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Polyvinyl chloride
PVC-3D-vdW.png
Polyvinyl chloride
Density 1390 kg/m3[1]
Young's modulus (E) 2900-3300 MPa
Tensile strengtht) 50-80 MPa
Elongation at break 20-40%
Notch test 2-5 kJ/m2
Glass temperature 82 °C[1]
Melting point 100–260 °C[1]
Vicat B 85 °C[2]
Heat transfer coefficient (λ) 0.16 W/(m·K)
Effective heat of combustion 17.95 MJ/kg
Linear expansion coefficient (α) 8 10−5/K
Specific heat (c) 0.9 kJ/(kg·K)
Water absorption (ASTM) 0.04-0.4
Price 0.5-1.25 /kg
.Polyvinyl chloride, (IUPAC Poly(chloroethanediyl)) commonly abbreviated PVC, is a thermoplastic polymer.^ ENVIS - ICPE Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) a unique polymer .
  • ENVIS - ICPE Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) a unique polymer 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC icpeenvis.nic.in [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a thermoplastic polymer of vinyl chloride.
  • PVC Recycling - Earth911.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC earth911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Facts About PVC - Earth911.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC earth911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Non-flexible Polyvinyl Chloride- PVC .
  • Non-flexible PVC Thermoplastic Welding Rods 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.abbeon.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is a vinyl polymer constructed of repeating vinyl groups (ethenyls) having one of their hydrogens replaced with a chloride group.^ Group 3 ) (Vinylidene chloride-vinyl chloride copolymers, p.
  • Vinyl Chloride and Polymers (IARC Summary & Evaluation, Volume 19, 1979) 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture.
  • Polyvynyl chloride PVC definition 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.apparelsearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Polyvinyl chloride is the third most widely produced plastic, after polyethylene and polypropylene.^ Polyvinyl chloride producers in Oceania .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Asian producers of Polyvinyl chloride .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Polyvinyl Chloride is a hard plastic solid.

[3] .PVC is widely used in construction because it is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble.^ PVC manufactured is used in construction.
  • Search results for "Pvc" - Wikis from Wikia - Join the best wiki communities 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ Vinyl is used so widely in the construction industry because of its durability, easy installation and cost-effectiveness.
  • Vinyl (Poly Vinyl Chloride) in Construction 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a building material, PVC is cheap, durable, and easy to assemble.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Search results for "Pvc" - Wikis from Wikia - Join the best wiki communities 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikia.com [Source type: General]

PVC production is expected to exceed 40 million tons by 2016.[4]
.It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers, the most widely used being phthalates.^ It can be made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers , the most widely-used being phthalates.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC is a hard plastic that is made softer and more flexible by the addition of plasticizers , the most widely used being phthalates .
  • Description -- Polyvinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC is a hard plastic that is made softer and more flexible by the addition of phthalates (plasticizers).
  • Polyvynyl chloride PVC definition 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.apparelsearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this form, it is used in clothing and upholstery, and to make flexible hoses and tubing, flooring, to roofing membranes, and electrical cable insulation.^ It's also good for making clear flexible tubing.
  • The Great PVC Controversy - CHF Chemistry WebQuest #5 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.chemheritage.org [Source type: News]

^ This plastic has found extensive use as an electrical insulator for wires and cables.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PVC can be plasticised to make it flexible for use in flooring and medical products.
  • British Plastics Federation - Polyvinyl Chloride PVC 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.bpf.co.uk [Source type: Reference]
  • British Plastics Federation - PVC Explained 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.bpf.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

.It is also commonly used in figurines and in inflatable products such as waterbeds, pool toys, and inflatable structures.^ It is also commonly used in figurines.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Polyvinyl chloride is currently the second-most highly produced plastic in the US; it is second only to polyethylene, a plastic used to make such products as grocery bags, plastic bottle caps, and children's toys.
  • Vinyl Chloride FYI - polyvinyl chloride � PVC � product that releases dioxin into environment 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.vinylchloridefyi.com [Source type: Reference]

^ PVC products such as medical equipment and children’s toys leach toxic additives during their useful life, .
  • NCRA :: Northern California Recycling Association 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ncrarecycles.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Preparation

.Polyvinyl chloride is produced by polymerization[citation needed] of the vinyl chloride monomer (VCM), as shown.^ Polyvinyl chloride producers in Oceania .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, is produced from vinyl chloride monomer through a chemical reaction called polymerization .
  • 04/30/1986 - Labeling requirements for containers of polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ilpi.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Asian producers of Polyvinyl chloride .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

.Since about 57% of its mass is chlorine, creating a given mass of PVC requires less petroleum than many other polymers.^ Since about 57% of its mass is chlorine , creating a given mass of PVC requires less petroleum than many other polymers.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC resin is 57% chlorine by weight.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Around 57% of PVC's mass is chlorine, so it requires less petroleum than many other polymers.

.May 2007" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] However, because PVC also has a much higher density than hydrocarbon polymers, and chlorine production has its own energy requirements, this ends up being of little practical relevance in the production of most solid objects.^ Much of the PVC irrigation piping is white.
  • PVC Products: Frequently Asked Questions 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ppfahome.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Separating PVC bottles is costly because they make up only 2% of the bottles manufactured in the United States.
  • PVC: Recycling Killer, Public Health Menace 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.grrn.org [Source type: Academic]

^ F ollowing up on the bore page we can further explore the subtleties of Aspect Ratio in the production of some fine practice PVC Shakuhachi.
  • Shaku PVC Shakuhachi 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.navaching.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The polymerisation of vinyl chloride
.By far the most widely used production process is suspension polymerization.^ By far the most common is the suspension process.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Suspension polymerisation is the most common PVC process because the resins produced are the most versatile and suitable for a wide range of applications.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) CAS NO: 9002-86-2 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: General]

^ The most commonly used process is solvent welding, which is very similar to welding pipe and basically melts the adjacent panels together.
  • Colorado Lining's product overview for PVC Geomembrane Liner. 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coloradolining.com [Source type: Reference]

.In this process, VCM and water are introduced into the polymerization reactor and a polymerization initiator, along with other chemical additives, are added to initiate the polymerization reaction.^ Polymerization is the chemical reaction used to convert VCM into PVC resin.
  • Florida Fence Distributors| Poly Vinyl Creations Wholesale Fence Distributor 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.polyvinylc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other vinyl products like brand new car interiors, shower curtains, and flooring, to name a few, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Description -- Polyvinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvynyl chloride PVC definition 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.apparelsearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The contents of the reaction vessel are continually mixed to maintain the suspension and ensure a uniform particle size of the PVC resin.^ Suspension polymerisation is the most common PVC process because the resins produced are the most versatile and suitable for a wide range of applications.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) CAS NO: 9002-86-2 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: General]

^ Harvel uses its own custom blend of PVC compound to ensure that desirable physical properties are maintained with every production run.
  • PVC Pipe | PVC Pipe Manufacturers 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.harvel.com [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC resins scrap, Natural colour with 5- 10% moisture contents.
  • PVC scrap, resin, regrind, surplus, PVC recycling, waste, PVCcompound, E-PVC, S-PVC, PVC additives: stabilizers, impact modifiers,plasticizers, processing aids, reprocessed,waste, clear, film 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.sonepa.com [Source type: Reference]

.The reaction is exothermic, and thus requires a cooling mechanism to maintain the reactor contents at the appropriate temperature.^ The standards require > daily measurements from the continuous monitoring system and of the > reactor pressure and temperature.
  • Re: ICR for NESHAP for Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC lists.essential.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The standards require daily measurements from the continuous monitoring system and of the reactor pressure and temperature.
  • ICR for NESHAP for Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC lists.essential.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Whereas, with PVC, the gel content scarcely increases under such conditions, thus showing that no substantial reaction has taken place.
  • Polyvinyl chloride thermoplastic elastomer composition - Patent 5344864 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

.As the volumes also contract during the reaction (PVC is denser than VCM), water is continually added to the mixture to maintain the suspension.^ As we continually strive to make your shopping experience simple and convenient we take time package together the components that make up the common PVC water system.
  • PVC Ts, Valves - Rabbit Cages, Rabbit Hutches 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.bassequipment.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coefficient of Expansion and Contraction: PVC products are weaker than the materials to which they are attached and the plaster in which they are embedded.
  • Plastic Components - PVC Accessories & Plastic Lath 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plasticomponents.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Polymerization is the chemical reaction used to convert VCM into PVC resin.
  • Florida Fence Distributors| Poly Vinyl Creations Wholesale Fence Distributor 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.polyvinylc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the reaction has run its course, the resulting PVC slurry is degassed and stripped to remove excess VCM (which is recycled into the next batch) then passed though a centrifuge to remove most of the excess water.^ PVC pipe , or Poly Vinyl Chloride pipe, is a relatively modern type of piping, used most often in drinking water systems, and other cold water installations.

^ In fact if one PVC container gets mixed into a batch of other plastics during recycling, it makes that whole recycled effort a complete waste.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

^ Nearly all VCM is converted into PVC or vinyl copolymers.
  • Vinyl Chloride Monomer 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.dow.com [Source type: Academic]

.The slurry is then dried further in a hot air bed and the resulting powder sieved before storage or pelletization.^ PHYSICAL STATE; APPEARANCE: WHITE POWDER, PELLETS PHYSICAL DANGERS: Dust explosion possible if in powder or granular form, mixed with air.
  • POLYVINYL CHLORIDE (ICSC) 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These are spun dry in a centrifuge and then air-dried before packaging.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In normal operations, the resulting PVC has a VCM content of less than 1 part per million.^ Around 57% of PVC's mass is chlorine, so it requires less petroleum than many other polymers.

^ The panel "expressed serious concern" about DEHP, a chemical used to soften PVC products, which manufacturers admit can climb to concentrations of five parts per million in solutions--more than 830 times the level allowed in drinking water.
  • UPDATES - polyvinyl chloride in medical equipment - Brief Article | E: The Environmental Magazine | Find Articles at BNET 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC findarticles.com [Source type: News]

^ To prevent future cases of VCM-associated angiosarcoma, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration in 1974 proposed a 500-fold reduction in the occupational exposure standard for VCM gas -- from 500 parts per million (ppm) in air to 1 ppm.
  • Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers --Kentucky 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

Other production processes, such as micro-suspension polymerization and emulsion polymerization, produce PVC with smaller particle sizes (10 μm vs. 120-150 μm for suspension PVC) with slightly different properties and with somewhat different sets of applications.
.The product of the polymerization process is unmodified PVC. Before PVC can be made into finished products, it almost always requires conversion into a compound by the incorporation of additives such as heat stabilizers, UV stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, fillers, flame retardants, biocides, blowing agents and smoke suppressors, and, optionally pigments.^ The product of the polymerization process is unmodified PVC. Before PVC can be made into finished products, it almost always requires conversion into a compound by the incorporation of additives such as heat stabilizers, UV stabilizers, lubricants, plasticizers, processing aids, impact modifiers, thermal modifiers, fillers, flame retardants, biocides, blowing agents and smoke suppressors, and, optionally pigments.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride PVC: Production Technology, Cost, Safety, Supply/Demand 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemsystems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ UV stabilisers and flame retardants.
  • Greenpeace International PVC Alternatives Database 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC archive.greenpeace.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Additive ingredients include plasticizers, stabilizers, antifog agents, lubricants, colorants, and flame-retardants.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[5]

History

.PVC was accidentally discovered at least twice in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.^ Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two occasions in the 19th century, first in 1838 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann .
  • Description -- Polyvinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.edinformatics.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Polyvinyl chloride was accidentally discovered on at least two different occasions in the 19th century, first in 1835 by Henri Victor Regnault and in 1872 by Eugen Baumann.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Henri Victor Regnault accidentally discovered the polymerisation of vinyl chloride in 1838.
  • H5319 Prostheses (7), polyvinyl chloride, prepared by Mr. Gordon Hunnings, Nottingham General Hospital, made in England, 1954. - D*Hub 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.dhub.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On both occasions the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight.^ (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How and where are people exposed to Vinyl Chloride?
  • Vinyl Chloride, Vinyl Chloride Cancer,Brain Cancer 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On both occasions, the polymer appeared as a white solid inside flasks of vinyl chloride that had been left exposed to sunlight.
  • Polyvynyl chloride PVC definition 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.apparelsearch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the early 20th century the Russian chemist Ivan Ostromislensky and Fritz Klatte of the German chemical company Griesheim-Elektron both attempted to use PVC (polyvinyl chloride) in commercial products, but difficulties in processing the rigid, sometimes brittle polymer blocked their efforts.^ Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a thermoplastic polymer of vinyl chloride.
  • PVC Recycling - Earth911.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC earth911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Facts About PVC - Earth911.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC earth911.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl chloride is use to prepare polyvinyl chloride (PVC).
  • Vinyl Chloride, Vinyl Chloride Cancer,Brain Cancer 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.peoples-health.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The chief use of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizers ; it is also used in chemical manufacture.
  • Potassium Chloride: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method in 1926 to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives.^ In 1926, Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Independently, in 1926, chemist Waldo Semon at the American company B.F. Goodrich invented PVC. And again, it was patented.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It wasn't until Waldo Semon, who worked for B. F. Goodrich, blended PVC with additives in 1926 that PVC became commercially viable.
  • H5319 Prostheses (7), polyvinyl chloride, prepared by Mr. Gordon Hunnings, Nottingham General Hospital, made in England, 1954. - D*Hub 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.dhub.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The result was a more flexible and more easily processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use.^ The result was a more flexible and more easily-processed material that soon achieved widespread commercial use.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manufactured by the calendaring or extrusion process, it is a highly flexible, non-reinforced, cost-effective, waterproofing geomembrane liner with many uses and advantages for the user.
  • Colorado Lining's product overview for PVC Geomembrane Liner. 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.coloradolining.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In this form, it is used in products ranging from waterproof clothing and upholstery, flexible hoses and tubing, as well as still more construction materials such as flooring, roofing membranes and electrical cable insulation.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) profile at Super Eco 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.supereco.com [Source type: General]

Applications

.PVC's intrinsic properties make it suitable for a wide variety of applications.^ PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials.
  • ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC resins are normally mixed with other additives such as impact modifiers and stabilizers, providing hundreds of PVC based materials with a variety of engineering properties.
  • SAN DIEGO PLASTICS, INC. - PVC 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.sdplastics.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Its properties make vinyl an ideal material in electrical applications.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is biologically and chemically resistant, making it the plastic of choice for most household sewerage pipes and other pipe applications where corrosion would limit the use of metal.^ Chemical & corrosion resistant.
  • PVC Pipe on ThomasNet.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.thomasnet.com [Source type: General]

^ Piping used in food processing, chemical processing and other manufacturing .
  • Vinyl (Poly Vinyl Chloride) in Construction 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, the most commonly used plasticiser additives are the phthalates, a group of chemicals associated with a diversity of toxic properties (see below).  Other chemicals may be added as stabilisers, colours, fillers, etc., including some compounds of lead designed to prevent PVC from degrading in sunlight.
  • Why BFRs and PVC should be phased out of electronic devices | Greenpeace International 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the addition of impact modifiers and stabilizers, it becomes a popular material for window and door frames.^ Building material parts: Bathroom doors and panels, and window frames.

^ Other construction uses include: window frames, doors, wire sheathing, imitation leather, furniture and vinyl wallpaper .
  • PVC: The Most Toxic Plastic | Healthy Child Healthy World 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC healthychild.org [Source type: General]

^ PVC resins are normally mixed with other additives such as impact modifiers and stabilizers, providing hundreds of PVC based materials with a variety of engineering properties.
  • SAN DIEGO PLASTICS, INC. - PVC 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.sdplastics.com [Source type: Reference]

.By adding plasticizers, it can become flexible enough to be used in cabling applications as a wire insulator.^ Flexible PVC that contains plasticisers is used for PVC cables.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels) PVC-free LSOH (low-smoke, zero-halogen) cable insulation is used.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of vinyl chloride that enters the environment comes from the plastics industries that make a variety of products like pipes, wire and cable coatings and packaging materials.

Clothing

.PVC has become widely used in clothing, to either create a leather-like material or at times simply for the effect of PVC. PVC clothing is common in Goth, Punk and alternative fashions.^ PVC, or polyvinyl chloride coating is a widely used alternative to plastisol .

^ Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is among the most widely used plastic materials.
  • Role of Residual Additives in the Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release Caused by Polyvinyl Chloride Particles in Pulmonary Cell Cultures -- Xu et al. 72 (1): 92 -- Toxicological Sciences 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ From a Laboratory Curiosity To a Household Name Vinyl, otherwise known as polyvinyl chloride, or PVC, is a thermoplastic material , which means that it can be reprocessed using heat -- one of the keys to its versatility and wide use.
  • Polyvinyl chloride - Information for Building And Construction 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC aec.cadinfo.net [Source type: General]

.PVC is cheaper than rubber, leather, and latex and so it is more widely available and worn.^ PVC is an incredibly versatile material use in bottles, packaging, toys, construction materials, bedding, clothing, piping, wire coatings, imitation leather, furnishings and more.

^ Sexy models from the fetish, fashion and glamour industry who love wearing latex, pvc, rubber & vinyl describe their favourite sexy outfits.
  • Pvc Videos - Metacafe 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.metacafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PVC Shrink Films are comparatively more soft and glossy than the LDPE Shrink Films.

PVC fabric has a sheen to it and is waterproof. .It is commonly used in coats, shoes, jackets, aprons, and bags because of this.^ Luggage - Soft PVC is often used as a surface coating, inner coating or for parts of products in bags, suitcases and other luggage.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From clear plastic shoes to bags and jackets, PVC is just one of those materials that hasn’t hit our radar.
  • Explain: PVC - Fashionista - Fashion Designers, Models, Shopping, Style 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC fashionista.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shoes - Soft PVC is used in shoes and parts of shoes, such as soles, labels for logo imprints, upper parts made from PVC imitation leather coatings.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Electric wires

.PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electric wires; the plastic used for this purpose needs to be plasticized.^ This plastic has found extensive use as an electrical insulator for wires and cables.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their major use is in PVC plastic.
  • Why BFRs and PVC should be phased out of electronic devices | Greenpeace International 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Electric wires PVC is commonly used as the insulation on electric wires; the plastic used for this purpose needs to be plasticized.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form HCl fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance.^ In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form HCl fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Switch to PVC-free materials .
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is available FDA approved for food processing applications, and since it serves as a thermal and electrical insulator, PVC often coats electrical components like jumper cables.

.While HCl fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, HCl dissolves in moisture and breaks down onto surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe, and is not available for inhalation.^ While HCl fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, HCl dissolves in moisture and breaks down onto surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe, and is not available for inhalation.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While HCl fumes can also pose a health hazard in their own right, HCl breaks down on surfaces, particularly in areas where the air is cool enough to breathe, and is not available for inhalation.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It breaks down at high temperatures into chemicals linked to neurotoxicity, respiratory damage, and human polymer fume fever.
  • Co-op America: Heal Your Home Glossary 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC lists.coopamerica.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels and communal areas) PVC-free cable insulation is preferred, such as low smoke zero halogen (LSZH) insulation.^ Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels) PVC-free LSOH (low-smoke, zero-halogen) cable insulation is used.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Frequently in applications where smoke is a major hazard (notably in tunnels) PVC-free LSOH (low-smoke, zero-halogen) cable insulation is preferred.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is available FDA approved for food processing applications, and since it serves as a thermal and electrical insulator, PVC often coats electrical components like jumper cables.

Pipes

PVC pipes in use with intumescent firestops at Nortown Casitas, North York, Ontario.
PVC pipes inside of a well, the top one is 20 mm drinking water quality and the bottom is for irrigation, with connectors from 48 mm to 32 mm pipe
.Roughly half of the world's polyvinyl chloride resin manufactured annually is used for producing pipes for various municipal and industrial applications.^ Polyvinyl chloride producers in Oceania .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ Asian producers of Polyvinyl chloride .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC newsblaze.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 -- NEW YORK, Oct. 29 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl chloride World Market Outlook 2009 - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ A fitting made of polyvinyl chloride used in joining PVC piping.
  • Contractor School Online® - Contractor Glossary of Terms 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.contractorreferral.com [Source type: Reference]

[7] .In the water distribution market it accounts for 66% of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75%.^ In the water distribution market it accounts for 66 percent of the market in the US, and in sanitary sewer pipe applications, it accounts for 75 percent.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because it will not rust or corrode, vinyl is widely used in water pipe to deliver clean water and in sewer pipe to ensure the integrity of wastewater handling systems.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The material is often used in Plastic Pressure Pipe Systems for pipelines in the water and sewer industries because of its inexpensive nature and flexibility.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .Its light weight, high strength, and low reactivity make it particularly well-suited to this purpose.^ Its light weight, high strength, and low reactivity make it particularly well-suited to this purpose.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Materials that are light but also very strong have a high strength-to-weight ratio.
  • What is the definition of polyvinyl chloride? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Indeed, PVC’s light weight, high strength-to-weight ratio, corrosion resistance, durability, low cost, and easy installation are hard to ignore.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In addition, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, or heat-fused (butt-fusion process, similar to joining HDPE pipe), creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage.^ This fitting requires the use of PVC solvent.

^ PVC Fittings for use with 1 inch PVC pipe .
  • PVC fittings - parts for use with 1 inch PVC pipe 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.creativeshelters.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, PVC pipes can be fused together using various solvent cements, creating permanent joints that are virtually impervious to leakage.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In February, 2007 the California Building Standards Code was updated to approve the use of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe for use in residential water supply piping systems.^ Pipes Polyvinyl chloride is also widely used for producing pipes.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is PVC? PVC pipe is made from polyvinyl chloride.
  • How To Install PVC Pipe | DoItYourself.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.doityourself.com [Source type: General]

^ Polyvinyl chloride is used in a variety of applications.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.CPVC has been a nationally accepted material in the US since 1982; California, however, has permitted only limited use since 2001. The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an Environmental Impact Report resulting in a recommendation that the Commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. The Commission's vote was unanimous and CPVC has been placed in the 2007 California Plumbing Code.^ However, their use is limited by their high toxicity.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (Properties and Migration Data) Sheftel, VO. IndirectFood Additives and Polymers: Migration and Toxicology (2000) 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an Environmental Impact Report resulting in a recommendation that the Commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. The Commission's vote was unanimous and CPVC has been placed in the 2007 California Plumbing Code.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Department of Housing and Community Development prepared and certified an Environmental Impact Report resulting in a recommendation that the Commission adopt and approve the use of CPVC. The Commission's vote was unanimous and CPVC will be placed in the 2007 California Plumbing Code.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.In the United States and Canada, PVC pipes account for the largest majority of pipe materials used in buried municipal applications for drinking water distribution and wastewater mains.^ The major method of drinking water disinfection in the United States is by chlorination.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Its major use is for corrosion-resistant applications.

^ PVC piping, first introduced in 1952, is the largest single market for PVC in the United States.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[9]

Portable electronic accessories

.PVC is finding increased use as a composite for the production of accessories or housings for portable electronics.^ PVC production is the largest use...
  • Search results for "Pvc" - Wikis from Wikia - Join the best wiki communities 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.wikia.com [Source type: General]

^ Portable Electronic Accessories PVC is finding increased use as a composite for the production of accessories or housings for portable electronics.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PVC is used to make a variety of plastic products, including pipes, wire and cable coatings, and packaging materials.
  • ATSDR - ToxFAQs™: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Through a fusing process, it can adopt cleaning properties possessed by materials such as wool or cotton which can absorb dust particles and bacteria.^ Through a fusing process, it can adopt cleaning properties possessed by materials such as wool or cotton which can absorb dust particles and bacteria.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This process consists of recovering PVC plastic from composite materials through dissolution and precipitation.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Rigid PVC materials such as those used for pipe, vertical blinds and siding, are recognised for their excellent fire retardant properties.
  • PIPA New Zealand Training Courses 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.plastics.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Its inherent ability to absorb particles from the LCD screen and its form fitting characteristics make it effective.^ Its inherent ability to absorb particles from the LCD screen and its form fitting characteristics make it effective.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]

Signs

.Polyvinyl chloride is formed in flat sheets in a variety of thicknesses and colors.^ Polyvinyl chloride is used in a variety of applications.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Signs In flat sheet form, polyvinyl chloride is formed in a variety of thicknesses and colors.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In flat sheet form, polyvinyl chloride is formed in a variety of thicknesses and colors.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and minimal extra cost (see Closed-cell PVC foamboard).^ As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the interior of the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and cost.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As flat sheets, PVC is often expanded to create voids in the material, providing additional thickness without additional weight and cost.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Also see shipping cost for additional shipping information.
  • Buy flexible pvc pipe at FlexPVC.com PVC pipe, hose, & pvc fittings online @ wholesale discount prices (flexable) 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.flexpvc.com [Source type: General]

.Sheets are cut using saw and rotary cutting equipment.^ Sheets are cut using saw and rotary cutting equipment (see CNC).
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Installers can use a fine-tooth saw to cut CPVC and sand paper to remove any burrs prior to joining.
  • Chlorinated Polyvinyl Chloride (CPVC) Water Supply Piping 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.toolbase.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again using a jig saw cut the inner circle and the outer circle.
  • Bill's Personal Pages – How to Bend and Form PVC 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC billpentz.com [Source type: General]

.Plasticized PVC is also used to produce thin, colored, or clear, adhesive-backed films referred to simply as vinyl.^ An additive that is used to change the color of a plastic.
  • What is the definition of polyvinyl chloride? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.toolingu.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Canadian producers of vinyl chloride and PVC: .

^ It is used in the plastics industry, often to produce PVC (polyvinyl chloride).

.These films are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter or printed in a wide-format printer.^ These films are typically cut on a computer-controlled plotter or printed in a wide-format printer.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These PVC shrink films are widely used in shrink packaging of automobile parts, boxes, pharmaceutical products, toys, games, stationery accessories and electrical parts.

^ These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products and markings on vehicles.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products and markings on vehicles.^ These sheets and films are used to produce a wide variety of commercial signage products and markings on vehicles.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Easily coloured and resistant to weather and fire, PVC is used to produce a variety of products, including fibres, windows, electrical insulation, pipes, vinyl flooring, audio discs, and coatings for raincoats and upholstery.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is a versatile thermoplastic with a wide range of uses including pipes & fittings, profiles, cables, flooring, films & sheets.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Methodology ICIS pricing 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: News]

Joining

.PVC Cements are available at plumbing supply houses.^ PVC pipe plumbing is typically white, as opposed to ABS , which is commonly available in gray as well as white.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC pipe plumbing is typically white, as opposed to ABS, which is commonly available in grey and black, as well as white.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We hope that we have helped you on this page with PVC valves, and thank you for helping to make PlumbingSupply.com the most famous Internet plumbing supplier.
  • PVC sch40 valves - PlumbingSupply.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The cement softens the material to a gel state until the adhesive layer cures. .This has another practical application of being able to hand-machine with a razor blade the PVC pipe to change the wall thickness to allow assembly of nonstandard radius arc segments of electrical conduit large radius elbows.^ Let d be the thickness of the PVC pipe wall, in meters.

^ PVC pipe making machine...
  • PVC - PVC and more 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.alibaba.com [Source type: General]

^ Charge builds up on the inner surface of the PVC pipe due to charge transfer that takes place due to the collision of wood particles with the pipe wall.

Ceiling tiles

.PVC Ceiling Tiles are an alternative ceiling tiles that are easy to install over any flat surface.^ Carpets - Carpet tiles and mats sometimes have undersides made from soft PVC. Suitable alternative materials exists.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the down side, ceramic tile produces a surface which can be hard on the feet, and it is more expensive to buy and install.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is PVC pipe easier to install than alternative materials?
  • PVC Products: Frequently Asked Questions 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.ppfahome.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

They can be glued onto an existing ceiling with a reasonably flat surface.

Unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC)

Modern "Tudorbethan" house with uPVC gutters and downpipes, fascia, decorative imitation "half-timbering", windows, and doors
uPVC or .Rigid PVC is often used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in Ireland, the UK, and in the United States where it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding.^ PVC or Rigid PVC is often used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in the UK, and in the USA where it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Alternatives to PVC in the Building Industry 15 .
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report -- NEW YORK, Nov. 17 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report - news from Boston.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report - news from CBS MoneyWatch.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC finance.bnet.com [Source type: News]

^ It is used in the plastics industry, often to produce PVC (polyvinyl chloride).

[10][11] .The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single glazed windows.^ The material comes in a range of colors and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single glazed windows.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The material comes in a range of colours and finishes, including a photo-effect wood finish, and is used as a substitute for painted wood, mostly for window frames and sills when installing double glazing in new buildings, or to replace older single glazed windows.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ It is a versatile thermoplastic with a wide range of uses including pipes & fittings, profiles, cables, flooring, films & sheets.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Methodology ICIS pricing 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: News]

.It has many other uses including fascia, and siding or weatherboarding.^ It has many other uses including fascia, and siding or weatherboarding.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, PVC is used in many building products such as flooring, siding, and wall coverings.
  • How Dangerous Is PVC in Toys? We've Got the Answers From The Expert. | Safe Alternatives for Baby and Child 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.safbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to chlorine, the electrolysis of salt creates caustic soda (sodium hydroxide), used in making soaps, paper, and rayon, and as a neutralizer in many other industries.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The same material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downpipes.^ "Can I use these valves for drainage or waste piping?"
  • PVC sch40 valves - PlumbingSupply.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The same material has almost entirely replaced the use of cast iron for plumbing and drainage, being used for waste pipes, drainpipes, gutters and downpipes.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It replaces cast iron and galvanized pipe in almost all situations.
  • How To Install PVC Pipe | DoItYourself.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.doityourself.com [Source type: General]

[12]
.Due to environmental concerns use of PVC is discouraged by some local authorities in countries such as Germany and the Netherlands.^ Due to environmental concerns use of PVC is discouraged by some local authorities in countries such as Germany and The Netherlands.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to environmental concerns [8] use of PVC is discouraged by some local authorities [9] in countries such as Germany and The Netherlands.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Bans The State of California is currently considering a bill that would ban the use of PVC in consumer packaging due to the threats it poses to human and environmental health and its effect on the recycling stream.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][14] .This concerns both flexible PVC and rigid uPVC as not only the plasticizers in PVC are seen as a problem but also the emissions from manufacturing and disposal.^ This concerns both flexible PVC and rigid uPVC as not only the plasticizers in PVC are a problem but also the emissions from manufacturing and disposal.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Plasticisers are not used in the manufacture of rigid PVC pipes .
  • PIPA New Zealand Training Courses 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.plastics.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other grades can match the properties of flexible PVC and rigid PS. Potential market areas are time-release films, medical non-wovens, and geosynthetics.
  • PVC Resins / Global PVC Industry Resources and PVC Contacts 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.vinylworld.net [Source type: News]

[citation needed]

Health and safety

Phthalate plasticizers

.Many vinyl products contain additional chemicals to change the chemical consistency of the product.^ Phthalate plasticizers Many vinyl products contain additional chemicals to change the chemical consistency of the product.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many vinyl products contain additional chemicals to change the chemical consistency of the product.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Some of these additional chemicals called additives can leach out of vinyl products.^ Some of these additional chemicals called additives can leach out of vinyl products.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additives mixed with polyvinyl chloride resins, like stabilizers, plasticizers and fillers, can leach out of a polyvinyl product during its use and create public health hazards.

^ Additionally, a similar study was done by the EPA six years ago, with similar findings, yet these chemicals still exist in day to day products, because the American Chemistry Council and the FDA maintain that phthalates are safe.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

.Plasticizers that must be added to make PVC flexible have been additives of particular concern.^ Plasticizers that must be added to make PVC flexible have been an additive of particular concern.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In order to arrive at a product that remains flexible, especially at low temperatures, most PVC is heated and mixed with plasticizers , which are sometimes added in concentrations as high as 50 percent.
  • polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (chemical compound) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In 1926, Waldo Semon and the B.F. Goodrich Company developed a method to plasticize PVC by blending it with various additives.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Because soft PVC toys have been made for babies for years, there are concerns that these additives leach out of soft toys into the mouths of the children chewing on them.^ The phthalates in the soft PVC can leach out into saliva.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s a concern because the chemical styrene can leach from it into food and beverages.

^ Because soft PVC toys have been made for babies for years, there are concerns that these additives leach out of soft toys into the mouths of the children chewing on them.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Phthalates mimic human hormones and also affect various life forms including fish and invertebrates adversely.^ Considering that dioxin mimics every hormone in the human body and is active to 1/10 ppt[17] .
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Recent studies of human urine samples in industrialized countries have highlighted the large extent of population exposure to various phthalates ( Wormuth et al.
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ More recently, research has revealed that DINP, along with some other phthalates, shows weak activity as a mimic of the hormone estrogen in human cell lines.
  • PVC (Vinyl) Plastic:  an evaluation of safety issues   (Introductionand Home Page) 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.turnertoys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Additionally, adult sex toys have been demonstrated to contain high concentrations of the additives.^ Additionally, adult sex toys have been demonstrated to leach significant additives.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition it is clear that children's tissue concentrations are higher than adults'.
  • Pervasive Plastics: Why the U.S. Needs New and Tighter Controls by John Wargo: Yale Environment 360 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC e360.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alternatives: Natural materials are suitable alternatives for most types of toys, as well as some alternative plastics, which don't require the addition of plasticisers or other hazardous additives.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .In January 2006, the European Union placed a ban on six types of phthalate softeners, including DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), used in toys.^ In January 2006, the European Union placed a ban on six types of phthalate softeners, including DEHP ( diethylhexyl phthalate ), used in toys (See directive 2005/84/EC).
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plasticizer.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In January 2006, the European Union placed a ban on six types of phthalate softeners, including DEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), used in toys.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[16] .In the U.S. most companies have voluntarily stopped manufacturing PVC toys with DEHP and in 2003 the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) denied a petition for a ban on PVC toys made with an alternative plasticizer, DINP (diisononyl phthalate).^ Alternative products made with polyethylene are available.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the USA most companies have voluntarily stopped manufacturing PVC toys with DEHP and in 2003 the US Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) denied a petition for a ban on PVC toys made with an alternative plasticizer, DINP (diisononyl phthalate).
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diethylhexyl Phthalate (DEHP) is the most widely used plasticizer.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[17] .In April 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission published an assessment of DINP which found risk "unlikely" for children and newborns.^ In December 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission released a final draft risk assessment of BBzP which found "no concern" for consumer exposure including exposure to children.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ispra, Italy: European Chemical Bureau; 2006.
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In April 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission published an assessment of DINP which found risk "unlikely" for children and newborns.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical.^ Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical[1].
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These plasticizers are used in wire and cable products, medical devices, toys, flooring, shower curtains and synthetic leathers such as automotive upholstery, as well as in pharmaceuticals and personal care products such as cosmetics and lotions.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • PIPA New Zealand Training Courses 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.plastics.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .The FDA, however, suggests that manufacturers consider eliminating DEHP in certain devices that can result in high aggregate exposures for sensitive patient populations such as neonates.^ However, FDA is suggesting that manufacturers consider eliminating the use of DEHP in certain devices that can result in high aggregate exposures for sensitive patient populations such as neonates.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical[1].
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinyl IV bags used in neo-natal intensive care units have also been shown to leach DEHP. In a draft guidance paper published in September 2002, the US FDA recognizes that many medical devices with PVC containing DEHP are not used in ways that result in significant human exposure to the chemical.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Other vinyl products including car interiors, shower curtains, and flooring initially release chemical gases into the air.^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Vinyl chloride also is a breakdown product of other synthetic chemicals.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses.^ Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, but this information is preliminary, and further study is needed.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Some studies indicate that this outgassing of additives may contribute to health complications, and have resulted in a call for banning the use of DEHP on shower curtains, among other uses.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[20] The Japanese car companies Toyota, Nissan, and Honda have eliminated PVC in their car interiors starting in 2007.
.In 2004 a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate), which is used in vinyl flooring.^ In 2004, a joint Swedish-Danish research team found a statistical association between allergies in children and indoor air levels of DEHP and BBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate), which is used in vinyl flooring.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thin stabilized compound conforming to the EEC safety levels for vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) and the WRc requirements for use with potable water.
  • PVC Pipe and fittings - Bends - Elbows - Sockets - PVC T's 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.koicarp.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[21] .In December 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission released a final draft risk assessment of BBzP which found "no concern" for consumer exposure including exposure to children.^ In December 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission released a final draft risk assessment of BBzP which found "no concern" for consumer exposure including exposure to children.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ispra, Italy: European Chemical Bureau; 2006.
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In April 2006, the European Chemicals Bureau of the European Commission published an assessment of DINP which found risk "unlikely" for children and newborns.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22]
.In November, 2005 one of the largest hospital networks in the U.S., Catholic Healthcare West, signed a contract with B.Braun for vinyl-free intravenous bags and tubing.^ In November 2005, one of the largest hospital networks in the U.S., Catholic Healthcare West, signed a contract with B.Braun for vinyl-free intravenous bags and tubing.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl is also the material of choice for blood bags and tubing, helping maintain the world's blood supply and supporting critical healthcare procedures such as dialysis.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One of Europe’s largest vinyl flooring manufacturers is already doing just that.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] According to the Center for Health, Environment & Justice in Falls Church, VA,[24] which helps to coordinate a "precautionary" PVC Campaign,[25] several major corporations including Microsoft, Wal-Mart, and Kaiser Permanente announced efforts to eliminate PVC] from products and packaging in 2005.[26] Target is reducing its sale of items with PVC.[27]
.The FDA Paper titled "Safety Assessment of Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)Released from PVC Medical Devices" states that [3.2.1.3] Critically ill or injured patients may be at increased risk of developing adverse health effects from DEHP, not only by virtue of increased exposure, relative to the general population, but also because of the physiological and pharmacodynamic changes that occur in these patients, compared to healthy individuals.^ The risk assessment for di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) shows no risk to the general population.
  • British Plastics Federation - PVC Explained 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.bpf.co.uk [Source type: Reference]

^ Health risks posed by use of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices: a critical review.
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ There have been no confirmed reports of adverse health from phthalate exposure.
  • PIPA New Zealand Training Courses 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.plastics.org.nz [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[28]
.In 2008 the European Union's Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) reviewed the safety of DEHP in medical devices.^ European Union Risk Assessment Report for Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (Consolidated Final Report: February 2004).
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Health risks posed by use of Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) in PVC medical devices: a critical review.
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In contrast, the European Union in 2007 adopted a new directive known as “REACH” that requires the testing of both older and newly introduced chemicals.
  • Pervasive Plastics: Why the U.S. Needs New and Tighter Controls by John Wargo: Yale Environment 360 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC e360.yale.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The SCENIHR report states that certain medical procedures used in high risk patients result in a significant exposure to DEHP and concludes there is still a reason for having some concerns about the exposure of prematurely born male babies to medical devices containing DEHP.[29] The Committee said there are some alternative plasticizers available for which there is sufficient toxicological data to indicate a lower hazard compared to DEHP but added that the functionality of these plasticizers should be assessed before they can be used as an alternative for DEHP in PVC medical devices.^ Alternatives are available in other plastics and polyester.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flexible PVC that contains plasticisers is used for PVC cables.
  • PVC products | Greenpeace International 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Can I use PVC glue on other plastics?"
  • PVC sch40 valves - PlumbingSupply.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • White PVC sch40 plumbing fittings - PlumbingSupply.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: General]

Vinyl chloride monomer

In the early 1970s, Dr. John Creech and Dr. Maurice Johnson were the first to clearly link and recognize the carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride monomer to humans when workers in the polyvinyl chloride polymerization section of a B.F. Goodrich plant near Louisville, Kentucky, were diagnosed with liver angiosarcoma also known as hemangiosarcoma, a rare disease.[30] .Since that time, studies of PVC workers in Australia, Italy, Germany, and the UK have all associated certain types of occupational cancers with exposure to vinyl chloride.^ Mortality study of workers in the manufacture of vinyl chloride and its polymers.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ (PVC), thermoplastic that is a polymer of vinyl chloride.
  • polyvinyl chloride Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about polyvinyl chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collaborative study of cancer incidence and mortality among vinyl chloride workers.
  • Vinyl Chloride: Still a Cause for Concern Environmental HealthPerspectives v.108, n.7, Jul00 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

.The link between angiosarcoma of the liver and long-term exposure to vinyl chloride is the only one that has been confirmed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.^ The link between angiosarcoma of the liver and long-term exposure to vinyl chloride is the only one that has been confirmed by the International Agency for Research on Cancer.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The International Agency for Research on Cancer has determined that vinyl chloride is carcinogenic to people, and EPA has determined that vinyl chloride is a human carcinogen.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Doll, R.: Effects of exposure to vinyl chloride.
  • Angiosarcoma of the Hand Associated with Chronic Exposure to Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes and Cement. A Case Report -- MOHLER et al. 80 (9): 1349 -- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ejbjs.org [Source type: Academic]

.All the cases of angiosarcoma developed from exposure to vinyl chloride monomer were in workers who were exposed to very high VCM levels, routinely, for many years.^ Mortality experience of workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ People who breathe extremely high levels of vinyl chloride can die.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl chloride monomer VCM .
  • Vinyl Chloride Monomer 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.dow.com [Source type: Academic]

.These workers cleaned accretions in reactors, a practice that has now been replaced by automated high-pressure water jets.^ These workers cleaned accretions in reactors, a practice that has now been replaced by automated high pressure water jets.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These ball valves are designed to be used with clean water and are not designed nor recommended for water with particles or chemicals.
  • PVC sch40 valves - PlumbingSupply.com 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.plumbingsupply.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although this is now performed with solvents or automatic high-pressure jets, previously this task was a manual process requiring workers to use spatulas or hammers and chisels; the workers were exposed to high concentrations of VC up to 1,000 ppm (2,600 mg/m3) and possibly even higher peaks of exposure.
  • Vinyl Chloride: Still a Cause for Concern Environmental HealthPerspectives v.108, n.7, Jul00 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

.A 1997 U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) report concluded that the development and acceptance by the PVC industry of a closed loop polymerization process in the late 1970s "almost completely eliminated worker exposures" and that "new cases of hepatic angiosarcoma in vinyl chloride polymerization workers have been virtually eliminated."^ Polineuropathy in workers with long exposure to vinyl chloride.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1997, CDC reported that the PVC industry had “almost completely eliminated worker exposures to vinyl chloride” as well as the incidence of cancer and other illnesses caused by exposure.
  • The World’s Best Roofing Blog » PVC 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.duro-last.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The process is terminated when about 90% of the vinyl chloride has polymerized.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[31]
.According to the EPA, "vinyl chloride emissions from polyvinyl chloride (PVC), ethylene dichloride (EDC), and vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) plants cause or contribute to air pollution that may reasonably be anticipated to result in an increase in mortality or an increase in serious irreversible, or incapacitating reversible illness.^ Mortality experience of a cohort of vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC is produced from the polymerisation of Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM).
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Methodology ICIS pricing 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: News]

^ Applications of PVC rigid - Polyvinyl Chloride rigid .
  • Applications of PVC rigid - Polyvinyl Chloride rigid - Polymer Properties 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.omnexus.com [Source type: Reference]

.Vinyl chloride is a known human carcinogen that causes a rare cancer of the liver."^ Infante, P. F.: Observations of the site-specific carcinogenicity of vinyl chloride to humans.
  • Angiosarcoma of the Hand Associated with Chronic Exposure to Polyvinyl Chloride Pipes and Cement. A Case Report -- MOHLER et al. 80 (9): 1349 -- Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ejbjs.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Retention of vinyl chloride in the human lung.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has determined that vinyl chloride is a known carcinogen.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] EPA's 2001 updated Toxicological Profile and Summary Health Assessment for VCM in its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database lowers EPA's previous risk factor estimate by a factor of 20 and concludes that "because of the consistent evidence for liver cancer in all the studies...and the weaker association for other sites, it is concluded that the liver is the most sensitive site, and protection against liver cancer will protect against possible cancer induction in other tissues."[33]
.A 1998 front-page series in the Houston Chronicle claimed the vinyl industry has manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and to hide extensive and severe chemical spills into local communities.^ Mortality study of workers in the manufacture of vinyl chloride and its polymers.
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ A 1998 front-page series in the Houston Chronicle claimed the vinyl industry has manipulated vinyl chloride studies to avoid liability for worker exposure and to hide extensive and severe chemical spills into local communities.
  • Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - Green Wiki 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC green.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A collaborative study of cancer incidence and mortality among vinyl chloride workers.
  • Vinyl Chloride: Still a Cause for Concern Environmental HealthPerspectives v.108, n.7, Jul00 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

[34] .Retesting of community residents in 2001 by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) found dioxin levels similar to those in a comparison community in Louisiana and to the U.S. population.^ Retesting of community residents in 2001 by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) found dioxin levels similar to those in a comparison community in Louisiana and to the U.S. population.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) are two federal organizations that develop recommendations for toxic substances.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry characterized the two reports as “not adequately reported for proper evaluation; therefore, such data cannot be used to identify thresholds ” (ATSDR, 1989).
  • Spacecraft Maximum Allowable Concentrations for Selected Airborne Contaminants, Volume 1 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: Academic]

[35] .Cancer rates in the community were similar to Louisiana and US averages.^ Cancer rates in the community were similar to Louisiana and US averages.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Retesting of community residents in 2001 by the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) found dioxin levels similar to those in a comparison community in Louisiana and to the U.S. population.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[36]

Dioxins

.The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage.^ Is the PVC phase-out called for by Greenpeace justified?
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PVC is produced from the polymerisation of Vinyl Chloride Monomer (VCM).
  • Polyvinyl Chloride Methodology ICIS pricing 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.icis.com [Source type: News]

^ The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[37]
.
PVC produces HCl upon combustion almost quantitatively related to its chlorine content.
^ In a fire, PVC-coated wires can form HCl fumes; the chlorine serves to scavenge free radicals and is the source of the material's fire retardance.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ While PVC is inherently fire-resistant because of its high chlorine content, the addition of plasticizers reduces this resistance and makes it necessary to add fire-retardants as well.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The PVC industry is the largest single consumer of industrial chlorine worldwide, using about 30% of all chlorine produced.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extensive studies in Europe indicate that the chlorine found in emitted dioxins is not derived from HCl in the flue gases.^ Studies in Europe and the U.S. have shown that dioxin is present in all large-scale accidental fires, whether vinyl is present or not.
  • The World’s Best Roofing Blog » PVC 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.duro-last.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, most dioxins arise in the condensed solid phase by the reaction of inorganic chlorides with graphitic structures in char-containing ash particles.^ The most toxic particles contained the most toxic additives (Xu et al ., 2002 ).
  • Role of Residual Additives in the Cytotoxicity and Cytokine Release Caused by Polyvinyl Chloride Particles in Pulmonary Cell Cultures -- Xu et al. 72 (1): 92 -- Toxicological Sciences 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC toxsci.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Ash from fires in PVC warehouses and factories contains dioxin at levels ranging from several to several hundred parts per billion.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Dioxins : PVC or polyvinyl chloride (also referred to as vinyl) is one of the most toxic plastics made.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

Copper acts as a catalyst for these reactions.[38]
.According to a 1994 report by the British firm, ICI Chemicals & Polymers Ltd., "It has been known since the publication of a paper in 1989 that these oxychlorination reactions [used to make vinyl chloride and some chlorinated solvents] generate polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs).^ ICIS pricing Chemical price reports for polyvinyl chloride .

^ According to a 1994 report by the British firm, ICI Chemicals & Polymers Ltd., "It has been known since the publication of a paper in 1989 that these oxychlorination reactions [used to make vinyl chloride and some chlorinated solvents] generate polychlorinated dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs).
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Some vinyl chloride can dissolve in water.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The reactions include all of the ingredients and conditions necessary to form PCDD/PCDFs....^ The reactions include all of the ingredients and conditions necessary to form PCDD/PCDFs....
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ One industry officially stated in 1994, "It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed."
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed."
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed."^ One industry officially stated in 1994, "It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed."
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is difficult to see how any of these conditions could be modified so as to prevent PCDD/PCDF formation without seriously impairing the reaction for which the process is designed."
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Formation of dioxins (PCDDs/PCDFs) by dioxin-free fly ash as a catalyst and relation with several chlorine-sources .
  • U.S. Green Building Council - LEED TSAC PVC Study Database 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC pvc.usgbc.org [Source type: Original source]

.In other words, dioxins are an undesirable byproduct of producing vinyl chloride and eliminating the production of dioxins while maintaining the oxychlorination reaction may be difficult.^ Vinyl production is a minimal contributor of dioxin.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vinyl chloride also is a breakdown product of other synthetic chemicals.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, dioxins are an undesirable byproduct of polymerizing PVC and eliminating the production of dioxins while maintaining the polymerization reaction may be difficult.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.Dioxins created by vinyl chloride production are released by on-site incinerators, flares, boilers, wastewater treatment systems and even in trace quantities in vinyl resins.^ Dioxins created by vinyl chloride production are released by on-site incinerators, flares, boilers, wastewater treatment systems and even in trace quantities in vinyl resins.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Other vinyl products, including car interiors, shower curtains, flooring, initially release chemical gases into the air .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[39] .The US EPA estimate of dioxin releases from the PVC industry was 13 grams TEQ in 1995, or less than 0.5% of the total dioxin emissions in the US; by 2002, PVC industry dioxin emissions had been further reduced by 23%.^ The EPA has estimated that the industry's VCM emissions have been reduced by more than 99 percent since the 1970s.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The US EPA estimate of dioxin releases from the PVC industry was 13 grams TEQ in 1995, or less than 0.5% of the total dioxin emissions in the US; by 2002, PVC industry dioxin emissions had been further reduced by 23%.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ EPA limits the amount that industries can release.
  • ATSDR - Public Health Statement: Vinyl Chloride 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.atsdr.cdc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Public Health Statement for Vinyl Chloride - Encyclopedia of Earth 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations.^ Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC".
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Another study of 10,851 children found the presence of both floor moisture and PVC significantly increased the risk of asthma.
  • How Dangerous Is PVC in Toys? We've Got the Answers From The Expert. | Safe Alternatives for Baby and Child 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.safbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .According to the EPA dioxin inventory, landfill fires are likely to represent an even larger source of dioxin to the environment.^ According to the EPA dioxin inventory, landfill fires are likely to represent an even larger source of dioxin to the environment.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest well-quantified source of dioxin in the US EPA inventory of dioxin sources is barrel burning of household waste.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the EPA, incineration of municipal and medical waste, which is heavily loaded with PVC, is the largest source.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

.A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC". Other EU studies indicate that PVC likely "accounts for the overwhelming majority of chlorine that is available for dioxin formation during landfill fires."^ Other EU studies indicate that PVC likely "accounts for the overwhelming majority of chlorine that is available for dioxin formation during landfill fires."
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC".
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Studies of household waste burning indicate consistent increases in dioxin generation with increasing PVC concentrations.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[41]
.The next largest sources of dioxin in the EPA inventory are medical and municipal waste incinerators.^ The largest well-quantified source of dioxin in the US EPA inventory of dioxin sources is barrel burning of household waste.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ According to the EPA, incineration of municipal and medical waste, which is heavily loaded with PVC, is the largest source.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The next largest sources of dioxin in the EPA inventory are medical and municipal waste incinerators.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[42] Various studies have been conducted that reach contradictory results. .For instance a study of commercial-scale incinerators showed no relationship between the PVC content of the waste and dioxin emissions.^ The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts."
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ A survey of international studies consistently identifies high dioxin concentrations in areas affected by open waste burning and a study that looked at the homologue pattern found the sample with the highest dioxin concentration was "typical for the pyrolysis of PVC".
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[43][44] .Other studies have shown a clear correlation between dioxin formation and chloride content and indicate that PVC is a significant contributor to the formation of both dioxin and PCB in incinerators.^ Studies have shown a clear correlation between dioxin formation and chloride content and indicate that PVC is a significant contributor to the formation of both dioxin and PCB in incinerators.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ As the production of PVC has increased over the past 40 years, there has been an inverse correlation to the reduction of dioxins emitted into the atmosphere.
  • Dangers of PVC : Tree Hugging Family - Family Life On The Green Side 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blisstree.com [Source type: General]

^ The environmentalist group Greenpeace has advocated the global phase-out of PVC because they claim dioxin is produced as a byproduct of vinyl chloride manufacture and from incineration of waste PVC in domestic garbage.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[45]
.In February 2007, the Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee of the US Green Building Council (USGBC) released its report on a PVC avoidance related materials credit for the LEED Green Building Rating system.^ In February 2007, the Technical and Scientific Advisory Committee of the US Green Building Council (USGBC) released its report on a PVC avoidance related materials credit for the LEED Green Building Rating system.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ [Related Categories: Building Metallic Materials , Polyester Fabric ] [ 99 more polyvinyl chloride offers ] .
  • polyvinyl chloride - offers from polyvinyl chloride manufacturers, suppliers, exporters, wholesalers & distributors 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.tradekey.com [Source type: General]

^ PVC or Rigid PVC is often used in the building industry as a low-maintenance material, particularly in the UK, and in the USA where it is known as vinyl, or vinyl siding.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

.The report concludes that "no single material shows up as the best across all the human health and environmental impact categories, nor as the worst" but that the "risk of dioxin emissions puts PVC consistently among the worst materials for human health impacts."^ Currently, all but consumers know that PVC is a threat to both human and environmental health.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC accounts for 0.4% percent of all dioxin emissions.
  • Dangers of PVC : Tree Hugging Family - Family Life On The Green Side 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.blisstree.com [Source type: General]

^ By comparison, a slice of watermelon has 600 mg, eight apricot...appears to pose no health risk to humans, as chlorine and chloride occur naturally in many foods.
  • Potassium Chloride: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

[46]

Bans

.The State of California is currently considering a bill that would ban the use of PVC in consumer packaging due to the threats it poses to human and environmental health and its effect on the recycling stream.^ Currently, all but consumers know that PVC is a threat to both human and environmental health.
  • PVC: A Health Hazard From Production through Disposal Paul Goettlich25oct01 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.mindfully.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Environmental Bummer: PVC cannot be recycled.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

^ Post-consumer PVC is not typically recycled due to the prohibitive cost of regrinding and recompounding the resin compared to the cost of virgin (unrecycled) resin.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[47] .Specifically, the language of the bill analysis[48] stipulates that EPA has listed PVC as a carcinogen.^ In response to a “Fact Sheet” from The Vinyl Institute claiming that not one death in the U.S. has been linked to PVC, Wallace lists several autopsies that specifically identified PVC combustion as the cause of death.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It also further cites that there are concerns about the leaching of phthalates and lead from the PVC packaging.^ Smith (1996) cites the leaching of lead from new PVC pipe.
  • PVC (Vinyl) Plastic:  an evaluation of safety issues   (Introductionand Home Page) 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.turnertoys.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though there is a lot of information out there, it can still be confusing about how concerned we as parents really should be.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]
  • How Dangerous Is PVC in Toys? We've Got the Answers From The Expert. | Safe Alternatives for Baby and Child 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.safbaby.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are two relevant scientific questions: a ) Can phthalates, particularly DEHP and its metabolites, cause immunologic effects leading to an increased risk of asthma and allergies?
  • The Role of Exposure to Phthalates from Polyvinyl Chloride Products in the Development of Asthma and Allergies: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Recycling

.
PVC SPI code, for recycling (Society of the Plastics Industry).
^ In fact if one PVC container gets mixed into a batch of other plastics during recycling, it makes that whole recycled effort a complete waste.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

^ Sources: Embodied energy values from The Society of the Plastics Industry report, “Comparative Energy Evaluation of Plastic Produces and their Alternatives for the Building and Construction and Transportation Trades”, 1991.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The symbol, or ' SPI code ', for polyvinyl chloride developed by the Society of the Plastics Industry so that items can be labeled for easy recycling is: .
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

The Unicode character for this symbol is U+2675 (HTML character reference ♵).
.Post-consumer PVC is not typically recycled due to the prohibitive cost of regrinding and recompounding the resin compared to the cost of virgin (unrecycled) resin.^ Post-consumer PVC is not typically recycled due to the prohibitive cost of regrinding and recompounding the resin compared to the cost of virgin (unrecycled) resin.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ Emulsion resins E-PVC virgin .
  • PVC scrap, resin, regrind, surplus, PVC recycling, waste, PVCcompound, E-PVC, S-PVC, PVC additives: stabilizers, impact modifiers,plasticizers, processing aids, reprocessed,waste, clear, film 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.sonepa.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The cost per unit of manufacturing polyolefins and alternative materials is beneficial compared to PVC, providing substantial savings at end-user levels.
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report -- NEW YORK, Nov. 17 /PRNewswire/ -- 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.prnewswire.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report - FOXBusiness.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.foxbusiness.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report - news from Boston.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC finance.boston.com [Source type: News]
  • Reportlinker Adds Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) - A Global Market Report - news from CBS MoneyWatch.com 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC finance.bnet.com [Source type: News]

[citation needed]
.Some PVC manufacturers have placed vinyl recycling programs into action, recycling both manufacturing waste back into their products, as well as post consumer PVC construction materials to reduce the load on landfills.^ PVC roofing membranes are inherently recyclable, and are the only roofing material that can be recycled back into roofing products.
  • The World’s Best Roofing Blog » PVC 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.duro-last.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many PVC roof manufacturers have post-use recycling programs.
  • The World’s Best Roofing Blog » PVC 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.duro-last.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About 18 million pounds of that was post-consumer vinyl diverted from landfills and recycled into second-generation products.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[citation needed]
.The thermal depolymerization process can safely and efficiently convert PVC into fuel and minerals, according to the company that developed it.^ The thermal depolymerization process can safely and efficiently convert PVC into fuel and minerals, according to the company that developed it.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ C. Finally, the PVC fiber is processed through the stretching process and thermal relaxing process.
  • POLYVINYL CHLORIDE FIBER FOR ARTIFICIAL HAIR, MANUFACTURING AND APPARATUS OF THE SAME - Patent application 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ In the 1950s and 1960s many U.S. companies established facilities for polymerizing vinyl chloride into PVC. At that time the polymerization was done in open vats, requiring relatively little capitalization.
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BuildingGreen.com - EBN: 3:1 - Should We Phase Out PVC? 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC www.buildinggreen.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is not yet in widespread use.
.A new process of PVC recycling is being developed in Europe called Texiloop.^ A new process of PVC Recycling is being developed in Europe and Japan called Texiloop®.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ PVC can be, and is being recycled.
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The thermal depolymerization process can safely and efficiently convert PVC into fuel and minerals, according to the company that developed it.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

[49] .This process is based on a technology already applied industrially in Europe and Japan, called Vinyloop, which consists of recovering PVC plastic from composite materials through dissolution and precipitation.^ A new process of PVC Recycling is being developed in Europe and Japan called Texiloop®.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ This process consists of recovering PVC plastic from composite materials through dissolution and precipitation.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ The majority of vinyl chloride that enters the environment comes from the plastics industries that make a variety of products like pipes, wire and cable coatings and packaging materials.

.It strives to be a closed loop system, recycling its key solvent and hopefully making PVC a future technical nutrient.^ It strives to be a closed loop system, recycling its key solvent and hopefully making PVC a future technical nutrient.
  • Polyvinyl chloride: Encyclopedia of chemistry, analytics & pharmaceutics with 64,557 entries. 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.chemie.de [Source type: Academic]

^ In fact if one PVC container gets mixed into a batch of other plastics during recycling, it makes that whole recycled effort a complete waste.
  • PVC : SafeMama™ | The Original One-stop child safety, product recall, health, well-being, eco-conscious resource for parents 6 February 2010 13:013 UTC safemama.com [Source type: General]

^ The Vinyl Institute has supported the development of technology to automatically separate one plastic from another (a key to making plastics recycling successful).
  • An Introduction to Vinyl 12 January 2010 3:14 UTC www.azom.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c Wilkes, Charles E.; Summers, James W.; Daniels, Charles Anthony; Berard, Mark T. (2005). PVC Handbook. Hanser Verlag. p. 414. ISBN 9781569903797. http://books.google.com/books?id=YUkJNI9QYsUC&pg=PA414. 
  2. ^ A.K. vam der Vegt & L.E. Govaert, Polymeren, van keten tot kunstof, ISBN 90-407-2388-5. Deformation temperature at 10 kN needle load.
  3. ^ "ACC Resin Statistics Annual Summary". http://www.americanchemistry.com/s_acc/sec_policyissues.asp?CID=996&DID=6872. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  4. ^ Ebner, Martin (2008-11-18). "Ceresana Research Releases New Comprehensive PVC Market Study". Newswire Today. http://www.newswiretoday.com/news/42864/. Retrieved 2009-11-18. 
  5. ^ Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 07/08-7 Report, ChemSystems, November 2008.
  6. ^ Galloway, F.M. et al. (1992) "Surface parameters from small-scale experiments used for measuring HCl transport and decay in fire atmospheres", Fire Mater., 15:181-189
  7. ^ Shah Rahman (June 19-20 2007). "PVC Pipe & Fittings: Underground Solutions for Water and Sewer Systems in North America" (PDF). 2nd Brazilian PVC Congress, Sao Paulo, Brazil. http://www.institutodopvc.org/congresso2/ShahRahman.pdf. 
  8. ^ Uses for vinyl: pipe
  9. ^ Shah Rahman (October 2004). "Thermoplastics at Work: A Comprehensive Review of Municipal PVC Piping Products" (PDF). Underground Construction: 56–61. http://www.oildompublishing.com/uceditorialarchive/october04/oct04utech.pdf. 
  10. ^ uPVC Windows, Doors
  11. ^ PolyVinyl (Poly Vinyl Chloride) in Construction
  12. ^ Fascia, Guttering, Fascias, PVCu Soffits, Roofing, Cladding
  13. ^ PVC Products - Greenpeace international
  14. ^ Environmentally conscious buildings
  15. ^ "How safe is your sex toy?". http://www.greenpeace.org.uk/blog/toxics/bad-vibrations-we-expose-an-eu-sex-scandal. Retrieved 2008-05-15. 
  16. ^ See directive 2005/84/EC
  17. ^ Phthalates and childeren's toys, www.phthalates.org, undated (accessed 2 February, 2007)
  18. ^ EU Risk assessment summary report
  19. ^ Medical Devices; Draft Guidance; Medical Devices Made With Polyvinylchloride Using the Plasticizer di-(2-Ethylhexyl)phthalate; Availability, Food and Drug Administration]
  20. ^ Vinyl shower curtains a 'volatile' hazard, study says
  21. ^ Bornehag; Sundell, J; Weschler, CJ; Sigsgaard, T; Lundgren, B; Hasselgren, M; Hägerhed-Engman, L (2004). "The Association Between Asthma and Allergic Symptoms in Children and Phthalates in House Dust: A Nested Case-Control Study". Environmental Health Perspectives 112 (14): 1393–1397. PMID 15471731. PMC 1247566. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/491620. 
  22. ^ Phthalate Information Center Blog: More good news from Europe
  23. ^ Business Wire (November 21, 2005). "CHW Switches to PVC/DEHP-Free Products to Improve Patient Safety and Protect the Environment". Business Wire. http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Nov_21/ai_n15863110. 
  24. ^ Center for Health, Environment & Justice
  25. ^ PVC: the poison plastic
  26. ^ Microsoft Completes Phase Out of PVC, “the Poison Plastic” December 7, 2005
  27. ^ Target to systematically reduce use of toxic PVC
  28. ^ "Safety Assessment ofDi(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP)Released from PVC Medical Devices" (PDF). http://www.fda.gov/cdrh/ost/dehp-pvc.pdf. 
  29. ^ Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks
  30. ^ Creech and Johnson; Johnson, MN (March 1974). "Angiosarcoma of liver in the manufacture of polyvinyl chloride". Journal of occupational medicine 16 (3): 150–1. PMID 4856325. 
  31. ^ Epidemiologic Notes and Reports Angiosarcoma of the Liver Among Polyvinyl Chloride Workers – Kentucky, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Web site. 1997.
  32. ^ National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) for Vinyl Chloride Subpart F, OMB Control Number 2060-0071, EPA ICR Number 0186.09 (Federal Register: September 25 2001 (Volume 66, Number 186))
  33. ^ EPA Toxicologica Review of Vinyl Chloride i Support of Informaiton on the IRIS. May 2000
  34. ^ Jim Morris, "In Strictest Confidence. The chemical industry's secrets," Houston Chronicle. Part One: "Toxic Secrecy," June 28, 1998, pgs. 1A, 24A-27A; Part Two: "High-Level Crime," June 29, 1998, pgs. 1,A, 8A, 9A; and Part Three: "Bane on the Bayou," July 26, 1998, pgs. 1A, 16A.]
  35. ^ “ATSDR Study Finds Dioxin Levels in Calcasieu Parish Residents Similar to National Levels”; “ATSDR Study Finds Dioxin Levels Among Lafayette Parish Residents Similar to National Levels”; ATSDR Report: Serum Dioxin Levels In Residents Of Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana, October 2005, Publication Number PB2006-100561, available from the National Technical Information Services, Springfield, Virginia
  36. ^ "Calcasieu Cancer Rates Similar to State/National Averages." News Release, State of Louisiana Dept. of Health and Hospitals. January 17, 2002
  37. ^ "How to Find and Avoid Toxic Vinyl (PVC) in Your Home" (in English). Greenpeace USA. May 28, 2003. http://www.greenpeace.org/usa/news/how-to-find-and-avoid-toxic-vi. Retrieved 16 February 2010. 
  38. ^ Steiglitz, L., and Vogg, H., "Formation Decomposition of Polychlorodibenzodioxins and Furans in Municipal Waste" Report KFK4379, Laboratorium fur Isotopentechnik, Institut for Heize Chemi, Kerforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Feb 1988.
  39. ^ Pat Costner etal, "PVC: A Primary Contributor to the U.S. Dioxin Burden; Comments submitted to the U.S. EPA Dioxin Reassessment," (Washington, D.C. Greenpeace U.S.A., February 1995
  40. ^ US EPA, The Inventory of Sources and Environmental Releases of Dioxin-Like Compounds in the United States: The Year 2002 Update, May 2007
  41. ^ a b Costner, Pat (2005) "Estimating Releases and Prioritizing Sources in the Context of the Stockholm Convention", International POPs Elimination Network, Mexico.
  42. ^ Beychok, M.R., A data base of dioxin and furan emissions from municipal refuse incinerators, Atmospheric Environment, Elsevier B.V., January 1987
  43. ^ National Renewable Energy Laboratory, "Polyvinyl Chloride Plastics in Municipal Solid Waste Combustion," NREL/TP-430- 5518, Golden CO, April 1993
  44. ^ Rigo, H. G.; Chandler, A. J.; Lanier, W.S. (1995) (PDF). The Relationship between Chlorine in Waste Streams and Dioxin Emissions from Waste Combustor Stacks. 36. New York, NY: American Society of Mechanical Engineers. ISBN 0791812227. http://www.pvcinfo.be/bestanden/ASME%20abstract1.pdf. 
  45. ^ Katami, Takeo, et al. (2002) "Formation of PCDDs, PCDFs, and Coplanar PCBs from Polyvinyl Chloride during Combustion in an Incinerator" Environ. Sci. Technol., 36, 1320–1324. and Wagner, J., Green, A. 1993. Correlation of chlorinated organic compound emissions from incineration with chlorinated organic input. Chemosphere 26 (11): 2039–2054. and Thornton, Joe (2002) "Environmental Impacts of polyvinyl Chloride Building Materials", Healthy Building Network, Washington, DC.
  46. ^ The USGBC document; An analysis by the Healthy Building NEtwork
  47. ^ AB 2505 Californians Against Waste
  48. ^ Bill analysis - Assembly committee on environmental safety and toxic materials, April 15, 2008
  49. ^ Page 11, "Mise A Jour Du Projet, Projet Ferrari - Texiloop

External links


Simple English

Polyvinyl chloride, also called Polychloroethene or PVC, is a thermoplastic. It can be used for wiring insulation, tubes, panels, and such.PVC's are also used instead of rubber.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 30, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Polyvinyl chloride, which are similar to those in the above article.








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