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Poltava
Полтава
Korpusniy park in the city centre

Coat of arms
Map of Ukraine with Poltava highlighted.
Coordinates: 49°35′22″N 34°33′05″E / 49.58944°N 34.55139°E / 49.58944; 34.55139
Country
Oblast
Raion
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine
Flag of Poltava Oblast.svg Poltava Oblast
Poltavskyi Raion
Founded 8991
Government
 - Mayor Andriy Matkovsky
Area
 - Total 103.0 km2 (39.8 sq mi)
Elevation 132 m (433 ft)
Population (2005)
 - Total 308,509
 Density 2,995/km2 (7,757/sq mi)
Postal code 36000—36499
Website Official website in English
1The previously believed foundation date was 1174.
Alexander Square in 1850

Poltava (Ukrainian: Полтава, Polish: Połtawa) is a city in central Ukraine. It is the administrative center of the Poltava Oblast, as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Poltavskyi Raion within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as its own separate raion within the oblast. The current estimated population is 313,400 (as of 2004). The city lies on the banks of the river Vorskla.

Contents

History

It is still unknown when the city was founded. Baltavar Kubrat's grave was found in its vicinity, and its name derives from the title he, his predecessors and his successors bore. Though the town was not attested before 1174, municipal authorities chose to celebrate the town's 1100th anniversary in 1999, for reasons unknown. The settlement is indeed an old one, as archeologists unearthed a Paleolithic dwelling as well as Scythian remains within the city limits.

The present name of the city is traditionally connected to the settlement Ltava which is mentioned in the Hypatian Chronicle in 1174. The region belonged to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania from the 14th century. The Polish administration took over in 1569. In 1648 Poltava was captured by the Ruthenian-Polish magnate Jeremi Wiśniowiecki (1612-51). Poltava was the base of a distinguished regiment of the Ukrainian Cossacks. In 1667 the town passed to the Russian Empire.

In the Battle of Poltava on June 27-28, 1709 (Old Style), or 8 July (New Style), tsar Peter the First, commanding 53,000 troops, defeated a Swedish army of 19,000 troops led by Field Marshal Carl Gustaf Rehnskiöld (who had received the command of the army after the wounding of the Swedish king Charles XII on June 17). "Like a Swede at Poltava" remains a simile for "completely defeated" in Russian. The battle marked the end of Sweden as a great power and the rise of Russia as one.

In 1775, Poltava's Monastery of the Exaltation of the Cross (Russian: Крестовоздвиженский монастырь, Krestovozdvizhensky Monastyr) became the seat of bishops of the newly created Eparchy (Diocese) of Slaviansk and Kherson. This large new diocese included the lands of the Novorossiya Governorate and Azov Governorate north of the Black Sea. Since much of that area had been only recently conquered by Russia from the Ottoman Empire, and a large number of Orthodox Greek settlers had been invited to settle in the region, the Imperial Government picked a renowned Greek scholar, Eugenios Voulgaris to preside over the new diocese. After his retirement in 1779, he was replaced by another Greek theologian, Nikephoros Theotokis. [1][2]

In World War II, after the Red Army had cleared the Wehrmacht out of the Eastern Ukraine by the end of 1943 during the Dnieper–Carpathian Offensive, by the summer of 1944 the allied USAAF conducted a number of shuttle bombing raids against the Third Reich under the name of Operation Frantic, and used purpose-built bases in the Poltava area, as well as near Myrgorod, as eastern locations for landing B-17 Flying Fortress heavy bombers involved in those operations.

Sights

The centre of the old city is a semicircular Neoclassical square with the Tuscan column of cast iron (1805-11), commemorating the centenary of the Battle of Poltava and featuring 18 Swedish cannons captured in that battle. As Peter the Great celebrated his victory in the Saviour church, this 17th-century wooden shrine was carefully preserved to this day. The five-domed city cathedral, dedicated to the Exaltation of the Cross, is a superb monument of Cossack Baroque, built between 1699 and 1709. As a whole, the cathedral presents a unity which even the Neoclassical belltower has failed to mar. Another frothy Baroque church, dedicated to the Dormition of the Theotokos, was destroyed in 1934 and rebuilt in the 1990s.

Administrative divisions

The city is divided into three raions, or districts.

  • Oktiabrskiy (Zhovtneviy) raion, to the south-west with an area of 2077 hectares and a population of 147,600 in 2005. It's a largely residential area combining the Almazniy, Ognivka, Sadi-1 and Sadi-2 neighbourhoods, and also includes the city centre.
  • Kyivskiy raion, is the largest by area, comprising 5437 hectares, or 52.8% of the city total situated in the north and north-west. Its census in 2005 was 111,900. This district has a large industrial zone and includes
  • Leninskiy raion, to the east and south-east, in the valley of the Vorskla river, with an area of 2988 hectares and a population of 53,700 in 2005.

The villages of Rozsoshenci, Shcherbani, Kopili and Suprunivka are officially considered to be settlements outside the city, but actually constitute a part of Poltava agglomeration.

Transport and infrastructure

Railway station "Kyivskiy vokzal"

Transportation in Poltava is well-developed. The city has two major railway stations, and railway links with the cities of Kiev, Kharkiv, Kremenchuk and Krasnograd. The lines towards Kiev and Kharkiv are electrified and are used by an express train, a regular service with comfortable carriages. Electrification of the Poltava-Kharkiv line was completed in August 2008.[3] Avtovokzal is the city's intercity bus station. Buses for local municipal routes depart from "AC-2" (autostation #2 - along Shevchenko street) and "AC-3" (Zinkivska street).

City transportation is represented by the following:

Ticket prices for that kinds of city transport are respectively 0.75 UAH, 1.00 UAH and 1.25 UAH (as of June 2009).

Poltava has a domestic airport, situated in 5 km west outside the city limits near the village of Ivashki. The international highway M 03 (E40), which links Poltava with Kiev and Kharkiv, passes through the southern outskirts of Poltava city. There is also a regional highway P-17 crossing Poltava and linking it with Kremenchuk and Sumy.[4]

Pedestrians on Zhovtneva street

Education and science

Poltava has always been one of the most important science and education centres in Ukraine. Major universities and institutions of higher education include the following:

Astronomy

  • Poltava gravimetric observatory (PGO) is situated a bit north from city centre (27-29 Miasoyedov St.). Its main work directions are measurements of Earth rotation, latitude variations (applying zenith stars observations, lunar occultation observations and other)
  • Observational station of PGO in rural area, some 20 km east along the M03-E40 highway. Radiotelescope URAN-2 (Ukrainian: УРАН-2) is situated there too.

Famous people from Poltava and its region

Sports

The most popular sport is football. Two professional football teams are based in the city: Vorskla Poltava in the Ukrainian Premier League and FC Poltava in the Druha Liha. There are 3 stadiums in Poltava: Butovsky Vorskla Stadium (main city stadium) and 'Dynamo' are situated in the city centre and 'Lokomotiv' which is situated in Podil district.

Honors

A minor planet 2983 Poltava discovered in 1981 by Soviet astronomer Nikolai Stepanovich Chernykh is named after the city.[5]

References

  1. ^ Евгений Булгарис (Eugenios Voulgaris's biography) (Russian)
  2. ^ Никифор Феотоки (Nikephoros Theotoki's biography) (Russian)
  3. ^ "Poltava-Kharkiv rail line". http://gortransport.kharkov.ua/news/news.php?news_id=7022. Retrieved September 21, 2008. 
  4. ^ Полтава - План Схема. Киевская Военно-Картографическая Фабрика
  5. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. pp. 246. ISBN 3540002383. http://books.google.com/books?q=2983+Poltava+RW2. 

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

From Poltava foundation till nowadays

During ХІ-ХVІІ centuries Poltava lied between Rus and ‘Wild Field’ of nomads, later – between Grand DuchyPoltava history Lithuania and Golden Horde, Rech Pospolyta (nowadays Poland) and Moscow Empire. During numerous wars the city was destroyed many times, but always revived. In historic document dated back 1641, Poltava was mentioned as the city center for the 1st time.
National Liberty War against Poland turned Poltava into the military administrative center of Poltava regiment in the composition of Hetman Ukraine more than 350 years ago (1648-1775 ). Poltava Cossack commanders had very tense relations with ordinary people. This factor played the major role in Poltava battle, that had a great impact not only on the national history but also on the world one.
When multiple European interests crossed in the North War between Russia and Sweden in Ukraine and the latter, in the person of I. Mazepa, got a historic chance to obtain an independence, it was the resistance of History of PoltavaPoltava that undermined the united forces of I. Mazepa and Karl XII. 4-nd city population supported 4-nd Russian garrison under the command of the colonel O. Kelin. During 3 months they were fixing Swedish Army, which lost the best forces on the bastions and walls of the small Cossack fortress.
This factor made Peter I possible to defeat the troops of Karl XII and I. Mazepa. 290 years ago Poltava battle became a turning-point in the European history and for two becoming centuries had determined the further fate of Ukraine.
Up to XIX century Poltava, due to memorable event, had been visited by Katherine II, commanders O. Suvorov, M. Kutuzov, famous travelers. In 1802 eight thousand city became a province center.
Owing to the anniversary of Poltava battle, the best architects started to build up the province center as ‘small Petersburg’.
In the 1st quarter of XIX century an outstanding Poltava citizen I. Kotlyarevskiy gave Ukrainian people their own literary language and new Ukrainian literature. In 1846 Poltava intellectuals V. Bilozerskyi, G. Andruzkyi and others were enrolled to Cyril and Mefodiy Brotherhood, that was founded in Kyiv. Moreover, V. Bilozerskyi became the author of the regulations of the Brotherhood, and G. Andruzkyi prepared ‘Essays on the Constitution of the Republic’.
The main achievement of Poltava in XIX century was the reinforcement of not the productive capacities but spiritual potential: Poltava was the place of living or temporary work of such famous intellectuals as P. Myrnyi, I. Nechuy-Levytskyi, V. Korolenko, V. Dokuchayev, V. Vernadskyi, M. Vavilov, M. Sklifosovskyi, M. Kropyvnytskyi and others.
Poltava in XIX century:    Czarism’s activities directed on Poltava inhabiting with Jews resulted in the formation of the Jewish community in the center of the province (where resided more then 10 thousand Jews). It was Poltava where the political career of Ben-Tsvi Itskhak, the second president of Israel of 1950s, had started.
In the revolutionary events of 1917-1920s Poltava did not become the political center; her spiritual potential of those days was marked with idea flights, which were justly appreciated only in the 20th century. Y. Kondratyuk described the possibilities of space flights in the interplanetary space in 4 copy-books. The way to children hearts was paved by famous pedagogues A. Makarenko and G. Vashenko. During the fascist occupation of Poltava, that became the headquarters center of the army ‘North’, a considerable part of achievements were ruined. Post-war renewal of Poltava took place in 1950s, later the gasification processes began, television appeared.
In 1963 the first trolley-buses appeared in the streets of Poltava. The signs of new-born spirituality of Poltava became a new building of M. Hohol theatre (1958) and the revival of the building of the museum of local lore (1964). State independence of 1991, Poltava met being economically developed cultural center with population of more than 315 thousand people.
Nowadays city industry is represented with the artificial diamond and glass-cutter plants, gas-discharge tube plants, turbomechanical and autoaggregate plant, chemical engineering plant, ‘Electromotor’ and others) Poltava is proud of the names of the contemporary writers like O. Kovin’ka, L. Brazov, O. Chucha, F. Garin, M. Kazyduba, B. Levin, V. Myrnyi, P. Rotach, V. Kotlyar, L. Vernygora. There are 7 state museums in the city: museum of local lore, museum of arts, state reserve ‘Poltava battle field’, I. Kotlyarevskyi literary-memorial museums, V. Korolenko and P. Myrnyi literary-memorial museums, Y. Kondratyuk museum of aircraft and cosmonautics.
Poltava doll theatre brings joy and happiness not only to Ukrainian children but to children of other countries as well.
The most famous music groups of Poltava are ensemble ‘Poltava’ and group ‘Krayany’

http://welcome-to-poltava.com.ua

Part or all of this text stems from the original article at: http://welcome-to-poltava.com.ua


1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

There is more than one meaning of Poltava discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia. We are planning to let all links go to the correct meaning directly, but for now you will have to search it out from the list below by yourself. If you want to change the link that led you here yourself, it would be appreciated.


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Contents

English

Etymology

From Ukrainian Полтава (Poltáva).

Pronunciation

  • Hyphenation: Pol‧ta‧va

Proper noun

Singular
Poltava

Plural
-

Poltava

  1. A city in east-central Ukraine, administrative centre of Poltava province.
  2. Poltava province (oblast), in central Ukraine.

Synonyms

  • Ltava (historical)
  • (province): Poltava Oblast

Translations








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