pregnant females, polar bears are active year-round,[54] although they have a vestigial hibernation induction trigger in their blood.^ Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Unlike brown and black bears, polar bears are capable of fasting for up to several months during late summer and early fall, when they cannot hunt for seals because the sea is unfrozen.^ Vote Up Polar Bear wate...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Up Next Polar bear in London .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Vote Up Polar bears mate in late April or early May.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[54] .When sea ice is unavailable during summer and early autumn, some populations live off fat reserves for months at a time.^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why aren't we seeing an effect on the population from lost sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It started during the Ice Age, in the northern seas, when the seals needed to breathe and reproduce at the surface.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[40] .Polar bears have also been observed to eat a wide variety of other wild foods, including muskox, reindeer, birds, eggs, rodents, shellfish, crabs, and other polar bears.^ Foods Polar Bears love -- Watermelon!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Photo of a polar bear eating a watermellon .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.They may also eat plants, including berries, roots, and kelp, however none of these are a significant part of their diet.^ May 15th, 2008 10:47 pm ET "The significance here is that by listing polar bears as threatened is that they may not be as protected as if they were listed as endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15th, 2008 3:09 pm ET The significance here is that by listing polar bears as threatened is that they may not be as protected as if they were listed as endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52] .The polar bear's biology is specialized to require large amounts of fat from marine mammals, and it cannot derive sufficient caloric intake from terrestrial food.^ What is the Polar Bears favorite food?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Foods Polar Bears love -- Watermelon!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Marine denning of polar bears in Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[55][56]
.Being both curious animals and scavengers,[52][57] polar bears investigate and consume garbage where they come into contact with humans.^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Only the ice was so thick they almost gave up and the ammunition they were concerned with was reserved for polar bears, not saving them.
  • Riehl World View: The Polar Bear Pic They Won't Show You 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.riehlworldview.com [Source type: General]

[52] .Polar bears may attempt to consume almost anything they can find, including hazardous substances such as styrofoam, plastic, car batteries, ethylene glycol, hydraulic fluid, and motor oil.^ Ethylene glycol (antifreeze) poisoning in a free-ranging polar bear.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:02 pm ET I wonder how long it will take for us to realize what is killing the Polar Bears.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][57] .The dump in Churchill, Manitoba was closed in 2006 to protect bears, and waste is now recycled or transported to Thompson, Manitoba.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Now just watch every eco wacko file suit to stop oil drilling in Alaska to "protect the cuddly little bears" .
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since China's now the leading emitter of CO2, should we make sure they take action to protect the polar bear?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58][59]
.
Polar bear males frequently play-fight.
^ Polar bears are Fierce, Playful, Maternal .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear playing with dog friends .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ PCBs affected five TH variables in the female polar bears (Total T4, Free T4, Free T3 ,Total T3:FT3, Total T4:Total T3), while they affected only two TH variables in males (Free T3, Free T4:Free T3).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

During the mating season, actual fighting is intense and often leaves scars or broken teeth.

Behavior

.Unlike grizzly bears, polar bears are not territorial.^ Polar Bears interbreed with Grizzly Bears.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Geographical distribution of metals in livers of polar bears from the Northwest Territories , Canada .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bone tissue from 78 polar bears from the Canadian Northwest Territories was analyzed for various elements (Golovkin et al., 1991).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Although stereotyped as being voraciously aggressive, they are normally cautious in confrontations, and often choose to escape rather than fight.^ Come on, even the highest estimates from there are minuscule compared to our voracious appetite of the black stuff and, sooner rather than later, that will run out, too.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[60] .Fat polar bears rarely attack humans unless severely provoked, whereas hungry polar bears are extremely unpredictable and are known to kill and sometimes eat humans.^ Polar bear conflicts with humans.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When a polar bear kills a seal it immediately eats as much as it can and then leaves.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Photo of a polar bear eating a watermellon .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[53] .Polar bears are stealth hunters, and the victim is often unaware of the bear's presence until the attack is underway.^ It is amazing to me how quickly orphaned polar bear cubs bond with their human caregivers, and often the bonds are lifelong based on mutual love and trust.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are often immobilized in problem situations.
  • Polar bear control and management, Ursus arctos 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC icwdm.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A woman is attacked by a polar bear when she tries to pose for a picture.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[61] .Whereas brown bears often maul a person and then leave, polar bear attacks are more likely to be predatory and are almost always fatal.^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[61] However, due to the very small human population around the Arctic, such attacks are rare.
.In general, adult polar bears live solitary lives.^ Seasonal movements of adult female polar bears in the Bering and Chukchi Seas.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Take a trip to see Polar Bears LIVE! .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Here's your chance to plan a trip to see polar bears live.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Yet, they have often been seen playing together for hours at a time and even sleeping in an embrace,[53] and polar bear zoologist Nikita Ovsianikov has described adult males as having "well-developed friendships."[60] Cubs are especially playful as well. Among young males in particular, play-fighting may be a means of practicing for serious competition during mating seasons later in life.[62]
.In 1992, a photographer near Churchill took a now widely circulated set of photographs of a polar bear playing with a Canadian Eskimo Dog a tenth of its size.^ Polar bears are Fierce, Playful, Maternal .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear playing with dog friends .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Surely the HOGs, now Polar Bears, were in for it!

[63][64] .The pair wrestled harmlessly together each afternoon for ten days in a row for no apparent reason, although the bear may have been trying to demonstrate its friendliness in the hope of sharing the kennel's food.^ A polar bear is capable of traveling 19 miles or more per day for several days, although some are capable of much more than that.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Da Captain, 25000 bears over the entire arctic region is hardly reason enough to mean competition over food resources- assuming enough sea ice for them to roam.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Great Polar Bear weather, a reasonably close destination, good food and fun friends all came together for a near perfect Polar Bear day.

[63] .This kind of social interaction is uncommon; it is far more typical for polar bears to behave aggressively towards dogs.^ Polar bear playing with dog friends .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ For more polar bear facts, pictures and art, see my blog, Polar Bear News or my Squidoo lens: Are You Polar Bear Aware?
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]

Reproduction and lifecycle

A polar bear swimming
.Courtship and mating take place on the sea ice in April and May, when polar bears congregate in the best seal hunting areas.^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar climate: Arctic sea ice.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ P olar bears mate in April or May.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] .A male may follow the tracks of a breeding female for 100 km (62 mi) or more, and after finding her engage in intense fighting with other males over mating rights, fights which often result in scars and broken teeth.^ If the burden or expense of providing access to your Information is disproportionate to the risks to your privacy or if the legitimate rights of others would be violated, we may decide not to provide access to such Information.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ To help my blog readers keep track, I may just name him Fred.

^ Leopon - breeding a male leopard and a female lion...
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

[65] .Polar bears have a generally polygynous mating system; recent genetic testing of mothers and cubs, however, has uncovered cases of litters in which cubs have different fathers.^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is amazing to me how quickly orphaned polar bear cubs bond with their human caregivers, and often the bonds are lifelong based on mutual love and trust.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[66] Partners stay together and mate repeatedly for an entire week; the mating ritual induces ovulation in the female.[67]
.After mating, the fertilized egg remains in a suspended state until August or September.^ Although the egg is fertilized, it remains in a state of suspension in the female until late in August or early September.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Although mating takes place in late March to mid-July, females delay implantation of its fertilized eggs until early fall when it digs out and enters its den, giving birth a month or two later.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.During these four months, the pregnant female eats prodigious amounts of food, gaining at least 200 kg (440 lb) and often more than doubling her body weight.^ Vote Up Males weight more than females at birth.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The male body is usually larger than the female.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Sometimes different parts of our planet receive more or less sun concentrations than others during different times depending upon solar activity and the two stelar bodies positions in relation to each other.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65]

Maternity denning and early life

Cubs are born helpless, and typically nurse for two and a half years.
.When the ice floes break up in the fall, ending the possibility of hunting, each pregnant female digs a maternity den consisting of a narrow entrance tunnel leading to one to three chambers.^ Although mating takes place in late March to mid-July, females delay implantation of its fertilized eggs until early fall when it digs out and enters its den, giving birth a month or two later.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ If they can't hunt then they end up dying out.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most pregnant females spend the autumn and winter on land in their maternity dens.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] .Most maternity dens are in snowdrifts, but may also be made underground in permafrost if it is not sufficiently cold yet for snow.^ Most pregnant females spend the autumn and winter on land in their maternity dens.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] .In most subpopulations, maternity dens are situated on land a few kilometers from the coast, and the individuals in a subpopulation tend to reuse the same denning areas each year.^ It has been assumed that concentrated denning areas are maintained by fidelity of individual females to those sites.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most pregnant females spend the autumn and winter on land in their maternity dens.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[21] .The polar bears that do not den on land make their dens on the sea ice.^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear, when it returns to it's den is lethargic.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

In the den, she enters a dormant state similar to hibernation. .This hibernation-like state does not consist of continuous sleeping; however, the bear's heart rate slows from 46 to 27 beats per minute.^ Is the polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) a hibernator - Continued studies on opioids and hibernation.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Does the polar bear ( Ursus maritimus ) hibernate?
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ They are not related, however, they were originally classified as "Bear Sloths" because of their Sloth-like c...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68] Her body temperature does not decrease during this period as it would for a typical mammal in hibernation.[40][69]
.Between November and February, cubs are born blind, covered with a light down fur, and weighing less than 0.9 kg (2.0 lb).^ Vote Up The cubs fur is so fine that for a long time they were thought to be born hairless.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ She stays in the den and the babies are born between late November and early January.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The cubs are born in December or January, usually a pair of fur balls.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[67] On average, each litter has two cubs.[65] .The family remains in the den until mid-February to mid-April, with the mother maintaining her fast while nursing her cubs on a fat-rich milk.^ Cubs stay in the dens until April when they can survive the outside climate.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cubs don't leave the den until they are how old?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] .By the time the mother breaks open the entrance to the den, her cubs weigh about 10 to 15 kilograms (22 to 33 lb).^ The cubs remain with their mother about 1-1/2 to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Vote Up When cubs leave their den in March or April, they weigh 25 to 30 pounds.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ When they leave their den in March or Apr, the cubs will weigh 25 to 30 pounds.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] .For about 12 to 15 days, the family spends time outside the den while remaining in its vicinity, the mother grazing on vegetation while the cubs become used to walking and playing.^ The cubs remain with their mother about 1-1/2 to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The frogs are vanishing while get excited about hybrid suv's that get 16 rather than 12 MPG, time for a radical rethink methinks....
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Then about 15 to 20 miles outside Cape May I started to get pushed around by wind gusts that made cornering either too hard or way to easy!

[65] .Then they begin the long walk from the denning area to the sea ice, where the mother can once again catch seals.^ If I am not mistaken wasn't the sea ice worse than they had ever seen it?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They inhabit the Arctic ice cap, islands, sea ice, and water and continental coastlines.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Pregnant females return to areas where they have successfully denned in the past (Uspenski and Kistchinski, 1972).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[65] .Depending on the timing of ice-floe breakup in the fall, she may have fasted for up to eight months.^ Not willing to give up on this floe, another site is selected, and there we penetrate the ice cover after only about 3.75 m.
  • Riehl World View: The Polar Bear Pic They Won't Show You 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.riehlworldview.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the world's largest land predators, polar bears are primarily considered a marine mammal, spending as much time on the ice floes hunting seals as on land.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65]
Cubs may fall prey to wolves or to starvation. .Female polar bears are noted for both their affection towards their offspring, and their valiance in protecting them.^ Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Female polar bears may produce up to five litters in their lifetime.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bernie, who John K. noted brings someone new with him on every Polar Bear ride, drove down in his truck, his wife Nancy by his side.

One case of adoption of a wild cub has been confirmed by genetic testing.[66] .Adult male bears males occasionally kill and eat polar bear cubs,[70] for reasons that are unclear.^ Photo of a polar bear eating a watermellon .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Vote Up Polar Bear eats...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ At birth, polar bears weigh approximately 600 grams (Blix and Lentfer, 1979), but continue to grow rapidly, with adult males weighing from 300 to 800 kilograms and reaching 2.5 meters in length from the tip of the nose to the tail.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[71] .In Alaska, 42% of cubs now reach 12 months of age, down from 65% 15 years ago.^ If you somehow slept through the storm, or perhaps are reading this months or years after the fact, Sunday, April 15, 2007 was a record-breaking nor'easter.

^ The polar bear issue should not be related to wildlife oil drilling, why should we destroy a pristine wildlife area for 3 months worth of oil that will be available 10 years from now?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:28 pm ET There are more polar bears now then 50 years ago.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .In most areas, cubs are weaned at two and a half years of age,[65] when the mother chases them away or abandons them.^ The cubs remain with their mother about 1-1/2 to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Johnny B., Grumpy, was the one most offended by the chicken salad misdirection the past two years.

.The western coast of Hudson Bay is unusual in that its female polar bears sometimes wean their cubs at only one and a half years.^ One of the largest denning areas for polar bears is the lowlands of Hudson Bay and James Bay.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Female pseudohermaphrodite polar bears at Svalbard .
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[65] This was the case for 40% of cubs there in the early 1980s; however by the 1990s, fewer than 20% of cubs were weaned this young.[73] .After the mother leaves, sibling cubs sometimes travel and share food together for weeks or months.^ The denned mother often goes without food or water for as long as nine months.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[53]
A female emerging from her maternity den

Later life

.Females begin to breed at the age of four years in most areas, and five years in the Beaufort Sea area.^ Blood samples from 90 adult female polar bears (age ≥5) were collected from the Svalbard area eastward to the Chukchi Sea during 1987-1995 and analyzed for organochlorines (Lie et al., 2003).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears in the Beaufort Sea: A 30-year mark-recapture case history.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Using discrete choice modeling to generate resource selection functions for female polar bears in the Beaufort Sea.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[65] .Males usually reach sexual maturity at six years, however as competition for females is fierce, many do not breed until the age of eight or ten.^ Liver samples from 44 female and male polar bears, aged 3 to 29 years, from the Canadian arctic archipelago were obtained during 1982-1984 to be analyzed for organochlorines (Bandiera et al., 1997).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Cubs are altricial and will stay with their mothers until the spring of their second year of life, reaching sexual maturity at 5-6 years; the average life expectancy of a polar bear in the wild is estimated to be 25-30 years (DeMaster and Stirling, 1981).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Adipose tissue from male (N=6) and female (N=3) polar bears (> 5 years old) from the Svalbard area was used to analyze toxaphene concentrations (Freid et al., 2000).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[65] .A study in Hudson Bay indicated that both the reproductive success and the maternal weight of females peaked in their mid-teens.^ To carry off a successful pregnancy and denning, the pregnant female must greatly increase her weight, mostly in fat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ There was a geographic distribution showing higher levels in the western Arctic and lower levels in the eastern Arctic and in Hudson s Bay for both fresh and museum specimens.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[74]
.Polar bears appear to be less affected by infectious diseases and parasites than most terrestrial mammals.^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:27 pm ET Couldn't care less about the polar bear.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .Polar bears are especially susceptible to Trichinella, a parasitic roundworm they contract through cannibalism,[75] although infections are usually not fatal.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[71] .Only one case of a polar bear with rabies has been documented, even though polar bears frequently interact with Arctic foxes, which often carry rabies.^ No one is even sure if the polar bear is in actual decline.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[71] Bacterial Leptospirosis and Morbillivirus have been recorded. .Polar bears sometimes have problems with various skin diseases which may be caused by mites or other parasites.^ Granted - the polar bear is the “cause of the day”.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What color is the skin of a polar bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Polar bears rarely live beyond 25 years.^ Pages 20-25 in Proceedings of the Canadian Polar Bear Technical Committee.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Proceedings of the 11th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, 25-27 Jan 1993, Copenhagen, Denmark.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Proceedings of the Tenth Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, 25-29 Oct 1988, Sochi, Russia.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[76] .The oldest wild bears on record died at the age of 32, whereas the oldest captive was a female who died in 1991 at the age of 43.[77] The oldest living polar bear is Debby of the Assiniboine Park Zoo, who was probably born in December, 1966.[77] The causes of death in wild adult polar bears are poorly understood, as carcasses are rarely found in the species's frigid habitat.^ What's happening polar bears in zoos?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ A List of Zoos with polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ This cute little polar bear was born in the Nuremberg Zoo in Germany.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[71] .In the wild, old polar bears eventually become too weak to catch food, and gradually starve to death.^ What is the Polar Bears favorite food?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Foods Polar Bears love -- Watermelon!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Whether or not Polar Bears become extinct because of Global Climate Change or other reasons, we need to address the larger question of: Do we care and why?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polar bears injured in fights or accidents may either die from their injuries or become unable to hunt effectively, leading to starvation.^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[71]

Ecological role

A female nursing a two-year-old cub
.The polar bear is the apex predator within its range.^ In other words, it "was thought" in 1993 that the lower range for the polar bear population was 2,000 bears greater than the upper range estimated in 1959.
  • Terry Jeffrey : The Great Polar Bear Population Puzzle - Townhall.com 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Polar bears are among the few large carnivores that are still found in roughly their original habitat and range, and in some places in roughly their natural numbers.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists predict two-thirds of polar bear global population could disappear within the next fifty years!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Several animal species, particularly Arctic Foxes and Glaucous Gulls, routinely scavenge polar bear kills.^ The polar bear is a great animal.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.The relationship between ringed seals and polar bears is so close that the abundance of ringed seals in some areas appears to regulate the density of polar bears, while polar bear predation in turn, regulates density and reproductive success of ringed seals.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[50] .The evolutionary pressure of polar bear predation on seals probably accounts for some significant differences between Arctic and Antarctic seals.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Compared to the Antarctic, where there is no major surface predator, Arctic seals use more breathing holes per individual, appear more restless when hauled out on the ice, and rarely defecate on the ice.^ If there is no ice they can't hunt.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is still plenty of ice in the Antarctic!
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

[47] .The baby fur of most Arctic seal species is white, presumably to provide camouflage from predators, whereas Antarctic seals all have dark fur at birth.^ Scarlet Ibis - most colorful of all ibis species, ...
  • A channels: Polar bear - (Ursus maritimus) , world's largest carnivore on land, Eukarya, 17 September 2009 2:44 UTC a.tearn.com [Source type: General]

^ All of the areas and most of the species we are trying to protect were here long before us – what gives us the right to single-handedly destroy them?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]
.Polar bears rarely enter conflict with other predators, though recent brown bear encroachments into polar bear territories have led to antagonistic encounters.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Brown bears tend to dominate polar bears in disputes over carcasses,[78] and dead polar bear cubs have been found in brown bear dens.^ Marine denning of polar bears in Alaska.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Compared to the black bear ( U. americanus ) and the brown bear ( U. arctos ), the polar bear has an elongated neck and comparatively smaller head, with a stocky body that lacks a shoulder hump.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[79] .Wolves are rarely encountered by polar bears, though there are two records of wolf packs killing polar bear cubs.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Week two Connecticut Polar Bears (with a New Jersey Bear thrown in).

[80] .Polar bears are sometimes the host of arctic mites such as Alaskozetes antarcticus.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Geographical distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in polar bears ( Ursus maritimus ) in the Norwegian and Russian Arctic.
  • Polar Bear Research Publications at the Alaska Science Center 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC alaska.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, based on observer reports from Arctic villages, ships, and other sources, U.S. researchers came up with an estimate of 18,000 polar bears throughout the Arctic.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47]

Hunting

Indigenous people

Skins of hunted polar bears in Ittoqqortoormiit, Greenland
.Polar bears have long provided important raw materials for Arctic peoples, including the Inuit, Yupik, Chukchi, Nenets, Russian Pomors and others.^ It's not just about polar bears people.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Hunters commonly used teams of dogs to distract the bear, allowing the hunter to spear the bear or shoot it with arrows at closer range.[81] Almost all parts of captured animals had a use.[82] .The fur was used in particular to sew trousers and, by the Nenets, to make galoshes-like outer footwear called tobok; the meat is edible, despite some risk of trichinosis; the fat was used in food and as a fuel for lighting homes, alongside seal and whale blubber; sinews were used as thread for sewing clothes; the gallbladder and sometimes heart were dried and powdered for medicinal purposes; the large canine teeth were highly valued as talismans.^ They also likes algae (when available), berries, birds and bird eggs, crabs, beluga whale and bowhead whales carcasses, grasses, mushrooms, small mammals, starfish, and sometimes...adult seals.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Right now it looks like we should make it home before as much as a foot of snow falls Sunday night.

^ Persistent chlorinated cyclodiene compounds in ringed seal blubber, polar bear fat, and human plasma from Northern Qubec, Canada : identification and concentrations of photoheptachlor.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[83] Only the liver was not used, as its high concentration of vitamin A is poisonous.[84] Hunters make sure to either toss the liver into the sea or bury it in order to spare their dogs from potential poisoning.[83] .Traditional subsistence hunting was on a small enough scale to not significantly affect polar bear populations, mostly because of the sparseness of the human population in polar bear habitat.^ Polar bears are affected by habitat loss, destruction and degradation of ecosyst...
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85]

History of commercial harvest

.In Russia, polar bear furs were already being commercially traded in the 14th century, though it was of low value compared to Arctic Fox or even reindeer fur.^ H ere is a live cam from the arctic where polar bears are being recorded live.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Is the Polar bear being treated as a citizen?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

[83] .The growth of the human population in the Eurasian Arctic in the 16th and 17th century, together with the advent of firearms and increasing trade, dramatically increased the harvest of polar bears.^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Prove polar bear populations are shrinking.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

[40][86] .However, since polar bear fur has always played a marginal commercial role, data on the historical harvest is fragmentary.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear populations have gone up 500% since the 1970's.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Contaminants in Svalbard polar bear samples archived since 1967 and possible population level effects.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is known, for example, that already in the winter of 1784/1785 Russian Pomors on Spitsbergen harvested 150 polar bears in Magdalenefjorden.^ This is a widely known agenda, and the science that has driven the U.S. Department of Interior (headed by Republican Dirk Kempthorne) to declare the Polar Bear Threatened, justifies their stance.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adult female polar bears are comparably smaller, weighing 150 to 300 kg and measuring 1.8 to 2 meters in length (DeMaster and Stirling, 1981).
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also the only known region where polar bears den in earth rather than in snow.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[83] In the early 20th century, Norwegian hunters were harvesting 300 bears a year at the same location. Estimates of total historical harvest suggest that from the beginning of the 18th century, roughly 400-500 animals were being harvested annually in northern Eurasia, reaching a peak of 1,300 to 1,500 animals in the early 20th century, and falling off as the numbers began dwindling.[83]
.In the first half of the 20th century, mechanized and overpoweringly efficient methods of hunting and trapping came into use in North America as well.^ When Europeans first colonized North America, there was an estimated five (5) billion Passenger Pigeons alive and well in North America.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[87] Polar bears were chased from snowmobiles, icebreakers, and airplanes, the latter practice described in a 1965 New York Times editorial as being "about as sporting as machine gunning a cow."[87] The numbers taken grew rapidly in the 1960s, peaking around 1968 with a global total of 1,250 bears that year.[88]

Contemporary regulations

.Concerns over the future survival of the species led to the development of national regulations on polar bear hunting, beginning in the mid-1950s.^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wiig, eds., Polar Bears: Proceedings of the Tenth Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group, October 25-29, 1988, Sochi, USSR, Occasional Papers of the IUCN Species Survival Commission (SSC), 7:80-85.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Polar bears are carnivorous, preying mainly on ringed seals, but they also hunt bearded seals, harp seals, hooded seals, walruses, sea birds, small mammals, and fish.
  • Polar Bear--BIOLOGICAL AND ECOTOXICOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OFTERRESTRIAL VERTEBRATE SPECIES RESIDING IN ESTUARIES 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.pwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[89] .In 1973, the International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears was signed by all five nations whose territory is inhabited by polar bears (Canada, Denmark (Greenland), Norway (Svalbard), the USSR (now the Russian Federation) and the USA (Alaska)).^ Polar Bear sign in, Lewes.

^ Polar Bear videos by National Wildlife Federation .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I love bears and am an online ambassador for Polar Bears International, National Wildlife Federation and Wildlife...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

A Norwegian road sign used on Svalbard to warn about the presence of polar bears.
.Also known as the Oslo Agreement, it was a rare case of international cooperation during the Cold War.^ In late 1973, the five polar bear nations signed the International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears , and agreed to go with the lower Soviet estimates in order to wrap up a wildlife agreement that was unheard-of during the Cold War years.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Biologist Ian Stirling commented, "For many years, the conservation of polar bears was the only subject in the entire Arctic that nations from both sides of the Iron Curtain could agree upon sufficiently to sign an agreement.^ Polar Bear sign in, Lewes.

^ The polar bear population has increased in the arctic over the last 20 years.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar Bear sign in.

.Such was the intensity of human fascination with this magnificent predator, the only marine bear."^ Polar Bears are magnificent animals and hardley threatened any more that any other creature (including humans) on this plant due to climate change.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the world's largest land predators, polar bears are primarily considered a marine mammal, spending as much time on the ice floes hunting seals as on land.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[90]
Although the agreement is not enforceable in itself, member countries agreed to place restrictions on recreational and commercial hunting, ban hunting from aircraft and icebreakers, and conduct further research.[91] The treaty allows hunting "by local people using traditional methods," although this has been liberally interpreted by member nations. .Norway is the only country of the five in which all harvest of polar bears is banned.^ Can you name all the countries with polar bears?
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ All the same, I do love the Polar Bears.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Agreements have been made between countries to co-manage their shared polar bear subpopulations.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Can you name all the countries with polar bears?
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bears managed to survive that quite well.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After several years of negotiations, Russia and the U.S. signed an agreement in October 2000 to jointly set quotas for indigenous subsistence hunting in Alaska and Chukotka.^ The U.S. had already banned all but some native subsistence hunting the previous year, through the US Marine Mammal Protection Act.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[92] The treaty was ratified in October 2007.[93]

Russia

.The Soviet Union banned all harvest of polar bears in 1956, however poaching continued and is believed to pose a serious threat to the polar bear population.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Prove polar bear populations are shrinking.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .In recent years, polar bears have approached coastal villages in Chukotka more frequently due to the shrinking of the sea ice, endangering humans and raising concerns that illegal hunting would become even more prevalent.^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[94] .In 2007, the Russian government made subsistence hunting legal for Chukotka natives only, a move supported by Russia’s most prominent bear researchers and the World Wide Fund for Nature as a means to curb poaching.^ PBI supports research projects that benefit the world's polar bears.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want some proof, take a look at the 2007 logs of the ice breakers supporting Russian, US, and Canada scientists and the photos of the breakup of the ice pack.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94]

Greenland

In Greenland, restrictions for the species were first introduced in 1994 and expanded by executive order in 2005.[23] Until 2005, Greenland placed no limit on hunting by indigenous people. It imposed a limit of 150 for 2006. It also allowed recreational hunting for the first time.[95] .Other provisions included year-round protection of cubs and mothers, restrictions on weapons used, and various administrative requirements to catalogue kills.^ The cubs remain with their mother about 1-1/2 to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ By participating in our Site activities, you certify that you meet the age and other eligibility requirements for this Site as set forth in our Terms of Use Agreement .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[23]
.
Dogsleds are used for recreational hunting of polar bears in Canada.
^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ And she took him polar bear hunting in the Arctic.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

Use of motorized vehicles is forbidden.

Canada and the United States

.About 500 bears are killed per year by humans across Canada,[96] a rate believed by scientists to be unsustainable for some areas, notably Baffin Bay.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ If you want some proof, take a look at the 2007 logs of the ice breakers supporting Russian, US, and Canada scientists and the photos of the breakup of the ice pack.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They knew how to kill animals including polar bears but they believed they had to defer to their spirits when they did.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[22] .Canada has allowed sport hunters accompanied by local guides and dog-sled teams since 1970,[97] but the practice was not common until the 1980s.^ Namuo drove them over to the tourist center, pulling a sled that was practically empty except for the dogs' food.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government in Canada is still allowing polar bears to be killed for sport.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[98] The guiding of sport hunters provides meaningful employment and an important source of income for native communities in which economic opportunities are few.[25] .Sport hunting can bring CDN$20,000 to $35,000 per bear into northern communities, which until recently has been mostly from American hunters.^ The difference is U.S. hunters will no longer be allowed to bring back a LEGALLY TAKEN bear (under Canadian law) to the U.S. Without American hunters (who make up the vast majority of foreign hunters) the Nunavut will not be able to sell nearly as many hunts and this will in fact deprive them of much needed $.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It should also be noted that a good portion of the fees that U.S. hunters paid to hunt polar bears went directly back into supporting polar bear research (e.g.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15th, 2008 7:35 pm ET The decision to list polar bears as threatened will not reduce the number of hunting permits issued to the Nunavut.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99]
.On 15 May 2008, the U.S. listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, and banned all importing of polar bear trophies.^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ I cover news related to Polar Bears and special reports on all 7 bear species .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15, 2008 Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny .
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Importing products made from polar bears had been prohibited from 1972 to 1994 under the Marine Mammal Protection Act, and restricted between 1994 and 2008. Under those restrictions, permits from the United States Fish and Wildlife Service were required to import sport-hunted polar bear trophies taken in hunting expeditions in Canada.^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government in Canada is still allowing polar bears to be killed for sport.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

The permit process required that the bear be taken from an area with quotas based on sound management principles.[100] Since 1994, more than 800 sport-hunted polar bear trophies have been imported into the U.S.[101]
.Ironically, because of the way polar bear hunting quotas are managed in Canada, attempts to discourage sport hunting would actually increase the number of bears killed in the short term.^ But as any true accounting of polar bear numbers will prove...their numbers are increasing not decreasing.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If polar bear numbers have increased in the past 20 years, it is because of hunting bans and not because their habitat has improved.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[25] .Canada allocates a certain number of permits each year to sport and subsistence hunting, and those that are not used for sport hunting are re-allocated to Native subsistence hunting.^ This is nothing but a ploy by those who will use this and the courts to prevent us from drilling for oil in Alaska, Canada, and or the Artic.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The U.S. had already banned all but some native subsistence hunting the previous year, through the US Marine Mammal Protection Act.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Yes, well -- You're permitted to use ordinary rifles of a certain caliber," answered a voice Namuo recognized as that of the tourist bureau agent.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

.Whereas Native communities kill all the polar bears they are permitted to take each year, only half of sport hunters with permits actually manage to kill a polar bear.^ See fun polar bear photos and cartoons all year!
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the same, I do love the Polar Bears.

^ Enjoy polar bears all year long .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.If a sport hunter does not kill a polar bear before his or her permit expires, the permit cannot be transferred to another hunter.^ The government in Canada is still allowing polar bears to be killed for sport.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They knew how to kill animals including polar bears but they believed they had to defer to their spirits when they did.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Taylor has acknowledged that climate change is impacting polar bears, but he does not see a great risk of collapse of the species.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]
The territory of Nunavut accounts for 80% of Canadian kills.[96] In 2005, the government of Nunavut increased the quota from 400 to 518 bears,[102] despite protests from some scientific groups.[103] .In two areas where harvest levels have been increased based on increased sightings, science-based studies have indicated declining populations, and a third area is considered data-deficient.^ Of the 19 different polar bear populations, 6-8 are increasing, 2-4 are stable, 5 don't have enough data on them, and only 4 are declining.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists predict two-thirds of polar bear global population could disappear within the next fifty years!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[104] While most of that quota is hunted by the indigenous Inuit people, a growing share is sold to recreational hunters. .(0.8% in the 1970s, 7.1% in the 1980s, and 14.6% in the 1990s)[98] Nunavut polar bear biologist, Mitchell Taylor, who was formerly responsible for polar bear conservation in the territory, insists that bear numbers are being sustained under current hunting limits.^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Is the Polar bear being treated as a citizen?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[105] .The Government of the Northwest Territories maintain their own quota of 72–103 bears within the Inuvialuit communities of which some are set aside for sports hunters.^ According to a 1973 United Press International story, Canada's Northwest Territories allowed a quota of 422 bears to be killed that year.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Conservation status, efforts and controversies

This map from the U.S. Geological Survey shows projected changes in polar bear habitat from 2001–2010 to 2041–2050. Red areas indicate loss of optimal polar bear habitat; blue areas indicate gain.
.As of 2008, the World Conservation Union (IUCN) reports that the global population of polar bears is 20,000 to 25,000, and is declining.^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bear population today is 25,000.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[1] .In 2006, the IUCN upgraded the polar bear from a species of least concern to a vulnerable species.^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:13 pm ET When the polar bear receive the protection as a “threatened” species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taylor has acknowledged that climate change is impacting polar bears, but he does not see a great risk of collapse of the species.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[106] .It cited a "suspected population reduction of >30% within three generations (45 years)", due primarily to global warming.^ It is indisputable that global warming is and has been occurring for the last 10,000 years.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Step 1: Suppress, manipulate or selectively edit scientific findings of global warming and declines in populations and diversity of species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How is it possible that a species who has quintupled (yeah, thats 5x) in population in the last 30 years needs to be put on an endangered species list?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Other risks to the polar bear include pollution in the form of toxic contaminants, conflicts with shipping, stresses from recreational polar-bear watching, and oil and gas exploration and development.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Listing the Polar Bears as "Threatened" will still allow oil drilling to take place....what happens when there is a spill, and the polar bears are covered in oil....the WILL die....along with many other species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska Wilderness League For wildlife like polar bears and caribou, for local communities and Alaska Natives, and for future generations, Alaska Wilderness League strives to protect Alaska's most significant wild land from oil and gas drilling and other industrial threats.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[7] The IUCN also cited a "potential risk of over-harvest" through legal and illegal hunting.[7]
.According to the World Wildlife Fund, the polar bear is important as an indicator of arctic ecosystem health.^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ And she took him polar bear hunting in the Arctic.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

.Polar bears are studied to gain understanding of what is happening throughout the Arctic, as at risk polar bears are often a sign of something wrong with the arctic marine ecosystem.^ What's happening polar bears in zoos?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar Bear sign in, Lewes.

^ Polar Bear sign in.

[107]

Global warming

.The IUCN, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, United States Geological Survey and many leading polar bear biologists have expressed grave concerns about the impact of global warming, including the belief that the current warming trend imperils the survival of the species.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The premise is that global warming is reducing the number of polar bears.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[21][108][109][110][111][112]
.The key danger posed by global warming is malnutrition or starvation due to habitat loss.^ Before the first bear has officially been declared dead due to global warming, climate change, loss of sea ice, etc, etc, we now declare them “threatened”.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lenses show the wonderful nature of bears and many will, at the same time, shine a spotlight on the dangers bears face including: trophy hunters, gall bladder and bile farming, pollution, bear baiting, global warming, and habitat destruction.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The only reason they make this list is because the prophets of Global Warming have said that the polar bear habitat is disappearing.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polar bears hunt seals from a platform of sea ice.^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears, for the most part, need polar sea ice in order to hunt.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rising temperatures cause the sea ice to melt earlier in the year, driving the bears to shore before they have built sufficient fat reserves to survive the period of scarce food in the late summer and early fall.^ They're working around the clock before it really freezes and it's his last chance to pick up overtime this year."
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NWF's senior scientist Doug Inkley, Ph.D. explains why polar bears need sea ice and what can happen to them because of global warming.
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ HD: 'Ice Skating' Polar Bears - Nature's Great Events: The Great Melt - BBC One .
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73] .Reduction in sea-ice cover also forces bears to swim longer distances, which further depletes their energy stores and occasionally leads to drowning.^ Bears can swim long distances.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Before the first bear has officially been declared dead due to global warming, climate change, loss of sea ice, etc, etc, we now declare them “threatened”.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[113] .Thinner sea ice tends to deform more easily, which appears to make it more difficult for polar bears to access seals.^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Da Captain, 25000 bears over the entire arctic region is hardly reason enough to mean competition over food resources- assuming enough sea ice for them to roam.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50] .Insufficient nourishment leads to lower reproductive rates in adult females and lower survival rates in cubs and juvenile bears, in addition to poorer body condition in bears of all ages.^ Female polar bears don't breed every year since they have cubs for up to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ All Polar Cubs stayed home today, most of the Bears too.

^ Otherwise, how do you account for the fact that, as a species, polar bears have survived past warmer eras when there was NO polar ice at all?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
.In addition to creating nutritional stress, a warming climate is expected to affect various other aspects of polar bear life: Changes in sea ice affect the ability of pregnant females to build suitable maternity dens.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As the distance increases between the pack ice and the coast, females must swim longer distances to reach favored denning areas on land.^ Males usually den from late November to late January, while females den for a longer period of time, from November to March.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ To carry off a successful pregnancy and denning, the pregnant female must greatly increase her weight, mostly in fat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Most pregnant females spend the autumn and winter on land in their maternity dens.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[21] .Thawing of permafrost would affect the bears who traditionally den underground, and warm winters could result in den roofs collapsing or having reduced insulative value.^ These stories are an open window to the world of the CT Polar Bears for those of us who wait for the temps to warm the soul.

^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ People who believe that global warming is dooming the polar bears and our planet need to understand something: .
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .For the polar bears that currently den on multi-year ice, increased ice mobility may result in longer distances for mothers and young cubs to walk when they return to seal-hunting areas in the spring.^ If there is no ice they can't hunt.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears mainly stalks young seals and can eat nearly 50 a year).
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The cubs remain with their mother about 1-1/2 to 2 years.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[21] Disease-causing bacteria and parasites would flourish more readily in a warmer climate.[50]
.Problematic interactions between polar bears and humans, such as foraging by bears in garbage dumps, have historically been more prevalent in years when ice-floe breakup occurred early and local polar bears were relatively thin.^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[108] .Increased human-bear interactions, including fatal attacks on humans, are likely to increase as the sea ice shrinks and hungry bears try to find food on land.^ Before the first bear has officially been declared dead due to global warming, climate change, loss of sea ice, etc, etc, we now declare them “threatened”.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the freeze, however, the bears wandered around the shore lands, hungry and somewhat grouchy, for their own hunt to begin.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[108][114]

Observations linked to global warming

.The effects of global warming are most profound in the southern part of the polar bear's range, and this is indeed where significant degradation of local populations has been observed.^ The premise is that global warming is reducing the number of polar bears.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prove polar bear populations are shrinking.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These stories are an open window to the world of the CT Polar Bears for those of us who wait for the temps to warm the soul.

[112] .The Western Hudson Bay subpopulation, in a southern part of the range, also happens to be one of the best-studied polar bear subpopulations.^ The United States, the biggest offender of consumption, the number one country for extinction, can begin with the polar bear.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One rumor as to why John J. took so long to go from Polar Bear wannabe to Flight B was that he first had to buy a Road King.

^ My Polar Bear vest of honor now has a red rocker at the bottom of my short string of gold ones.

This subpopulation feeds heavily on ringed seals in late spring, when newly weaned and easily hunted seal pups are abundant.[104] .The late spring hunting season ends for polar bears when the ice begins to melt and break up, and they fast or eat little during the summer until the sea freezes again.^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up Next Polar bear in London .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[104]
.Due to warming air temperatures, ice-floe breakup in western Hudson Bay is currently occurring three weeks earlier than it did 30 years ago, reducing the duration of the polar bear feeding season.^ The grand Polar Bear Banquet is less than 2 weeks away.

^ The premise is that global warming is reducing the number of polar bears.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[104] .The body condition of polar bears has declined during this period; the average weight of lone (and likely pregnant) female polar bears was approximately 290 kg (640 lb) in 1980 and 230 kg (510 lb) in 2004.[104] Between 1987 and 2004, the Western Hudson Bay population declined by 22%.^ Polar Bear Riders from 2004.

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[115]
Mothers and cubs have high nutritional requirements, which are not met if the seal-hunting season is too short.
.In Alaska, the effects of sea ice shrinkage have contributed to higher mortality rates in polar bear cubs, and have led to changes in the denning locations of pregnant females.^ The lack of sea ice will drive polar bear cubs during the hibernation season.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[72][116] Recently, polar bears in the Arctic have undertaken longer than usual swims to find prey, resulting in four recorded drownings in the unusually large ice pack regression of 2005.[113]

Pollution

.Polar bears accumulate high levels of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) and chlorinated pesticides.^ Polar bears are affected by habitat loss, destruction and degradation of ecosystems, pollution, over-exploitation and climate change.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]
  • Polar Bear Videos -- Polar Bears, Here, There, Everywhere 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Too bad the populations of polar bears are at very healthy levels.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A life-like 16ft high sculpture of an iceberg featuring a stranded polar bear and its cub was...
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

Due to their position at the top of the food pyramid, with a diet heavy in blubber in which halocarbons concentrate, their bodies are among the most contaminated of Arctic mammals.[117] .Halocarbons are known to be toxic to other animals because they mimic hormone chemistry, and biomarkers such as immunoglobulin G and retinol suggest similar effects on polar bears.^ Polar bears evolved from which other bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear is a great animal.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

PCBs have received the most study, and they have been associated with birth defects and immune system deficiency.[118]
The most notorious of these chemicals, such as PCBs and DDT, have been internationally banned. Their concentrations in polar bear tissues continued to rise for decades after the ban as these chemicals spread through the food chain, however the trend seems to have abated, with tissue concentrations of PCBs declining between studies performed in 1989 - 1993 and studies performed in 1996 - 2002.[119]
.Sometimes excess heavy metals have also been observed in the polar bear.^ H. rightly observed that there is still plenty of Polar Bear season remaining.

Oil and gas development

.Oil and gas development in polar bear habitat can affect the bears in a variety of ways.^ Alaska Wilderness League For wildlife like polar bears and caribou, for local communities and Alaska Natives, and for future generations, Alaska Wilderness League strives to protect Alaska's most significant wild land from oil and gas drilling and other industrial threats.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Cheap gas, more polar bears, and bright sunny days without global warming.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears are affected by habitat loss, destruction and degradation of ecosystems, pollution, over-exploitation and climate change.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.An oil spill in the Arctic would most likely concentrate in the areas where polar bears and their prey are also concentrated, such as sea ice leads.^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears, for the most part, need polar sea ice in order to hunt.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Because polar bears rely partly on their fur for insulation and soiling of the fur by oil reduces its insulative value, oil spills put bears at risk of dying from hypothermia.^ NO! I read a story today about the usual crew now demanding action be taken on global warming because the polar bear is labeled as endangered!
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Listing the Polar Bears as "Threatened" will still allow oil drilling to take place....what happens when there is a spill, and the polar bears are covered in oil....the WILL die....along with many other species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether or not Polar Bears become extinct because of Global Climate Change or other reasons, we need to address the larger question of: Do we care and why?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Polar bears exposed to oil spill conditions have been observed to lick the oil from their fur, leading to fatal kidney failure.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Listing the Polar Bears as "Threatened" will still allow oil drilling to take place....what happens when there is a spill, and the polar bears are covered in oil....the WILL die....along with many other species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, oil activities promote programs that do more to PROTECT the polar bear than any other protection they receive.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Maternity dens, used by pregnant females and by females with infants, can also be disturbed by nearby oil exploration and development.^ Most pregnant females spend the autumn and winter on land in their maternity dens.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ To carry off a successful pregnancy and denning, the pregnant female must greatly increase her weight, mostly in fat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Early in November or December, the female, prepares for the impending birth by digging a maternity den.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Disturbance of these sensitive sites may trigger the mother to abandon her den prematurely, or abandon her litter altogether.^ These Third Party Advertising Service Providers may enable us to display advertisements based on your visits to the Site and other websites you have visited.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[7]
German stamp depicting Knut and the slogan "Preserve nature worldwide"

Predictions

.The U.S. Geological Survey predicts two-thirds of the world's polar bears will disappear by 2050, based on moderate projections for the shrinking of summer sea ice caused by global warming.^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, we know that polar bears require polar sea ice.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[50] .The bears would disappear from Europe, Asia, and Alaska, and be depleted from the Arctic archipelago of Canada and areas off the northern Greenland coast.^ They are also found in Greenland, the islands off the coast of Norway, on the northern and northwestern coasts of Alaska and on the northern coast of the former Soviet Union.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ice is melting off the coasts of Alaska which has been part of the habitat of the polar bears (also that of our Inuits aka.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Guess where the North Polar Bear will have to go, once we need to farm Northern Canada, Siberia, Alaska, and Greenland.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By 2080, they would disappear from Greenland entirely and from the northern Canadian coast, leaving only dwindling numbers in the interior Arctic archipelago.^ They are also found in Greenland, the islands off the coast of Norway, on the northern and northwestern coasts of Alaska and on the northern coast of the former Soviet Union.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[50]
.Predictions vary on the extent to which polar bears could adapt to climate change by switching to terrestrial food sources.^ Foods Polar Bears love -- Watermelon!
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What is the Polar Bears favorite food?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Before the first bear has officially been declared dead due to global warming, climate change, loss of sea ice, etc, etc, we now declare them “threatened”.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Mitchell Taylor, who was director of Wildlife Research for the Government of Nunavut, wrote to the US Fish and Wildlife Service arguing that local studies are insufficient evidence for global protection at this time.^ After some web research, conversations with polar bear researchers, and some help from a longtime journalist who specializes in animal/wildlife stories, here's what we could find.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One credentialed, dissenting scientist is Dr. Mitchell Taylor , a researcher who did much of his work on behalf of Canada's Nunavut Territory.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Endangered Species Program, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service Home page of the Endangered Species Program, with links to Program details, endangered and threatened species information, Endangered Species Act ...
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The letter stated, "At present, the polar bear is one of the best managed of the large Arctic mammals.^ The polar bear, similar to the brown bear, is large and stocky.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ And with fanfare and a hearty handshake, he presented John K. the first Polar Bear rocker of the season.

^ The polar bears managed to survive that quite well.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If all Arctic nations continue to abide by the terms and intent of the Polar Bear Agreement, the future of polar bears is secure....^ All the same, I do love the Polar Bears.

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ So all of last Sunday's Polar Bears can thank Mike and Michele's very good luck for keeping us riding dry.

.Clearly polar bears can adapt to climate change.^ Before the first bear has officially been declared dead due to global warming, climate change, loss of sea ice, etc, etc, we now declare them “threatened”.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whether or not Polar Bears become extinct because of Global Climate Change or other reasons, we need to address the larger question of: Do we care and why?
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Taylor has acknowledged that climate change is impacting polar bears, but he does not see a great risk of collapse of the species.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They have evolved and perisisted for thousands of years in a period characterized by fluctuating climate."[105] Ken Taylor, deputy commissioner for the Alaska Department of Fish and Game, has said, "I wouldn't be surprised if polar bears learned to feed on spawning salmon like grizzly bears."[25]
.However, many scientists consider these theories to be naive;[25] it is noted that black and brown bears at high latitudes are smaller than elsewhere, because of the scarcity of terrestrial food resources.^ (Editor's note: Considered poor Polar Bear manners when riding in a group.

^ The polar bear's tail and ears are smaller than the brown bear's but they have huge feet.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ And their claws are also shorter and more solid than the brown bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[104] .An additional risk to the species is that if individuals spend more time on land, they will hybridize with brown or grizzly bears.^ He wished the guide had told them more about the land, the weather, and the habits of the bear.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sounds like Rich is spending waaaay too much time with Bob organizing Polar Bears and riding Gold Wings.

^ They were enthusiastic about everything, but when the time came to shoot, they declined and simply let a beautiful polar bear meander away.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

[112] The IUCN wrote:
.Polar bears exhibit low reproductive rates with long generational spans.^ A long ride to Cape May means an early morning start for the Connecticut Polar Bears.

^ Johnny B. unveiled his now soaked Polar Bear long-sleeved tee shirt and entertained us with a play-by-play of all his wet spots.

^ May 14th, 2008 3:02 pm ET I wonder how long it will take for us to realize what is killing the Polar Bears.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These factors make facultative adaptation by polar bears to significantly reduced ice coverage scenarios unlikely.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ Plus, wannabe Polar Bear and Bridgeport HOG President Bob V. presented each of us with one of these.

^ By making a donation to Polar Bears International from this page, you are sending money directly to that organization, in whatever amount you want.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Polar bears did adapt to warmer climate periods of the past.^ Did not NOAA recently come out with a report stating that the polar bear ice shelf is at its second largest point ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They knew how to kill animals including polar bears but they believed they had to defer to their spirits when they did.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bears are affected by habitat loss, destruction and degradation of ecosystems, pollution, over-exploitation and climate change.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.Due to their long generation time and the current greater speed of global warming, it seems unlikely that polar bear will be able to adapt to the current warming trend in the Arctic.^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ And now we are quoting the infamous Senator Inhofe for objective, "actual science" on the causes of global warming and his views on drilling in the arctic?
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Obama Administration is considering a proposal that would help stop trophy hunting and the global trade in polar bear parts..
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.If climatic trends continue polar bears may become extirpated from most of their range within 100 years.^ John K. has become one of the most ambitious Polar Bears.

^ Security requirements over the various years of Polar Bear rides to this destination have ranged from showing your license, to checking your name against a pre-approved list of bears to a simple wave-through.

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[7]

Controversy over species protection

.Warnings about the future of the polar bear are often contrasted with the fact that worldwide population estimates have increased over the past 50 years and are relatively stable today.^ It's not just about polar bears people.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bear population today is 25,000.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Population of polar bears is higher than ever.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[120][121] .Some estimates of the global population are around 5,000–10,000 in the early 1970s;[122] other estimates were 20,000–40,000 during the 1980s.^ It is indisputable that global warming is and has been occurring for the last 10,000 years.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The global population of polar bears is 22,000, about double what it was just four decades ago.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28][40] Current estimates put the global population at between 20,000 and 25,000.[23]
.There are several reasons for the apparent discordance between past and projected population trends: Estimates from the 1950s and 1960s were based on stories from explorers and hunters rather than on scientific surveys.^ Come on, even the highest estimates from there are minuscule compared to our voracious appetite of the black stuff and, sooner rather than later, that will run out, too.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123][124] Second, controls of harvesting were introduced that allowed this previously overhunted species to recover.[123] .Third, the recent effects of global warming have affected sea ice abundance in different areas to varying degrees.^ It's too bad that, this spring, the ice isn't melting in the Artic as slow as the non-global warming believers want it to.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Global warming is having a major impact on polar bears as sea ice, the bears habitat, is disappearing at a quick pace.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Global warming is a farce, we all should be more worried about the next ice age occurrying.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[123]
.Debate over the listing of the polar bear under endangered species legislation has put conservation groups and Canada's Inuit at opposing positions;[25] The Nunavut government and many northern residents have condemned the U.S. initiative to list the polar bear under the Endangered Species Act.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear is endangered and by listing it as threatened, nothing will be done to protect it.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[125][126] .Many Inuit believe the polar bear population is increasing, and restrictions on sport-hunting are likely to lead to a loss of income to their communities.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the Inuit name for polar bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[25][127]

U.S. endangered species legislation

.On 14 May 2008 the U.S. Department of the Interior listed the polar bear as a threatened species under the Endangered Species Act, citing the melting of Arctic sea ice as the primary threat to the polar bear.^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ May 14th, 2008 3:13 pm ET When the polar bear receive the protection as a “threatened” species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128] .However, the department immediately issued a statement that the listing could not be used to regulate greenhouse gas emissions, saying, "That would be a wholly inappropriate use of the Endangered Species Act.^ (John replied to this statement by saying that to get 900 miles he must resort to premium gas.

ESA is not the right tool to set U. S. climate policy."[129] .However, some policy analysts believe that despite the government's stance, the Endangered Species Act can be used to restrict the issuing of federal permits for projects that would threaten the polar bear by increasing greenhouse gas emissions.^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear does not fit any classification of "threatened" or "endangered" species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar Bears officially listed as a "threatened" species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128] .Environmental groups have pledged to go to court to have the Endangered Species Act interpreted in such a way.^ Endangered Species Act - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia In 1972 President Nixon declared the current approach inadequate and called on Congress to pass comprehensive endangered species legislation.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:13 pm ET When the polar bear receive the protection as a “threatened” species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:19 pm ET Of course tomorrow the Bush administration will announce that it is eliminating any power in the endangered species act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[128] .On 8 May 2009, the new administration of Barack Obama announced that it would continue the policy.^ The Obama Administration is considering a proposal that would help stop trophy hunting and the global trade in polar bear parts..
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:19 pm ET Of course tomorrow the Bush administration will announce that it is eliminating any power in the endangered species act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130]
.While listing the polar bear as a threatened species, the Interior Department added a seldom-used stipulation to allow oil and gas exploration and development to proceed in areas inhabited by polar bears, provided companies continue to comply with the existing restrictions of the Marine Mammal Protection Act.^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a myth that the polar bears are threatened, in fact Dept of Interior acknolwedged that!!!
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A List of Zoos with polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[131] .The main new protection for polar bears under the terms of the listing is that hunters will no longer be able to import trophies from the hunting of polar bears in Canada.^ The polar bear is endangered and by listing it as threatened, nothing will be done to protect it.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A List of Zoos with polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[131]
.The polar bear is only the third species, after the elkhorn coral and the staghorn coral protected under the Endangered Species Act due to global warming.^ Interior's complete press release, click Decision to Protect Polar Bears under Endangered Species Act .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ May 14th, 2008 3:13 pm ET When the polar bear receive the protection as a “threatened” species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear is endangered and by listing it as threatened, nothing will be done to protect it.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 4 August 2008, the state of Alaska sued U.S. Interior Secretary Dirk Kempthorne, seeking to reverse the listing of the polar bear as a threatened species, out of concern that the listing would adversely affect oil and gas development in the state.^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ Polar bear paw at Alaska zoo .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[132] .Alaska Governor Sarah Palin said that the listing was not based on the best scientific and commercial data available, a view rejected by polar bear experts.^ A List of Zoos with polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear paw at Alaska zoo .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132]
The ruling followed several years of controversy. .On 17 February 2005 the Center for Biological Diversity filed a petition asking that the polar bear be listed under the Endangered Species Act.^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A List of Zoos with polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear does not fit any classification of "threatened" or "endangered" species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An agreement was reached and filed in Federal district court on 5 June 2006. Pursuant to that agreement, on 9 January 2007, the US Fish and Wildlife Service proposed to list the polar bear as a threatened species.^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ The polar bear is endangered and by listing it as threatened, nothing will be done to protect it.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fact: the polar bears need not have been listed, as the species is enither threatened nor endangered.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A final decision was required by law by 9 January 2008, at which time the agency said it needed another month.^ May 14th, 2008 3:19 pm ET There is a law that requires the federal government to have a balanced budget.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[133]
.On 7 March 2008, the inspector general of the U.S. Interior Department began a preliminary investigation into why the decision had been delayed for nearly two months.^ Although mating takes place in late March to mid-July, females delay implantation of its fertilized eggs until early fall when it digs out and enters its den, giving birth a month or two later.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[133] .The investigation is in response to a letter signed by six environmental groups that U.S. Fish and Wildlife Director Dale Hall violated the agency's scientific code of conduct by delaying the decision unnecessarily, allowing the government to proceed with an auction for oil and gas leases in the Alaska's Chukchi Sea, an area of key habitat for polar bears.^ Polar Bear sign in, Lewes.

^ Polar Bear sign in.

^ Polar bears prefer the sea ice habitat.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[133] The auction took place in early February 2008.[133] An editorial in The New York Times said that "these two moves are almost certainly, and cynically, related."[25][134] Hall denied any political interference in the decision and said that the delay was needed to make sure the decision was in a form easily understood.[133] .On 28 April 2008, a Federal court ruled that a decision on the listing must be made by 15 May 2008;[135] the decision came on 14 May.^ May 16th, 2008 8:01 am ET The point is that you put animals on the 'Threatened' or other lists when they are losing ground (population or habitat-wise).
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 16th, 2008 4:22 pm ET Not just the polar bears, but all animals will eventually be on the threatened list due to irresponsible humans.
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May 15, 2008 Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny .
  • Contentious fact in Polar debate bears scrutiny – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[131]

Canadian endangered species legislation

.In Canada, the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada recommended in April 2008 that the polar bear be assessed as a species of special concern under the federal Species at Risk Act (SARA).^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ May 14th, 2008 3:13 pm ET When the polar bear receive the protection as a “threatened” species under the U. S. Endangered Species Act.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polar bear does not fit any classification of "threatened" or "endangered" species.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A listing would mandate that a management plan be written within five years, a timeline criticized by the World Wide Fund for Nature as being too long to prevent significant habitat loss from climate change.^ After receiving my text with my change of plans, John H. called John K. to let him know that I would not be coming down to Stratford and not to wait.

^ Polar bears are affected by habitat loss, destruction and degradation of ecosystems, pollution, over-exploitation and climate change.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The loss of access to oil and the resulting affect on the human population of the world in my mind is of greater value than the potential long term loss of habitat for bears.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[136]

In culture

This engraving, made by Chukchi carvers in the 1940s on a walrus tusk, depicts polar bears hunting walrus.

Indigenous folklore

.For the indigenous peoples of the Arctic, polar bears have long played an important cultural and material role.^ Polar bears are Fierce, Playful, Maternal .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Polar bear playing with dog friends .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

[82][83] .Polar bear remains have been found at hunting sites dating to 2,500 to 3,000 years ago[85] and 1,500 year old cave paintings of polar bears have been found in Chukotka.^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ T he earliest polar bear fossil is less than 100,000 years old.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[83] .Indeed, it has been suggested that Arctic peoples' skills in seal hunting and igloo construction has been in part acquired from the polar bears themselves.^ It's not just about polar bears people.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Apparently the USS Connecticut (SSN-22) Seawolf class submarine encountered a polar bear ― the furry kind ― when the sub surfaced through Arctic ice.

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[83]
.The Inuit and Eskimos have many folk tales featuring the bears including legends in which bears are humans when inside their own houses and put on bear hides when going outside, and stories of how the constellation which is said to resemble a great bear surrounded by dogs came into being.^ It is amazing to me how quickly orphaned polar bear cubs bond with their human caregivers, and often the bonds are lifelong based on mutual love and trust.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Q upqugiaq is a 10-legged polar bear in this Inuit legend.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They knew how to kill animals including polar bears but they believed they had to defer to their spirits when they did.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[81] .These legends reveal a deep respect for the polar bear, which is portrayed as both spiritually powerful and closely akin to humans.^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ These stories are an open window to the world of the CT Polar Bears for those of us who wait for the temps to warm the soul.

^ The GIANT 2010 THIN ICE CALENDAR by cabinfeverdavid The SMALL "Polar Bears are Cool" 2010 monthly cale by cabinfeverdavid Polar Bears Are Cool 2010 Huge Calendar by cabinfeverdavid powered by Zazzle.com .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[81] The human-like posture of bears when standing and sitting, and the resemblance of a skinned bear carcass to the human body, have probably contributed to the belief that the spirits of humans and bears were interchangeable.[81] .Eskimo legends tell of humans learning to hunt from the polar bear.^ Humans and polar bears don't mix.
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most polar bears meet their potential mates in prime seal-hunting spots.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.For the Inuit of Labrador, the polar bear is a form of the Great Spirit, Tuurngasuk.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The polar bear is a great animal.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is the Inuit name for polar bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[137] The Inuit and Eskimo have a great amount of respect for bears.
.Among the Chukchi and Yupik of eastern Siberia, there was a longstanding shamanistic ritual of "thanksgiving" to the hunted polar bear.^ "It's about hunting for polar bears.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Of course, the hope is there that this will help slow the inevitable, however, as hard as it is to swallow, this move will most likely not save the polar bears...
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

After killing the animal, its head and skin were removed and cleaned and brought into the home, a feast was held in the hunting camp in its honor. In order to appease the spirit of the bear, there were traditional song and drum music and the skull would be ceremonially fed and offered a pipe.[138] Only once the spirit was appeased would the skull be separated from the skin, taken beyond the bounds of the homestead, and placed in the ground, facing north.[83] Many of these traditions have faded somewhat in time, especially in light of the total hunting ban in the Soviet Union (and now Russia) since 1955.
.The Nenets of north-central Siberia placed particular value on the talismanic power of the prominent canine teeth.^ With canine teeth larger and sharper than those of other bears, the polar bear is the most carnivorous North American bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.They were traded in the villages of the lower Yenisei and Khatanga rivers to the forest-dwelling peoples further south, who would sew them into their hats as protection against brown bears.^ They belonged to another friend who lived on the outskirts of the village, and Namuo had used them before.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They quickly cleared the village, following a track that led first toward the geothermal project, then veered to the south and west toward a certain valley.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The polar bear's tail and ears are smaller than the brown bear's but they have huge feet.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.It was believed that the "little nephew" (the brown bear) would not dare to attack a man wearing the tooth of its powerful "big uncle" (the polar bear).^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ How big are polar bears paws?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ How big is a polar bear's tail?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[83] .The skulls of killed polar bears were buried at specific sacred sites and altars, called sedyangi, were constructed out of the skulls.^ Female polar bears are called what?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ They knew how to kill animals including polar bears but they believed they had to defer to their spirits when they did.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ "One of the saddest things I’ve seen this year was a Polar Bear swimming for miles and being to weak to kill food to live.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Several such sites have been preserved on the Yamal Peninsula.[83]

Symbols and mascots

A Canadian 2 Dollar Coin depicting a polar bear
Canada issued Polar Bear stamp.
Coat of arms of the Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in the Russian Federation.
.Their distinctive appearance and their association with the Arctic have made polar bears popular icons, especially in those areas where they are native.^ Those “Crazy” Polar bears .
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ And she took him polar bear hunting in the Arctic.
  • "Polar Bear" by Mark Pritchard —Fictionaut 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.fictionaut.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aside from polar bears being cute they really don't affect much.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Canadian Toonie (two-dollar coin) features the image of a polar bear and both the Northwest Territories and Nunavut license plates in Canada are in the shape of a polar bear.^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ A life-like 16ft high sculpture of an iceberg featuring a stranded polar bear and its cub was...
  • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ Along with heart-warming images, this 12-month calendar includes U.S. and Canadian holidays, moon phases, and facts about polar bears.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The polar bear is the mascot of Bowdoin College in Maine and was chosen as mascot for the 1988 Winter Olympics held in Calgary.^ T he prehistoric Inuit people held strong beliefs about animals and about the polar bear specifically.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ The most powerful tornaq (after the Sedna, the Goddess of the sea, who was held to be the most powerful being of all) was that of a polar bear.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

Companies such Coca-Cola, Polar Beverages, Nelvana, Bundaberg Rum and Good Humor-Breyers have used images of the polar bear in advertising,[139] while Fox's Glacier Mints have featured a polar bear named Peppy as the brand mascot since 1922.

Literature

.Polar bears are also popular in fiction, particularly in books aimed at children or young adults.^ Get polar bear books and calendars here .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Thank god our Grand Kids will hopefully have the option of seeing a Polar Bear NOT just in a zoo or book.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polar bears mainly stalks young seals and can eat nearly 50 a year).
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.For example, The Polar Bear Son is adapted from a traditional Inuit tale.^ What do Inuits believe about polar bears?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ What is the Inuit name for polar bear?
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Ice is melting off the coasts of Alaska which has been part of the habitat of the polar bears (also that of our Inuits aka.
  • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[140] .Polar bears feature prominently in East (also released as North Child) by Edith Pattou, The Bear by Raymond Briggs, and Chris d'Lacey's The Fire Within series.^ Journey along with Lars, the Little Polar Bear, as he is swept away from the safety of his home at the North Pole on an exciting adventure in the tropics.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Me, Chris Loynd, on my very first Polar Bear ride.

^ Interior's complete press release, click Decision to Protect Polar Bears under Endangered Species Act .
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

.The panserbjørne of Philip Pullman's fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials are sapient, dignified polar bears who exhibit anthropomorphic qualities, and as such feature prominently in the 2007 film adaptation of The Golden Compass.^ Polar Bear Blog 2007/2008 .

^ Vote Up Photograph a polar bear with infrared film in the wild and it will not appear at all.
  • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Bernie, who John K. noted brings someone new with him on every Polar Bear ride, drove down in his truck, his wife Nancy by his side.

See also

References

  • Bruemmer, Fred (1989). .World of the Polar Bear.^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
    • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
    • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Vote Up The Last Polar Bear: Facing the Truth of a Warming World .
    • Are You Polar Bear Aware? 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

    Toronto, ON: Key Porter Books. ISBN 1-55013-107-9.
     
  • Matthews, Downs (1993). Polar Bear. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books. ISBN 0-8118-0050-X.  
  • Hemstock, Annie (1999). The Polar Bear. Manakato, MN: Capstone Press. ISBN 0-7368-0031-X.  
  • Lockwood, Sophie (2006). Polar Bears. Chanhassen, MN: The Child's World. ISBN 1-59296-501-6.  
  • Rosing, Norbert (1996). .The World of the Polar Bear.^ But what will the world do/be without polar bears??
    • Breaking News: U.S. declares polar bears "threatened" – SciTechBlog - CNN.com Blogs 22 January 2010 16:49 UTC scitech.blogs.cnn.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ At Churchill, Manitoba, "the polar bear capital of the world" where there are many encounters between polar bears and people, only two people have been fatally mauled since it's founding in 1717!
    • Baby Polar Bear | SPIKE 21 January 2010 2:39 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    Willowdale, ON: Firefly Books Ltd.. ISBN 1-55209-068-X.
     

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Schliebe et al. (2008). Ursus maritimus. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Retrieved on 5 January 2010.
  2. ^ Phipps, John (1774). A voyage towards the North Pole undertaken by His Majesty's command, 1773 /by Constantine John Phipps.. London :Printed by W. Bowyer and J. Nicols, for J. Nourse. p. 185. http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/page/628763. Retrieved 8 September 2008.  
  3. ^ "Polar bear, (Ursus maritimus)" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife service. http://www.fws.gov/endangered/factsheets/polar_bear.pdf. Retrieved 9 September 2009. "Appearance. The polar bear is the largest member of the bear family, with the exception of Alaska’s Kodiak brown bears, which equal polar bears in size."   (Overview page)
  4. ^ Kindersley, Dorling (2001,2005). Animal. New York City: DK Publishing. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5.  
  5. ^ Gunderson, Aren (2007). "Ursus Maritimus". Animal Diversity Web. University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Ursus_maritimus.html. Retrieved 27 October 2007.  
  6. ^ a b IUCN Polar Bear Specialist Group, 2009.15th meeting of PBSG in Copenhagen, Denmark 2009: Press Release Retrieved on 10 January 2010.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h Schliebe et al. (2008). Ursus maritimus. 2006. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. www.iucnredlist.org. Retrieved on 9 May 2006. Database entry includes a lengthy justification of why this species is listed as vulnerable.
  8. ^ Kidd, D.A. (1973). Collins Latin Gem Dictionary. London: Collins. ISBN 0-00-458641-7.  
  9. ^ The Marine Mammal Center
  10. ^ The Arctic Sounder
  11. ^ Этимологический Словарь - Piotr Czerwinski → Oshkuy
  12. ^ Grand Quebec
  13. ^ This combines the Ancient Greek words thalassa/θαλασσα 'sea', and arctos/αρκτος 'bear' and also, with reference to Ursa Major, 'northern' or 'of the north pole'Liddell, Henry George and Robert Scott (1980). A Greek-English Lexicon (Abridged Edition). United Kingdom: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-910207-4.  
  14. ^ "IUCN Red List: Ursus maritimus". http://www.iucnredlist.org/apps/redlist/details/22823/0/full. Retrieved 15 February 2008.  
  15. ^ a b c DeMaster, Douglas P.; Stirling, Ian (8 May 1981). Ursus Maritimus. 145. American Society of Mammalogists. 1–7. doi:10.2307/3503828. OCLC 46381503. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0076-3519(19810508)2%3A145%3C1%3AUM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D. Retrieved 21 January 2008.  
  16. ^ Lisette P. Waits, Sandra L. Talbot, R.H. Ward and G. F. Shields (April 1998). "Mitochondrial DNA Phylogeography of the North American Brown Bear and Implications for Conservation". Conservation Biology. pp. 408–417. http://www.cnrhome.uidaho.edu/documents/Waits%20et%20al%201998%20cb.pdf&pid=78496&doc=1. Retrieved 1 August 2006.  
  17. ^ Marris, E. 2007. Nature 446, 250-253. Linnaeus at 300: The species and the specious
  18. ^ Schliebe, Scott; Evans, Thomas; Johnson, Kurt; Roy, Michael; Miller, Susanne; Hamilton, Charles; Meehan, Rosa; Jahrsdoerfer, Sonja (21 December 2006) (PDF). Range-wide Status Review of the Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus). Anchorage, Alaska: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. http://alaska.fws.gov/fisheries/mmm/polarbear/pdf/Polar_Bear_%20Status_Assessment.pdf. Retrieved 31 October 2007.  
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stirling, Ian (1988). "The First Polar Bears". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  20. ^ Rice, Dale W. (1998). Marine Mammals of the World: Systematics and Distribution. Special Publications of the Society for Marine Mammals. 4. Lawrence, Kansas: The Society for Marine Mammalogy. ISBN 1-891276-03-4.  
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Derocher, Andrew E.; Lunn, Nicholas J.; Stirling, Ian (April 2004). "Polar Bears in a Warming Climate". Integrative and Comparative Biology 44 (2): pp. 163–176. doi:10.1093/icb/44.2.163. http://icb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/full/44/2/163. Retrieved 12 October 2007.  
  22. ^ a b c d Polar Bears and Conservation and "Polar Bear FAQ". Polar Bears International. http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/faq/. Retrieved 14 July 2009.  
  23. ^ a b c d e Compiled and edited by Jon Aars, ed (June 2005). "Status of the Polar Bear" (PDF). Polar Bears. Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 32. Nicholas J. Lunn and Andrew E. Derocher. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 33–55. ISBN 2-8317-0959-8. http://pbsg.npolar.no/docs/PBSG14proc.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2007.   See also HTML excerpts: population status reviews and Table 1 summarizing polar bear population status per 2005.
  24. ^ Paetkau, S.; Amstrup, C.; Born, E. W.; Calvert, W. (October 1999). "Genetic structure of the world's polar bear populations" (PDF). Molecular Ecology (Blackwell Science) 8 (10): pp. 1571–1584. ISSN 1471-8278. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/faculty/andrew_derocher/uploads/abstracts/Paetkau_et_al_1999.pdf. Retrieved 17 November 2007.  
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Campbell, Colin; Lunau, Kate (25 January 2008). "The war over the polar bear: Who's telling the truth about the fate of a Canadian icon?". Maclean's. http://www.macleans.ca/science/environment/article.jsp?content=20080123_5242_5242&page=1. Retrieved 9 March 2008.  
  26. ^ Compiled and edited by Jon Aars, ed (June 2005). "Press Release" (PDF). Polar Bears. Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 32. Nicholas J. Lunn and Andrew E. Derocher. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 61–62. ISBN 2-8317-0959-8. http://pbsg.npolar.no/docs/PBSG14proc.pdf. Retrieved 19 April 2008.  
  27. ^ Stirling, Ian (1988). "Introduction". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  28. ^ a b c d Stirling, Ian (1988). "Distribution and Abundance". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  29. ^ Stirling, Ian (January 1997). "The importance of polynyas, ice edges, and leads to marine mammals and birds". Journal of Marine Systems (Elsevier) 10 (1-4): pp. 9–21. doi:10.1016/S0924-7963(96)00054-1.  
  30. ^ Matthews, p. 15
  31. ^ Davids, Richard C.; Guravich, Dan (1982). "Lords of the Arctic". Lords of the Arctic: A Journey Among the Polar Bears. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co., Inc.. ISBN 0-02-529630-2.  
  32. ^ "Polar bear, (Ursus maritimus)" (PDF). U.S. Fish and Wildlife service. http://www.fws.gov/endangered/factsheets/polar_bear.pdf. Retrieved 22 March 2008. "Appearance. The polar bear is the largest member of the bear family, with the exception of Alaska’s Kodiak brown bears, which equal polar bears in size."   (Overview page)
  33. ^ a b Hemstock, p. 4
  34. ^ Perrin, William F.; Bernd Würsig, J. G. M. Thewissen (2008). Encyclopedia of Marine Mammals (2 ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press. p. 1009. http://books.google.ca/books?id=2rkHQpToi9sC&pg=PA1009&lpg=PA1009&dq=polar+bear+sexually+dimorphic&source=bl&ots=hCixMz68As&sig=evEUSfMPY2yMqmVP3qJPuZjs6Hs&hl=en&ei=43cfSuKOCJa8swPBy7GQBA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4#PPA1009,M1.  
  35. ^ Wood, G.L. (1981). The Guinness Book of Animal Records. p. 240.  
  36. ^ a b c Lockwood, pp. 10 - 16
  37. ^ "Are polar bears left-handed or right-handed?". September 2006. http://www.blurtit.com/q497068.html. Retrieved 25 November 2007.  
  38. ^ "Bear Facts: Myths and Misconceptions". 2007. http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/bear-facts/myths-and-misconceptions/. Retrieved 25 November 2007.  
  39. ^ Researchers studying polar bears have failed to find any evidence of left-handedness in all bears and one study of injury patterns in polar bear forelimbs found injuries to the right forelimb to be more frequent than those to the left, suggesting, perhaps, right-handedness. "Fractures of the Radius and Ulna secondary to possible Vitamin 'D' deficiency in Captive Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus)". http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/pbhc/fractures.htm. Retrieved 25 November 2007.  
  40. ^ a b c d e Stirling, Ian (1988). Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  41. ^ Uspenskii, S. M. (1977). The Polar Bear. Moscow: Nauka.  
  42. ^ Kolenosky G. B. 1987. Polar bear. pp. 475–485 in Wild furbearer management and conservation in North America (M. Novak, J. A. Baker, M. E. Obbard, and B. Malloch, eds.). Ontario Fur Trappers Association, North Bay, Ontario, Canada.
  43. ^ Koon, Daniel W. (1998). "Is Polar Bear Hair Fiber Optic?". Applied Optics (Optical Society of America) 37 (15): pp. 3198–3200. doi:10.1364/AO.37.003198. PMID 18273269. http://www.opticsinfobase.org/abstract.cfm?URI=ao-37-15-3198.  
  44. ^ In unusually warm conditions, the hollow tubes provide an excellent home for algae. While the algae is harmless to the bears, it is often a worry to the zoos housing them, and affected animals are sometimes washed in a salt solution, or mild peroxide bleach to make the fur white again.
  45. ^ Derocher, Andrew E.; Magnus Andersen, and Øystein Wiig (October 2005). "Sexual dimorphism of polar bears" (PDF). Journal of Mammalogy 86 (5): 895–901. doi:10.1644/1545-1542(2005)86[895:SDOPB]2.0.CO;2. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/faculty/andrew_derocher/uploads/abstracts/Sexual%20dimorphism%20of%20polar%20bears%202005.pdf.  
  46. ^ a b Rosing, pp. 20-23
  47. ^ a b c d e f g h Stirling, Ian (1988). "Behavior". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  48. ^ a b c d e f g Matthews, pp. 73-88
  49. ^ "Arctic Bears". PBS Nature. 17 February 2008.
  50. ^ a b c d e f Amstrup, Steven C.; Marcot, Bruce G.; Douglas, David C. (2007) (PDF). Forecasting the Range-wide Status of Polar Bears at Selected Times in the 21st Century. Reston, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey. http://www.usgs.gov/newsroom/special/polar_bears/docs/USGS_PolarBear_Amstrup_Forecast_lowres.pdf. Retrieved 29 September 2007.  
  51. ^ a b Hemstock, pp. 24-27
  52. ^ a b c d e Clarkson, Peter L.; Stirling, Ian (1994). "Polar Bears". in Hygnstrom, Scott E.; Timm, Robert M.; Larson, Gary E.. Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. pp. C–25 to C–34. http://icwdm.org/handbook/carnivor/ca_c25.pdf. Retrieved 13 November 2007.  
  53. ^ a b c d Bruemmer, pp. 25-33
  54. ^ a b c d Stirling, Ian (1988). "What Makes a Polar Bear Tick?". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  55. ^ Ramsay, M. A.; Hobson, K. A. (May 1991). "Polar bears make little use of terrestrial food webs: evidence from stable-carbon isotope analysis". Oecologia (Berlin / Heidelberg: Springer) 86 (4): pp. 598–600. doi:10.1007/BF00318328.  
  56. ^ Best, R. C. (1985). "Digestibility of ringed seals by the polar bear". Canadian Journal of Zoology (Ottawa: National Research Council of Canada) 63 (5): pp. 1033–1036. doi:10.1139/z85-155.  
  57. ^ a b Manning, T. H. (March 1961). "Comments on "Carnivorous walrus and some Arctic zoonoses"" (PDF). Arctic 14 (1): pp. 76–77. ISSN 0004-0843. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic14-1-76.pdf. Retrieved 13 November 2007.  
  58. ^ Lunn, N. J.; Stirling, Ian (1985). "The significance of supplemental food to polar bears during the ice-free period of Hudson Bay". Canadian Journal of Zoology (Toronto: NRC Research Press) 63 (10): pp. 2291–2297. doi:10.1139/z85-340.  
  59. ^ Eliasson, Kelsey (May 2004). "Hudson Bay Post - Goodbye Churchil Dump". http://www.polarbearalley.com/churchill-dump.html. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  
  60. ^ a b Matthews, pp. 27-29
  61. ^ a b Stirling, Ian (1988). "Distribution and Abundance". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  62. ^ Matthews, p. 95
  63. ^ a b c Rosing, pp. 128-132
  64. ^ Why Didn't the Wild Polar Bear eat the Husky? The National Institute for Play
  65. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Stirling, Ian (1988). "Reproduction". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  66. ^ a b Carpenter, Tom (November/December 2005). "Who's Your Daddy?". Canadian Geographic (Ottawa: The Royal Canadian Geographic Society): 44–56.  
  67. ^ a b Rosing, pp. 42-48
  68. ^ Lockwood, pp.17-21
  69. ^ Bruce, D. S.; Darling, N. K.; Seeland, K. J.; Oeltgen, P. R.; Nilekani, S. P.; Amstrup, S. C. (March 1990). "Is the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) a hibernator?: Continued studies on opioids and hibernation". Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior 35 (3): pp. 705–711. doi:10.1016/0091-3057(90)90311-5.  
  70. ^ Derocher, AE and Wiig, Oe; Infanticide and Cannibalism of Juvenile Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) in Svalbard Arctic [Arctic]. Vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 307-310. Sep 1999
  71. ^ a b c d e f "Polar bears in depth: Survival". Polar Bears International. http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/polar-bears-in-depth/survival/page1/. Retrieved 20 October 2008.  
  72. ^ a b Regehr, Eric V.; Amstrup, Steven C.; Stirling, Ian (2006). written at Anchorage, Alaska (PDF). Polar Bear Population Status in the Southern Beaufort Sea. Reston, Virginia: U.S. Geological Survey. Open-File Report 2006-1337. http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1337/pdf/ofr20061337.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2007.  
  73. ^ a b Stirling, Ian; Lunn, N. J.; Iacozza, J. (September 1999). "Long-term Trends in the Population Ecology of Polar Bears in Western Hudson Bay in Relation to Climatic Change" (PDF). Arctic 52 (3): pp. 294–306. ISSN 0004-0843. http://pubs.aina.ucalgary.ca/arctic/Arctic52-3-294.pdf. Retrieved 11 November 2007.  
  74. ^ Maternal success appeared to decline after this point, possibly because of an age-related impairment in the ability to store the fat necessary to rear cubs. Derocher, A.E.; Stirling, I. (1994). "Age-specific reproductive performance of female polar bears (Ursus maritimus)". Journal of Zoology 234 (4): 527–536. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.1994.tb04863.x. http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=ENV&recid=3794443&q=Ursus+maritimus+reproduction&uid=792151267&setcookie=yes. Retrieved 15 February 2008.  
  75. ^ Larsen, Thor; Kjos-Hanssen, Bjørn (October 1983). "Trichinella sp. in polar bears from Svalbard, in relation to hide length and age". Polar Research (Oslo: Norwegian Polar Institute) 1 (1): pp. 89–96. doi:10.1111/j.1751-8369.1983.tb00734.x.  
  76. ^ Hemstock, pp. 29-35
  77. ^ a b Wrigley, Robert E. (Spring 2008). "The Oldest Living Polar Bear" (PDF). Polar Bears International Newsletter. Polar Bears International. http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/rsrc/files/pbispring08.pdf. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  
  78. ^ adn.com | front : Polar bears, grizzlies increasingly gather on North Slope
  79. ^ "ABC News: Grizzlies Encroaching on Polar Bear Country". Abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/Technology/DyeHard/Story?id=582243&page=3. Retrieved 10 October 2009.  
  80. ^ Wolf (Canis lupus) Predation of a Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Cub on the Sea Ice off Northwestern Banks Island, Northwest Territories, Canada. ARCTIC VOL. 59, NO. 3 (SEPTEMBER 2006) P. 322– 324
  81. ^ a b c d Stirling, Ian (1988). "The Original Polar Bear Watchers". Polar Bears. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. ISBN 0-472-10100-5.  
  82. ^ a b Lockwood, pp 6-9
  83. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Uspensky, Savva Mikhailovich (1977). Белый Медведь (tr: Belyi Medved') - (in Russian). Moscow: Nauka.  
  84. ^ As a carnivore which feeds largely upon fish-eating carnivores, the polar bear ingests large amounts of vitamin A, which is stored in their livers. The resulting high concentrations cause Hypervitaminosis A,Rodahl, K.; Moore, T. (July 1943). "The vitamin A content and toxicity of bear and seal liver". The Biochemical Journal (London: Portland Press) 37 (2): pp. 166–168. ISSN 0264-6021. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/picrender.fcgi?artid=1257872&blobtype=pdf. Retrieved 11 November 2007.  
  85. ^ a b Lockwood, pp. 31-36
  86. ^ "Polar Bear Management". Government of the Northwest Territories. http://wildlife.enr.gov.nt.ca/NWTWildlife/bears/PolarBear/management.htm. Retrieved 14 March 2008.  
  87. ^ a b Bruemmer, pp. 93-111
  88. ^ "Proceedings of the 2nd Working Meeting of Polar Bear Specialists". Polar Bears. Morges, Switzerland: IUCN. February 1970. http://pbsg.npolar.no/Meetings/PressReleases/02-Morges.htm. Retrieved 24 October 2007.  
  89. ^ Norway passed a series of increasingly strict regulations from 1965 to 1973, and has completely banned hunting since then. The Soviet Union banned all hunting in 1956. Canada began imposing hunting quotas in 1968. The U.S. began regulating in 1971 and adopted the Marine Mammal Protection Act in 1972.
  90. ^ Stirling, Ian Foreword in Rosing, Norbert (1996). The World of the Polar Bear. Willowdale, ON: Firefly Books Ltd.. ISBN 1-55209-068-X.  
  91. ^ International Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears, 15 November 1973, Oslo
  92. ^ "U.S. and Russia Sign Pact To Protect the Polar Bear". New York Times. 17 October 2000. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=980DE3DD1F3FF934A25753C1A9669C8B63. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  
  93. ^ "US-Russia Polar Bear Treaty Ratified". ScienceDaily. 18 October 2007. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/10/071014202952.htm. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  
  94. ^ a b Steven Lee Myers (16 April 2007). "Russia Tries to Save Polar Bears With Legal Hunt". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/16/world/europe/16polar.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved 12 April 2008.  
  95. ^ The Humane Society of the United States "Hitting Polar Bears When They Are Down"
  96. ^ a b Lunn, N. J.; et al. (June 2005). "Polar Bear Management in Canada 2001-2004". in Compiled and edited by Jon Aars (PDF). Polar Bears. Proceedings of the 14th Working Meeting of the IUCN/SSC Polar Bear Specialist Group. 32. Nicholas J. Lunn and Andrew E. Derocher. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. pp. 101–116. ISBN 2-8317-0959-8. http://pbsg.npolar.no/docs/PBSG14proc.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2007.  
  97. ^ Freeman, M.M.R.; Wenzel, G.W. (March 2006). "The nature and significance of polar bear conservation hunting in the Canadian Arctic". Arctic 59 (1): pp. 21–30. ISSN 0004-0843.  
  98. ^ a b Wenzel, George W. (September 2004). "3rd NRF Open Meeting" (PDF). http://www.nrf.is/Open%20Meetings/Yellowknife_2004/Wenzel.pdf. Retrieved 3 December 2007.  
  99. ^ "Nunavut hunters can kill more polar bears this year". CBC News. 10 January 2005. http://www.cbc.ca/story/canada/national/2005/01/10/polar-bear-hunt050110.html. Retrieved 15 September 2007.  
  100. ^ "Bear Facts: Harvesting/Hunting". Polar Bears International. http://www.polarbearsinternational.org/bear-facts/hunting/. Retrieved 14 March 2008.  
  101. ^ The Humane Society of the United States "Support the Polar Bear Protection Act"
  102. ^ CBC News, 10 January 2005, "Nunavut hunters can kill more polar bears this year"
  103. ^ CBC News, 4 July 2005, "Rethink polar bear hunt quotas, scientists tell Nunavut hunters"
  104. ^ a b c d e f Stirling, Ian; Derocher, Andrew E. (Fall 2007). "Melting Under Pressure: The Real Scoop on Climate Warming and Polar Bears" (PDF). The Wildlife Professional (Lawrence, Kansas: The Wildlife Society) 1 (3): pp. 24–27, 43. http://www.biology.ualberta.ca/faculty/andrew_derocher/uploads/abstracts/Stirling_Derocher_Wildlife_Professional_PB_climate_2007.pdf. Retrieved 17 November 2007.  
  105. ^ a b Taylor, Mitchell K. (6 April 2006) (PDF). Review of CBD Petition. Letter to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. http://www.ff.org/centers/csspp/pdf/200701_taylor.pdf. Retrieved 8 September 2007.  
  106. ^ "Release of the 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species reveals ongoing decline of the status of plants and animals". World Conservation Union. http://www.iucn.org/en/news/archive/2006/05/02_pr_red_list_en.htm. Retrieved 1 February 2006.  
  107. ^ WWF: A Leader in Polar Bear Conservation . Retrieved 29 June 2009, from WFF - Polar Bear Web site: http://www.worldwildlife.org/species/finder/polarbear/polarbear.html#
  108. ^ a b c Stirling, Ian; and Claire L. Parkinson (September 2006). "Possible Effects of Climate Warming on Selected Populations of Polar Bears (Ursus maritimus) in the Canadian Arctic" (PDF). Arctic 59 (3): 261–275. ISSN 0004-0843. http://neptune.gsfc.nasa.gov/publications/pdf/pubs2006/Stirling%20-%20Possible%20Effects%20of%20Climate%20Warming.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2007.  
  109. ^ Stirling, Ian; N.J. Lunn, John Iacozza, Campbell Elliott and Martyn Obbard (March 2004). "Polar Bear Distribution and Abundance on the Southwestern Hudson Bay Coast During Open Water Season, in Relation to Population Trends and Annual Ice Patterns" (PDF). Arctic 57 (1): 15–26. ISSN 0004-0843. http://umanitoba.ca/ceos/files/publications_pdf/058.pdf. Retrieved 15 September 2007.  
  110. ^ Barber, D.G.; J. Iacozza (March 2004). "Historical analysis of sea ice conditions in M'Clintock Channel and the Gulf of Boothia, Nunavut: implications for ringed seal and polar bear habitat." (PDF). Arctic 57 (1): 1–14. ISSN 0004-0843. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-263435/Historical-analysis-of-sea-ice.html.  
  111. ^ T. Appenzeller and D. R. Dimick, "The Heat is On," National Geographic 206 (2004): 2-75. cited in Flannery, Tim (2005). The Weather Makers. Toronto, Ontario: HarperCollins. pp. 101–103. ISBN 0-00-200751-7.  
  112. ^ a b c Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (2004). Impact of a Warming Arctic: Arctic Impact Climate Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0 521 61778 2. OCLC 56942125. http://amap.no/workdocs/index.cfm?dirsub=%2FACIA%2Foverview.  . The relevant paper is Key Finding 4
  113. ^ a b Monnett, Charles; Gleason, Jeffrey S. (July 2006). "Observations of mortality associated with extended open-water swimming by polar bears in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea". Polar Biology (Berlin: Springer) 29 (8): pp. 681–687. doi:10.1007/s00300-005-0105-2.  
  114. ^ Mitchell Taylor, a former polar bear researcher for the Nunavut government, believes that arctic warming has been caused by natural phenomena and is not a long-term threat to the polar bear. After his retirement, he was not re-appointed to the international Polar Bear Specialist Group (PBSG), giving rise to speculation that he was excluded from the group because of his views on global warming. According to the PBSG chair, appointments to the PBSG are given to scientists who are currently active in polar bear research, and that as a retired researcher Taylor did not qualify. (References: Booker, Christopher (27 June 2009.). "Polar bear expert barred by global warmists". The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/comment/columnists/christopherbooker/5664069/Polar-bear-expert-barred-by-global-warmists.html. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  Lambert, Tim (2 July 2009). "Christopher Booker's misinformation about the Polar Bear Specialist Group". Deltoid. http://scienceblogs.com/deltoid/2009/07/christopher_bookers_misinforma.php. Retrieved 12 August 2009.  )
  115. ^ Regehr, E. V.; Lunn, N. J.; Amstrup, N. C.; Stirling, I. (November 2007). "Effects of earlier sea ice breakup on survival and population size of polar bears in western Hudson Bay". Journal of Wildlife Management (Bethesda: The Wildlife Society) 71 (8): pp. 2673–2683. doi:10.2193/2006-180.  
  116. ^ The proportion of maternity dens on sea ice has changed from 62% between the years 1985–1994, to 37% over the years 1998–2004. The Alaskan population thus now more resembles the world population, in that it is more likely to den on land.Fischbach, A. S.; Amstrup, S. C.; Douglas, D. C. (October 2007). "Landward and eastward shift of Alaskan polar bear denning associated with recent sea ice changes". Polar Biology (Berlin: Springer) 30 (11): pp. 1395–1405. doi:10.1007/s00300-007-0300-4.  
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