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The political structure of Assam in India is headed by the ceremonial post of the Governor. He is assisted by a council of ministers, headed by the Chief Minister, who are members of the Assam Assembly. In recent years the Governor has become more powerful, especially because the last two Governors have been ex-Army generals and the Army is entrusted with anti-insurgency operations against ULFA and other armed groups.


The Assam legislative structure is unicameral and consists of the 126-member Assam Assembly. Members are elected for a period of 5 years. The Assam Assembly is presided over by the Speaker, who is generally a member of the ruling party.

In 1990, however, Assam was put under direct central government rule.

Political Parties

The Congress had been in power in Assam since Indian independence in 1947 till 1978 when a Janata Party government came to power. This government did not last for 2 years, and Congress came back to power and ruled till 1985 when AGP, the party of activists from the Assam Movement came to power. Since 1985, the Congress and AGP have alternatively been in power. In the April 2006 elections the Congress party retained power, the first time a party did so since 1972.

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