Politics of Angola: Wikis

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Angola

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Politics and government of
Angola



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Politics of Angola takes place in a framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President of Angola is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and parliament. Angola changed from a one-party Marxist-Leninist system ruled by the MPLA to a formal multiparty democracy following the 1992 elections. President dos Santos won the first round election with more than 49% of the vote to Jonas Savimbi's 40%. A runoff never has taken place. The subsequent renewal of civil war and collapse of the Lusaka Protocol have left much of this process stillborn, but democratic forms exist, notably the National Assembly.

Currently, political power is concentrated in the Presidency. The executive branch of the government is composed of the President, the Prime Minister (currently Paulo Kassoma) and Council of Ministers. The Council of Ministers, composed of all government ministers and vice ministers, meets regularly to discuss policy issues. Governors of the 18 provinces are appointed by and serve at the pleasure of the president. The Constitutional Law of 1992 establishes the broad outlines of government structure and delineates the rights and duties of citizens. The legal system is based on Portuguese and customary law but is weak and fragmented. Courts operate in only 12 of more than 140 municipalities. A Supreme Court serves as the appellate tribunal; a Constitutional Court with powers of judicial review has never been constituted despite statutory authorization.

The 26-year long civil war has ravaged the country's political and social institutions. The UN estimates of 1.8 million internally displaced persons (IDPs), while generally the accepted figure for war-affected people is 4 million. Daily conditions of life throughout the country and specifically Luanda (population approximately 4 million) mirror the collapse of administrative infrastructure as well as many social institutions. The ongoing grave economic situation largely prevents any government support for social institutions. Hospitals are without medicines or basic equipment, schools are without books, and public employees often lack the basic supplies for their day-to-day work.

Currently, a constitutional commission is putting together a new constitutions. According to the commission, which is composed of 45 permanent members from the main political parties, a new constitution will be ready by the end of the first quarter of 2010.

Contents

Executive branch

Main office holders
Office Name Party Since

Legislative branch

The National Assembly (Assembleia Nacional) has 223 members, elected for a four year term, 130 members by proportional representation, 90 members in provincial districts, and 3 members to represent Angolans abroad. The next general elections, due for 1997, have been rescheduled for 5 September 2008. The ruling party MPLA won 82% (191 seats in the National Assembly) and the main opposition party won only 10% (16 seats). The elections however have been described as only partly free but certainly not fair. [1] A White Book on the elections in 2008 lists up all irregularities surrounding the Parliamentary elections of 2008. [2]

Political parties and elections

Parliamentary elections were held in September 2008. These elections were the first since 1992. Presidential elections are planned for 2009.

e • d  5 September and 6 September 2008 National Assembly of Angola election results
Party Votes % Seats
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola) 4,414,738 81.64 191
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) 559,972 10.39 16
Social Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Social) 172,298 3.17 8
New Democracy Electoral Union (Nova Democracia União Eleitoral) 64,624 1.20 2
National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola) 60,335 1.11 3
Democratic Party for Progress – Angolan National Alliance (Partido Democrático para Progreso – Aliança Nacional Angolano) 27,552 0.51
Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democrático) 17,880 0.33
Democratic Angola – Coalition (Democratic Angola – Coalition) 15,839 0.29
Party for Democratic Support and Progress of Angola (Partido de Apoio Democrático e Progresso de Angola ) 14,115 0.27
Front for Democracy (Frente para a Democracia) 14,037 0.27
Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola (Partido da Aliança da Juventude, Operários e Campesinos de Angola) 12,681 0.24
Democratic Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Democrático) 11,599 0.22
Electoral Political Platform (Plataforma Política Eleitoral) 9,840 0.19
Angolan Fraternal Forum Coalition (Fórum Fraternal Angolano Coligação) 9,468 0.17
Valid votes 6,450,407 89.42  
Invalid votes 762,874 10.58
Total: (turnout 87.36%) 7,213,281 100.00 220
Source: CNE, CNE, BBC
e • d  Summary of the 29 and 30 September 1992 Angola presidential election results
Candidates - Nominating parties Votes %
José Eduardo dos Santos - Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola 1,953,335 49.57
Jonas Malheiro Savimbi - National Union for the Total Independence of Angola 1,579,298 40.07
Antonio Alberto Neto - Angolan Democratic Party 85,249 2.16
Holden Roberto - National Front for the Liberation of Angola 83,135 2.11
Daniel Chipenda - Liberal Democratic Party (Angola) ? .5
Others (including Chipenda) 239,866 6.09
Total 3,940,883 100.00
Sources: African Elections Database, Sellström, Tor. Sweden and National Liberation in Southern Africa, 1999. Page 120.
e • d  29 and 30 September 1992 National Assembly of Angola election results
Party Votes % of Votes Seats
Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola (Movimento Popular de Libertação de Angola) 2 124 126 53.74 129
National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (União Nacional para a Independência Total de Angola) 1 347 636 34.10 70
National Front for the Liberation of Angola (Frente Nacional de Libertação de Angola) 94 742 2.40 5
Liberal Democratic Party (Partido Liberal Democrático) 94 269 2.39 3
Social Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Social) 89 875 2.27 6
Democratic Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Democrático) 35 293 0.89 1
AD-Coalition (AD-Coligação) 34 166 0.86 1
Social Democratic Party (Partido Social-Democrata) 33 088 0.84 1
Party of the Alliance of Youth, Workers and Farmers of Angola (Partido da Aliança da Juventude, Operários e Campesinos de Angola) 13 924 0.35 1
Angolan Democratic Forum (Fórum Democrático Angolano) 12 038 0.30 1
Democratic Progress Party/Angolan National Alliance Party (Partido Democrático para Progreso/Aliança Nacional Angolano) 10 620 0.27 1
Angolan National Democratic Party (Partido Nacional Democrático Angolano) 10 281 0.26 1
National Democratic Convention of Angola (Convenção Nacional Democrática de Angola) 10 237 0.26 -
Social Democratic Party of Angola (Partido Social Democratico de Angola) 10 217 0.26 -
Independent Angolan Party (Partido Angolano Independente) 9 007 0.23 -
Liberal Democratic Party of Angola (Partido Democrático Liberal de Angola) 8 025 0.20 -
Democratic Party of Angola (Partido Democrático de Angola) 8 014 0.20 -
Angolan Renewal Party (Partido Renovador Angolano) 6 719 0.17 -
TOTAL 3 952 277 100.00 220

Source: [1]

Judicial branch

Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao, judges of the Supreme Court are appointed by the president

Administrative divisions

Angola has eighteen provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire

Political pressure groups and leaders

Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]

  • note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province

International organization participation

ACP, AfDB, CEEAC, ECA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt (signatory), ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, Non-Aligned dfrfgbfghgCouncil (temporary), UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO

References

Further reading

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