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The politics of Bolivia takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the president is head of state, head of government and head of a pluriform multi-party system. Executive power is exercised by the government. Legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. The Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature.
|President||Evo Morales||Movement Towards Socialism (MAS)||22 January 2006|
|Vice President||Álvaro García Linera||Movement Towards Socialism (MAS)||22 January 2006|
The president is elected to a five-year term by popular vote. In the case that no candidate receives an absolute majority of the popular vote, congress will elect the president from among the two candidates most voted.
Hence, Hugo Banzer Suárez was elected president in 1997. Although no candidate had received more than 50% of the popular vote in the national election, Banzer won a congressional runoff election on 5 August 1997 after forming the so-called "megacoalition" with other parties. He resigned in August 2001 and was substituted by his vicepresident Jorge Fernando Quiroga. In August, 2002 the winner of the national election Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada was chosen president by Congress, winning an 84-43 vote against popular vote runner-up Evo Morales. Elected president Gonzalo Sánchez de Lozada resigned in October 2003, and was substituted by vice-president Carlos Mesa who governed the nation until his resignation in June 2005. He was replaced by chief justice of the Supreme Court Eduardo Rodríguez, acting as caretaker president. Six months later, on December 18, 2005, cocalero leader Evo Morales was elected president.
A group of MEPs acting as election observers oversaw a constitutional referendum in Bolivia that gave more power to indigenous peoples 25 January 2009. The tightly fought referendum laid out a number of key reforms such as allowing President Evo Morales to stand for re-election, state control over natural gas and limits on the size of land people can own.
The bicameral National Congress (Congreso Nacional) consists of the Chamber of Senators (Cámara de Senadores) (27 seats; members are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies (Cámara de Diputados) (130 seats; 68 are directly elected from their districts and 62 are elected by proportional representation from party lists to serve five-year terms).
The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court, the Constitutional Tribunal, the Judiciary Council, and District (departmental) and lower courts.
Bolivia is divided in nine departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, Beni, La Paz, Oruro, Pando, Potosi, Santa Cruz, Tarija. Bolivia's nine departments received greater autonomy under the Administrative Decentralization law of 1995. Departmental autonomy further increased with the first popular elections for departmental governors, known as prefects, on 18 December 2005. Bolivian cities and towns are governed by directly elected mayors and councils. Municipal elections were held on 5 December 2004, with councils elected to five-year terms. The Popular Participation Law of April 1994, which distributes a significant portion of national revenues to municipalities for discretionary use, has enabled previously neglected communities to make striking improvements in their facilities and services hi.
Evo Morales Ayma
Álvaro García Linera
|Movement Toward Socialism||1,544,374||53.7|
|Jorge Fernando "Tuto" Quiroga
María Renée de los Ángeles Duchén Cuéllar
|Democratic and Social Power||821,745||28.6|
|Samuel Jorge Doria Medina
Carlos Fernando Dabdoub Arrien
|National Unity Front||224,090||7.8|
|Michiaki Nagatani Morishita
Guillermo Luis Bedregal Gutiérrez
|Revolutionary Nationalist Movement||185,859||6.5|
|Felipe Quispe Huanca
|Indigenous Pachakuti Movement||61,948||2.2|
|Gildo Angulo Cabrera
Gonzalo José Silvestre Quiroga Soria
|New Republican Force||19,667||0.7|
|Eliceo Rodríguez Pari
Rodolfo Antonio Flores Morelli
|Agrarian Patriotic Front of Bolivia||8,737||0.3|
|Néstor García Rojas
Teodomiro Rengel Huanca
|Social Union of the Workers of Bolivia||7,381||0.3|
|Total (turnout: 84.5 %)||2,873,801||100.0|
|Movement Toward Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo)||1,544,374||53.7||72||12|
|Social and Democratic Power (Poder Democrático y Social, PODEMOS)||821,745||28.6||43||13|
|National Unity Front (Frente de Unidad Nacional)||224,090||7.8||8||1|
|Revolutionary Nationalist Movement (Movimiento Nacionalista Revolucionario)||185,859||6.5||7||1|
|Indigenous Pachakuti Movement (Movimiento Indígena Pachakuti)||61,948||2.2||-||-|
|New Republican Force (Nueva Fuerza Republicana)||19,667||0.7||-||-|
|Agrarian Patriotic Front of Bolivia (Frente Patriótico Agropecuario de Bolivia)||8,737||0.3||-||-|
|Social Union of the Workers of Bolivia (Unión Social de los Trabajadores de Bolivia)||7,381||0.3||-||-|
|Total (turnout: 84.534 %)||2,873,801||100.0||130||27|
|Source: CNE and Rulers|
Other parties include:
Some of Bolivia's social movements are:
International organization participation:
CAN, FAO, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, MONUC, NAM, OAS, ONUB, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNAMSIL, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMIL, UNMISET, UNOCI, UPU, WCL, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTO