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Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), from a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Plato's Republic and Aristotle's Politics secured the two Greek philosophers as two of the most influential political philosophers.
.Political philosophy is the study of concepts such as liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of a legal code by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown—if ever.^ Government and laws are the agreement we all make to secure everyone's freedom.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They are sweet, kind, sensitive people who often think the government should solve major problems – they will continue thinking about the problems.” .
  • Think Progress » Gingrich Blames Virginia Tech Tragedy On Liberalism 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ This agency will be formed out of career Law Enforcement Officials from Justice, FBI, and the CBO, or some such combination, in order to not allow Executive Appointments, or Congress itself, to be the personel in charge of selecting who gets investigated.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In a vernacular sense, the term "political philosophy" often refers to a general view, or specific ethic, political belief or attitude, about politics that does not necessarily belong to the technical discipline of philosophy.^ Yet we want those to be general enough to be able to be used in arguing about more specific political issues and policies.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's a disgusting political philosophy that leads to such beliefs as: poverty is a mark of immorality.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we need now is not a new political philosophy, we need philosophical underpinnings for specific policy proposals.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] Political philosophy can also be understood by analysing it through the perspectives of metaphysics, epistemology and axiology thereby unearthing the ultimate reality side, the knowledge or methodical side and the value aspects of politics. .Three central concerns of political philosophy have been the political economy by which property rights are defined and access to capital is regulated, the demands of justice in distribution and punishment, and the rules of truth and evidence that determine judgments in the law.^ No rules on property rights!
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think his speech perfectly described the Democratic Party's political philosophy and gave the party a defining narrative.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to government control.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

History of political philosophy

Antiquity

Western philosophy
As an academic discipline, Western political philosophy has its origins in ancient Greek society. .It is argued by many modern scholars who claim that philosophy and religion had its roots in ancient Egypt, this is supported by books such as Stolen Legacy by George James and Black Athena By Bernal], when city-states were experimenting with various forms of political organization including monarchy, tyranny, aristocracy, oligarchy, and democracy.^ In NY state, there is a corrupt dynamic wherein people in upstate towns support politicians, who ensure there is a steady supply of inmates from cities to fill the prisons in those upstate towns.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is especially true when you consider that his peers were the Founding Fathers, most of whom were quite comfortable with monarchy and aristocracy and openly hostile toward democracy.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is something seriously wrong with a female who claims to be a 28% moron, who supports the troglodyte party.
  • Think Progress » Gingrich Blames Virginia Tech Tragedy On Liberalism 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

.One of the first, extremely important classical works of political philosophy is Plato's The Republic,[2] which was followed by Aristotle's Politics and Nichomachean Ethics.^ I posted my personal political philosophy (first articulation thereof) here: Common Sense/Common Good Progressive Framework .
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A coherent philosophy is also important, so I won't discount the notion of a story, the overarching narrative that expresses our political philosophy concisely.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Roman political philosophy was influenced by the Stoics, and the Roman statesman Cicero wrote on political philosophy, expressing clearly and to the point the main Stoic thesis.^ A coherent philosophy is also important, so I won't discount the notion of a story, the overarching narrative that expresses our political philosophy concisely.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[4]
Far East philosophy
.Independently, Confucius, Mencius, Mozi and the Legalist school in China, and the Laws of Manu[5] and Chanakya in India, all sought to find means of restoring political unity and political stability; in the case of the former three through the cultivation of virtue, in the last by imposition of discipline.^ Recommended by: Buffalo Girl But Practical Politics means having the tools and means to communicate to people in ONE district at a time whether it is a school board or a Congressional Race.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In India, Chanakya, in his Arthashastra, developed a viewpoint which recalls both the Legalists and Niccolò Machiavelli. .Ancient Chinese civilization and Indian civilization resembled Greek civilization in that there was a unified culture divided into rival states.^ The ruling culture in DC states that the big danger out there is to be seen as 'weak on national security.'
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In the case of China, philosophers found themselves obliged to confront social and political breakdown, and seek solutions to the crisis that confronted their entire civilization. .The Confucian School always deals with political problems on the basis of ethics while the other schools of political thought, of which there are about twelve in China, do not necessarily include ethics in their discussion of political philosophy.^ The problem is always the other they are terrorists, immigrants, religious fanatics,or any thing that threatens our 'way of life'.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights embdy a political philosophy: how this land should be governed, and what's the basis for that governance.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The problem is we have intelligent philosophers on our side, but there is a stigma to talk about them.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In spite of the existence of these different schools of political philosophy, there are still some Western scholars who refuse to admit there is such a thing as Chinese political philosophy.^ We want to find goals which reasonable people of different philosophies can accept and which can be shown to be attractive from a number of different such perspectives.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Yes, there's still some opposition (42 out of 200) from the conservative/chickenhawk wing, but please get your facts right.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's a disgusting political philosophy that leads to such beliefs as: poverty is a mark of immorality.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Chinese people would eventually accept the Confucian philosophy as the guardian spirit of politics.^ I actually think that what people call a "philosophy" when they ask for a political philosophy is somewhat short of what philosophers call a a political philosophy.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What political philosophy now would be a clear contrast.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We want to find goals which reasonable people of different philosophies can accept and which can be shown to be attractive from a number of different such perspectives.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[6]

Medieval Christianity

Saint Augustine
The early Christian philosophy of Augustine of Hippo was by and large a rewrite of Plato in a Christian context. .The main change that Christian thought brought was to moderate the Stoicism and theory of justice of the Roman world, and emphasize the role of the state in applying mercy as a moral example.^ He has been pPesident of the Society of Christian Ethics, the largest association of religious ethicists in the world, and Secretary of the American Academy of Religion, the professional association of educators in religion in the United States.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

Augustine also preached that one was not a member of his or her city, but was either a citizen of the City of God (Civitas Dei) or the City of Man (Civitas Terrena). .Augustine's City of God is an influential work of this period that refuted the thesis, after the First Sack of Rome, that the Christian view could be realized on Earth at all - a view many Christian Romans held.^ I am watching many Americans die--well, human beings period, but many Americans, people in my neighborhood, people in my city and in the State, people I've worked with, I've known, die from the devastating Alzheimer's, diabetes, and other kinds of disease, and cancer.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Do you think that this type of explanation could work at all?; and do you think it is compatible with the "legal and rare" phrasing?
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Of course, without any knowledge of these views, all she can do is what she’s done to many others here–bait them.
  • Think Progress » Gingrich Blames Virginia Tech Tragedy On Liberalism 28 January 2010 0:17 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

[7]
Saint Thomas Aquinas
In political philosophy, Aquinas is most meticulous when dealing with varieties of law. According to Aquinas, there are four different kinds of laws:
1) God's cosmic law
2) God's scriptural law
3) Natural law or rules of conduct universally applicable within reason
4) Human law or specific rules applicable to specific circumstances.

Medieval Islam

Mutazilite vs Asharite
The rise of Islam, based on both the Qur'an and Muhammad strongly altered the power balances and perceptions of origin of power in the Mediterranean region. .Early Islamic philosophy emphasized an inexorable link between science and religion, and the process of ijtihad to find truth - in effect all philosophy was "political" as it had real implications for governance.^ Philosophy The second coming (relations between science and religion) .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tags: Democrats , political philosophy ( all tags ) :: Previous Tag Versions .
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Our Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights embdy a political philosophy: how this land should be governed, and what's the basis for that governance.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.This view was challenged by the "rationalist" Mutazilite philosophers, who held a more Hellenic view, reason above revelation, and as such are known to modern scholars as the first speculative theologians of Islam; they were supported by a secular aristocracy who sought freedom of action independent of the Caliphate.^ Inflation has been more subdued than in the 1970s what are the reasons for this and will they endure .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

By the late ancient period, however, the "traditionalist" Asharite view of Islam had in general triumphed. According to the Asharites, reason must be subordinate to the Quran and the Sunna.[8]
Islamic political philosophy, was, indeed, rooted in the very sources of Islam, i.e. the Qur'an and the Sunnah, the words and practices of Muhammad. However, in the Western thought, it is generally supposed that it was a specific area peculiar merely to the great philosophers of Islam: al-Kindi (Alkindus), al-Farabi (Abunaser), İbn Sina (Avicenna), Ibn Bajjah (Avempace), Ibn Rushd (Averroes), and Ibn Khaldun. The political conceptions of Islam such as kudrah (power), sultan, ummah, cemaa (obligation)-and even the "core" terms of the Qur'an, i.e. ibadah, din (religion), rab (master) and ilah- is taken as the basis of an analysis. Hence, not only the ideas of the Muslim political philosophers but also many other jurists and ulama posed political ideas and theories. For example, the ideas of the Khawarij in the very early years of Islamic history on Khilafa and Ummah, or that of Shia Islam on the concept of Imamah are considered proofs of political thought. The clashes between the Ehl-i Sunna and Shia in the 7th and 8th centuries had a genuine political character.
Ibn Khaldun
The 14th century Arab scholar Ibn Khaldun is considered one of the greatest political theorists. .The British philosopher-anthropologist Ernest Gellner considered Ibn Khaldun's definition of government, "an institution which prevents injustice other than such as it commits itself", the best in the history of political theory.^ Government regulation of business, wages and labor, other than the punishment of fraud, is socialist.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If any large institution (e.g., a government, a political party) has no plan, they founder on the shoals of confusion and contradiction.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thousands of other children were conceived and born as a result of what is now considered lower- technology procedures such as intrauterine insemination.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

For Ibn Khaldun, government should be restrained to a minimum for as a necessary evil, it is the constraint of men by other men.[9]
Islamic political philosophy did not cease in the classical period. Despite the fluctuations in its original character during the medieval period, it has lasted even in the modern era. Especially with the emergence of Islamic radicalism as a political movement, political thought has revived in the Muslim world. .The political ideas of Abduh, Afgani, Kutub, Mawdudi, Shariati and Khomeini has caught on an ethusiasm especially in Muslim youth in the 20th century.^ We let that hope be hijacked (yes, hijacked ) by an outdated 20th century brand of politics, a politics of hopelessness and endless, pointless fear and defense.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Medieval Europe

.Medieval political philosophy in Europe was heavily influenced by Christian thinking.^ However, given the new found attention to political philosophy and narrative, I think it would be worth it for everyone to take a second look at Mr. Swords' post.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I actually think that what people call a "philosophy" when they ask for a political philosophy is somewhat short of what philosophers call a a political philosophy.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That said, socialism and social libertarianism is the fundamental philosophy of the Democrats and the political Left; just as Christianity and economic libertarianism is the fundamental philosophy of the Republicans and the political Right.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.It had much in common with the Mutazalite Islamic thinking in that the Roman Catholics though subordinating philosophy to theology did not subject reason to revelation but in the case of contradictions, subordinated reason to faith as the Asharite of Islam.^ I actually think the idea is correct, though reasonable people can disagree over exactly what it means in concrete instances.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The Scholastics by combining the philosophy of Aristotle with the Christianity of St. Augustine emphasized the potential harmony inherent in reason and revelation.[10] Perhaps the most influential political philosopher of medieval Europe was St. Thomas Aquinas who helped reintroduce Aristotle's works, which had only been preserved by the Muslims, along with the commentaries of Averroes. .Aquinas's use of them set the agenda, for scholastic political philosophy dominated European thought for centuries even unto the Renaissance.^ Progressives resist entering into a mind-set that views politics in terms of strategy rather than philosophy.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[11]
Medieval political philosophers, such as Aquinas in Summa Theologica, developed the idea that a king who is a tyrant is no king at all and could be overthrown.
Magna Carta, cornerstone of Anglo-American political liberty, explicitly proposes the right to revolt against the ruler for justice sake. Other documents similar to Magna Carta are found in other European countries such as Spain and Hungary.[12]

European Renaissance

.During the Renaissance secular political philosophy began to emerge after about a century of theological political thought in Europe.^ I commented yesterday on the mounting discussion among Democrats about the need for a political philosophy for our party.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wasting time arguing about political philosophy looks senseless when the cold-stone, literal facts sit right in front of you.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Having a degree in political philosophy, I often feel guilty about not blogging on the subject.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.While the Middle Ages did see secular politics in practice under the rule of the Holy Roman Empire, the academic field was wholly scholastic and therefore Christian in nature.^ Therefore, all authoritarian political systems are of a criminal nature...
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

Niccolò Machiavelli
One of the most influential works during this burgeoning period was Niccolò Machiavelli's The Prince, written between 1511-12 and published in 1532, after Machiavelli's death. That work, as well as The Discourses, a rigorous analysis of the classical period, did much to influence modern political thought in the West. A minority (including Jean-Jacques Rousseau) could interpret The Prince as a satire meant to be given to the Medici after their recapture of Florence and their subsequent expulsion of Machiavelli from Florence.[13] .Though the work was written for the di Medici family in order to perhaps influence them to free him from exile, Machiavelli supported the Republic of Florence rather than the oligarchy of the di Medici family.^ Rather, rewriting it in terms of the people affected, and how they'll benefit more than when they try to copy what works for the Republicans (minus the lies).
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And he made me proud of my working class roots rather than embarassed by them.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

At any rate, Machiavelli presents a pragmatic and somewhat consequentialist view of politics, whereby good and evil are mere means used to bring about an end, i.e. the secure and powerful state. Thomas Hobbes, well known for his theory of the social contract, goes on to expand this view at the start of the 17th century during the English Renaissance. .Although neither Machiavelli nor Hobbes believed in the divine right of kings, they both believed in the inherent selfishness of the individual.^ We believe in a greater good that we strive for without infringing on the rights of individuals.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We believe that nothing, not even war, requires the sacrifices by individuals of the rights guaranteed by the Constitution.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't believe that they've got that quite right.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was necessarily this belief that led them to adopt a strong central power as the only means of preventing the disintegration of the social order.^ Karl Marx was a valiant advocate of capitalism, as he believed that only the transformative power of capitalism could efficiently harness the means of production to solve societies' material needs.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way to prevent this from happening is to adopt the restrictions on human cloning set forth in H.R. 2505.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

[14]
John Locke
.John Locke in particular exemplified this new age of political theory with his work Two Treatises of Government.^ But where to begin, for liberal Americans especially, should be with some popular introduction to John Rawls and his A Theory of Justice (1971), and the rich and continuing debates on that work.
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^ The basic conflict in Africa is between the proponents of two different political systems: state government, which is authoritarian, and tribal government, which is libertarian.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Political Theory responses to Locke, Montesqieu, Marx and Rousseau .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In it Locke proposes a state of nature theory that directly complements his conception of how political development occurs and how it can be founded through contractual obligation. .Locke stood to refute Sir Robert Filmer's paternally founded political theory in favor of a natural system based on nature in a particular given system.^ However, given the new found attention to political philosophy and narrative, I think it would be worth it for everyone to take a second look at Mr. Swords' post.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Therefore, all authoritarian political systems are of a criminal nature...
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The theory of the divine right of kings became a passing fancy, exposed to the type of ridicule with which John Locke treated it. Unlike Machiavelli and Hobbes but like Aquinas, Locke would accept Aristotle's dictum that man seeks to be happy in a state of social harmony as a social animal. .Unlike Aquinas's preponderant view on the salvation of the soul from original sin, Locke believes man's mind comes into this world as tabula rasa.^ Theology original sin and the fall of man .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For Locke, knowledge is neither innate, revealed nor based on authority but subject to uncertainty tempered by reason, tolerance and moderation. According to Locke, an absolute ruler as proposed by Hobbes is unnecessary, for natural law is based on reason and equality, seeking peace and survival for man.

European Age of Enlightenment

Eugene Delacroix's Liberty Leading the People (1830, Louvre), a painting created at a time where old and modern political philosophies came into violent conflict.
.During the Enlightenment period, new theories about what the human was and is and about the definition of reality and the way it was perceived, along with the discovery of other societies in the Americas, and the changing needs of political societies (especially in the wake of the English Civil War, the American Revolution and the French Revolution) led to new questions and insights by such thinkers as Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Montesquieu and John Locke.^ We want a government gives a crap about ordinary Americans' lives & struggles - that America gives people the opportunity to do their best.
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^ Michael Tomasky, editor of American Prospect, wrote this insightful article about our need for a philosophy.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need to stop worrying about starting a "class" war.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.These theorists were driven by two basic questions: one, by what right or need do people form states; and two, what the best form for a state could be.^ Recommended by: shaharazade One could say something like this: the party needs to stand for equal opportunity, a brighter future, etc.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's been generally stated that there are two types of cloning, one to try to reproduce a human being, the other to produce perhaps stem cells for whatever purpose.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It took courage for Johnson to sign the Equal Rights Amendment It took courage to pass the S.S. bill, when not ONE Repulican voted for it...any substantive social policy (for the people) took the courage of the Democrats .
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.These fundamental questions involved a conceptual distinction between the concepts of "state" and "government."^ The basic conflict in Africa is between the proponents of two different political systems: state government, which is authoritarian, and tribal government, which is libertarian.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republicans who control the government of the United States of America, by their words and actions, represent none of these ideas.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was decided that "state" would refer to a set of enduring institutions through which power would be distributed and its use justified.^ Upgrades to "First Class" status would be allowable using funds from the elected officials pocket or through the use of "Frequent Flyer Miles".
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The term "government" would refer to a specific group of people who occupied the institutions of the state, and create the laws and ordinances by which the people, themselves included, would be bound.^ We did a series of focus groups and in short, presented the following conclusion: the people who are trying to kill you have the same values as you do.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This would not infringe on 1st Ammendment Rights for individuals as Law Makers would still have the same individual rights to "Petition The Government" that you aor I do as Individuals.
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^ Republicans believe in punishing people, including corporations, if they break the law.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.This conceptual distinction continues to operate in political science, although some political scientists, philosophers, historians and cultural anthropologists have argued that most political action in any given society occurs outside of its state, and that there are societies that are not organized into states which nevertheless must be considered in political terms.^ The ruling culture in DC states that the big danger out there is to be seen as 'weak on national security.'
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, some CATO-institute published historians argue this.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ ALL great movements must start with some philosophical base.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

As long as the concept of natural order was not introduced, the social sciences could not evolve independently of theistic thinking. Since the cultural revolution of the 17th century in England, which spread to France and the rest of Europe, society has been considered subject to natural laws akin to the physical world.[15]
Political and economic relations were drastically influenced by these theories as the concept of the guild was subordinated to the theory of free trade, and Roman Catholic dominance of theology was increasingly challenged by Protestant churches subordinate to each nation-state, which also (in a fashion the Roman Catholic Church often decried angrily) preached in the vulgar or native language of each region. However, the enlightenment was an outright attack on religion, particularly Christianity. The publication of Denis Diderot's and Jean d'Alembert's Encyclopédie ou Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers marked the crowning intellectual achievement of the epoch. The most outspoken critic of the church in France was François Marie Arouet de Voltaire, a representative figure of the enlightenment. After Voltaire, religion would never be the same again in France.[16]
.In the Ottoman Empire, these ideological reforms did not take place and these views did not integrate into common thought until much later.^ If a ban on the surgical procedure of implanting embryos into the uterus is unenforceable, a ban on a procedure that takes place in a petri dish in the privacy of a scientific laboratory is even more so.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They pushed him into a corner, and he went along far too much, in my view.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.As well, there was no spread of this doctrine within the New World and the advanced civilizations of the Aztec, Maya, Inca, Mohican, Delaware, Huron and especially the Iroquois.^ There are many others of other faiths who do not agree and who believe that we should not stifle the advance of science that will save so many in this world from disease and from lives of pain and futility.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Storytelling is just this incredibly important piece of how we understand the world, there's no question.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Further advances are occurring at a dizzying pace, and a complete medical revolution may well occur within the next 5 years.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Iroquois philosophy in particular gave much to Christian thought of the time and in many cases actually inspired some of the institutions adopted in the United States: for example, Benjamin Franklin was a great admirer of some of the methods of the Iroquois Confederacy, and much of early American literature emphasized the political philosophy of the natives.^ POLI 365 American Political Thought .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ I think his speech perfectly described the Democratic Party's political philosophy and gave the party a defining narrative.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Wasting time arguing about political philosophy looks senseless when the cold-stone, literal facts sit right in front of you.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[17]

Industrialization and the Modern Era

Karl Marx and his theory of Communism developed along with Friedrich Engels proved to be one of the most influential political ideologies of the 20th century through Leninism.
The industrial revolution produced a parallel revolution in political thought. Urbanization and capitalism greatly reshaped society. During this same period, the socialist movement began to form. .In the mid-19th century, Marxism was developed, and socialism in general gained increasing popular support, mostly from the urban working class.^ Should the government of Canada continue to support of universality of social services by increasing the proportion of salaries given .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ My idea of socialism is working class democracy with public ownership of the basic necessities: education, healthcare, public transportation .
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Without breaking entirely from the past, Marx established the principles which would be used by the future revolutionaries of the 20th century namely Lenin, Mao Tse Tung, Ho Chi Minh and Fidel Castro.^ The majority has sought to establish that the use of embryonic or cloned stem cells would be unethical when an alternative, namely adult stem cells, is available.\28\ However, the studies necessary for regenerative medicine could not be accomplished with adult stem cells.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Hegel's philosophy of history is similar to Kant's, and Marx's theory of revolution towards the common good is partly based on Kant's view of history, Marx is said to have declared that on the whole, he was just trying to straighten out Hegel who was actually upside down.^ I posted my personal political philosophy (first articulation thereof) here: Common Sense/Common Good Progressive Framework .
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We need a compelling narrative and a philosophy so that the common good and justice return to the forefront.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That's straight out of Kant and other continental philosophies that are as relevant today as they ever were.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Unlike Marx who believed in historical materialism, Hegel believed in the Phenomenology of Spirit.^ Karl Marx was a valiant advocate of capitalism, as he believed that only the transformative power of capitalism could efficiently harness the means of production to solve societies' material needs.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[18] .Be that as it may, by the late 19th century, socialism and trade unions were established members of the political landscape.^ Similarly, the "robber baron" capitalists of the late 19th century demanded that the federal government create and run railroads, and begin regulating public health in the cities.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

In addition, the various branches of anarchism, with thinkers such as Bakunin, Proudhon or Kropotkin, and syndicalism also gained some prominence. In the Anglo-American world, anti-imperialism and pluralism began gaining currency at the turn of the century.
World War I was a watershed event in human history. .The Russian Revolution of 1917 (and similar, albeit less successful, revolutions in many other European countries) brought communism - and in particular the political theory of Leninism, but also on a smaller level Luxemburgism (gradually) - on the world stage.^ As for the other countries you list, most started as backward nations and did their best under constant seige and all had successes as well as failures..
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time, social democratic parties won elections and formed governments for the first time, often as a result of the introduction of universal suffrage.^ Everywhere, we hear the same lament: If only Democrats had a proven formula for winning elections and governing the country.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They just couldn't stand the big-government aspects of the Democratic party.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He hardly "won handily" the first time around--he only received about 40% of the vote.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .However, a group of central European economists lead by Austrians Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek identified the collectivist underpinnings to the various new socialist and fascist doctrines of government power as being different brands of political totalitarianism.^ Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to government control.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we need now is not a new political philosophy, we need philosophical underpinnings for specific policy proposals.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The basic conflict in Africa is between the proponents of two different political systems: state government, which is authoritarian, and tribal government, which is libertarian.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

[20][21]

Contemporary political philosophy

.After World War II political philosophy moved into a temporary eclipse in the Anglo-American academic world, as analytic philosophers expressed skepticism about the possibility that normative judgments had cognitive content, and political science turned toward statistical methods and behavioralism.^ STAT 300 Statistical Methods II .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The end of World War II, and its rebuilding process, which I guess unfortunately involved a lot of government spending.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we need now is not a new political philosophy, we need philosophical underpinnings for specific policy proposals.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The 1950s saw pronouncements of the 'death' of the discipline, followed by debates about that thesis. .A handful of continental European émigrés to Britain and the United States—including Hannah Arendt, Karl Popper, Friedrich Hayek, Leo Strauss, Isaiah Berlin, Eric Voegelin and Judith Shklar—encouraged continued study in the field, but in the 1950s and 60s they and their students remained somewhat marginal in their disciplines.^ So long as the institutionally-focused Republicans frame the discussions, and hurl "liberal" as an epithet, and the Democrats remain on the defensive, they will continue to win.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ United States Institute for Theatre Technology Student Chapter (FUSITT) .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

Communism remained an important focus especially during the 1950s and 60s. Colonialism and racism were important issues that arose. .In general, there was a marked trend towards a pragmatic approach to political issues, rather than a philosophical one.^ It's been generally held that there are two types of cloning, one to produce a---- Chairman Sensenbrenner.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I think the primary issue is that there is general consensus around the question of cloning, human cloning in particular.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's been generally stated that there are two types of cloning, one to try to reproduce a human being, the other to produce perhaps stem cells for whatever purpose.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

.Much academic debate regarded one or both of two pragmatic topics: how (or whether) to apply utilitarianism to problems of political policy, or how (or whether) to apply economic models (such as rational choice theory) to political issues.^ POLI 369 Topics in Political Theory .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Issues Politics is destroying the one thing that is paramount: Winning in 2006!
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's staggering, in fact, how much the nation and world and politics have changed since Clinton.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rise of feminism, LGBT social movements and the end of colonial rule and of the political exclusion of such minorities as African Americans and sexual minorities in the developed world has led to feminist, postcolonial, and multicultural thought becoming significant.^ HIST 344 African American Social Thought .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ POLI 328 African American Politics .
  • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to government control.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Anglo-American academic political philosophy the publication of John Rawls's A Theory of Justice in 1971 is considered a milestone.^ But where to begin, for liberal Americans especially, should be with some popular introduction to John Rawls and his A Theory of Justice (1971), and the rich and continuing debates on that work.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Justice and Good: Hart's Concept and Rawls' Theory .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rawls used a thought experiment, the original position, in which representative parties choose principles of justice for the basic structure of society from behind a veil of ignorance. Rawls also offered a criticism of utilitarian approaches to questions of political justice. Robert Nozick's 1974 book Anarchy, State, and Utopia, which won a National Book Award, responded to Rawls from a libertarian perspective and gained academic respectability for libertarian viewpoints.[22]
.Contemporaneously with the rise of analytic ethics in Anglo-American thought, in Europe several new lines of philosophy directed at critique of existing societies arose between the 1950s and 1980s.^ He has been pPesident of the Society of Christian Ethics, the largest association of religious ethicists in the world, and Secretary of the American Academy of Religion, the professional association of educators in religion in the United States.
  • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

Many of these took elements of Marxist economic analysis, but combined them with a more cultural or ideological emphasis. Out of the Frankfurt School, thinkers like Herbert Marcuse, Theodor W. Adorno, Max Horkheimer, and Jürgen Habermas combined Marxian and Freudian perspectives. .Along somewhat different lines, a number of other continental thinkers—still largely influenced by Marxism—put new emphases on structuralism and on a "return to Hegel". Within the (post-) structuralist line (though mostly not taking that label) are thinkers such as Gilles Deleuze, Michel Foucault, Claude Lefort, and Jean Baudrillard.^ We want to find goals which reasonable people of different philosophies can accept and which can be shown to be attractive from a number of different such perspectives.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

The Situationists were more influenced by Hegel; Guy Debord, in particular, moved a Marxist analysis of commodity fetishism to the realm of consumption, and looked at the relation between consumerism and dominant ideology formation.
.Another debate developed around the (distinct) criticisms of liberal political theory made by Michael Sandel and Charles Taylor.^ But where to begin, for liberal Americans especially, should be with some popular introduction to John Rawls and his A Theory of Justice (1971), and the rich and continuing debates on that work.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.The liberalism-communitarianism debate is often considered valuable for generating a new set of philosophical problems, rather than a profound and illuminating clash of perspectives.^ Progressives resist entering into a mind-set that views politics in terms of strategy rather than philosophy.
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^ Still, I would rather field a moderate candidate and win, than a liberal one (that may be more in tune with my personal beliefs) and lose.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Smart candidates will not simply offer the policy reform alternatives but have the character to inspire by bringing an entirely new, refreshing point of view and set of values.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.Today some debates regarding punishment and law center on the question of natural law and the degree to which human constraints on action are determined by nature, as revealed by science in particular.^ The right to establish one's own judiciary or police force is grounded in natural law, which consists of the rights and obligations inherent in human nature.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aquinas: Natural Law Supersedes all Human Law .
  • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Other debates focus on questions of cultural and gender identity as central to politics.

Influential political philosophers

A larger list of political philosophers is intended to be closer to exhaustive. .Listed below are a few of the most canonical or important thinkers, and especially philosophers whose central focus was in political philosophy and/or who are good representatives of a particular school of thought.^ This heightened focus on political philosophy reminded me of an exercise Markos presented to us last year, a challenge to formulate an "elevator pitch" for the Democratic party.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Taking the name of a particular political figure ("Clintonism") and calling that a philosophy is punting.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What we need now is not a new political philosophy, we need philosophical underpinnings for specific policy proposals.
  • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.
  • Confucius : The first thinker to relate ethics to the political order.
  • Chanakya : Founder of an independent political thought in India, laid down rules and guidelines for social, law and political order in society.
  • Mozi : Eponymous founder of the Mohist school, advocated a strict utilitarianism.
  • Socrates/Plato: Named their practice of inquiry "philosophy", and thereby stand at the head of a prominent (often called "Western") tradition of systematic intellectual analysis.^ PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy .
    • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The course examines the nature of social commitment as viewed by major political philosophies.
    • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    .Set as a partial basis to that tradition the relation between knowledge on the one hand, and a just and good society on the other.^ Recommended by: Sirocco , kck which might have political resonance would be that a just society is one that is acceptable no matter what your position in it.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is not meant as a slam on Clinton; it's just meant to point out that the winning philosophy in one particular election is NOT necessarily the key to every other election.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We HAVE to separate ourselves from that "other" party if we expect to win more than just the occasional election.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Socrates is widely considered founder of Western political philosophy, via his spoken influence on Athenian contemporaries; since Socrates never wrote anything, much of what we know about him and his teachings comes through his most famous student, Plato.
  • Aristotle: Wrote his Politics as an extension of his Nicomachean Ethics.^ Of course, I don't know where you got this nonsense about European cities "are much more miserable", unless there are particular cities in mind, with particular meanings of "miserable."
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rove (and before him Lee Atwater) don't tell stories about political ideals and the type of country they want, they slime their opponents.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I commented yesterday on the mounting discussion among Democrats about the need for a political philosophy for our party.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Notable for the theories that humans are social animals, and that the polis (Ancient Greek city state) existed to bring about the good life appropriate to such animals.^ There is nothing humanitarian or compassionate about creating and destroying human life for some theoretical, technical benefit that is far from established.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Currently, no clear regulations exist in the United States that would prevent a private group from attempting to clone a human being.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The idea of the manufacture of such a magnificent thing as a human life purely for the purpose of conducting research, is grotesque at best whether or not it's federally funded.''
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    His political theory is based upon an ethics of perfectionism (as is Marx's, on some readings).
  • Mencius : One of the most important thinkers in the Confucian school, he is the first theorist to make a coherent argument for an obligation of rulers to the ruled.
  • Han Feizi : The major figure of the Chinese Fajia (Legalist) school, advocated government that adhered to laws and a strict method of administration.
  • Thomas Aquinas : In synthesizing Christian theology and Peripatetic teaching, Aquinas contends that God's gift of higher reason, coupled with divine virtues and human law, provides the foundation for righteous government.
  • Niccolò Machiavelli: First systematic analyses of: (1) how consent of a populace is negotiated between and among rulers rather than simply a naturalistic (or theological) given of the structure of society; (2) precursor to the concept of ideology in articulating the epistemological structure of commands and law.
  • Thomas Hobbes: Generally considered to have first articulated how the concept of a social contract that justifies the actions of rulers (even where contrary to the individual desires of governed citizens), can be reconciled with a conception of sovereignty.
  • Baruch Spinoza: Set forth the first analysis of "rational egoism", in which the rational interest of self is conformance with pure reason. .To Spinoza's thinking, in a society in which each individual is guided of reason, political authority would be superfluous.
  • John Locke: Like Hobbes, described a social contract theory based on citizens' fundamental rights in the state of nature.^ Hobbes vs Locke on Natural Rig .
    • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The proper form of human association, the just balance of economic, political, and social power, and the nature of the relationship between the state and the individual are explored in the works of prominent historical and contemporary theorists.
    • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Recommended by: Sirocco , kck which might have political resonance would be that a just society is one that is acceptable no matter what your position in it.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He departed from Hobbes in that, based on the assumption of a society in which moral values are independent of governmental authority and widely shared, he argued for a government with power limited to the protection of personal property.^ We believe that democracy requires limits on institutional power, whether that of the government, the church, or the corporation.
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    ^ Today, in more capitalist societies misery is less than ones where private property and commerce is not protected.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Capitalism requires the protection of private property from both the government and thieves, as well as a working marketplace.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .His arguments may have been deeply influential to the formation of the United States Constitution.
  • Baron de Montesquieu: Analyzed protection of the people by a "balance of powers" in the divisions of a state.
  • David Hume: Hume criticized the social contract theory of John Locke and others as resting on a myth of some actual agreement.^ The proper form of human association, the just balance of economic, political, and social power, and the nature of the relationship between the state and the individual are explored in the works of prominent historical and contemporary theorists.
    • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Chairman, as we take whatever action we're going to take in the United States, there will be other countries who will be doing this research.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ That's an argument given, as I said, when people may want it to be more restrictive than it is.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Hume was a realist in recognizing the role of force to forge the existence of states and that consent of the governed was merely hypothetical.^ The proper role of the government is to protect individuals from the initiation of force.
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    .He also introduced the concept of utility, later picked up on and developed by Jeremy Bentham.
  • François-Marie Arouet: French Enlightenment writer, poet, and philosopher famous for his advocacy of civil liberties, including freedom of religion and free trade.
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau: Analyzed the social contract as an expression of the general will, and controversially argued in favor of absolute democracy where the people at large would act as sovereign.
  • Immanuel Kant: Argued that participation in civil society is undertaken not for self-preservation, as per Thomas Hobbes, but as a moral duty.^ Democracy, freedom, war on terror, attacks on religion, family values.
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    ^ But the people who began advocating for "Socialism" never defined it as "government" control of the economy -- because that would logically imply that when Capitalists control the Government, then, er, they would be Socialists.
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    ^ In a libertarian society every person is free to exercise the profession of his choice, including that of judge and policeman.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    First modern thinker who fully analyzed structure and meaning of obligation. Argued that an international organization was needed to preserve world peace.
  • Adam Smith: Often said to have founded modern economics; explained emergence of economic benefits from the self-interested behavior ("the invisible hand") of artisans and traders. .While praising its efficiency, Smith also expressed concern about the effects of industrial labor (e.g.^ Newman has written extensively on concerns about the biotechnology industry and new developments in genetic research.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    repetitive activity) on workers. His work on moral sentiments sought to explain social bonds outside the economic sphere.
  • Edmund Burke: Irish member of the British parliament, Burke is credited with the creation of conservative thought. Burke's Reflections on the Revolution in France is the most popular of his writings where he denounced the French revolution. .Burke was one of the biggest supporters of the American Revolution.
  • Benjamin Franklin: Enlightenment statesman, politician, civic activist and philosopher during and after the American Revolution
  • John Adams: Enlightenment writer who defended the American cause for independence.^ I don't know one American who when standing singing the Star Spangeled Banner, doesn't instinctively feel and know the courage of the many it took to be American.
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    ^ For example, one reason why the administration got slammed after Katrina was the contrast between the callousness of the official response and the heartfelt outpouring of support from the American people.
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    ^ Causes of the American Revolution .
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    Adams was a Lockean thinker, who was appalled by the French revolution. Adams is known for his outspoken commentary in favor of the American revolution. He defended the American form of republicanism over the French liberal democracy. Adams is considered the founder of American conservative thought.
  • Thomas Jefferson: Politician and political theorist during the American Enlightenment. .Expanded on the philosophy of Thomas Paine by instrumenting republicanism in the United States.^ The Republicans who control the government of the United States of America, by their words and actions, represent none of these ideas.
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    .Most famous for the United States Declaration of Independence.
  • James Madison : American politician and protege of Jefferson considered to be “Father of the Constitution” and “Father of the Bill of Rights” of the United States.^ This is especially true when you consider that his peers were the Founding Fathers, most of whom were quite comfortable with monarchy and aristocracy and openly hostile toward democracy.
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    ^ Our Declaration of Independence, the Constitution, and the Bill of Rights embdy a political philosophy: how this land should be governed, and what's the basis for that governance.
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    ^ He has been pPesident of the Society of Christian Ethics, the largest association of religious ethicists in the world, and Secretary of the American Academy of Religion, the professional association of educators in religion in the United States.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    .As a political theorist, he believed in separation of powers and proposed a comprehensive set of checks and balances that are necessary to protect the rights of an individual from the tyranny of the majority.
  • Thomas Paine: Enlightenment writer who defended liberal democracy, the American Revolution, and French Revolution in Common Sense and The Rights of Man.
  • Jeremy Bentham: The first thinker to analyze social justice in terms of maximization of aggregate individual benefits.^ There are many others of other faiths who do not agree and who believe that we should not stifle the advance of science that will save so many in this world from disease and from lives of pain and futility.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But the foundation of American Government--and by the way, it's not a democracy, and that's particularly relevant here--the foundation of our Government is respect for the individual, and the problem we have is a lack of understanding when individuality begins.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    Founded the philosophical/ethical school of thought known as utilitarianism.
  • John Stuart Mill: A utilitarian, and the person who named the system; he goes further than Bentham by laying the foundation for liberal democratic thought in general and modern, as opposed to classical, liberalism in particular. .Articulated the place of individual liberty in an otherwise utilitarian framework.
  • Thomas Hill Green: modern liberal thinker and early supporter of positive freedom.
  • Karl Marx: In large part, added the historical dimension to an understanding of society, culture and economics.^ Karl Marx was a valiant advocate of capitalism, as he believed that only the transformative power of capitalism could efficiently harness the means of production to solve societies' material needs.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ To regain our place among nations and to be true leaders, we have to be able to articulate what sets us apart and why we should be in that position.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After all, it's not like Karl Marx was the first or last person in history to notice that societies are often divided and driven by the competing interests of different classes.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    Created the concept of ideology in the sense of (true or false) beliefs that shape and control social actions. .Analyzed the fundamental nature of class as a mechanism of governance and social interaction.
  • Giovanni Gentile: Known as the 'Philosopher of Fascism' and ghostwrote the Doctrine of Fascism with Benito Mussolini and argued that the Fascist State is an ethical and educational state and that the individual should put the interests of the State first.
  • John Dewey: Co-founder of pragmatism and analyzed the essential role of education in the maintenance of democratic government.
  • Antonio Gramsci: Instigated the concepts hegemony and social formation.^ Democrats - putting people first.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The proper form of human association, the just balance of economic, political, and social power, and the nature of the relationship between the state and the individual are explored in the works of prominent historical and contemporary theorists.
    • PHIL 265 Social/Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.fredonia.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Libertarians believe the state has a just role and should exist.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Fused the ideas of Marx, Engels, Spinoza and others within the so-called dominant ideology thesis (the ruling ideas of society are the ideas of its rulers).
  • Herbert Marcuse: One of the principal thinkers within the Frankfurt School, and generally important in efforts to fuse the thought of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx.^ Karl Marx was a valiant advocate of capitalism, as he believed that only the transformative power of capitalism could efficiently harness the means of production to solve societies' material needs.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After all, it's not like Karl Marx was the first or last person in history to notice that societies are often divided and driven by the competing interests of different classes.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Applying Karl Marx to Ritzers McDonaldization of Society .
    • Politics Research Papers - Direct Essays 11 September 2009 19:019 UTC www.directessays.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Introduced the concept of repressive desublimation, in which social control can operate not only by direct control, but also by manipulation of desire. .Analyzed the role of advertising and propaganda in societal consensus.
  • Friedrich Hayek: He argued that central planning was inefficient because members of central bodies could not know enough to match the preferences of consumers and workers with existing conditions.^ Sometimes Members of Congress--and I guess everybody on this Committee knows that, but I'm not sure everybody in the public knows it--sometimes we're just inadequate to deal with certain issues, and it's not because we are political.
    • Testimony - March 5, 2002 (Christopher Reeve Homepage) 11 September 2009 9:50 UTC www.chrisreevehomepage.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Hayek further argued that central economic planning - a mainstay of socialism - would lead to a "total' state with dangerous power.^ The power of these states sometimes doesn't reach further than their capital city, main airport and main seaport.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He advocated free-market capitalism in which the main role of the state is to maintain the rule of law.
  • Hannah Arendt: Analyzed the roots of totalitarianism and introduced the concept of the "banality of evil" (how ordinary technocratic rationality comes to deplorable fruition).^ The power of these states sometimes doesn't reach further than their capital city, main airport and main seaport.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think you have much to contribute to this new, free market state of Somaliland, even to teach them about the proper role of government in order to achieve your view of Capitalism, and I might even be willing to help fund your move.
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I seem to recall "many" historians viewing Adam Smith as an advocate of the free market, which some people also define as "capitalism".
    • Daily Kos: Debating Political Philosophy 2 February 2010 9:24 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

    Brought distinctive elements of and revisions to the philosophy of Martin Heidegger into political thought.
  • Georg Hegel: Emphasized history and continuity, influenced Marx and Oakeschott.
  • Isaiah Berlin: Developed the distinction between positive and negative liberty
  • Leo Strauss: Strauss is known for his writings on the classical and modern philosophers and for denouncing modern politics.
  • John Rawls: Revitalised the study of normative political philosophy in Anglo-American universities with his 1971 book A Theory of Justice, which uses a version of social contract theory to answer fundamental questions about justice and to criticise utilitarianism.
  • Robert Nozick: Criticized Rawls, and argued for libertarianism, by appeal to a hypothetical history of the state and the real history of property.
  • Michael Oakeshott: Provided a conservative philosophy anchored in history and Hegelianism.
  • William E. Connolly: Introduced post modern philosophy into political theory, and promoted new theories of pluralism and agonistic democracy.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hampton, Jean (1997). Political philosophy. p. xiii. ISBN 0813308586. http://books.google.com/books?id=-sHkdq5qhFwC&pg=PR13&dq=Hampton+political+philosophy+political+societies&lr=#v=onepage&q=Hampton%20political%20philosophy%20political%20societies&f=false. "Political philosophy is about political societies." 
  2. ^ Sahakian, Mabel Lewis (1993). Ideas of the great philosophers. Barnes & Noble Publishing. p. 59. ISBN 1566192712. http://books.google.com/books?id=Vi7cQMw8SwYC&pg=PA59&dq=political+philosophy+Plato+the+republic#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20Plato%20the%20republic&f=false. "...Western philosophical tradition can be traced back as early as Plato (427-347B.C.)." 
  3. ^ Kraut, Richard (2002). Aristotle: political philosophy. Oxford University Press. p. 3. ISBN 0198782001. http://books.google.com/books?id=9BDmX3FBbS4C&pg=PA3&dq=political+philosophy+Aristotle+politics#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20Aristotle%20politics&f=false. "To understand and assess Aristotle's contributions to political thought..." 
  4. ^ Radford, Robert T. (2002). Cicero: a study in the origins of republican philosophy. Rodopi. p. 1. ISBN 9042014671. http://books.google.com/books?id=1cKLGcvuYxQC&pg=PA1&dq=political+philosophy+Cicero#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20Cicero&f=false. "His most lasting political contribution is in his work on political philosophy." 
  5. ^ Sir William Jones´s translation is available online as The Institutes of Hindu Law: Or, The Ordinances of Manu, Calcutta: Sewell & Debrett, 1796.
  6. ^ Hsü, Leonard Shihlien (2005). The political philosophy of Confucianism. Routledge. pp. xvii-xx. ISBN 0415361545. http://books.google.com/books?id=FWFtQIyun-8C&pg=PR17&dq=political+philosophy+China#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20China&f=false. "The importance of a scientific study of Confucian political philosophy could hardly be overstated." 
  7. ^ Schall, James V. (1998). At the Limits of Political Philosophy. p. 40. ISBN 0813209227. http://books.google.com/books?id=yZK79kiFFtsC&pg=PA40&dq=political+philosophy+Saint+Augustine#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "In political philosophy, St. Augustine was a follower of Plato..." 
  8. ^ Aslan, Reza (2005). No god but God. Random House Inc.. p. 153. ISBN 1400062133. http://books.google.com/books?id=FEfdoRL1rrgC&pg=PA153&dq=Islam+Mutazilite+and+Asharite+views&lr=#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "By the ninth and tenth centuries..." 
  9. ^ Gellner, Ernest (1992). Plough, Sword, and Book. University of Chicago Press. p. 239. ISBN 0226287027. http://books.google.com/books?id=CwZFV7J7Id8C&pg=PA239&dq=Gellner+Plough+Sword+and+Book+Ibn+Khaldun%27s+definition#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "(Ibn Khaldun's definition of government probably remains the best:...)" 
  10. ^ Koetsier, L. S. (2004). Natural Law and Calvinist Political Theory. Trafford Publishing. p. 19. ISBN 1412007382. http://books.google.com/books?id=2SI0I4t9roEC&pg=PA19&dq=political+philosophy+scholasticism#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20scholasticism&f=false. "...the Medieval Scholastics revived the concept of natural law." 
  11. ^ Copleston, Frederick (1999). A history of philosophy. 3. Continuum International Publishing Group. p. 346. ISBN 0860122968. http://books.google.com/books?id=y_382o-fpOsC&pg=PA346&dq=political+philosophy+scholasticism#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20scholasticism&f=false. "There was, however, at least one department of thought..." 
  12. ^ Valente, Claire (2003). The theory and practice of revolt in medieval England. Ashgate Publishing Ltd.. p. 14. ISBN 0754609018. http://books.google.com/books?id=B8yRrtm0LicC&pg=PA14&dq=political+philosophy+medieval+europe#v=onepage&q=&f=false. "The two starting points of most medieval discussions..." 
  13. ^ Johnston, Ian (February 2002). "Lecture on Machiavelli's The Prince". Malaspina University College. http://www.mala.bc.ca/~Johnstoi/introser/machiavelli.htm. Retrieved 2007-02-20. 
  14. ^ Copleston, Frederick (1999). A history of philosophy. 3. Continuum International Publishing Group. pp. 310-312. ISBN 0860122968. http://books.google.com/books?id=y_382o-fpOsC&pg=PA310&dq=political+philosophy+Machiavelli#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20Machiavelli&f=false. "...we witness the growth of political absolutism..." 
  15. ^ Barens, Ingo, ed (2004). Political events and economic ideas. Volker Caspari ed., Bertram Schefold ed.. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 206-207. ISBN 1843764403. http://books.google.com/books?id=zSZyQ9TzqQ0C&pg=PA206&dq=political+philosophy+the+enlightenment#v=onepage&q=politcal%20philosophy%20the%20enlightenment&f=false. "Economic theory as political philosophy: the example of the French Enlightenment" 
  16. ^ Byrne, James M. (1997). Religion and the Enlightenment. Westminster John Knox Press. pp. 1-2. ISBN 0664257606. http://books.google.com/books?id=FcEy8SF63TgC&pg=PA1&dq=political+philosophy+the+enlightenment+and+religion#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20the%20enlightenment$20and%20religion&f=false. "...there emerged groups of freethinkers intent on grounding knowledge on the exercise of critical reason, as opposed to...established religion..." 
  17. ^ Johansen, Bruce Elliott (1996). Native American political systems and the evolution of democracy. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 69. ISBN 0313300103. http://books.google.com/books?id=H593mgxQNu4C&pg=PA69&dq=Iroquois+philosophy+Benjamin+Franklin#v=onepage&q=Iroquois%20philosophy%20Benjamin%20Franklin&f=false. "...the three-tier system of federalism...is an inheritance of Iroquois inspiration" 
  18. ^ Marx and modern political theory. Rowman & Littlefield. 1993. pp. 1-4. ISBN 0847678662. http://books.google.com/books?id=kvG8DVBeT9QC&pg=PA1&dq=political+philosophy+Marx#v=onepage&q=political%20philosophy%20Marx&f=false. "Some of his texts, especially the Communist Manifesto made him seem like a sort of communist Descartes..." 
  19. ^ Aspalter, Christian (2001). Importance of Christian and Social Democratic movements in welfare politics. Nova Publishers. p. 70. ISBN 1560729754. http://books.google.com/books?id=vouKut-RAYoC&pg=PA70&dq=social+democratic+parties+win+universal+suffrage&lr=#v=onepage&q=social%20democratic%20parties%20win%20universal%20suffrage&f=false. "The pressing need for universal suffrage..." 
  20. ^ What is Austrian Economics?, Ludwig Von Mises Institute.
  21. ^ Richard M. Ebeling, Austrian Economics and the Political Economy of Freedom, Edward Elgar Publishing, 2003, 163-179 ISBN 1840649402, 9781840649406.
  22. ^ David Lewis Schaefer, Robert Nozick and the Coast of Utopia, The New York Sun, April 30, 2008.

Further reading


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