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bismuthpoloniumastatine
Te

Po

Uuh
Appearance
silvery
General properties
Name, symbol, number polonium, Po, 84
Element category metalloid
Group, period, block 166, p
Standard atomic weight (209)g·mol−1
Electron configuration [Xe] 6s2 4f14 5d10 6p4
Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 18, 6 (Image)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 9.196 g·cm−3
Density (near r.t.) (beta) 9.398 g·cm−3
Melting point 527 K, 254 °C, 489 °F
Boiling point 1235 K, 962 °C, 1764 °F
Heat of fusion ca. 13 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 102.91 kJ·mol−1
Specific heat capacity (25 °C) 26.4 J·mol−1·K−1
Vapor pressure
P/Pa 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T/K       (846) 1003 1236
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 6, 4, 2, -2
(amphoteric oxide)
Electronegativity 2.0 (Pauling scale)
Ionization energies 1st: 812.1 kJ·mol−1
Atomic radius 168 pm
Covalent radius 140±4 pm
Van der Waals radius 197 pm
Miscellanea
Crystal structure cubic
Magnetic ordering nonmagnetic
Electrical resistivity (0 °C) (α) 0.40 µΩ·m
Thermal conductivity (300 K) ? 20 W·m−1·K−1
Thermal expansion (25 °C) 23.5 µm·m−1·K−1
CAS registry number 7440-08-6
Most stable isotopes
Main article: Isotopes of polonium
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
208Po syn 2.898 y α 5.215 204Pb
ε, β+ 1.401 208Bi
209Po syn 103 y α 4.979 205Pb
ε, β+ 1.893 209Bi
210Po trace 138.376 d α 5.307 206Pb
.Polonium (pronounced /pɵˈloʊniəm/, po-LOH-nee-əm) is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84, discovered in 1898 by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and Pierre Curie.^ Chromium - the atomic number is 24 and the chemical symbol is Cr.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Einsteinium - the atomic number is 99 and the chemical symbol is Es.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Zinc - the atomic number is 30 and the chemical symbol is Zn.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

.A rare and highly radioactive metalloid,[1] polonium is chemically similar to bismuth[2] and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores.^ Polonium is a naturally occurring radioactive element.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chemically polonium resembles bismuth and tellurium.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The uranium in these two ores occurs in the form of uranium dioxide, which--owing to oxidation--can vary in exact chemical composition from UO 2 to UO 2.67 .
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polonium has been studied for possible use in heating spacecraft.^ Studies on radon and its daughters and some thorium compounds may be useful in estimating polonium risks.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study we used quota sampling to assess possible predictors of risk perceptions.
  • Public information needs after the poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko with polonium-210 in London: cross sectional telephone survey and qualitative analysis -- Rubin et al. 335 (7630): 1143 -- BMJ 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bmj.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Re: Kcurie and polonium ( 4.00 / 4 ) Regarding Polonium 210..the main problem for transport and use I think is heat or porobably light.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.It is unstable; all isotopes of polonium are radioactive.^ Uranium has fourteen isotopes, all radioactive.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The model makes no distinction between which polonium isotopes should be present - thus, there should be equal likelihood for all.
  • "Polonium Haloes" Refuted 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.talkorigins.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Careful calculations based on that fact proved that the halos were, indeed, from the grains of those various radioactive isotopes (uranium, thorium, polonium, etc.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Characteristics

Isotopes

.Polonium has 33 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive.^ Uranium has fourteen isotopes, all radioactive.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium has 25 known isotopes all of which are radioactive.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polonium has more known isotopes than any other element with 27 (all radioactive).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They have atomic masses that range from 188 to 220 u.^ They have atomic masses that range from 194 u to 218 u.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.210Po (half-life 138.376 days) is the most widely available.^ Polonium 210 is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.376 days.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of a half life of 138 days like Polonium-210 has, it has a half life of over 450 years.
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Po-210 is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 138.39 days.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.209Po (half-life 103 years) and 208Po (half-life 2.9 years) can be made through the alpha, proton, or deuteron bombardment of lead or bismuth in a cyclotron.^ This isotope has a half-life of 1.405 x 10^10 years and is an alpha emitter.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted in a variety of places on the web, it is entirely artificial — it doesn't occur naturally, but has to be created by irradiating bismuth in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator — and it has a half life of 138 days, decaying via alpha emission.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The longest half-life associated with this unstable element is 1599 year 226 Ra.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

.210Po is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.376 days; it decays directly to its stable daughter isotope, 206Pb.^ This isotope has a half-life of 1.405 x 10^10 years and is an alpha emitter.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium 210 is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.376 days.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Po-210 is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 138.39 days.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A milligram of 210Po emits about as many alpha particles per second as 4.5 grams of 226Ra.^ PO-210 emits a carcinogenic form of radiation called alpha radiation.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A milligram of 210Po emits as many alpha particles as 5 grams of radium.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polonium-210 is also radioactive and decays by emitting alpha particles.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A few curies (1 curie equals 37 gigabecquerels, 1 Ci = 37 GBq) of 210Po emit a blue glow which is caused by excitation of surrounding air.^ A great deal of energy is released by its decay with a half a gram quickly reaching a temperature above 750 K. A few curies (gigabecquerels) of 210Po emit a blue glow which is caused by excitation of surrounding air.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q. And did that cause Philip Morris to take any action [regarding the PO-210 issue]?
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ When we consider the reported air concentrations, we must also acknowledge that there is uncertainty as to the minimum dose of polonium-210 necessary to cause adverse health effects.
  • ATSDR - PHA - US DOE Mound Facility [a/k/a Mound Plant (USDOE)], Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A single gram of 210Po generates 140 watts of power.^ A single gram of 210Po generates 140 watts of power.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 5, 2007 00:12 8: Charlie - radioisotope generator containing 750 grams of Polonium-210.
  • Anachronisms - Charlie's Diary 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You can buy Po-210 on the web, though not generally in the quantities needed for a lethal dose.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

[3] .Because it emits many alpha particles, which are stopped within a very short distance in dense media and release their energy, 210Po has been used as a lightweight heat source to power thermoelectric cells in artificial satellites; for instance, 210Po heat source was also used in each of the Lunokhod rovers deployed on the surface of the Moon, to keep their internal components warm during the lunar nights.^ A 210Po heat source was also used in each of the Lunokhod rovers deployed on the surface of the Moon, to keep their internal components warm during the lunar nights.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alpha particles emitted by polonium are absorbed very quickly by the body.
  • http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/L24150888.htm 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.alertnet.org [Source type: News]

^ Since nearly all alpha radiation can be easily stopped by ordinary containers and upon hitting its surface releases its energy, 210Po has been used as a lightweight heat source to power thermoelectric cells in artificial satellites.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

[4] .Some anti-static brushes contain up to 500 microcuries (20 MBq) of 210Po as a source of charged particles for neutralizing static electricity in materials like photographic film.^ The polonium 210 element emits alpha particles (positively charged helium atoms) that collide with molecules of air, creating a supply of oxygen and nitrogen ions sufficient to neutralize both positive and negative static charges.
  • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sealed sources containing 3.7 MBq (100 µCi) or less of beta or photon-emitting material or 370 kBq (10 µCi) or less of alpha-emitting material.
  • Pennsylvania Code 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.pacode.com [Source type: Reference]

^ There is a brand of anti-static photographic brush which includes a strip embedded with Polonium to help dissipate the charge on the film as it is dusted: http://www.2spi.com/catalog/photo/statmaster.shtml I have no idea how much material is included, but it is safe enough to ship the strips through the mail.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

[5]
.The majority of the time 210Po decays by emission of an alpha particle only, not by emission of an alpha particle and a gamma ray.^ Polonium-210 is also radioactive and decays by emitting alpha particles.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electromagnetic emissions include gamma rays and X-rays.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This radiation includes alpha, beta, and gamma rays, or particles.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.About one in 100,000 alpha emissions causes an excitation in the nucleus which then results in the emission of a gamma ray.^ Electromagnetic emissions include gamma rays and X-rays.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each one begins with an alpha emission, and each ejects both alpha and beta particles at various points in the chain.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Other alpha emitters produce gamma rays in addition, which easily penetrate the foil and knock neutrons loose prematurely.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .This low gamma ray production rate (and the short range of alpha particles) makes it difficult to find and identify this isotope.^ This radiation includes alpha, beta, and gamma rays, or particles.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Its decay products are much easier to detect because they readily stick to dust in the air and typically have a short half-life, making them more radioactive.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pu-241 This isotope is about as fissile as Pu-239, has a low neutron emission rate, and a moderate heat production rate, and thus does not adversely affect weapon usability of plutonium directly.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Rather than gamma ray spectroscopy, alpha spectroscopy is the best method of measuring this isotope.^ Other alpha emitters produce gamma rays in addition, which easily penetrate the foil and knock neutrons loose prematurely.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This radiation includes alpha, beta, and gamma rays, or particles.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ About 85% of this total gamma energy output is due to the last isotope in the sequence, thallium-208 which produces the most energetic gamma rays (up to 2.6 MeV).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Solid state form

The alpha form of solid polonium.
.Polonium is a radioactive element that exists in two metallic allotropes.^ Polonium is a naturally occurring radioactive element.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is saturated with mercury, chromium, copper and other metals besides the radioactive elements.
  • Dr. Hulda Clark Information Center - CLEANSING PROGRAMS 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.drclark.net [Source type: General]

^ Polonium has more known isotopes than any other element with 27 (all radioactive).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The alpha form has a simple cubic crystal structure with an edge length of 335.2 picometres; the beta form is rhombohedral.^ It has a body-centered cubic crystal structure.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Density: 9.196 (alpha form); 9.398(beta form); mixtures have intermediate densities Melting point: 254 degrees C Boiling point: 962 degrees C .
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Uranium has three allotropic forms, the alpha (orthorhombic, stable up to 667.7 C), the beta (tetragonal, stable from 667.7 C to 774.8 C), and the gamma (body-centered cubic, from 774.8 C to melting point) which is the most malleable and ductile.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8] The structure of polonium has been characterized by X-ray diffraction [9][10] and electron diffraction.[11]
.210Po (in common with 238Pu) has the ability to become airborne with ease: if a sample is heated in air to 55 °C (131 °F), 50% of it is vaporized in 45 hours, even though the melting point of polonium is 254 °C (489 °F) and its boiling point is 962 °C (1763 °F).^ Despite its fairly high boiling point, polonium is rather volatile - 50% of a sample will vaporize in 45 hrs at 55 C. Part of its volatility can be attributed to its radioactivity.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EXPLANATION OF THE PO-210 HALO —Comparing this diagram with the diagram of the Uranium 238 Decay Chain, we learn that polonium 210 (Po-210) goes directly into lead 206, therefore it only makes one ring or halo.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Many of these radioisotopes were used in smaller quantities (laboratory scale) than polonium-210, plutonium-238, and hydrogen-3.
  • ATSDR - PHA - US DOE Mound Facility [a/k/a Mound Plant (USDOE)], Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12][13] .More than one hypothesis exists for how polonium does this; one suggestion is that small clusters of polonium atoms are spalled off by the alpha decay.^ Polonium decays 100% by alpha decay to 206Pb.
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pertaining to more than one star.

^ This is another thermal concentration technique, light isotopes evaporate more rapidly than heavier ones.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chemistry

.The chemistry of polonium is similar to that of tellurium and bismuth.^ Chemically polonium resembles bismuth and tellurium.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polonium dissolves readily in dilute acids, but is only slightly soluble in alkalis.^ It is slightly soluble in sulfuric acid and nitric acids.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium dissolves readily in dilute acids, but is only slightly soluble in alkalis.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Also according to wikipedia, polonium dissolves readily in acids.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.The hydrogen compound PoH2 is liquid at room temperature (melting point −36.1°C, boiling point 35.3°C).^ This is the only uranium compound that is stable and volatile near room temperature, and is used for gas phase uranium enrichment processes (diffusion and centrifugation).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its melting point is 637 C, and its boiling point is estimated at 5235 C. .
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its melting point is 1570 C, its boiling point is 4227 C. Since its half-life is similar to Pu-239, it has similar alpha activity as well and must handled with similar safety precautions.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Halides of the structure PoX2, PoX4 and PoX6 are known. The two oxides PoO2 and PoO3 are the products of oxidation of polonium.[14]
It has been reported that some microbes can methylate polonium by the action of methylcobalamin.[15][16] This is similar to the way in which mercury, selenium and tellurium are methylated in living things to create organometallic compounds. .As a result when considering the biochemistry of polonium one should consider the possibility that the polonium will follow the same biochemical pathways as selenium and tellurium.^ Should it be the first person to describe the initial properties, the one who found the oxide or the metal, the one who separated the element or the first one to publish their results?
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ If the existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the name of the country of origin of one of us."
  • Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is possible that other rock types were created during and following catastrophic events on earth."—*Edgar B. Heylmun, "Should We Teach Uniformitarianism?"
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

Compounds

.Polonium has no common compounds, only lab created ones.^ But Bill Cabage, a lab spokesman, said it sold no polonium 210 because Russia was able to do so much more inexpensively.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Gentry's conclusion from his observation is that the rocks in question were created instantaneously, with the polonium already in place, thus explaining why no evidence of the "parent" uranium is present.
  • Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.lpl.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But since polonium has a half-life of slightly over four months, you're not going to get much decay in only one month.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

Oxides
  • PoO2
  • PoO3
Hydrides
  • PoH2
Halogen Compounds

History

.Also tentatively called "Radium F", polonium was discovered by Marie Skłodowska-Curie and her husband Pierre Curie in 1898[17] and was later named after Marie Curie's native land of Poland (Latin: Polonia)[18][19] Poland at the time was under Russian, Prussian, and Austrian partition, and did not exist as an independent country.^ This radioactive metal was also known as radium-F. The name derives from "Poland", the native country of Marie Sklodowska Curie.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ It was discovered by Pierre and Marie Curie in 1898, from its radioactivity.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The name derives from "Pierre and Marie Curie", the French physicist and Polish-born French chemist, who discovered radium and polonium.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

.It was Curie's hope that naming the element after her native land would publicize its lack of independence.^ The name promethium was preferred to prometheum because most metallic elements have names ending in "ium" and "eum" would have caused problems.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ This radioactive metal was also known as radium-F. The name derives from "Poland", the native country of Marie Sklodowska Curie.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In order to be certain of showing that it was a matter of new elements, the Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and preferably isolate them.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polonium may be the first element named to highlight a political controversy.^ It was first isolated in1898 thanks to the work of the distinguished Polish scientist Marie Curie, hence the name polonium.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name derives from the state and the university of California, where the element was first synthesized.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ November 28, 2006 16:38 15: What I can't get out of my mind is that Litvinenko may be the first person in human history to be murdered with Polonium 210.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

[20]
.This element was the first one discovered by the Curies while they were investigating the cause of pitchblende radioactivity.^ OCR for page 159 Polonium INTRODUCTION Polonium was the first radioactive element that Marie and Pierre Curie separated from the uranium ore pitchblende.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Should it be the first person to describe the initial properties, the one who found the oxide or the metal, the one who separated the element or the first one to publish their results?
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The problem is that polonium is one of the most mobile and unconfinable of the radioactive elements.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.The pitchblende, after removal of the radioactive elements uranium and thorium, was more radioactive than both the uranium and thorium put together.^ OCR for page 159 Polonium INTRODUCTION Polonium was the first radioactive element that Marie and Pierre Curie separated from the uranium ore pitchblende.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Careful calculations based on that fact proved that the halos were, indeed, from the grains of those various radioactive isotopes (uranium, thorium, polonium, etc.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Depleted uranium is about half as radioactive as natural uranium, almost entirely due to the removal of U-234, but its bulk properties are otherwise identical.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This spurred the Curies on to find additional radioactive elements. .The Curies first separated out polonium from the pitchblende, and then within a few years, also isolated radium.^ It was first isolated in1898 thanks to the work of the distinguished Polish scientist Marie Curie, hence the name polonium.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imagine if Sherlock Holmes worked with Marie Curie to solve the first Polonium poisoning case in London.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This element was not isolated for many years after this due to the fact that when it is separated from one of its compounds it immediately attacks the remaining materials of the compound.

Detection

Intensity against photon energy for three isotopes.

Gamma counting

.By means of radiometric methods such as gamma spectroscopy (or a method using a chemical separation followed by an activity measurement with a non-energy-dispersive counter), it is possible to measure the concentrations of radioisotopes and to distinguish one from another.^ This is another thermal concentration technique, light isotopes evaporate more rapidly than heavier ones.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "The Law of Multiple Proportions" -- If two substances combine chemically in more than one proportion, the weights of the one which combine with a given weight of the other, stand in a simple rational ratio to one another.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been suggested that blending such recycled fuel is a useful means to "denature", or render proliferation-resistant, supplies of retired weapons-grade plutonium.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In practice, background noise would be present and depending on the detector, the line width would be larger which would make it harder to identify and measure the isotope.^ The spectrum of the residual gas after removing ordinary gases was successfully photographed, and a large number of the neon lines identified; helium was also present.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Considerable time and money would be required to make this practical of course.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If a higher-chain radioactive isotope entered the granite, and then later turned into Po-21 8, which would then make Po-218 halos,—the halos of the parent isotopes) would be there along with the Po-218 halos!
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.In biological/medical work it is common to use the natural 40K present in all tissues/body fluids as a check of the equipment and as an internal standard.^ Polonium was found or radioactivity was found in the body, all nurses and doctors will be checked up..and put on prevention..
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Philosophers' Stone," says Paracelsus, "purges the whole body of man, and cleanses it from all impurities by the introduction of new and more youthful forces which it joins to the nature of man."
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We have next to consider whether there is any experimental evidence showing it to be possible (using the phraseology of the alchemists) for man to assist in Nature's work.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

Intensity against alpha energy for four isotopes, note that the line width is narrow and the fine details can be seen.
.
Intensity against alpha energy for four isotopes, note that the line width is wide and some of the fine details can not be seen.
^ In actual practice, only five rings are generally visible because some alpha energies are almost identical.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The bright rim of a sunspot, observed in emission in monochromatic light of some spectral line (H[alpha] or Ca II).

^ Each halo ring is identified by its isotope, and its alpha energy level is stated in MeV (million electron volts).
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

This is for liquid scintillation counting where random effects cause a variation in the number of visible photons generated per alpha decay.

Alpha counting

.The best way to test for (and measure) many alpha emitters is to use alpha-particle spectroscopy as it is common to place a drop of the test solution on a metal disk which is then dried out to give a uniform coating on the disk.^ Bq is just the time per second that an alpha particle hits ana rea..how many energy carries 150G alpha particles?
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I was very surprised, because it's an alpha emitter, which is a heavy ionizer, but generally it's a difficult one to use if you were to have it ingested in food or something like that.
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The stuff is such a strong alpha emitter, it can be used a space heater, reaching a temperature of 750K, and making a little blue glow in atmopshere.
  • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

This is then used as the test sample. .If the thickness of the layer formed on the disk is too thick then the lines of the spectrum are broadened, this is because some of the energy of the alpha particles is lost during their movement through the layer of active material.^ The energy of a beta particle is determined by the thickness of material it can penetrate.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In actual practice, only five rings are generally visible because some alpha energies are almost identical.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (If it did not do it almost instantaneously, the halo could not be formed properly, for too much of the alpha particles would be gone within even a minute and a half.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

An alternative method is to use internal liquid scintillation where the sample is mixed with a scintillation cocktail. .When the light emitted is then counted, some machines will record the amount of light energy per radioactive decay event.^ Different separation techniques differ dramatically in the amount of energy required for a single stage, so a low energy cost technique can offset a larger number of stages, or a higher cost per stage.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium-210 is also radioactive and decays by emitting alpha particles.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After testing some other types of lamps, I've concluded that there is a wide variation in the amount of radioactive element in the lamps.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Due to the imperfections of the liquid scintillation method (such as a failure for all the photons to be detected, cloudy or coloured samples can be difficult to count) and the fact that random quenching can reduce the number of photons generated per radioactive decay it is possible to get a broadening of the alpha spectra obtained through liquid scintillation.^ Its decay products are much easier to detect because they readily stick to dust in the air and typically have a short half-life, making them more radioactive.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We might expect such anomalies if large air releases escaped the detection of the air-sampling efforts.
  • ATSDR - PHA - US DOE Mound Facility [a/k/a Mound Plant (USDOE)], Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As an atom of U-238 gives off its billions of alpha and beta particles, it gradually decays (loses its radioactivity).
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is likely that these liquid scintillation spectra will be subject to a Gaussian broadening rather than the distortion exhibited when the layer of active material on a disk is too thick.^ The B-E Condensate if these elements were created due cooling rather than the big bang that the condensate expansion is the big bang but that it didn't allow for certain isotopes to be part of the condensate.
  • EvC Forum: polonium halos 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evcforum.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These preliminary findings suggest that paternal exposure to radionuclides is a more likely risk factor for childhood cancer than exposure to external radiation.
  • PilgrimWatch - Pilgrim Nuclear - Health Impact 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.pilgrimwatch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These are easy halted by thin layers of material (plastic, skin, etc.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A third energy dispersive method for counting alpha particles is to use a semiconductor detector.^ Bq is just the time per second that an alpha particle hits ana rea..how many energy carries 150G alpha particles?
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Using a wire mesh instead of aluminum foil for the window allows alpha and beta particles to enter the chamber more easily.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A device using electric and magnetic fields to accelerate beams of particles-usually electrons, positrons, protons, or antiprotons-to high energies for experimental purposes.

.From left to right the peaks are due to 209Po, 210Po, 239Pu and 241Am.^ You are left with a Rn-222 halo misidentified as a Po-210 halo (remember these are the ones that are about the same size).
  • EvC Forum: polonium halos 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evcforum.net [Source type: General]

^ Po-210 is the third longest lived (the longest lived isotope is Po-209 with a 109 year half-life).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assuming an average composition of 93.4% Pu-239, 6.0% Pu-240, and 0.6% Pu-241 (with negligible amounts of other isotopes), the following properties of WG plutonium can be calculated.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fact that isotopes such as 239Pu and 241Am have more than one alpha line indicates that the nucleus has the ability to be in different discrete energy levels (like a molecule can).^ This is another thermal concentration technique, light isotopes evaporate more rapidly than heavier ones.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this form plutonium is at its maximum density, some 19.84 at 20 C. The atoms in the alpha phase are essentially covalently bonded (as opposed to metallically bonded), giving it physical properties more nearly like a mineral than a metal.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The data for plutonium-239 and the uranium isotopes indicate that the levels of these radionuclides in the environment have always been very low and that they have never been a public health hazard.
  • ATSDR - PHA - US DOE Mound Facility [a/k/a Mound Plant (USDOE)], Miamisburg, Montgomery County, Ohio 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Occurrence and production

.Polonium is a very rare element in nature because of the short half-life of all its isotopes.^ Polonium is a naturally occurring radioactive element.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is all keyed to half-life.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Like the A and B halos, it has a very short half life.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.It is found in uranium ores at about 100 micrograms per metric ton (1 part in 1010), which is approximately 0.2% of the abundance of radium.^ A very rare element in nature, polonium is found in uranium ores at about 100 micrograms per metric ton (1:10^10).
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ About 10 39 tons.

^ To obtain uranium from carnotite, the ore is finely ground and treated with a hot solution of caustic soda and potash to dissolve out uranium, radium, and vanadium.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The amounts in the Earth's crust are not harmful.^ Calculations using the amount of radioactive materials known to exist in the Earth's crust show that the energy available is in good agreement with a cooling time of 4.6 billion years.
  • Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.lpl.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polonium has been found in tobacco smoke from tobacco leaves grown with phosphate fertilizers.^ This coincided with the increase in the use of phosphate fertilizers by tobacco growers - calcium phosphate ore accumulates uranium and slowly releases radon gas.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1975, Philip Morris scientists wondered whether the secret to tobacco growers longevity in the Caucasus might be that farmers there avoided phosphate fertilizers.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Much of the lung cancer hazard of tobacco smoking actually comes from polonium deposited on smoke particles, not chemical carcinogens.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21][22][23]

Neutron capture

Synthesis by (n,γ) reaction
.In 1934 an experiment showed that when natural 209Bi is bombarded with neutrons, 210Bi is created, which then decays to 210Po via β decay.^ In 1934 it was discovered that it could be manufactured by bombarding natural bismuth (Bi-209) with neutrons to form Bi-210.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As noted in a variety of places on the web, it is entirely artificial — it doesn't occur naturally, but has to be created by irradiating bismuth in a nuclear reactor or particle accelerator — and it has a half life of 138 days, decaying via alpha emission.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I think -209 would be the "natural" isotope you get from natural decays.
  • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

.The final purification is done pyrochemically followed by liquid-liquid extraction techniques.^ Electromagnetic separation Gaseous diffusion Thermal liquid diffusion Gas Centrifuge Separation Aerodynamic Separation In addition serious attention continues to be paid to the following techniques: .
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .Polonium may now be made in milligram amounts in this procedure which uses high neutron fluxes found in nuclear reactors.^ A 1 gigawatt nuclear reactor will produce about 3.75 kg of neutrons during the course of a year (assuming constant operation).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The name derives from the Italian born physicist "Enrico Fermi", who built the first man made nuclear reactor.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ While the minimum fatal amount might be a milligram, what’s to say that a couple of hundred milligrams, in the form of finely divided powder (> 80 nanometer diameter) wasn’t used?
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only about 100 grams are produced each year, practically all of it in Russia, making polonium exceedingly rare.^ Polonium is so exceedingly rare that only about 100 grams is believed to be produced each year.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A 1 gigawatt nuclear reactor will produce about 3.75 kg of neutrons during the course of a year (assuming constant operation).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Just as man cannot create life in the smallest bug or blade of dried grass, so he cannot make granite or produce polonium halos.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

[25][26]

Proton capture

Synthesis by (p,n) and (p,2n) reactions
.It has been found that the longer-lived isotopes of polonium can be formed by proton bombardment of bismuth using a cyclotron.^ Specialist research reactors, used to make radioactive isotopes for medical applications, also produce polonium-210.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The longer lived isotope Am-243 (half-life 7370 years) is another possible fissile material.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Isotopes that decay quickly have short half lives; those that decay more slowly have longer half lives.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.Other more neutron rich isotopes can be formed by the irradiation of platinum with carbon nuclei.^ The neutron generator could then produce isotopes for use by other laboratories, hence the reference to market samples.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It would almost seem like some forms of death are more acceptable than others in the anti-terrorism community!!!
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Polonium has more known isotopes than any other element with 27 (all radioactive).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27]

Applications

.When it is mixed or alloyed with beryllium, polonium can be a neutron source: beryllium releases a neutron upon absorption of an alpha particle that is supplied by 210Po.^ Polonium 210 is a pure alpha emitter.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Plutonium-beryllium alloy is used as a laboratory neutron source.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium-210 is also radioactive and decays by emitting alpha particles.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been used in this capacity as a neutron trigger or initiator for nuclear weapons.^ In fact, Hobo was the alpha-particle source in the neutron- producing initiators of at least the first generation of atomic weapons.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasma focus devices are great basic learning tools but are not viable candidates for neutron initiators in a portable nuclear weapon.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Standing behind a diagram of an implosion device does not necessarily imply that Pakistan used the Chinese bomb design as a basis of its nuclear weapons.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a license is needed to own and operate this form of neutron source.^ Didn’t another Murdoch owned news source claim Iran was working with neutron initiators in 2008?
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In practice however weapon design states seem to shoot for bright neutron sources yielding above 10^8 nuets per pulse.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28] Other uses include the following.
.
  • Devices that eliminate static charges in textile mills and other places.^ Polonium has been used in devices that ionize the air to eliminate accumulation of electrostatic charges.
    • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Echo has found wide application in static-eliminator devices, for example, in paper and textile plants.
    • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

    [29] .However, beta particle sources are more commonly used and are less dangerous.^ It's interesting that it is used commercially though, given that it is more dangerous than "deadly" plutonium.
    • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However, so that annealing of the radiohalos would not occur above 150ºC, all the phases of the entire suite had to have intruded so rapidly that the entire suite cooled below 150ºC more or less at the same time.
    • Implications of Polonium Radiohalos in Nested Plutons of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, Yosemite, California - Answers in Genesis 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ In addition, because the lighter-weight beta particle has more energy, it can go a greater distance than the alpha particle before it comes to rest.
    • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A non-radioactive alternative is to use a high-voltage DC power supply to ionise air positively or negatively as required.^ It is easily replaced with non-radioactive supplies.
    • Dr. Hulda Clark Information Center - CLEANSING PROGRAMS 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.drclark.net [Source type: General]

    ^ The polonium 210 element emits alpha particles (positively charged helium atoms) that collide with molecules of air, creating a supply of oxygen and nitrogen ions sufficient to neutralize both positive and negative static charges.
    • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Using known radioactive information, he was able to positively identify each of the three types of radiohalos.
    • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

    [30]
  • .
  • 210Po can be used as an atomic heat source to power radioisotope thermoelectric generators via thermoelectric materials.^ Since nearly all alpha radiation can be easily stopped by ordinary containers and upon hitting its surface releases its energy, 210Po has been used as a lightweight heat source to power thermoelectric cells in artificial satellites.
    • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A 210Po heat source was also used in each of the Lunokhod rovers deployed on the surface of the Moon, to keep their internal components warm during the lunar nights.
    • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The isotope Pu-238 is useful for radioisotope-powered thermoelectric generators to power long duration deep space probes due to its high heat output and long lifetime.
    • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [31]
  • .
  • Because of its very high toxicity, polonium can be used as a poison (see, for example, Alexander Litvinenko poisoning).
  • Polonium is also used to eliminate dust on film.^ I was intrigued by the idea of using an ion chamber with a bit of radioactive material inside as a resistor-like circuit element for very high impedance circuits.
    • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I was very surprised, because it's an alpha emitter, which is a heavy ionizer, but generally it's a difficult one to use if you were to have it ingested in food or something like that.
    • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Litvinenko's poisoning no longer looks impossibly exotic, particularly as Polonium 210 now seems more available than I'd previously understood.
    • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

    [32]

Toxicity

Overview

.By mass, polonium-210 is around 250,000 times more toxic than hydrogen cyanide (the actual LD50 for 210Po is about 1 microgram for an 80 kg person (see below) compared with about 250 milligrams for hydrogen cyanide[33]).^ Q. How about Polonium-210 ?
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Somewhere in the world, someone who had never even heard of Polonium 210 until this month is thinking, `250 billion times more toxic than cyanide?
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If we take the estimate of 0.12 micrograms as the lethal ingested dose, then the comparable HCN dose is about 50 milligrams, which is about 400,000 times larger.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

.The main hazard is its intense radioactivity (as an alpha emitter), which makes it very difficult to handle safely: one gram of Po will self-heat to a temperature of around 500 °C (932 °F).^ I would also say that inhaled makes murder quite difficult, in this case, the set-up is very important, and not that easy.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It makes Po out of itself, in a process called radioactive decay.
  • Dr. Hulda Clark Information Center - CLEANSING PROGRAMS 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.drclark.net [Source type: General]

^ I was very surprised, because it's an alpha emitter, which is a heavy ionizer, but generally it's a difficult one to use if you were to have it ingested in food or something like that.
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Even in microgram amounts, handling 210Po is extremely dangerous, requiring specialized equipment and strict handling procedures.^ Po-210 is highly toxic and dangerous to handle.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the equipment required is simple, the power requirement (for heat) is extremely large, although this can be reduced if waste heat is available from other industrial processes.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Filtering Mainstream Smoke Efforts to filter and remove PO-210 from cigarette smoke began in the 1960s, although documents show that none of the filters tested removed substantial amounts of PO-210.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

.Alpha particles emitted by polonium will damage organic tissue easily if polonium is ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, although they do not penetrate the epidermis and hence are not hazardous if the polonium is outside the body.^ Polonium-210 is also radioactive and decays by emitting alpha particles.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alpha particles are hazardous only if they are emitted inside the body (i.e.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The polonium 210 element emits alpha particles (positively charged helium atoms) that collide with molecules of air, creating a supply of oxygen and nitrogen ions sufficient to neutralize both positive and negative static charges.
  • Litvinenko's Polonium Poisoning [Archive] - Bad Astronomy and Universe Today Forum 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.bautforum.com [Source type: Original source]

Acute effects

.The median lethal dose (LD50) for acute radiation exposure is generally about 4.5 Sv.^ If we take the estimate of 0.12 micrograms as the lethal ingested dose, then the comparable HCN dose is about 50 milligrams, which is about 400,000 times larger.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The estimated LD50 (quantity that will kill half of the people absorbing it) is 10 Ci, given the high specific activity this makes the lethal dose about 1 mg.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Smoking two packs of cigarettes a day imparts a radiation dose by alpha particles of about 1,300 millirem per year.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] .The committed effective dose equivalent 210Po is 0.51 µSv/Bq if ingested, and 2.5 µSv/Bq if inhaled.^ You can buy Po-210 on the web, though not generally in the quantities needed for a lethal dose.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At a committed effective dose equivalent (CEDE) of 5.14×10^−7 Sieverts per Becquerel (1.9×103 mrem/microcurie) for ingested 210Po and a specific activity of 1.66×10^14 Bq/gram (4.49×103 Curies/gram)[4] the amount of material required to produce a lethal dose of 10 Sieverts would be only 0.12 micrograms (1.17×10−7g).
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If anyone has been internally contaminated by inadvertently ingesting or inhaling polonium-210, it is most unlikely that they would receive a radiation dose high enough to give rise to any immediate medical symptoms.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Since 210Po has an activity of 166 TBq (4486.5 Ci) per gram[35] (1 gram produces 166×1012 decays per second), a fatal 4.5 Sv (J/kg) dose can be caused by ingesting 8.8 MBq (238 microcuries, µCi), about 50 nanograms (ng), or inhaling 1.8 MBq (48 µCi), about 10 ng.^ Ratio 210 Po: 238 U .
  • Implications of Polonium Radiohalos in Nested Plutons of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, Yosemite, California - Answers in Genesis 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The source strength of a Po-Be source is about 10^6 neutrons/sec per curie.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 10 -43 seconds.

.One gram of 210Po could thus in theory poison 20 million people of whom 10 million would die.^ Continued hydrothermal fluid transport of Po would have also replaced the Po in the radiocenters as it a-decayed to produce the Po radiohalos, thus progressively supplying the 5 x 10 9 Po atoms needed to form fully registered Po radiohalos.
  • Implications of Polonium Radiohalos in Nested Plutons of the Tuolumne Intrusive Suite, Yosemite, California - Answers in Genesis 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.answersingenesis.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Those beta isotopes could invisibly lengthen the clocks found within the Po214 and Po-210 halos.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sorry my fault ( none / 0 ) One mg of Po 210 is said to be liked 5 gr of Ra..
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.The actual toxicity of 210Po is lower than these estimates, because radiation exposure that is spread out over several weeks (the biological half-life of polonium in humans is 30 to 50 days[36]) is somewhat less damaging than an instantaneous dose.^ Polonium 210 is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.376 days.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These are Po-210, Po-214, and Po218.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of a half life of 138 days like Polonium-210 has, it has a half life of over 450 years.
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has been estimated that a median lethal dose of 210Po is 0.015 GBq (0.4 mCi), or 0.089 micrograms, still an extremely small amount.^ It is about ten times more dense that water so a gram is still a pretty small physical amount.
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What about 'innocent bystanders' There have been reports of small amounts of polonium-210 contamination in areas used by the public.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The estimated LD50 (quantity that will kill half of the people absorbing it) is 10 Ci, given the high specific activity this makes the lethal dose about 1 mg.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37][38]

Long term (chronic) effects

.In addition to the acute effects, radiation exposure (both internal and external) carries a long-term risk of death from cancer of 5–10% per Sv.^ The long term risk would also be small.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Blood changes can occur, increased risk tumors, genetic effects and temporary sterility in men 0-25 rads - Risk of premature aging, excess tumors, genetic effects Long-Term Effects: A cell damaged by radiation may produce damaged daughter cells which can begin the carcinogenic process (the development of tumor).
  • PilgrimWatch - Pilgrim Nuclear - Health Impact 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.pilgrimwatch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For workers monitored for internal radiation exposures, those receiving doses of 3 rem (30 mSv) or more, there was an increased risk for cancers of the blood and lymph system as well as mouth, throat, esophagus and stomach cancers.
  • PilgrimWatch - Pilgrim Nuclear - Health Impact 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.pilgrimwatch.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .The general population is exposed to small amounts of polonium as a radon daughter in indoor air; the isotopes 214Po and 218Po are thought to cause the majority[39] of the estimated 15,000-22,000 lung cancer deaths in the US every year that have been attributed to indoor radon.^ POLONIUM IN THE ENVIRONMENT After decay of radon or its daughters in air, polonium deposits on plants.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The A halo was polonium 210 (Po210); the B halo was polonium 214 (Po-214); the C halo was polonium 218 (Po-218).
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of building materials.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40] .Tobacco smoking causes additional exposure to polonium.^ The trace amount of Polonium 210 in tobacco and tobacco smoke is not a source of danger to smokers.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major tobacco manufacturers discovered that polonium was part of tobacco and tobacco smoke more than 40 years ago and attempted, but failed, to remove this radioactive substance from their products.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Richardson RB. Further investigations of polonium-210 in tobacco and smoke.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[41]

Regulatory exposure limits

.The maximum allowable body burden for ingested 210Po is only 1.1 kBq (30 nCi), which is equivalent to a particle massing only 6.8 picograms.^ The maximum allowable body burden is 0.03 microcuries (6.7x10^12 g).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The isotope Po-210 (the only readily accessible isotope) is naturally formed from the decay of radium: .
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An originating isotope can only be identified with certainty if (1) it emits alpha particles, and (2) it is immediately preceded by another alpha particle-emitting isotope, which is the case with Po-218.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

.The maximum permissible workplace concentration of airborne 210Po is about 10 Bq/m3 (3 × 10−10 µCi/cm³).^ After confirming PO-210 was in tobacco and tobacco smoke, the tobacco industry sought to remove PO-210 from its products but ultimately failed to substantially reduce its concentration in the tobacco leaf.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You are left with a Rn-222 halo misidentified as a Po-210 halo (remember these are the ones that are about the same size).
  • EvC Forum: polonium halos 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evcforum.net [Source type: General]

^ The source strength of a Po-Be source is about 10^6 neutrons/sec per curie.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] The target organs for polonium in humans are the spleen and liver.[43] .As the spleen (150 g) and the liver (1.3 to 3 kg) are much smaller than the rest of the body, if the polonium is concentrated in these vital organs, it is a greater threat to life than the dose which would be suffered (on average) by the whole body if it were spread evenly throughout the body, in the same way as caesium or tritium (as T2O).^ The potential use as a health threat would be much smaller.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Radon gas from these rocks can be trapped in poorly ventilated buildings, thus giving the occupants a larger than normal radiation dose.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the spleen and kidneys concentrate polonium more than other tissues except for temporary deposition in the Jung after inhalation of an insoluble form.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

.210Po is widely used in industry, and readily available with little regulation or restriction.^ Po is the most widely available.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polonium-210 sources may be used as anti-static devices on spray guns or the polishing of plastics in industry.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the US, a tracking system run by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission will be implemented in 2007 to register purchases of more than 16 curies (590 GBq) of polonium 210 (enough to make up 5,000 lethal doses).^ More on Polonium-210 .
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also served as Director of Technical Services at the New Haven Preservation Trust, during which time he conducted the historic resource survey of the City of New Haven, covering more than 6,000 buildings, and served as historic preservation rehabilitation consultant for the New Haven Historic District Commission.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But Bill Cabage, a lab spokesman, said it sold no polonium 210 because Russia was able to do so much more inexpensively.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

The IAEA "is said to be considering tighter regulations... .There is talk that it might tighten the polonium reporting requirement by a factor of 10, to 1.6 curies (59 GBq)."^ British American Tobacco scientists concluded that although there might be "a slight selective removal of polonium-210 ," the "effect, if significant, is too small to be useful."
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ What about 'innocent bystanders' There have been reports of small amounts of polonium-210 contamination in areas used by the public.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is reduced by the reflector and explosive surrounding it, a light-weight weapon might attenuate it by a factor of 5-10.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[44]

Famous poisoning cases

.Notably, the murder of Alexander Litvinenko, a Russian dissident, in 2006 was announced as due to 210Po poisoning[45][46] (see Alexander Litvinenko poisoning).^ Traces of killer substance at London hotel POLICE revealed yesterday that several rooms in the London hotel where Alexander Litvinenko met two Russian businessmen had been contaminated with polonium-210, the substance that killed him.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 3, 2006 23:19 86: Peter: allegedly Po-210 is a really nastily toxic heavy metal poison as well as being radioactive.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reply rwcole December 1st, 2006 at 7:05 pm 73 Let’s see if Sir Clusterfuck the Paranoid quits huggin Russians….
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to Prof. Nick Priest of Middlesex University, an environmental toxicologist and radiation expert, speaking on Sky News on December 2, Litvinenko was probably the first person ever to die of the acute α-radiation effects of 210Po.[47]
.It has also been suggested that Irène Joliot-Curie was the first person ever to die from the radiation effects of polonium (due to a single intake) in 1956.[48] She was accidentally exposed to polonium in 1946 when a sealed capsule of the element exploded on her laboratory bench.^ OCR for page 159 Polonium INTRODUCTION Polonium was the first radioactive element that Marie and Pierre Curie separated from the uranium ore pitchblende.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It was first isolated in1898 thanks to the work of the distinguished Polish scientist Marie Curie, hence the name polonium.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Imagine if Sherlock Holmes worked with Marie Curie to solve the first Polonium poisoning case in London.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

A decade later, on 17 March 1956, she died in Paris from leukemia which may have been caused by that exposure.
.According to the book The Bomb in the Basement, several death cases in Israel during 1957-1969 were caused by 210Po.^ Q. And did that cause Philip Morris to take any action [regarding the PO-210 issue]?
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Pictorial symbols of death and decay representative of such processes are to be found in several alchemistic books.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inhalation experiments showed PO-210 to be a cause of lung cancers in animals.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[49] .A leak was discovered at a Weizmann Institute laboratory in 1957. Traces of 210Po were found on the hands of professor Dror Sadeh, a physicist who researched radioactive materials.^ Po-210 has a very short 138 day half-life (which is why it is so radioactive weight-for- weight compared to other alpha emitters).
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The fact that he met the two Russians before and not after going to the sushi restaurant means that, if Po traces were indeed found at the hotel he might not have been poisoned at the sushi restaurant.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who co-ordinates international safeguards for safety and security of radioactive material?
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Medical tests indicated no harm, but the tests did not include bone marrow. Sadeh died from cancer. .One of his students died of leukemia, and two colleagues died after a few years, both from cancer.^ The sentence, however, was modified to one of perpetual imprisonment, and he was confined in the Castle of San Leo, where he died in 1795, after four years of imprisonment, in what manner is not known.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

.The issue was investigated secretly, and there was never any formal admission that a connection between the leak and the deaths had existed.^ Hence, they held that there is a correspondence or analogy existing between things spiritual and things physical, the same laws operating in each realm.
  • Alchemy: Ancient And Modern by H. Stanley Redgrove : Arthur's Classic Novels 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC arthursclassicnovels.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In it, Professor Marable writes there is a practical connection between scholarship and struggle, between social analysis and social transformation.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[50]

Treatment

.It has been suggested that chelation agents such as British Anti-Lewisite (dimercaprol) can be used to decontaminate humans.^ It has been suggested that blending such recycled fuel is a useful means to "denature", or render proliferation-resistant, supplies of retired weapons-grade plutonium.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .In one experiment, rats were given a fatal dose of 1.45 MBq/kg (8.7 ng/kg) of 210Po; all untreated rats were dead after 44 days, but 90% of the rats treated with the chelation agent HOEtTTC remained alive after 5 months.^ Po-210 is an alpha emitter with a half-life of 138.39 days.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sorry my fault ( none / 0 ) One mg of Po 210 is said to be liked 5 gr of Ra..
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ You are left with a Rn-222 halo misidentified as a Po-210 halo (remember these are the ones that are about the same size).
  • EvC Forum: polonium halos 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evcforum.net [Source type: General]

[52]

Commercial products containing polonium

.No nuclear authority has asserted that a commercial product was a likely source for the poisoning of Litvinenko.^ Astute readers of the daily fishwraps will have no doubt been aware of the Litvinenko poisoning .
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What we actually need is a trustworthy source of data and seeing as we are talking about spooks and nuclear establishments here, there ain't no such thing.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Litvinenko's poisoning no longer looks impossibly exotic, particularly as Polonium 210 now seems more available than I'd previously understood.
  • Charlie's Diary: A dirty question 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

However, as Prof. Peter D. Zimmerman says, "Polonium 210 is surprisingly common. ...Polonium sources with about .10 percent of a lethal dose are readily available—even in a product sold on Amazon.com."^ Sixty two percent of the workers had a lifetime dose of less than < 10 mSv (.1 rem) and 9% had a lifetime dose greater than 100 mSv (1 rem).
  • PilgrimWatch - Pilgrim Nuclear - Health Impact 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.pilgrimwatch.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It rarely makes up more than a small fraction of one percent of plutonium composition, but the neutron production and heating can make it very troublesome even so.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Basically, whoever it was added the information that the "lethal dose" is taken to be 10 Sievert.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

[53]
.Potentially lethal amounts of polonium are present in anti-static brushes sold to photographers.^ Polonium-210 is a highly radioactive isotope that has certain very specific uses, for instance in anti-static brushes for photographic film.
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Anti-static guns and nozzles contain a small amount of polonium-210, encapsulated in a strip of copper and mounted in a stainless steel cartridge.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium-210 sources may be used as anti-static devices on spray guns or the polishing of plastics in industry.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] Many of the devices are available by mail order. General Electric markets a static eliminator module with 500 µCi (20 MBq), roughly 2.5 times the lethal dose of 210Po if 100%-ingested, for US$71;[55] Staticmaster sells replacement units with the same amount (500 µCi) of 210Po for US$36.[56] In USA, the devices with no more than 500 µCi of (sealed) 210Po per unit can be bought in any amount under a "general license"[57] which means that a buyer need not be registered by any authorities: the general license "is effective without the filing of an application with the Commission or the issuance of a licensing document to a particular person."
.If these sources were used to collect the amount of polonium likely used in the poisoning—and one could devise a method of separating the polonium from its protective casing—it would take 10–100 modules for price of US$360 to US$7,100. That such a thing could be done is extremely difficult according to the manufacturers[citation needed] and would be highly dangerous to anyone attempting to do so without some special equipment like a glovebox.^ Why use such an exotic method like polonium?
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That would be like 10 neutrons or so.
  • ArmsControlWonk: UD3 Initiators: A Red Herring? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.armscontrolwonk.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to us today since small amounts are emitted from certain kinds of building materials.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes sources of polonium used in industry are stolen or lost.^ What precautions are taken to ensure industrial and medical sources can't be lost?
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q11 What precautions are taken to ensure industrial and medical sources can't be lost?
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polonium-210 sources may be used as anti-static devices on spray guns or the polishing of plastics in industry.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), there were registered at least 8 cases of loss of control of potentially lethal polonium sources in the USA during 2006.[citation needed]
.Tiny amounts of such radioisotopes are sometimes used in the laboratory and for teaching purposes—typically of the order of 4–40 kBq (0.1–1.0 µCi), in the form of sealed sources, with the polonium deposited on a substrate or in a resin or polymer matrix—are often exempt from licensing by the NRC and similar authorities as they are not considered hazardous.^ At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element.
  • Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC nobelprize.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ LiH reacts violently with water, producing hydrogen gas (a fact that makes it useful for special purpose hydrogen gas generators, such as those used to inflate lifeboats).
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sealed radioactive sources are manufactured in such a way as to prevent leakage.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Small amounts of 210Po are manufactured for sale to the public in the United States by a company called Spectrum Techniques as 'needle sources' for laboratory experimentation, and are retailed by scientific supply companies such as United Nuclear.^ A second tactic the tobacco companies have used to avoid the PO-210 issue in smoking and health litigation is to attribute PO-210’s incorporation into tobacco to natural phenomena that are out of the manufacturer’s control.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Tobacco farmers in developed countries primarily use manufactured fertilizer high in phosphates produced from apatite rock that contains radium-226 and descendant radioisotopes such as lead-210 and PO-210.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest use of lithium compounds in the United States are lithium carbonate additives in ceramics and glass manufacturing processes.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It would require about 15,000 of these 210Po sources, at a total cost of about $1 million, to obtain a toxic quantity of polonium.^ These are Po-210, Po-214, and Po218.
  • CHAPTER FIVE THE ORIGIN OF THE EARTH 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.evolution-facts.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Both of these are the mechanisms by which depleted uranium is deposited in the body, so it’s not exactly impossible for it to happen this way with polonium-210.
  • Firedoglake » “Weaponized” Polonium-210 and What It May Mean 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ March 5, 2007 15:09 25: Colin, why would they be bothered about getting into a house whilst wearing armour?
  • Anachronisms - Charlie's Diary 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.antipope.org [Source type: Original source]

.It would also require substantial processing to extract the polonium; the actual polonium is a layer of plating which in turn is plated with a material such as gold.^ Most processes on Earth are in a state of balance, in which one process (such as erosion of the continents) is counteracted by others (such as emplacement of new continental material by volcanoes and tectonic uplift).
  • Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.lpl.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This phenomenon allows, for example, convection in the Earth's mantle, which is crucial to Plate Tectonics, and in turn to many geophysical processes.
  • Is There Really Scientific Evidence for a Young Earth? 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.lpl.arizona.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In solvent extraction processes the uranium ore is removed from acidic ore leach-liquors by extracting with a solvent mixture such as tributylphosphate in kerosene.
  • MILNET: Carey Sublette's Nuclear Weapons FAQ 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.milnet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This allows the alpha radiation (used in experiments such as cloud chambers) while preventing the polonium from being released and presenting a toxic hazard.^ Since nearly all alpha radiation can be easily stopped by ordinary containers and upon hitting its surface releases its energy, 210Po has been used as a lightweight heat source to power thermoelectric cells in artificial satellites.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Because the ion chamber is so small, the LED will only light in the presence of a significant amount of radiation, most likely alpha particles.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The use of these technologies, operated by smart, dedicated volunteers, has allowed the U.S. to smite such adversaries as the Serbian and Iraqi armies at scant cost to itself.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to United Nuclear, they typically sell between four and eight sources per year.^ State Department counselor Philip D. Zelikow, author of the proposal, argued that the United States has compromised its prospects of success by reaching too far, according to the sources.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[58][59]
.According to some estimates,[60] the cost of the quantity of pure polonium-210 used to kill Litvinenko would be around £20 million (US$39 million).^ Polonium 210 is a pure alpha emitter.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A reader has written in to clear up some of the mystery around polonium-210 for us.
  • Firedoglake » More on Polonium-210 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC firedoglake.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Q106 What are the uses of polonium-210?
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[61] .However, this estimation is based on retail prices of commercially available demonstration radiation sources with very small activities and cannot be considered as reasonable.^ Most people however are exposed to very low levels of ionising radiation and there is not much evidence of harm to their long-term health.
  • The Society for Radiological Protection - Services - Frequently Asked Questions 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.srp-uk.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The long averaging time makes it possible to see radiation from very weak sources.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This very simple detector demonstrates how easily an effective radiation sensor may be made with a minimum of effort.
  • Ion Chambers 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.techlib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Tobacco

.The presence of polonium in tobacco smoke has been known since the early 1960s.^ Jenkins R, Osdene T, Segura G. The concentration of polonium-210 in tobacco and its distribution in smoke.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The industry has been aware at least since the 1960s that cigarettes contain significant levels of polonium.
  • History News Network 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC hnn.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further investigations of polonium-210 in tobacco and smoke.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[62][63] .Some of the world's biggest tobacco firms researched ways to remove the substance—to no avail—over a 40-year period but never published the results.^ However, since that time I have had some concern as to whether the results of this work should be published.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Refusal to Publish Research and Fear of Liability Lawyer-directed control, suppression, and, in some instances, spoliation of internal tobacco industry smoking and health research for fear of litigation liability has been described in the academic literature and in judicial proceedings.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A world-wide protest resulted in the CNIC reverting back to the name tungsten pending a further review, which has never occurred.
  • History of the Origin of the Chemical Elements and Their Discoverers 16 September 2009 1:01 UTC www.nndc.bnl.gov [Source type: Reference]

[23]
.Radioactive polonium-210 contained in phosphate fertilizers is absorbed by the roots of plants (such as tobacco) and stored in its tissues.^ The binding of polonium-210 to rat tissues.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This coincided with the increase in the use of phosphate fertilizers by tobacco growers - calcium phosphate ore accumulates uranium and slowly releases radon gas.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Polonium-210 in lungs and soft tissues of cigarette smokers.
  • Health Risks of Radon and Other Internally Deposited Alpha-Emitters: BEIR IV 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[64][65][66] .Tobacco plants fertilized by rock phosphates contain polonium-210, which emits alpha radiation estimated to cause about 11,700 lung cancer deaths annually worldwide.^ Polonium 210 is a pure alpha emitter.
  • European Tribune - Community, Politics & Progress. 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC www.eurotrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q. How about Polonium-210 ?
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PO-210 emits a carcinogenic form of radiation called alpha radiation.
  • Waking a Sleeping Giant: The Tobacco Industry's Response to the Polonium-210 Issue -- Muggli et al. 98 (9): 1643 -- American Journal of Public Health 30 January 2010 3:03 UTC ajph.aphapublications.org [Source type: Academic]

[23][67][68]

See also

Notes

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  31. ^ Hanslmeier, Arnold (2002). The sun and space weather. Springer. p. 183. ISBN 1402006845. http://books.google.com/books?id=07TEK_w3A4AC&pg=PA183. 
  32. ^ Emsley, John (2001). Nature's Building Blocks. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 331. 
  33. ^ "Hydrogen cyanide msds". http://www.physchem.ox.ac.uk/MSDS/HY/hydrogen_cyanide.html. 
  34. ^ a b "Health Impacts from Acute Radiation Exposure". http://www.pnl.gov/main/publications/external/technical_reports/PNNL-14424.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  35. ^ a b "Nuclide Safety Data Sheet: Polonium–210". http://hpschapters.org/northcarolina/NSDS/210PoPDF.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
  36. ^ "Effective half-life of polonium in the human". http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=7162390. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 
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External links


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also polonium

German

Chemical Element: Po (atomical number 84)

Noun

Polonium n
  1. polonium

Simple English

Polonium is a rare radioactive metalloid. It is chemical element 84 on the periodic table and its symbol is Po. It was discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie.

Polonium is highly unstable, radioactive and toxic. This makes it difficult to handle, and potentially dangerous, even in very small amounts. One gram of Po will self-heat to a temperature of around Template:Convert/°C.[1] It It also vaporizes easily.

Polonium has 33 isotopes, and all of them are radioactive. It is a very rare element in nature because of its short half-life. It is a breakdown product of uranium, and hence it is found in uranium ores.

The former Russian secret service agent Alexander Litvinenko was murdered by having a tiny amount of polonium introduced into a drink.

References

  1. "Polonium". Argonne National Laboratory. http://www.ead.anl.gov/pub/doc/polonium.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-05. 


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 17, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Polonium, which are similar to those in the above article.








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