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Leonardo da Vinci is regarded as a "Renaissance Man" and is one of the most recognizable polymaths.
.A polymath (Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής, "having learned much")[1] is a person, with superior intelligence, whose expertise spans a significant number of different subject areas.^ A polymath (Greek polymath?s, ?????????, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas.

^ Polymath” comes from the Greek word polymathēs, meaning “having learned much,” and usually refers to having significant knowledge or expertise in a variety of fields.
  • Personal Development For Polymaths 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC hunternuttall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A polymath (a term first recorded in written English in the early 17th century [1] from the Greek polymathēs , πολυμαθής, meaning "knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity," compounded from πολυ- "much, many," and the root μαθ-, meaning "learning, understanding") is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or fields.

.In less formal terms, a polymath (or polymathic person) may simply be someone who is very knowledgeable.^ In less formal terms, a polymath (or polymathic person) may simply refer to someone who is very knowledgeable.

^ The terms Renaissance man and, less commonly, homo universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.Encarta dictionary.

^ Homo Universalis It is a descriptive term that identifies a person as someone who has "learned ve...

.Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards.^ Most ancient scientists were polymaths by today's standards.1 Introduction: Greek Science in Context .

^ Even so, what struck me most strongly was how poorly today’s polymaths compare with the polymaths of the past.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today there is a new opportunity to be a polymath: along with being scientists, engineers, artists and writers, we can be a citizen for peace, or for equality, or for democracy.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.The terms Renaissance Man and, less commonly, homo universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.^ Homo Universalis It is a descriptive term that identifies a person as someone who has "learned ve...

^ The most common term for this is Renaissance man.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The terms Renaissance man and, less commonly, homo universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.Encarta dictionary.

[3] .The idea developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404–1472): that “a man can do all things if he will.” It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism, which considered humans empowered, limitless in their capacities for development, and led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible.^ It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism which considered humans empowered, limitless in their capacities for development, and led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible.

^ The idea developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404?72): that ?a man can do all things if he will.?

^ He is man who has broad intellectual interests: he is also known as the Universal Man, Italian ‘Uomo Universale’, an ideal that developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72), that “a man can do all things if he will.” The ideal embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance Humanism, which considered man the centre of the universe, limitless in his capacities for development.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Thus the gifted humans of the Renaissance sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge, in physical development, in social accomplishments, and in the arts.^ Thus the gifted humans of the Renaissance sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge, in physical development, in social accomplishments and in the arts.

^ These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning [12] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences [13] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).

^ It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism which considered humans empowered, limitless in their capacities for development, and led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible.

Contents

Related terms

Hildegard of Bingen, a medieval polymath, shown dictating to her scribe in an illumination from Liber Scivias
.A different name for the secondary meaning of polymath is Renaissance Man (a term first recorded in written English in the early 20th century).^ A more specific term for the second meaning is Renaissance man (a term first recorded in written English in the early 20th century) [11] , and also in use are Homo universalis and Uomo Universale , which in Latin and Italian , respectively, translate as "universal person" or "universal man".

^ A polymath (a term first recorded in written English in the early 17th century [1] from the Greek polymathēs , πολυμαθής, meaning "knowing, understanding, or having learnt in quantity," compounded from πολυ- "much, many," and the root μαθ-, meaning "learning, understanding") is a person well educated in a wide variety of subjects or fields.

^ The root terms histor and math have similar meanings in their etymological antecedents (to learn, learned, knowledge), though with some initial and ancillarily added differing qualities.

[4] .Other similar terms also in use are Homo universalis (Latin) and Uomo Universale (Italian), which translate to "universal person" or "universal man". These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning[5] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences[6] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).^ Homo Universalis It is a descriptive term that identifies a person as someone who has "learned ve...

^ These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning [12] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences [13] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).

^ Other terms for this are Homo universalis and Uomo Universale which in Latin and Italian respectively is translated as "Universal Man".
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.When someone is called a Renaissance Man today, it is meant that he does not just have broad interests or a superficial knowledge of several fields, but rather that his knowledge is profound, and often that he also has proficiency or accomplishments in at least some of these fields, and in some cases even at a level comparable to the proficiency or the accomplishments of an expert.^ When someone is called a Renaissance man today, it is meant that he does not just have broad interests or a superficial knowledge of several fields, but better that his knowledge is rather profound, and often that he also has proficiency or accomplishments [14] [15] [16] [17] in (at least some of) these fields, and in some cases even at a level comparable to the proficiency or the accomplishments of an expert.

^ Also, when a list of subjects in relation to the polymath is given, such lists often seem to imply that the notable polymath was reputable in all fields, but the most common case is that the polymath made his reputation in one or two main fields where he had widely recognized achievements, and that he was merely proficient or actively involved in other fields, but, once again, not necessarily with achievements comparable to those of renowned experts of his time in these fields.

^ However, those supporting the ideal of the Renaissance man today would say that the specialist's understanding of the interrelation of knowledge from different fields is too narrow and that a synthetic comprehension of different fields is unavailable to him, or, if they embrace the Renaissance ideal even more deeply, that the human development of the specialist is truncated by the narrowness of his view.

[7] .The related term Generalist is used to contrast this general approach to knowledge to that of the specialist.^ The related term generalist [19] is used to contrast this general approach to knowledge to that of the specialist .

^ The term seems to be used especially when a Renaissance man has made historical or lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved and when he had a universality of approach.

^ The specialist will always be able to nail the generalists by pointing out that they don’t use the vocabulary quite right and they make mistakes that an insider would never make.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

.The expression Renaissance man today commonly implies only intellectual or scholastic proficiency and knowledge and not necessarily the more universal sense of "learning" implied by the Renaissance Humanism.^ During the Renaissance, academics thought that a well-rounded man should be proficient in both the arts and science.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Yet as human learning has flowered, the man or woman who does great things in many fields has become a rare species.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Expolsion of human knowledge does make polymathy more difficult.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

.Note, however, that some dictionaries use the term Renaissance man as roughly synonymous with polymath in the first meaning, to describe someone versatile with many interests or talents,[8] while others recognize a meaning which is restricted to the Renaissance era and more closely related to the Renaissance ideals.^ The most common term for this is Renaissance man.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Andrew Jefford is a man of many talents.
  • Andrew Jefford, Wine Critic, Polymath, Gentleman | Reign of Terroir 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC reignofterroir.com [Source type: General]

^ It is important to note, however, that some dictionaries use the term Renaissance man as roughly synonym of polymath in the first meaning, to describe someone versatile with many interests or talents [20] , while others recognize a meaning which is restricted to the Renaissance era and more closely related to the Renaissance ideals.

.The term Universal Genius is also used, taking Leonardo da Vinci as a prime example again.^ The term Universal genius is also used, taking Leonardo da Vinci as a prime example.

^ On the other hand "polymath" may be applied more strictly, taking Leonardo da Vinci or Goethe as prime examples, and requiring a universality of approach.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ "Leonardo may be described as the most Universal Genius of Christian Times."

.The term seems to be used especially when a Renaissance man has made historical or lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved and when he had a universality of approach.^ I thought the term was renaissance man.
  • The Flash Blog » Flash Platform Polymath 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC theflashblog.com [Source type: General]

^ The most common term for this is Renaissance man.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The term seems to be used especially when a Renaissance man has made historical or lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved and when he had a universality of approach.

.Despite the existence of this term, a polymath may not necessarily be classed as a genius; and certainly a genius may not display the breadth of knowledge to qualify as a polymath.^ A polymath may not necessarily be classed as a genius, which is a more debatable classification; and certainly a genius may not display the breadth to qualify as a polymath.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the existence of this term, a polymath may not necessarily be classed as a genius ; and certainly a genius may not display the breadth of knowledge to qualify as a polymath.

^ Haldane was a scientist of the highest class and possessed a breadth of knowledge in the sciences that is rarely seen.
  • The Hindu : Book Review : Polymath who shared the fun of science 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.hindu.com [Source type: General]

.Albert Einstein and Marie Curie are examples of people widely viewed as geniuses, but who are not generally considered to be polymaths.^ Albert Einstein is an example of a person widely viewed as a "genius" but who was not generally considered a polymath.

^ Albert Einstein is a prime example of a genius who was not a polymath.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Some people who are generally regarded as polymaths Aristotle must number among the greatest polymaths of all time.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

Renaissance ideal

.Many notable polymaths lived during the Renaissance period, a cultural movement that spanned roughly the fourteenth through the seventeenth century, beginning in Italy in the late Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe.^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymaths - AssessmentPsychology.com 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.assessmentpsychology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ A polymath (Greek polymath?s, ?????????, "having learned much")The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century is a person whose expertise spans a significant number of subject areas.

^ During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione , in his The Book of the Courtier , wrote a guide to being a polymath.

.They had a rounded approach to education which was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymaths - AssessmentPsychology.com 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.assessmentpsychology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ South Asian writers have been well-rounded, partly due to their education and the fact writing had until recently rarely been a full-time profession.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

.A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry, and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal.^ Be able to play several musical instruments.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ A gentleman or courtier of that era was expected to speak several languages, play a musical instrument, write poetry and so on, thus fulfilling the Renaissance ideal.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ In opinion, a Renaissance man is not just a lawyer who can speak 10 languages but, rather, is someone knows a lot about and contributes to highly sophisticated fields.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

.The idea of a universal education was pivotal to achieving polymath ability, hence the word University was used to describe a seat of learning.^ The terms Renaissance man and, less commonly, homo universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.Encarta dictionary.

^ POLYMATH is a proven computational system, which has been specifically created for educational or professional use.

^ Polymath” comes from the Greek word polymathēs, meaning “having learned much,” and usually refers to having significant knowledge or expertise in a variety of fields.
  • Personal Development For Polymaths 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC hunternuttall.com [Source type: Original source]

.At this time Universities did not specialise in specific areas, but rather trained their students in a broad array of science, philosophy and theology.^ I studied Greek and Hebrew at Bethany Lutheran College and also attended Minnesota State University in Mankato, Minnesota where I took a broad smattering of classes on the topics of religion, philosophy, political science and anthropology.
  • Polymath Numismatics and Etcetera eBay Store About My Store 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC members.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ "Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was maybe the last Universal Genius incessantly active in the fields of theology, philosophy, mathematics, physics, ...."

^ I realize Philosophy is a broad field, but the three things I associate with Chomsky are Computer Science, Linguistics, and Politics.

.This universal education, as such, gave them a grounding from which they could continue into apprenticeship to a Master of a specific field.^ The main purpose of this Ministry was to convince the U.S. - meaning primarily educated Americans and intellectuals - that they better get into the War with England.
  • Face to face with a polymath 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.flonnet.com [Source type: Original source]

It is important to note that a university education was highly regarded. .A person was not considered to need this broad knowledge to apprentice as a carpenter, but to apprentice in the sciences or philosophy it contributed hugely to their being able to comprehend the universe as it was understood at the time.^ I studied Greek and Hebrew at Bethany Lutheran College and also attended Minnesota State University in Mankato, Minnesota where I took a broad smattering of classes on the topics of religion, philosophy, political science and anthropology.
  • Polymath Numismatics and Etcetera eBay Store About My Store 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC members.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ I realize Philosophy is a broad field, but the three things I associate with Chomsky are Computer Science, Linguistics, and Politics.

^ The task this time is the public perception of science as understood via the media.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/F2124165?thread=7110260 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione, in his The Book of the Courtier, wrote a guide on becoming a polymath.^ During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione , in his The Book of the Courtier , wrote a guide to being a polymath.

^ During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione, in his The Book of the Courtier, wrote a guide to being a polymath.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymaths - AssessmentPsychology.com 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.assessmentpsychology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Castiglione's guide stressed the kind of attitude that should accompany the many talents of a polymath, an attitude he called "sprezzatura". A courtier should have a detached, cool, nonchalant attitude, and speak well, sing, recite poetry, have proper bearing, be athletic, know the humanities and classics, paint and draw and many other skills, always without showy or boastful behavior, in short — with "sprezzatura". The many talents of the polymath should appear to others to be performed without effort, in an unstrained way, almost without thought.^ According to the OED , the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor ", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath.

^ With others, I am involved with an effort to create a school for polymaths .
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the Renaissance, Baldassare Castiglione , in his The Book of the Courtier , wrote a guide to being a polymath.

In some ways, the gentlemanly requirements of Castiglione recall the Chinese sage, Confucius, who far earlier depicted the courtly behavior, piety and obligations of service required of a gentleman. .The easy facility in difficult tasks also resembles the effortlessness inculcated by Zen, such as in archery where no conscious attention, but pure spontaneity, produces better and more noble skill.^ If I am sceptical or scent hubris, it is because I suspect that a lot of the research is in the easy, high-profit seams (such as winemaking chemistry) rather than the difficult and obscure areas of pure research.
  • Andrew Jefford, Wine Critic, Polymath, Gentleman | Reign of Terroir 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC reignofterroir.com [Source type: General]

.For Castiglione, the attitude of apparent effortlessness should accompany great skill in many separate fields.^ Yet as human learning has flowered, the man or woman who does great things in many fields has become a rare species.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

In word or deed the courtier should "avoid affectation … (and) … practice … a certain sprezzatura … conceal all art and make whatever is done or said appear to be without effort and almost without any thought about it".[9][10]
.This Renaissance ideal differed slightly from the "Polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement.^ The Renaissance Ideal differs slightly from the "Polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement.

^ For many specialists, in the context of today's hyperspecialization, the ideal of a Renaissance man cannot be judged but as an anachronism, since it is not uncommon that a specialist can barely dominate the accumulated knowledge of more than just one restricted subfield in his whole life, and many renowned experts have been made famous only for dominating different subfields or traditions or for being able to integrate the knowledge of different subfields or traditions.

^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymaths - AssessmentPsychology.com 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.assessmentpsychology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Historically (roughly 1450–1600) it represented a person who endeavored to "develop his capacities as fully as possible" (Britannica, "Renaissance Man") both mentally and physically, and, as Castiglione suggests, without "affectation". For example, being an accomplished athlete was considered integral and not separate from education and learning of the highest order.^ The terms Renaissance man and, less commonly, homo universalis (Latin for "universal man" or "man of the world") are related and used to describe a person who is well educated or who excels in a wide variety of subjects or fields.Encarta dictionary.

^ It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism which considered humans empowered, limitless in their capacities for development, and led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible.

^ The idea developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404?72): that ?a man can do all things if he will.?

.For example, Leon Battista Alberti, who was an architect, painter, poet, scientist, mathematician, inventor, and sculptor, was in addition a skilled horseman and archer.^ Example: Leon Battista Alberti , who was an architect, painter, poet, scientist, mathematician, and was also a skilled horseman.

^ December 14th, 2009 Email this article to a friend Leonardo da Vinci: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, botanist, musician, and writer.
  • Personal Development For Polymaths 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC hunternuttall.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404?72): that ?a man can do all things if he will.?

Renaissance men

.The above list provides examples of notable polymaths (in the secondary meaning only, that is, Renaissance men).^ The following list provides examples of notable polymaths (in the second meaning only, that is, Renaissance men).

^ The following people represent prime examples of "renaissance men" and "universal geniuses", so to say "polymaths" in the strictest second meaning of the word.

^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymaths - AssessmentPsychology.com 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.assessmentpsychology.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Caution is necessary when interpreting the word polymath (in the second meaning or any of its synonyms) in a source, since there's always ambiguity of what the word denotes.^ Caution is necessary when interpreting the word polymath (in the second meaning or any of its synonyms) in a source, since there's always ambiguity of what the word denotes.

^ According to the OED , the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor ", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath.

^ Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or as words with very similar meanings.

.Also, when a list of subjects in relation to the polymath is given, such lists often seem to imply that the notable polymath was reputable in all fields, but the most common case is that the polymath made his reputation in one or two main fields where he had widely recognized achievements, and that he was merely proficient or actively involved in other fields, but, once again, not necessarily with achievements comparable to those of renowned experts of his time in these fields.^ Also, when a list of subjects in relation to the polymath is given, such lists often seem to imply that the notable polymath was reputable in all fields, but the most common case is that the polymath made his reputation in one or two main fields where he had widely recognized achievements, and that he was merely proficient or actively involved in other fields, but, once again, not necessarily with achievements comparable to those of renowned experts of his time in these fields.

^ The authors also don't appear to make a distinction between those who are recognized experts in multiple fields (e.g., late Herb Simon, Jerry Lettvin) and the pretenders who would like to be recognized as such (Richard Posner).

^ These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning [12] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences [13] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).

.The list does not attempt to be comprehensive or authoritative in any way.^ The list does not attempt to be comprehensive or authoritative in any way.

^ It does seem odd, but it's possible that there was a concious attempt on the part of the writer to avoid listing their actual professions.

.The list also includes the Hakeem of the Islamic Golden Age (also known as the "Islamic Renaissance"), and other polymaths from other parts of the world.^ I find it curious that the early Islamic empires are mentioned without noting that contributions from that segment of the world population have been notably absent in the modern age.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The sidebar of Wide Awake Minds ( http://www.wideawakeminds.com ) also includes a list of links to biographies of "Self-educators, polymaths, and lovers of learning."
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I really have to add, why would there be fewer polymaths in an age when so much more opportunity to BE a polymath is available to so many more people in the world?
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

Renaissance ideal today

.During the Renaissance, the ideal of Renaissance humanism included the acquisition of almost all available important knowledge.^ It embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance humanism which considered humans empowered, limitless in their capacities for development, and led to the notion that people should embrace all knowledge and develop their capacities as fully as possible.

^ Thus the gifted humans of the Renaissance sought to develop skills in all areas of knowledge, in physical development, in social accomplishments and in the arts.

^ Many notable polymaths lived during the European Renaissance period, and a rounded approach to education was typical of the ideals of the humanists of the time.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.At that time, several universal geniuses seem to have come close to that ideal, with actual achievements in multiple fields.^ During the Renaissance, the ideal of Renaissance humanism may often include to acquire almost all available important knowledge, and since knowledge was limited, several universal geniuses seem to have come close to that ideal, with actual achievements in multiple fields.

^ The term seems to be used especially when a Renaissance man has made historical or lasting contributions in at least one of the fields in which he was actively involved and when he had a universality of approach.

^ What is much more common today than the universal approach to knowledge from a single polymath, is the multidisciplinary approach to knowledge which derives from several experts in different fields.

.With the passage of time however, "universal learning" has begun to appear ever more self-contradictory.^ With the passage of time, universal learning began to appear ever more self-contradictory.

^ (The expression Renaissance man today commonly implies only intellectual or scholastic proficiency and knowledge and not necessarily the more universal sense of "learning" implied by the Renaissance Humanism).

.For example, a famous dispute between "Jacob Burckhardt (whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien of 1860 established Alberti as the prototype of the Renaissance Man) and Julius von Schlosser (whose Die Kunstliteratur of 1924 expresses discontent with Burckhardt's assessments on several counts)" deals with the issue of whether Alberti was indeed a dilettante or an actual Universal Man;[11] while an 1863 article about rhetoric said, for instance: "an universal genius is not likely to attain to distinction and to eminence in any thing [sic].^ For example, a famous dispute between "Jacob Burckhardt (whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien of 1860 established Alberti as the prototype of the Renaissance Man) and Julius von Schlosser (whose Die Kunstliteratur of 1924 expresses discontent with Burckhardt's assessments on several counts)" deals with the issue of whether Alberti was indeed a dilettante or an actual Universal Man [22] ; while an 1863 article about rhetoric said, for instance: "an universal genius is not likely to attain to distinction and to eminence in any thing [sic].

^ The idea developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404?72): that ?a man can do all things if he will.?

^ He is man who has broad intellectual interests: he is also known as the Universal Man, Italian ‘Uomo Universale’, an ideal that developed in Renaissance Italy from the notion expressed by one of its most accomplished representatives, Leon Battista Alberti (1404–72), that “a man can do all things if he will.” The ideal embodied the basic tenets of Renaissance Humanism, which considered man the centre of the universe, limitless in his capacities for development.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

To achieve her best results, and to produce her most matured fruit, Genius must bend all her energies in one direction; strive for one object; keep her brain and hand upon one desired purpose and aim".[12]
.Since it is considered extremely difficult to genuinely acquire an encyclopedic knowledge, and even more to be proficient in several fields at the level of an expert (see expertise about research in this area), not to mention to achieve excellence or recognition in multiple fields, the word polymath, in both senses, may also be used, often ironically, with a potentially negative connotation as well.^ Today, since it is considered extremely difficult to genuinely acquire an encyclopaedic knowledge, and even more to be proficient in several fields at the level of an expert (see expertise about research in this area), not to mention to achieve excellence or recognition in multiple fields, the word polymath, in both senses, may also be used, often ironically, with a potentially negative connotation as well.

^ A true polymath of the Enlightenment style, he distinguished himself on both sides of the Atlantic by researches in natural sciences as well as politics and literature."

^ These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning [12] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences [13] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).

.Under this connotation, by sacrificing depth for breadth, the polymath becomes a "jack of all trades, master of none". For many specialists, in the context of today's hyperspecialization, the ideal of a Renaissance man is judged to be an anachronism, since it is not uncommon that a specialist can barely dominate the accumulated knowledge of more than just one restricted subfield in his whole life, and many renowned experts have been made famous only for dominating different subfields or traditions or for being able to integrate the knowledge of different subfields or traditions.^ The Renaissance Ideal differs slightly from the "Polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement.

^ How do you become more of a polymath?
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ Become more of a polymath every day!

.Today, expertise is often associated with documents, certifications, diplomas, and degrees attributing to such, and a person who seems to have an abundance of these is often perceived as having more education than practical "working" experience.^ Kathryn Jean Lopez : When you write about classical education you mean more than learning enough Latin to help with the SATs.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ How often do you get a photo-authenticity receipt with your coin listing information such as the history, size, weight, grade, attribution, etc without having to pay an extra premium for it?
  • Polymath Numismatics and Etcetera eBay Store About My Store 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC members.ebay.com [Source type: General]

^ Often the reasons are not very good, and usually schools that provide more computer training than intellectual formation are ensuring a lifetime of mediocrity for those children.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.Autodidactic polymaths often combine didactic education and expertise in multiple fields with autodidactic research and experience to create the Renaissance ideal.^ Leone Battista Alberti , "often considered the archetype of the Renaissance polymath" [30] Samuel Taylor Coleridge [31] Benjamin Franklin "The ultimate creole intellectual...

^ Today, since it is considered extremely difficult to genuinely acquire an encyclopaedic knowledge, and even more to be proficient in several fields at the level of an expert (see expertise about research in this area), not to mention to achieve excellence or recognition in multiple fields, the word polymath, in both senses, may also be used, often ironically, with a potentially negative connotation as well.

^ The Renaissance Ideal differs slightly from the "Polymath" in that it involved more than just intellectual advancement.

.Many fields of interest take years of single-minded devotion to achieve expertise, often requiring starting at an early age.^ October 19, 2009 - 12:26 — Michael (not verified) The thrust of the argument against polymathy is the time commitment required to gain expertise in one field.
  • THE LAST DAYS OF THE POLYMATH | More Intelligent Life 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.moreintelligentlife.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other than requiring two years of military training that began at age 18, the state left parents to educate their sons as they saw fit.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

Also, many require cultural familiarity that may be inaccessible to someone not born and raised in that culture. In many such cases, it is realistically possible to achieve only knowledge of theory, without practical experience. .For example, on a safari, a jungle native will be a more effective guide than a scientist who may be educated in the theories of jungle survival but did not grow up acquiring his knowledge first-hand.^ Kathy Sierra was the author of the original Head First book, and that series of books has done more for my technical progress than any other single factor.

^ Classical education has always signified more than Greek and Latin.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ I remember the arguments put forward in the Sixties and Seventies by those who wanted to make education more accessible to the masses.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.However, those supporting the ideal of the Renaissance man today would say that the specialist's understanding of the interrelation of knowledge from different fields is too narrow and that a synthetic comprehension of different fields is unavailable to him, or, if they embrace the Renaissance ideal even more deeply, that the human development of the specialist is truncated by the narrowness of his view.^ However, those supporting the ideal of the Renaissance man today would say that the specialist's understanding of the interrelation of knowledge from different fields is too narrow and that a synthetic comprehension of different fields is unavailable to him, or, if they embrace the Renaissance ideal even more deeply, that the human development of the specialist is truncated by the narrowness of his view.

^ The Renaissance ideal today .

^ These expressions derived from the ideal in Renaissance Humanism that it was possible to acquire a universal learning [12] in order to develop one's potential, (covering both the arts and the sciences [13] and without necessarily restricting this learning to the academic fields).

.What is much more common today than the universal approach to knowledge from a single polymath, is the multidisciplinary approach to knowledge which derives from several experts from different fields collaborating together.^ What is much more common today than the universal approach to knowledge from a single polymath, is the multidisciplinary approach to knowledge which derives from several experts in different fields.

^ However, those supporting the ideal of the Renaissance man today would say that the specialist's understanding of the interrelation of knowledge from different fields is too narrow and that a synthetic comprehension of different fields is unavailable to him, or, if they embrace the Renaissance ideal even more deeply, that the human development of the specialist is truncated by the narrowness of his view.

^ When someone is called a Renaissance man today, it is meant that he does not just have broad interests or a superficial knowledge of several fields, but better that his knowledge is rather profound, and often that he also has proficiency or accomplishments [14] [15] [16] [17] in (at least some of) these fields, and in some cases even at a level comparable to the proficiency or the accomplishments of an expert.

Polymath and polyhistor compared

.Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or, as words with very similar meanings.^ Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or as words with very similar meanings.

^ And because the words we substitute aren't quite the same, we're made poorer by the substitutions, losing slices of the original meaning with each change.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ The word itself comes from Ancient Greek, poly meaning 'many', and mathanein meaning 'to learn'.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

Thomas Moore took the words as corresponding to similarly erudite "polys" in one of his poems titled The Devil Among Scholars :[13]
Off I fly, careering far
In chase of Pollys, prettier far
Than any of their namesakes are
—The Polymaths and Polyhistors,
Polyglots and all their sisters.
.According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath.^ A classical education used to mean simply a curriculum based upon Greek and Latin.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ According to the OED , the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor ", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath.

^ Many dictionaries of word origins list these words as synonyms or as words with very similar meanings.

.Thus today, regardless of any differentiation they may have had when originally coined, they are often taken to mean the same thing.^ Thus today, regardless of any differentiation they may have had when originally coined, they are often taken to mean the same thing.

^ But they were means, not ends; the text was the thing.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

^ And because the words we substitute aren't quite the same, we're made poorer by the substitutions, losing slices of the original meaning with each change.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

.The root terms histor and math have similar meanings in their etymological antecedents (to learn, learned, knowledge), though with some initial and ancillarily added differing qualities.^ The root terms histor and math have similar meanings in their etymological antecedents (to learn, learned, knowledge), though with some initial and ancillarily added differing qualities.

^ Polymath” comes from the Greek word polymathēs, meaning “having learned much,” and usually refers to having significant knowledge or expertise in a variety of fields.
  • Personal Development For Polymaths 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC hunternuttall.com [Source type: Original source]

.Innate in historíā (Greek and Latin) is that the learning takes place via inquiry and narrative.^ Innate in historā ( Greek and Latin) is that the learning takes place via inquiry and narrative .

.Hístōr also implies that the polyhistor displays erudition and wisdom.^ Hstōr also implies that the polyhistor displays erudition and wisdom.

.From Proto-Indo-European it shares a root with the word "wit". Inquiry and narrative are specific sets of pedagogical and research heuristics.^ From Proto-Indo-European it shares a root with the word " wit ".

^ Inquiry and narrative are specific sets of pedagogical and research heuristics .

.Polyhistoric is the corresponding adjective.^ Polyhistoric is the corresponding adjective.

.The word polyhistory (meaning varied learning), when used, is often derogatory.^ The word polyhistory (meaning varied learning), when used, is often derogatory.

^ According to the OED , the words mean practically the same; "the classical Latin word polyhistor was used exclusively, and the Greek word frequently, of Alexander Polyhistor ", but polymathist appeared later, and then polymath.

^ The word itself comes from Ancient Greek, poly meaning 'many', and mathanein meaning 'to learn'.
  • Polymath: ‘A Renaissance Man’ 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.martinfrost.ws [Source type: Original source]

Notable polymaths

.A number of people have been described as "polymaths" by reliable sources, fulfilling the primary definition of the term, although there may not be expert consensus that each is a prime example in the secondary meaning, as "renaissance men" and "universal geniuses" (see the list of renaissance men above for prime examples of "renaissance men" or "universal geniuses").^ The following people represent prime examples of "renaissance men" and "universal geniuses", so to say "polymaths" in the strictest second meaning of the word.

^ The following list provides examples of notable polymaths (in the second meaning only, that is, Renaissance men).

^ The following people have been described as "polymaths" by several sources, although there may not be expert consensus that they are prime examples of "polymaths" in the strictest second meaning (as "renaissance men" and "universal geniuses").

Other uses of "Polymath"

.In Britain, phrases such as "polymath sportsman," "sporting polymath," or simply "polymath" are occasionally used in a restricted sense to refer to athletes that have performed at a high level in several very different sports.^ In Britain, phrases such as "polymath sportsman," "sporting polymath," or simply "polymath" are occasionally used in a restricted sense to refer to athletes that have performed at a high level in several very different sports.

^ But merely being literate at a very high level in several fields, and making convincing links between them, can offer a perspective that can influence the work of those who are producing (and not just consuming) the basic or core work in multiple fields.
  • The Faculty Lounge: The Disappearing Academic Fox? (Part I) 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC www.thefacultylounge.org [Source type: General]

^ Such 'jacks', polymaths, masters of different skills and learning are unusual, outside of society in many ways as their breadth of learning and expertise can be seen to be a threat to your average performer, and to the master of one skill, and to the society's leaders.

.(One whose accomplishments are limited to athletics would not be considered to be a "polymath" in the usual sense of the word).^ (One whose accomplishments are limited to athletics would not be considered to be a "polymath" in the usual sense of the word).

^ Polymath Consulting are particularly well known for our work in Prepaid Cards for which we would consider ourselves one of, if not the leading consultancies in Europe.

^ Chad @ sentient money Says: December 16th, 2009 at 6:46 am @ James Personally, I wouldn’t consider a person with one specialization with a couple interests to be a polymath.
  • Personal Development For Polymaths 13 January 2010 18:29 UTC hunternuttall.com [Source type: Original source]

Examples would include:
  • Howard Baker – "Similar claims to the title of sporting polymath could be made for Howard Baker" (who won high jump titles, and played cricket, football, and water polo):[14]
  • Maxwell Woosnam — "Sporting polymath is a full-time post…"[15]
The term can also be used loosely in other ways, for example, Rolf Harris (whose fame has come as a popular artist, television presenter and singer) has also been described by the Daily Mail as "the People's Polymath".[16]

See also

References and notes

  1. ^ The term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Harper, Daniel (2001). "Online Etymology Dictionary". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=polymath&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  2. ^ 1 Introduction: Greek Science in Context
  3. ^ Encarta dictionary.
  4. ^ Harper, Daniel (2001). "Online Etymology Dictionary". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=Renaissance+man&searchmode=phrase. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  5. ^ Renaissance man (definition)
  6. ^ Renaissance man. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition. 2000
  7. ^ va=Renaissance man — Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary
  8. ^ Oxford concise dictionary
  9. ^ Castiglione, Baldassare. The Book of the Courtier: The Singleton Translation, ed. D. Javitch, (New York: Norton, 2002), 32).
  10. ^ D'Epiro, Peter and Desmond Pinkowish, Mary. Sprezzatura. (New York, Anchor Books, 2001).
  11. ^ Muse.jhu
  12. ^ Google books
  13. ^ The Complete Poems of Sir Thomas Moore by Thomas Moore, Project Gutenberg.
  14. ^ Cox, Richard (2002). Encyclopedia of British Football. Routledge. ISBN.  p. 15
  15. ^ Brian Viner (2006-10-12). "Sporting polymath is a full-time post for which only obsessives need apply: It is hard to get the head round the idea that one man excelled in so many sports". The Independent. http://comment.independent.co.uk/columnists_m_z/brian_viner/article1218714.ece. Retrieved 2006-10-12. : "I read a book by Mick Collins called All-Round Genius: The Unknown Story of Britain's Greatest Sportsman. It is about a man called Max Woosnam, who…toured Brazil with the famous Corinthians football team in 1913… won an Olympic gold medal for tennis, played golf off scratch, scored a century at Lord's, and made a 147 break on the snooker table."
  16. ^ Tanya Gold, His lust for fame drove his wife to the brink of suicide. So why is Rolf Harris STILL chasing the limelight? The Daily Mail, 3 January 2008.

Further reading


Simple English

is thought of as one of the cleverest people who ever lived.]]

A polymath (from the Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής which means "having learned much")[1][2] is a person who is very clever at many different things. A polymath studies many different kinds of knowledge.[3] A polymath might be very good at language and mathematics and science and art and music, all at the same time. Not every polymath is interested in the same things, but they are all interested in a wide range of subjects. Other names for a polymath are "universal genius" and "Renaissance man".[4][5]

The term "Renaissance man" comes from the Renaissance period of European history, during the 1400s and 1500s. But polymaths have been known since ancient times.

List of polymaths

  • Aristotle (Greek: Ἀριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher who studied and wrote about many subjects, including physics, metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology and zoology.
  • Roger Bacon, O.F.M. (c. 1214–1294), also known as Doctor Mirabilis (Latin: "wonderful teacher"), was an English Franciscan friar who was a philosopher, theologian and scientist. He was one of the first people to perform scientific experiments in a modern manner.
  • Leonardo da Vinci (1452–1519) was an Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, astronomer, anatomist, biologist, geologist, physicist, architect, musician, philosopher and humanist.[10][11][12][13] [14]
  • Michelangelo (March 6, 1475 – February 18, 1564) was an Italian Renaissance painter, sculptor, architect, poet, engineer and theologian (student of the Bible).
  • Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) was an Italian scientist, mathematician, astronomer, physicist, and philosopher.
  • Johann von Goethe (1749–1832) German writer, poet, critic, playwright, and novelist.
  • Isaac Newton (1643–1727) was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, theologian, natural philosopher and alchemist.
  • Gottfried Leibniz (1646–1716) was a German philosopher, theologian, physicist, mathematician, historian, librarian and inventor.
  • Mikhail Lomonosov (1711–1765) was a Russian poet, educator, artist, physicist and chemist education.
  • Thomas Jefferson (1743–1826). American president who was a horticulturist, architect, archaeologist, inventor, and founder of a university.
  • Rabindranath Tagore (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941) was a Bengali poet, artist, playwright, novelist, educationist, social reformer, nationalist, business-manager and composer.
  • Sir Winston Churchill (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British prime minister, military leader, historian, novelist, painter and sportsman.

References and notes

  1. the term was first recorded in written English in the early seventeenth century Harper, Daniel (2001). "Online Etymology Dictionary". http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=polymath&searchmode=none. Retrieved 2006-12-05. 
  2. http://www.infoplease.com/dictionary/polymath
  3. Oxford concise dictionary
  4. Encarta dictionary
  5. Cambridge dictionary
  6. Richard Covington, "Rediscovering Arabic Science", Saudi Aramco World, May/June 2007.
  7. Charles F. Horne (1917), ed., The Sacred Books and Early Literature of the East Vol. VI: Medieval Arabia, pages 90–91. Parke, Austin, & Lipscomb, New York. (cf. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) (973–1037): On Medicine, c. 1020 CE, Medieval Sourcebook.)
  8. Top 100 Events of the Millennium, Life magazine.
  9. Caroline Stone, "Doctor, Philosopher, Renaissance Man", Saudi Aramco World, May-June 2003, p. 8–15.
  10. Johnston, Robert K.; J Walker Smith (2003). Life Is Not Work, Work Is Not Life: Simple Reminders for Finding Balance in a 24-7 World. Council Oak Books. ISBN.  "...the prodigious polymath of the Italian Renaissance. Painter, sculptor, engineer, astronomer, anatomist, biologist, geologist, physicist, architect, philosopher, humanist."p. 1
  11. Elmer, Peter; Nicholas Webb, Roberta Wood (2000). The Renaissance in Europe: An Anthology. Yale University Press. ISBN.  "The following selection... shows why this famous Renaissance polymath considered painting to be a science..."
  12. p. 180
  13. http://books.google.com/books?vid=ISBN0415210895&id=_ULK9UDTpnEC&pg=PA9&lpg=PA9&dq=Leonardo+da+Vinci+%22universal+genius%22&sig=lJa69sRSsuAEjP294SaGb1oNAG8
  14. Johnston, Robert K.; J Walker Smith (2003). Life Is Not Work, Work Is Not Life: Simple Reminders for Finding Balance in a 24-7 World. Council Oak Books. ISBN.  p. 1

Further reading

  • Polymath: A Renaissance Man
  • "History", "Mathematics", "Polymath" and "Polyhistor" in one or more of: Chamber's Dictionary of Etymology, The Oxford Dictionary of Word Histories, The Cassell Dictionary of Word Histories


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

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