Pomegranate: Wikis

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Pomegranate
A pomegranate
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
Order: Myrtales
Family: Lythraceae
Genus: Punica
Species: P. granatum
Binomial name
Punica granatum
L.
Synonyms
Punica malus
Linnaeus, 1758
Flower

A pomegranate is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree growing to between five and eight meters tall. The pomegranate is native to the Iranian Plateau, and has been cultivated in the Caucasus since ancient times. It is widely cultivated throughout Armenia, Azerbaijan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Turkey, North India, the drier parts of southeast Asia, peninsular Malaysia, the East Indies, the Mediterranean and Southern Europe and tropical Africa.[1] Introduced into Latin America and California by Spanish settlers in 1769, pomegranate is now cultivated in parts of California and Arizona for juice production.[2]

In the Northern Hemisphere, the fruit is typically in season from September to February.[3] In the Southern Hemisphere, it is in season from March to May.

An ancient fruit, pomegranate is mentioned in Europe as early as the Iron-Age Greek Mythology in the Homeric hymns. Yet, it has still to reach mainstream prominence as a consumer fruit in commercial markets of North America and the Western Hemisphere.

Contents

Cultivars

More than 500 cultivars of pomegranate have been named, but such fruits evidently have considerable synonymy in which the same genotype is named differently across regions of the world.[4]

Several characteristics between pomegranate genotypes vary for identification, consumer preference, preferred use, and marketing, the most important of which are fruit size, exocarp color (ranging from yellow to purple, with pink and red most common), aril color (ranging from white to red), hardness of seed, maturity, juice content and its acidity, sweetness, and astringency.[4]

Foliage and fruit

Illustration by Otto Wilhelm Thomé, 1885
Pomegranate flowers and leaves

The leaves are opposite or sub-opposite, glossy, narrow oblong, entire, 3–7 cm long and 2 cm broad. The flowers are bright red, 3 cm in diameter, with four to five petals (often more on cultivated plants). Some fruitless varieties are grown for the flowers alone. The edible fruit is a berry and is between a lemon and a grapefruit in size, 5–12 cm in diameter with a rounded hexagonal shape, and has thick reddish skin and around 600 seeds.[5] The seeds and surrounding pulp, ranging in color from white to deep red, are called arils. There are some cultivars which have been introduced that have a range of pulp colors such as purple.

Punica granatum nana is a dwarf variety of P. granatum popularly used as bonsai trees and as a patio plant. The only other species in the genus Punica is the Socotran pomegranate (Punica protopunica), which is endemic to the island of Socotra. It differs in having pink (not red) flowers and smaller, less sweet fruit. Pomegranates are drought-tolerant, and can be grown in dry areas with either a Mediterranean winter rainfall climate or in summer rainfall climates. In wetter areas, they are prone to root decay from fungal diseases. They are tolerant of moderate frost, down to about −10°C (14°F).[citation needed]

Etymology

Pomegranate, aril only
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 285 kJ (68 kcal)
Carbohydrates 17.17 g
Sugars 16.57 g
Dietary fiber 0.6 g
Fat 0.3 g
Protein 0.95 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.030 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.063 mg (4%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 0.300 mg (2%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.596 mg (12%)
Vitamin B6 0.105 mg (8%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 6 μg (2%)
Vitamin C 6.1 mg (10%)
Calcium 3 mg (0%)
Iron 0.30 mg (2%)
Magnesium 3 mg (1%)
Phosphorus 8 mg (1%)
Potassium 259 mg (6%)
Zinc 0.12 mg (1%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The name "pomegranate" derives from Latin pomum ("apple") and granatus ("seeded"). This has influenced the common name for pomegranate in many languages (e.g., German Granatapfel, seeded apple). In early English, the pomegranate was known as "apple of Grenada" -- a term which today survives only in heraldic blazons. This was probably a folk etymology, confusing Latin granatus with the Spanish city of Granada. The genus name Punica is named for the Phoenicians, who were active in broadening its cultivation, partly for religious reasons. In classical Latin, where "malum" was broadly applied to many apple-like fruits, the pomegranate's name was malum punicum or malum granatum, the latter giving rise to the Italian name melograno, or less commonly melagrana.

Origin, cultivation and uses

Pomegranate leaves
Young Pomegranate trees

The pomegranate is native to the region of Persia and the Himalayan ranges of India,[6] and has been cultivated in Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, North India, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, and the Mediterranean region for several millennia.[7][8]

In Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia, there are wild pomegranate groves outside of ancient abandoned settlements. The cultivation of the pomegranate has a long history in Transcaucasia, where decayed remains of pomegranates dating back to 1000 BC have been found. The Kur-Araz lowland is the largest area in this region where pomegranate is cultivated. Carbonized exocarp of the fruit has been identified in Early Bronze Age levels of Jericho, as well as Late Bronze Age levels of Hala Sultan Tekke on Cyprus and Tiryns[citation needed]. A large, dry pomegranate was found in the tomb of Djehuty, the butler of Queen Hatshepsut; Mesopotamian cuneiform records mention pomegranates from the mid-Third millennium BC onwards.[9] It is also extensively grown in South China and in Southeast Asia, whether originally spread along the route of the Silk Road or brought by sea traders.

The ancient city of Granada in Spain was renamed after the fruit during the Moorish period. Spanish colonists later introduced the fruit to the Caribbean and Latin America, but in the English colonies it was less at home: "Don't use the pomegranate inhospitably, a stranger that has come so far to pay his respects to thee," the English Quaker Peter Collinson wrote to the botanizing John Bartram in Philadelphia, 1762. "Plant it against the side of thy house, nail it close to the wall. In this manner it thrives wonderfully with us, and flowers beautifully, and bears fruit this hot year. I have twenty-four on one tree... Doctor Fothergill says, of all trees this is most salutiferous to mankind."[10] The pomegranate had been introduced as an exotic to England the previous century, by John Tradescant the elder, but the disappointment that it did not set fruit there led to its repeated introduction to the American colonies, even New England. It succeeded in the South: Bartram received a barrel of pomegranates and oranges from a correspondent in Charleston, South Carolina, 1764. Thomas Jefferson planted pomegranates at Monticello in 1771: he had them from George Wythe of Williamsburg.[11]

Insect pests of the pomegranate include the pomegranate butterfly Virachola isocrates and the leaf-footed bug Leptoglossus zonatus.

Culinary use

Pomegranate fruit, opened
Pomegranate arils
A bowl of ash-e anar, a Persian soup made with pomegranate juice.

After opening the pomegranate by scoring it with a knife and breaking it open, the arils (seed casings) are separated from the peel and internal white pulp membranes. Separating the red arils is simplified by performing this task in a bowl of water, wherein arils sink and pulp floats. It is also possible to freeze the whole fruit in the freezer, making the red arils easy to separate from the white pulp membranes. A very effective way of quickly harvesting the arils with minimal time and effort is to cut the pomegranate in half, score each half of the exterior rind four to six times to assist in spreading the rind and ejection of arils, hold pomegranate half over a bowl and smack rind with a large spoon. Arils should eject from pomegranate directly into the bowl, leaving only a dozen or more deeply embedded arils to remove. The entire seed is consumed raw, though the watery, tasty aril is the desired part. The taste differs depending on subspecies of pomegranate and its ripeness. The pomegranate juice can be very sweet or sour, but most fruits are moderate in taste, with sour notes from the acidic tannins contained in the aril juice.

Having begun wide distribution in the United States and Canada in 2002, pomegranate juice has long been a popular drink in Persian and Indian cuisine.[12]

Grenadine syrup is thickened and sweetened pomegranate juice used in cocktail mixing. Before tomatoes arrived in the Middle East, grenadine was widely used in many Iranian foods, and is still found in traditional recipes such as fesenjan, a thick sauce made from pomegranate juice and ground walnuts, usually spooned over duck or other poultry and rice, and in ash-e anar (pomegranate soup).[13]

Wild pomegranate seeds are used as a spice known as anardana (from Persian: anar+dana, pomegranate+seed), most notably in Indian and Pakistani cuisine, but also as a substitute for pomegranate syrup in Persian cuisine. Dried whole arils can often be obtained in ethnic Indian subcontinent markets. These seeds are separated from the flesh, dried for 10–15 days and used as an acidic agent for chutney and curry preparation. Ground anardana is also used, which results in a deeper flavoring in dishes and prevents the seeds from getting stuck in teeth. Seeds of the wild pomegranate variety known as daru from the Himalayas are regarded as quality sources for this spice.

Making pomegranate juice at a stall in Turkey

In the Caucasus, pomegranate is used mainly as juice.[14] In Azerbaijan a sauce from pomegranate juice (narsharab) is usually served with fish[15] or tika kabab. In Turkey, pomegranate sauce, (Turkish: nar ekşisi) is used as a salad dressing, to marinate meat, or simply to drink straight. Pomegranate seeds are also used in salads and sometimes as garnish for desserts such as güllaç.[16] Pomegranate syrup or molasses is used in muhammara, a roasted red pepper, walnut, and garlic spread popular in Syria and Turkey.[17]

In Greece, pomegranate (Greek: ρόδι, rodi) is used in many recipes, including kollivozoumi, a creamy broth made from boiled wheat, pomegranates and raisins, legume salad with wheat and pomegranate, traditional Middle Eastern lamb kebabs with pomegranate glaze, pomegranate eggplant relish, and avocado-pomegranate dip. Pomegranate is also made into a liqueur and popular fruit confectionery used as ice cream topping or mixed with yogurt or spread as jam on toast. In Cyprus as well as in Greece and among the Greek Orthodox Diaspora , ρόδι is used to make kolliva, a mixture of wheat, pomegranate seeds, sugar, almonds and other seeds served at memorial services.

Prominence in Ayurvedic medicine

In the Indian subcontinent's ancient Ayurveda system of medicine, the pomegranate has extensively been used as a source of traditional remedies for thousands of years.[18]

The rind of the fruit and the bark of the pomegranate tree is used as a traditional remedy against diarrhea, dysentery and intestinal parasites.[18] The seeds and juice are considered a tonic for the heart and throat, and classified as a bitter-astringent (pitta or fire) component under the Ayurvedic system, and considered a healthful counterbalance to a diet high in sweet-fatty (kapha or earth) components.[19] The astringent qualities of the flower juice, rind and tree bark are considered valuable for a variety of purposes, such as stopping nose bleeds and gum bleeds, toning skin, (after blending with mustard oil) firming-up sagging breasts and treating hemorrhoids.[20] Pomegranate juice (of specific fruit strains) is also used as eyedrops as it is believed to slow the development of cataracts.[21]

Ayurveda differentiates between pomegranate varieties and employs them for different remedies.[22]

Nutrients and phytochemicals

Pomegranates from eastern Afghanistan packaged for export to Dubai

Pomegranate aril juice provides about 16% of an adult's daily vitamin C requirement per 100 ml serving, and is a good source of vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid), potassium and antioxidant polyphenols.[23]

Pomegranates are listed as high-fiber in some charts of nutritional value. That fiber, however, is entirely contained in the seeds which also supply unsaturated oils. People who choose to discard the seeds forfeit nutritional benefits conveyed by the seed fiber, oils and micronutrients.

The most abundant polyphenols in pomegranate juice are the hydrolyzable tannins called ellagitannins formed when ellagic acid binds with a carbohydrate. Punicalagins are unique pomegranate tannins with free-radical scavenging properties in laboratory experiments[24] and with potential human effects.[25] Punicalagins are absorbed into the human body and may have dietary value as antioxidants, but conclusive proof of efficacy in humans has not yet been shown.[26][27]

Other phytochemicals include polyphenols catechins, gallocatechins, and anthocyanins such as prodelphinidins, delphinidin, cyanidin, and pelargonidin.[28] The ORAC (antioxidant capacity) of pomegranate juice was measured at 2,860 units per 100 grams.[29]

Many food and dietary supplement makers have found advantages of using pomegranate phenolic extracts as ingredients in their products instead of the juice. One of these extracts is ellagic acid, which may become bioavailable only after parent molecule punicalagins are metabolized. However, ingested ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not accumulate in the blood in significant quantities and is rapidly excreted.[30] Accordingly, ellagic acid from pomegranate juice does not appear to be biologically important in vivo.

Potential health benefits

As with many fruits and vegetables, great claims have been made for the health-giving properties of the pomegranate, and some of these claims are backed by studies. However, very few of these studies are conducted on humans in a properly controlled, randomized, double blind manner. Most studies to date have been conducted in vitro, in no way implying similar effects occur from eating the fruit.

In preliminary laboratory research and human pilot studies, juice of the pomegranate was effective in reducing heart disease risk factors, including LDL oxidation, macrophage oxidative status, and foam cell formation,[31][32][33] all of which are steps in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.

In a limited study of hypertensive patients, consumption of pomegranate juice for two weeks was shown to reduce systolic blood pressure by inhibiting serum angiotensin-converting enzyme.[34] Juice consumption may also inhibit viral infections[35] while pomegranate extracts have antibacterial effects against dental plaque.[36][37]

While one study showed that, in a test tube, extracts of the fruit can inhibit the proliferation of human breast cancer cells[38], no studies have shown that eating pomegranates has any effect on the development of breast cancer in humans.

Despite these human studies being too preliminary for FDA approval of a health claim on product labels, manufacturers and marketers of pomegranate juice have liberally used evolving research results for product promotion, especially for putative antioxidant health benefits. In February 2010, the FDA issued a warning letter to one such manufacturer, POM Wonderful, for using published literature to make illegal claims of unproven antioxidant and anti-disease benefits.[39][40][41]

Clinical trial rationale and activity

Metabolites of pomegranate juice ellagitannins localize specifically in the prostate gland, colon, and intestinal tissues of mice,[42] leading to clinical studies of pomegranate juice or fruit extracts for efficacy against several diseases.

In 2009, 20 clinical trials were registered with the National Institutes of Health to examine effects of pomegranate extracts or juice consumption on diseases shown below[43]

Symbolism

Judaism

Exodus 28:33–34 directed that images of pomegranates be woven onto the hem of the me'il ("robe of the ephod"), a robe worn by the Hebrew High Priest. 1 Kings 7:13–22 describes pomegranates depicted on the capitals of the two pillars (Jachin and Boaz) which stood in front of the temple King Solomon built in Jerusalem. It is said that Solomon designed his coronet based on the pomegranate's "crown" (calyx).[44] Jewish tradition teaches that the pomegranate is a symbol for righteousness, because it is said to have 613 seeds which corresponds with the 613 mitzvot or commandments of the Torah. For this reason and others, many Jews eat pomegranates on Rosh Hashanah. However, the actual number of seeds varies with individual fruits.[45] It is also a symbol of fruitfulness.[46] The pomegranate is one of the few images which appear on ancient coins of Judea as a holy symbol, and today many Torah scrolls are stored while not in use with a pair of decorative hollow silver "pomegranates" (rimmonim) placed over the two upper scroll handles. Some Jewish scholars believe that it was the pomegranate that was the forbidden fruit of the Garden of Eden.[46] Pomegranate is one of the Seven Species (Hebrew: שבעת המינים, Shiv'at Ha-Minim), the types of fruits and grains enumerated in the Hebrew Bible (Deuteronomy 8:8) as being special products of the Land of Israel. The pomegranate is mentioned in the Bible many times, including this quote from the Songs of Solomon, "Thy lips are like a thread of scarlet, and thy speech is comely: thy temples are like a piece of a pomegranate within thy locks." - Song of Solomon 4:3.

Ancient Greece

The wild pomegranate did not occur in the Aegean area in Neolithic times. It originated in eastern Iran and came to the Aegean world along the same cultural pathways that brought the goddess whom the Anatolians worshipped as Cybele and the Mesopotamians as Ishtar.

The myth of Persephone, the chthonic goddess of the Underworld, also prominently features the pomegranate. In one version of Greek mythology, Persephone was kidnapped by Hades and taken off to live in the underworld as his wife. Her mother, Demeter (goddess of the Harvest), went into mourning for her lost daughter and thus all green things ceased to grow. Zeus, the highest ranking of the Greek gods, could not leave the Earth to die, so he commanded Hades to return Persephone. It was the rule of the Fates that anyone who consumed food or drink in the Underworld was doomed to spend eternity there. Persephone had no food, but Hades tricked her into eating six pomegranate seeds while she was still his prisoner and so, because of this, she was condemned to spend six months in the Underworld every year. During these six months, when Persephone is sitting on the throne of the Underworld next to her husband Hades, her mother Demeter mourns and no longer gives fertility to the earth. This became an ancient Greek explanation for the seasons. Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Persephona depicts Persephone holding the fatal fruit. It should be noted that the number of seeds that Persephone ate varies, depending on which version of the story is told. The number of seeds she is said to have eaten ranges from three to seven, which accounts for just one barren season if it is just three or four seeds, or two barren seasons (half the year) if she ate six or seven seeds. There is no set number.

The pomegranate also evoked the presence of the Aegean Triple Goddess who evolved into the Olympian Hera, who is sometimes represented offering the pomegranate, as in the Polykleitos' cult image of the Argive Heraion (see below). According to Carl A. P. Ruck and Danny Staples, the chambered pomegranate is also a surrogate for the poppy's narcotic capsule, with its comparable shape and chambered interior.[47] On a Mycenaean seal illustrated in Joseph Campbell's Occidental Mythology 1964, figure 19, the seated Goddess of the double-headed axe (the labrys) offers three poppy pods in her right hand and supports her breast with her left. She embodies both aspects of the dual goddess, life-giving and death-dealing at once. The Titan Orion was represented as "marrying" Side, a name that in Boeotia means "pomegranate", thus consecrating the primal hunter to the Goddess. Other Greek dialects call the pomegranate rhoa; its possible connection with the name of the earth goddess Rhea, inexplicable in Greek, proved suggestive for the mythographer Karl Kerenyi, who suggested that the consonance might ultimately derive from a deeper, pre-Indo-European language layer.

Pomegranate — opened up

In the 6th century BC, Polykleitos took ivory and gold to sculpt the seated Argive Hera in her temple. She held a scepter in one hand and offered a pomegranate, like a 'royal orb', in the other. "About the pomegranate I must say nothing," whispered the traveller Pausanias in the 2nd century, "for its story is something of a mystery." Indeed, in the Orion story we hear that Hera cast pomegranate-Side (an ancient city in Antalya) into dim Erebus — "for daring to rival Hera's beauty", which forms the probable point of connection with the older Osiris/Isis story. Since the ancient Egyptians identified the Orion constellation in the sky as Sah the "soul of Osiris", the identification of this section of the myth seems relatively complete. Hera wears, not a wreath nor a tiara nor a diadem, but clearly the calyx of the pomegranate that has become her serrated crown. The pomegranate has a calyx shaped like a crown. In Jewish tradition it has been seen as the original "design" for the proper crown.[44] In some artistic depictions, the pomegranate is found in the hand of Mary, mother of Jesus.

Within the sanctuary of Hera at Foce del Sele, Magna Graecia, is a chapel devoted to the Madonna del Granato, "Our Lady of the Pomegranate", "who by virtue of her epithet and the attribute of a pomegranate must be the Christian successor of the ancient Greek goddess Hera", observes the excavator of the Heraion of Samos, Helmut Kyrieleis.[48]

In modern times the pomegranate still holds strong symbolic meanings for the Greeks. On important days in the Greek Orthodox calendar, such as the Presentation of the Virgin Mary and on Christmas Day, it is traditional to have at the dinner table "polysporia", also known by their ancient name "panspermia," in some regions of Greece. In ancient times they were offered to Demeter[citation needed] and to the other gods for fertile land, for the spirits of the dead and in honor of compassionate Dionysus. When one buys a new home, it is conventional for a house guest to bring as a first gift a pomegranate, which is placed under/near the ikonostasi (home altar) of the house, as a symbol of abundance, fertility and good luck. Pomegranates are also prominent at Greek weddings and funerals. When Greeks commemorate their dead, they make kollyva as offerings, which consist of boiled wheat, mixed with sugar and decorated with pomegranate. It is also traditional in Greece to break a pomegranate on the ground at weddings and on New Years. Pomegranate decorations for the home are very common in Greece and sold in most homegoods stores.[49]

Christianity

Pomegranates are a motif often found in Christian religious decoration. They are often woven into the fabric of vestments and liturgical hangings or wrought in metalwork. Pomegranates figure in many religious paintings by the likes of Sandro Botticelli and Leonardo da Vinci, often in the hands of the Virgin Mary or the infant Jesus. The fruit, broken or bursting open, is a symbol of the fullness of Jesus' suffering and resurrection.[46] In the Eastern Orthodox Church, pomegranate seeds may be used in kolyva, a dish prepared for memorial services, as a symbol of the sweetness of the heavenly kingdom.

Islam

According to the Qur'an, pomegranates grow in the gardens of paradise (55:068).[46] The Qur'an also mentions (6:99, 6:141) pomegranates twice as examples of good things God creates.

Armenia

Although Armenia's main fruit is the Apricot many villages east and north of Yerevan grow and export pomegranates to countries such as Iran and Georgia, and from Iran they can be exported to Dubai and other countries in the Middle East. Armenians have also used pomegrantes in most of their recipes, one in particular is an Persian dish called Fesanjun. This consists of pomegrante puree, crushed walnuts, and duck or chicken meat.[50]

Azerbaijan

Every year a cultural festival is held in Goychay, Azerbaijan known as Pomegranate Festival. The festival features Azerbaijani fruit-cuisine mainly the pomegranates from Goychay. At the festival, a parade is held with traditional Azerbaijani dances and Azerbaijani music.[51]

Pomegranate Festival usually takes place in October.

Hinduism

In Hinduism, the pomegranate (Sanskrit: Beejpur, literally: replete with seeds) symbolizes prosperity and fertility, and is associated with both Bhoomidevi (the earth goddess) and Lord Ganesha (who is also called Bijapuraphalasakta, or the one fond of the many-seeded fruit).[52][53]

In Hindi, the pomegranate is called by its Persian name of "anaar". 'Bhagwa' is a variety of pomegranate that is widely available in India. Every part of the plant [root, bark, flowers, fruit, leaves] is used for medicinal purposes in Ayurveda.

Other cultures

In Vietnam, the pomegranate is called thạch lựu and the pomegranate flower is the symbol of summer. The famous Vietnamese poet Nguyễn Du wrote in "The Tale of Kieu":

Đầu tường lửa lựu lập lòe đơm bông. (Over the wall, the flames of pomegranate flicker in blossom.)

Other

Tree of the white pomegranate
  • The pomegranate is the symbol and heraldic device of the city of Granada in Andalusia, Spain.
  • Pomegranate is one of the symbols of Armenia, representing fertility, abundance and marriage.
  • It is the official logo of many cities in Turkey.
  • Pomegranate juice is used for natural dyeing of non-synthetic fabrics.
  • Although not native to China, Korea or Japan, the pomegranate is widely grown there and many cultivars have been developed. It is widely used for bonsai because of its flowers and for the unusual twisted bark that older specimens can attain.
  • Balaustines, the red rose-like flowers of the pomegranate, taste bitter and may be used as an astringent in folk medicine.[54] The term "balaustine" (Latin: balaustinus) is also used for a pomegranate-red color.[55]
  • In Mexico, pomegranate seeds are an essential ingredient of chiles en nogada, a favored food symbolizing the red component of the national flag.
  • Kandahar is famous in Afghanistan for its high quality pomegranates.
  • Pomegranate is displayed on coins from the ancient city of Side, Pamphylia.[56]
  • Mexican writer Elena Poniatowska employs the pomegranate with its pulpy interior and lustrous, juicy seeds as a symbol of the promise of a new relationship with a man with whom the narrator has just fallen in love in her short story "El recado." ("The Message")
  • Pomegranate is the name of a UK-based online poetry magazine for writers under thirty.
  • The pomegranate fruit was an emblem in the coat of arms of Catherine of Aragon (1485 - 1536). She was the widow of Arthur, Prince of Wales but, more memorably, was King Henry VIII's first wife. However, when Henry and Catherine could not produce a male heir, the King eventually married Anne Boleyn. As Queen, Boleyn's first decree designated a new coat of arms, showing a white falcon pecking at a pomegranate.
  • The Carrack, Peter Pomegranate was named by Henry VIII after his first wife (See above) and Peter the Apostle.

References

  1. ^ Purdue New Crops Profile
  2. ^ Pomegranate. California Rare Fruit Growers
  3. ^ LaRue, James H. (1980). "Growing Pomegranates in California". California Agriculture and Natural Resources. http://fruitsandnuts.ucdavis.edu/crops/pomegranate_factsheet.shtml. Retrieved 2007-10-25. 
  4. ^ a b Stover E, Mercure EW (August, 2007). "The pomegranate: a new look at the fruit of paradise". HortScience 42 (5): 1088-92. 
  5. ^ How many seeds does a pomegranate have? (statistical analysis), demonstrating parietal placentation.
  6. ^ Leslie Bilderback (2007), The Complete Idiot's Guide to Spices and Herbs, Penguin Group, ISBN 1592576745, http://books.google.com/books?id=6CyAhK6zML0C, "... Native to Iran and the Himalayas, pomegranates also thrive in the drier climates of California and Arizona ..." 
  7. ^ Doijode, S. D. (2001). Seed storage of horticultural crops. New York: Food Products Press. pp. 77. ISBN 1-56022-883-0. 
  8. ^ George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana (1875), The American cyclopaedia: a popular dictionary of general knowledge, Volume 13, Appleton, http://books.google.com/books?id=P_UXAQAAIAAJ, "... frequent reference is made to it in the Mosaic writings, and sculptured representations of the fruit are found on the ancient monuments of Egypt and in the Assyrian ruins. It is found in a truly wild state only in northern India ..." 
  9. ^ Hopf, Maria; Zohary, Daniel (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley (3rd ed.). Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 171. ISBN 0-19-850356-3. 
  10. ^ Leighton, Ann (1986). American gardens in the eighteenth century: "for use or for delight". Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press. pp. 242. ISBN 0-87023-531-1. 
  11. ^ Leighton, American Gardens, p. 272.
  12. ^ Pomegranates Gain The Spotlight
  13. ^ Ash-e Anar
  14. ^ Bulletin — Page 52 by United States Bureau of Plant Industry, Division of Plant Industry, Queensland
  15. ^ Culinary cultures of Europe, Council of Europe, 2005, p. 72
  16. ^ Akgün, Müge (2006-09-22). ""Güllaç, a dainty and light dessert"". Turkish Daily News (Istanbul: DYH). http://www.turkishdailynews.com.tr/article.php?enewsid=83942. Retrieved 2007-12-26. 
  17. ^ Malouf, Greg and Lucy (2006). Saha. Australia: Hardie Grant Books. pp. 46. ISBN 0794604900. 
  18. ^ a b K. K. Jindal, R. C. Sharma (2004), Recent trends in horticulture in the Himalayas, Indus Publishing, ISBN 8173871620, http://books.google.com/books?id=LlogqveEFVgC, "... bark of tree and rind of fruit is commonly used in ayurveda ... also used for dyeing ..." 
  19. ^ Pomegranate: The Longevity Plant, Ayurvedam.com, http://www.ayurvedam.com/htm/leela/Pomegranate.htm, retrieved 2009-11-24, "... According to Ayurveda ... checks thirst, burning sensation, and fevers. It is also useful in the treatment of diseases of the heart, throat and mouth ... slightly increases Pitta ... checks Amavaatha and Kapha ..." 
  20. ^ Ch. Murali Manohar (2002), Ayurveda for All, Pustak Mahal, ISBN 8122307647, http://books.google.com/books?id=m1hDJCwrzoMC 
  21. ^ Vasant Lad (2002), Textbook of Ayurveda, Volume 1, Ayurvedic Press, ISBN 1883725070, http://books.google.com/books?id=hJIeAQAAIAAJ, "... she was developing cataracts ... drop of pomegranate juice in the eye ..." 
  22. ^ Birgit Heyn (1990), Ayurveda: the ancient Indian art of natural medicine & life extension, Inner Traditions / Bear & Company, ISBN 8122307647, http://books.google.com/books?id=1HUIZRFFMF8C 
  23. ^ Nutrition data for raw pomegranate, Nutritiondata.com
  24. ^ Kulkarni AP, Mahal HS, Kapoor S, Aradhya SM (Feb 21, 2007). "In vitro studies on the binding, antioxidant, and cytotoxic actions of punicalagin". J Agric Food Chem 55 (4): 1491-500. PMID 17243704. 
  25. ^ Heber DH (Oct 8, 2008). "Multitargeted therapy of cancer by ellagitannins". Cancer Lett 269 (2): 262-8. PMID 18468784. 
  26. ^ Seeram NP, Henning SM, Zhang Y, Suchard M, Li Z, Heber D (1 October 2006). "Pomegranate juice ellagitannin metabolites are present in human plasma and some persist in urine for up to 48 hours". J Nutr. 136 (10): 2481–5. PMID 16988113. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16988113. 
  27. ^ Mertens-Talcott SU, Jilma-Stohlawetz P, Rios J, Hingorani L, Derendorf H (November 2006). "Absorption, metabolism, and antioxidant effects of pomegranate (Punica granatum l.) polyphenols after ingestion of a standardized extract in healthy human volunteers". J Agric Food Chem. 54 (23): 8956–61. doi:10.1021/jf061674h. PMID 17090147. 
  28. ^ Plumb GW; De Pascual-Teresa S, Santos-Buelga C, Rivas-Gonzalo JC, Williamson G (2002). "Antioxidant properties of gallocatechin and prodelphinidins from pomegranate peel". Redox Rep. 7 (41): 41. doi:10.1179/135100002125000172. 
  29. ^ Development of Accurate and Representative Food Composition Data for the U.S. Food Supply by the USDA
  30. ^ Seeram NP, Lee R, Heber D (October 2004). "Bioavailability of ellagic acid in human plasma after consumption of ellagitannins from pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juice". Clin Chim Acta 348 (1-2): 63–8. doi:10.1016/j.cccn.2004.04.029. PMID 15369737. 
  31. ^ Aviram M, Rosenblat M, Gaitini D, et al. (June 2004). "Pomegranate juice consumption for 3 years by patients with carotid artery stenosis reduces common carotid intima-media thickness, blood pressure and LDL oxidation". Clin Nutr 23 (3): 423–33. doi:10.1016/j.clnu.2003.10.002. PMID 15158307. 
  32. ^ Esmaillzadeh A, Tahbaz F, Gaieni I, Alavi-Majd H, Azadbakht L (2004). "Concentrated pomegranate juice improves lipid profiles in diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia". J Med Food 7 (3): 305–8. doi:10.1089/1096620041938623. PMID 15383223. 
  33. ^ Kaplan M, Hayek T, Raz A, et al. (1 August 2001). "Pomegranate juice supplementation to atherosclerotic mice reduces macrophage lipid peroxidation, cellular cholesterol accumulation and development of atherosclerosis". J Nutr. 131 (8): 2082–9. PMID 11481398. http://jn.nutrition.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11481398. 
  34. ^ Aviram M, Dornfeld L (September 2001). "Pomegranate juice consumption inhibits serum angiotensin converting enzyme activity and reduces systolic blood pressure". Atherosclerosis 158 (1): 195–8. doi:10.1016/S0021-9150(01)00412-9. PMID 11500191. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0021915001004129. 
  35. ^ Neurath AR, Strick N, Li YY, Debnath AK (2004). "Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide". BMC Infect. Dis. 4: 41. doi:10.1186/1471-2334-4-41. PMID 15485580. 
  36. ^ Menezes SM, Cordeiro LN, Viana GS (2006). "Punica granatum (pomegranate) extract is active against dental plaque". Journal of herbal pharmacotherapy 6 (2): 79–92. doi:10.1300/J157v06n02_07. PMID 17182487. 
  37. ^ http://iadr.confex.com/iadr/ced09/webprogram/Paper123573.html
  38. ^ Kim ND, Mehta R, Yu W, et al. (February 2002). "Chemopreventive and adjuvant therapeutic potential of pomegranate (Punica granatum) for human breast cancer". Breast Cancer Res Treat. 71 (3): 203–17. doi:10.1023/A:1014405730585. PMID 12002340. http://www.kluweronline.com/art.pdf?issn=0167-6806&volume=71&page=203. 
  39. ^ Warning Letter to POM Wonderful Wagner RC, Director, Office of Compliance, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, Inspections, Compliance, Enforcement, and Criminal Investigations, Feb 23, 2010
  40. ^ Understanding Front-of-Package Violations: Why Warning Letters Are Sent to Industry U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration, March 2010
  41. ^ Starling S. "FDA says Pom Wonderful antioxidant claims not so wonderful". http://www.nutraingredients-usa.com/Regulation/FDA-says-Pom-Wonderful-antioxidant-claims-not-so-wonderful/?c=7InNqGv0Ajf%2BGsoljaV0RA%3D%3D&utm_source=newsletter_daily&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Newsletter%2BDaily. Retrieved March 6, 2010. 
  42. ^ Seeram NP, Aronson WJ, Zhang Y, et al. (September 2007). "Pomegranate ellagitannin-derived metabolites inhibit prostate cancer growth and localize to the mouse prostate gland". J. Agric. Food Chem. 55 (19): 7732–7. doi:10.1021/jf071303g. PMID 17722872. 
  43. ^ NIH-listed human clinical trials on pomegranate, December, 2009
  44. ^ a b Parashat Tetzaveh, Commentary by Peninnah Schram, Congregation B'nai Jeshurun, New York
  45. ^ Alexander Haubold, How many seeds does a pomegranate have? And does a larger pomegranate yield proportionally more seed volume?
  46. ^ a b c d "A Pomegranate for All Religions" by Nancy Haught, Religious News Service
  47. ^ Staples, Danny; Ruck, Carl A. P. (1994). The world of classical myth: gods and goddesses, heroines and heroes. Durham, N.C: Carolina Academic Press. ISBN 0-89089-575-9. 
  48. ^ Kyrieleis, "The Heraion at Samos" in Greek Sanctuaries: New Approaches, Nanno Marinatos and Robin Hägg, eds. 1993, p. 143.
  49. ^ Christmas Traditions in Greece by folklorist Thornton B. Edwards
  50. ^ www.sadaf.com/recipes/Recipe14.html
  51. ^ iguide.travel Goychay Activities: Pomegranate Festival
  52. ^ Suresh Chandra (1998), Encyclopaedia of Hindu Gods and Goddesses, Sarup & Sons, ISBN 8176250392, http://books.google.com/books?id=mfTE6kpz6XEC, "... Bhumidevi (the earth goddess) ... Attributes: ... pomegranate ..." 
  53. ^ Vijaya Kumar (2006), Thousand Names of Ganesha, Sterling Publishers, ISBN 8120730070, http://books.google.com/books?id=koNhqLCSxRgC, "... Beejapoori ... the pomegranate in His hand is symbolic of bounteous wealth, material as well as spiritual ..." 
  54. ^ History of Science: Cyclopædia, or, An universal dictionary of arts and sciences...
  55. ^ Osborne, Roy; Pavey, Don (2003). On Colours 1528: A Translation from Latin. Parkland, Fla: Universal Publishers. ISBN 1-58112-580-1. 
  56. ^ Sear, David R. (1978). Greek coins and their values. London: Seaby. ISBN 0-900652-46-2. 

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

POMEGRANATE. The pomegranate (Punica Granatum) is of exceptional interest by reason of its structure, its history, and its utility. It forms a tree of small stature, or a bush, with opposite or alternate, shining, lance-shaped leaves, from the axils of come of which proceed the brilliant scarlet flowers_ These are raised on a short stalk, and consist of a thick fleshy cylindrical or bell-shaped calyx-tube, with five to seven short lobes at the top. From the throat of the calyx proceed five to FIG. 1. - Pomegranate, Punica Granatum, flowering branch, half natural size.

1, Flower cut lengthwise; the 3, Same cut across, showing petals have been removed. seeds.

2, Fruit, about one-third natural 4, Seed, natural size.

size.

seven roundish, crumpled, scarlet or crimson petals, and below them very numerous slender stamens. The pistil consists of two rows of carpels placed one above another, both rows embedded in, and partially inseparate from, the inner surface of the calyxtube. The styles are confluent into one slender column. The fruit, which usually attains the size of a large orange, consists.

A B (After Eichler, from Strasburger's Lehrbuch der Bolanik, by pern.ission of Gustav Fischer.) FIG. 2. - Punica Granatum. A, Floral diagram. B, Longitudinal section of the ovary.

of a hard leathery rind, enclosing a quantity of pulp derived from the coats of the numerous seeds. This pulp, filled as it is. with refreshing acid juice, constitutes the chief value of the tree. The more highly cultivated forms contain more of it than the wild or half-wild varieties. The great structural peculiarity consists in the presence of the two rows of carpels one above another (a state of things which occurs exceptionally in apples and oranges), and in the fact that, while in the lower series the seeds are attached to the inner border or lower angle of the cavity,. they occupy the outer s'de in the upper series, as if during growth the upper whorl had become completely bent over.

By Bentham and Hooker the Punica is included as an anomalous genus in the order Lythraceae; others consider it rrore nearly allied to the myrtles; while its peculiarities are so great as,. in the opinion of many botanists, to justify its inclusion in a.

Missing image
Pomegranate-1.jpg

separate order, Punicaceae. Not only is the fruit valuable in hot countries for the sake of its pulp, but the rind and the bark and the outer part of the root (containing the alkaloid pelletierine) are valuable as astringents. The bark of the root is likewise valued as an anthelmintic in cases of tape-worm.

The tree is wild in Afghanistan, north-western India, and the districts south and south-west of the Caspian, but it has been so long cultivated that it is difficult to say whether it is really native in Palestine and the Mediterranean region. It has been cited as wild in northern Africa, but this appears to be a mistake. Professor Bayley Balfour met with a wild species, heretofore unknown, in the island of Socotra, the flowers of which have only a single row of carpels, which suggests the inference that it may have been the source of the cultivated varieties. But, on the other hand, in Afghanistan, where Aitchison met with the tree truly wild, a double row of carpels was present as usual. The antiquity of the tree as a cultivated plant is evidenced by the Sanskrit name Daclimba, and by the references to the fruit in the Old Testament, and in the Odyssey, where it is spoken of as cultivated in the gardens of the kings of Phaeacia and Phrygia. The fruit is frequently represented on ancient Assyrian and Egyptian sculptures, and had a religious significance in connexion with several Oriental cults, especially the Phrygian cult of Cybele (Arnob. v. 5 seq.; see also Baudissin, Studien, ii. 207 seq.). It was well known to the Greeks and Romans, who were acquainted with its medicinal properties and its use as a tanning material. The name given by the Romans, malum punicum, indicates that they received it from Carthage, as indeed is expressly stated by Pliny; and this circumstance has given rise to the notion that the tree was indigenous in northern Africa. On a review of the whole evidence, botanical, literary and linguistic, Alphonse de Candolle (Origin of Cultivated Plants) pronounces against its African origin, and decides in favour of its source in Persia and the neighbouring countries. According to Saporta, the pomegranate existed in a fossil state in beds of the Pliocene epoch near Meximieux in Burgundy. The pomegranate is sometimes met with in cultivation against a wall in England, but it is too tender to withstand a severe winter. The double-flowered varieties are specially desirable for the beauty and long duration of their flowers.


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Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


i.e., "grained apple" (pomum granatum), Heb. rimmon. Common in Egypt (Num 20:5) and Palestine (13:23; Deut 8:8). The Romans called it Punicum malum, i.e., Carthaginian apple, because they received it from Carthage. It belongs to the myrtle family of trees. The withering of the pomegranate tree is mentioned among the judgments of God (Joel 1:12). It is frequently mentioned in the Song of Solomon (Song 4:3, 13, etc.). The skirt of the high priest's blue robe and ephod was adorned with the representation of pomegranates, alternating with golden bells (Ex 28:33,34), as also were the "chapiters upon the two pillars" (1 Kg 7:20) which "stood before the house."

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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