Polish throne: Wikis

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Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by książęta (Dukes) (ca. 10th-14th century) or by Kings (ca. 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties. During the latter period a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th-18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Contents

Monarchs of Poland

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Siemowit Siemowit.PNG Piast Duke 9th century Son of Piast
Lestek Lestek.PNG Piast Duke 9th-10th century Son of Siemowit
Siemomysł Siemomysł.PNG Piast Duke 10th century Son of Lestko
Mieszko I Mieszko I of Poland.jpeg Piast Duke 960?-992 son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Bolesław I the Brave
(Boleslas I)
Jan Bogumił Jacobi - Bolesław Chrobry.jpg Piast Duke 992-1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko
first to be crowned King
Mieszko II Lambert Matylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna.jpg Piast King 1025-1031 son of Boleslas I
Bezprym Bezprym.jpeg Piast Duke 1031-1032 son of Boleslas I
Otton Piast Duke 1032 son of Boleslas I
Thiedric Piast Duke 1032 Mieszko I's grandson
Mieszko II Lambert Matylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna.jpg Piast Duke 1032-1034 restored
Kazimierz I the Restorer
(Casimir I)
Casimir I the Restorer.jpg Piast Duke 1039-1058 son of Mieszko II
Bolesław II the Bold
(Boleslas II)
Bolesław II Śmiały 1234.PNG Piast Duke 1058-1076
King 1076-1079
son of Casimir I
Władysław I Herman
(Ladislas I)
Jan Matejko, Władysław I Herman.jpg Piast Duke 1079-1102 son of Casimir I
Zbigniew Zbigniew.JPG Piast Duke 1102-1107 son of Ladislas I
first jointly with Boleslas III
Bolesław III Wrymouth
(Boleslas III)
Jacobi 1828 Boleslaw III Krzywousty.jpg Piast Duke 1102-1138 son of Ladislas I
first jointly with Zbigniew
introduced senioral principle
Władysław II the Exile
(Ladislas II)
Wladyslaw Wygnaniec (Chronica Polanarum).jpg Piast High Duke 1138-1146 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław IV the Curly
(Boleslas IV)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy.jpg Piast High Duke 1146-1173 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1173-1177 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Greater Poland
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1177-1190 son of Boleslas III
also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1190 restored
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1190-1194 restored
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White .jpg Piast High Duke 1194-1198 son of Casimir II
also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1198-1199 restored
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White .jpg Piast High Duke 1199-1202 restored
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1202 restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy.gif Piast High Duke 1202-1206 son of Mieszko III
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White .jpg Piast High Duke 1206-1210 restored
Mieszko I Tanglefoot Mieszko IV.JPG Piast High Duke 1210-1211 son of Ladislas II
also Duke of Wrocław
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White .jpg Piast High Duke 1211-1227 restored
assassinated
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy.gif Piast High Duke 1227-1229 restored
Konrad I of Masovia Koradofmasovia.jpg Piast High Duke 1229-1232 son of Casimir II
also Duke of Masovia
Henryk I the Bearded
(Henry I)
HedwigAltarIV.jpg Piast High Duke 1232-1238 grandson of Ladislas II
also Duke of Silesia
Henryk II the Pious
(Henry II)
Henryk II Pobożny tomb effigy.PNG Piast High Duke 1238-1241 son of Henry I
also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
fell at Legnica
Konrad I of Masovia Koradofmasovia.jpg Piast High Duke 1241-1243 restored
Bolesław V the Chaste
(Boleslas V)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1243-1279 son of Leszek the White
Leszek II the Black Pieczęć Leszka II Czarnego.jpg Piast High Duke 1279-1288 paternal grandson of Konrad I
maternal grandson of Henry II
Henryk IV Probus
(Henry IV)
Henryk probus.jpg Piast High Duke 1288-1290 pat. grandson of Henry II
mat. grandson of Konrad I
also Duke of Lower Silesia
Przemysł II
(Premyslas II)
Seal of Przemysł II King of Poland from 1296.PNG Piast High Duke 1290-1295
King 1295-1296
grandson of Henry II
also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Václav II
(Wenceslas II)
Codex Manesse Wenzel II. von Böhmen.jpg Přemyslid High Duke 1296-1300
King 1300-1305
married Premyslas II's daughter
Duke of Lesser Poland since 1291
Václav III
(Wenceslas III)
Wenzel3.jpg Přemyslid King 1305-1306 son of Wenceslaus III
uncrowned
assassinated
Władysław I the Elbow-high
(Ladislas IV/I)
Władysław Łokietek by Bacciarelli.png Piast High Duke 1306-1320
King 1320-1333
grandson of Konrad I
re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Kazimierz III The Great
(Casimir III)
Kazimierz III sarcophagus figure.jpg Piast King 1333-1370 son of Ladislas IV/I
regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Ludwik
(Louis I)
Budapest Heroes square Nágy Lájos.jpg Anjou King 1370-1382 nephew of Casimir III
Jadwiga
(Hedwig)
Jadwiga Andegaweńska.jpg Anjou King 1382-1399 daughter of Louis I
reigned jointly with her husband
Ladislas II since 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania

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Jagiellon Dynasty

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Ladislas II)
Jogaila (Władysław II).jpg Jagiellon 1386-1434 reigned jointly with his wife King Jadwiga until 1399
the longest reigning king of Poland
Władysław III
(Ladislas III)
Warnenczyk grob CP.jpg Jagiellon 1434-1444 son of Ladislas II
Also king of Hungary
fell at Varna, therefore surnamed "of Varna"
Kazimierz IV
(Casimir IV)
Giovanni da Capistrano and Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG Jagiellon 1447-1492 son of Ladislas II
Jan I Olbracht
(John I Albert)
Jan olbracht.jpg Jagiellon 1492-1501 son of Casimir IV
Aleksander
(Alexander)
Aleksa.jpg Jagiellon 1501-1506 son of Casimir IV
Zygmunt I the Old
(Sigismund I)
Zygmunt Stary.jpeg Jagiellon 1506-1548 son of Casimir IV
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Zygmunt II August I
(Sigismund II August I)
Sigismund II Augustus.PNG Jagiellon 1548-1572 son of Sigismund I
replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy

Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Henri3France.jpg Valois 1573-1574 abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne on becoming King of France
Maksymilian II
(Maximilian I)
William Scrots 001.jpg Habsburg 1575 election contested after four days
Anna Martin Kober 002.jpg Jagiellon King 1575-1586 daughter of Sigismund I
reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan I Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
King Stefan Batory.jpg Báthory 1576-1586 reigned together with his wife Anna
regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Maksymilian III
(Maximilian II)
Justus Sustermans 012.jpg Habsburg 1587 son of Maximilian II
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Martin Kober 001.jpg Vasa 1587-1632 grandson of Sigismund I
Also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599-1632
Władysław IV
(Ladislas IV)
Frans Luycx 006.jpg Vasa 1632-1648 son of Sigismund III
Titular King of Sweden 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Jankazimierz.jpg Vasa 1648-1668 son of Sigismund III
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
abdicated
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki.PNG Wiśniowiecki 1669-1673 son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki
Jan III
(John III)
SiemiginowskiJerzy.1693.PortretJanaIIISobieskiego.jpg Sobieski 1674-1696 one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 1697-1706 abdicated
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 1706-1709 yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 1709-1733 restored
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 1733-1736 restored
defeated in War of the Polish Succession
abdicated
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
King Augustus III of Poland.jpg Wettin 1734-1763 son of Augustus II
Stanisław II August
(Stanislas II August)
Stanislaus II Augustus of Poland.PNG Poniatowski 1764-1795 forced to abdicate when the Commonwealth ceased to exist

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Notes

Kings of Galicia and Lodomeria

Maria Teresa Maria Theresa Habsburg 1772-1780 the Austrian portion obtained in the first partition of Poland
Józef II Joseph II Habsburg-Lorraine 1780-1790
Leopold II Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine 1790-1792
Franciszek II Francis II Habsburg-Lorraine 1792-1835
Ferdynand I Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine 1835-1848
Franciszek Józef I Francis Joseph I Habsburg-Lorraine 1848-1916
Karol I Charles I Habsburg-Lorraine 1916-1918

Dukes of Warsaw

Fryderyk August Frederick August I Wettin 1807-1815 grandson of Augustus III
created in 1807 as a satellite of Napoleon, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Russian Kingdom of Poland and the Prussian Grand Duchy of Poznań

Kings of "Congress" Kingdom of Poland

Aleksander I Alexander I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1815-1825 created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland"
Mikołaj I Nicholas I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1825-1855 deposed by Sejm during uprising of 1831, autonomy abolished in 1832
Aleksander II Alexander II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1855-1881 annexed into Russia after uprising in 1863
Aleksander III Alexander III Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1881-1894
Mikołaj II Nicholas II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1894-1917 abdicated

Grand Dukes of Poznań

Fryderyk Wilhelm III Frederick William III Hohenzollern 1815-1840 created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831
Fryderyk Wilhelm IV Frederick William IV Hohenzollern 1840-1861 autonomy abolished in 1849
Wilhelm I William I Hohenzollern 1861-1888
Fryderyk III Frederick III Hohenzollern 1888
Wilhelm II William II Hohenzollern 1888-1918 abdicated 9 November 1918

See also

External links


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