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Pontiac Tempest
1963 Pontiac LeMans coupe. "V326" badge on grill advertises 326 V8 engine option
Manufacturer Pontiac
Parent company General Motors
Production 1961-1972
1988-1991

The Pontiac Tempest was an entry-level compact automobile produced by the Pontiac Motor Division of General Motors, introduced in September 1960 for the 1961 model year. It shared the new monocoque (unibody) Y platform with the Buick Special and Skylark, and Oldsmobile F-85 and Cutlass. It also appeared under the LeMans nameplate largely beginning with the 1962 model year, though a few 1961 LeMans coupes were built. For 1964, the platform was redesigned with a full-size frame, and renamed A-body. The Tempest name was discontinued after the 1970 model year in favor of LeMans, a nameplate previously used for upmarket versions of that series.

Contents

1961-1963

First generation
1961 Tempest sedan
Production 1961-1963
Class Compact
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
4-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Platform Y-body
Engine(s) 195 cu in Trophy 4 I4
326 cu in V8
389 cu in V8
215 cu in Buick V8
Transmission(s) 2-speed automatic
3-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
Related Oldsmobile F-85
Buick Special

In its first iteration, though it used some of the Oldsmobile's sheet metal, underneath it was radically different. The Tempest's drivetrain employed an innovative tunnel that spanned almost the length of the car and housed a 3/4" flexible steel drive shaft running on bearings and riding inside a steel box, which forced it into a curve (colloquially dubbed "rope drive"), connecting the engine in the front to a unified differential and transmission in the rear. (This was first tried in the 1951 Le Sabre concept car.)[1] The combination of the rear-mounted transaxle and the front-mounted engine gave the car a weight distribution near an ideal 50/50 between the forward and rear wheels, enabled four-wheel independent suspension, and had the added benefit of eliminating the floor "hump" forward of the front seat needed to accommodate the transmission in conventional cars. The designer of this car was John Z. DeLorean, the division's chief engineer and a Packard veteran who would later become the division's head and still later famous for building cars bearing his own name. Since its Buick and Oldsmobile sister cars used a conventional Hotchkiss front engine and front transmission (both used a two-piece driveshaft to lower the hump) powertrain setup, the Tempest was truly unique. The Tempest was Motor Trend magazine's 1961 Car of the Year. Road & Track praised the Tempest as "exceptionally roomy" and "one of the very best utility cars since the Ford Model A."

Power came from a 195-cubic inch (3.2 L) straight-4, marketed as the "Trophy 4," derived from the right cylinder bank of Pontiac's 389 cu in V8, the standard powerplant Pontiac used in its larger cars, such as the Bonneville and Catalina. The engine was advertised as a gas-saving economy motor for thrifty consumers, but Pontiac also saved money because it could run the engine down the same assembly line as the 389. There were three versions of the engine: an 8.6:1, low compression, single-barrel carburetor; a 10.25:1 high-compression with single barrel; and a high-compression engine with a four-barrel carburetor. While the single-barrel version produced between 110-140 horsepower, the four-barrel was capable of 155 hp (82 kW) (SAE gross) at 4800 rpm and 215 ft·lbf (292 N·m) of torque at 2800 rpm. All three versions had a fuel economy ranging from 18-22 mpg, and the engine was generally reliable though it had a reputation as the "Hay Baler," a derogatory label applied by dealer mechanics (ostensibly from farm states) who experienced the violent kicks it could produce when out of tune.

Another departure, lesser but still notable from the other Y-body cars, were the wheels. Both Buick and Oldsmobile had standardized their Y-body cars on an odd 9.5-inch (241.3 mm) brake drum with four lug studs on a 4.5 inch-diameter circle (a "four-on-four-and-a-half" bolt pattern), with 14-inch (360 mm) wheels, shared by no other GM cars at the time. Pontiac went with a nine-inch (229 mm) drum, but used five studs on the same bolt circle ("five-on-four-and-a-half") and 15-inch (380 mm) wheels. This was a second configuration shared by no other GM cars but would be identical to the wheels on the Ford Mustang when released some four years later in mid-1964. Perhaps only coincidentally the Pontiac plant that produced the Tempest's undercarriage was in Los Angeles, across the street from the Ford plant where the Mustang's was developed.

Of particular note is that the innovative aluminum Buick-built 215-cubic inch (3.5 L) V8 was optional in the Tempest in 1961 and 1962. (This also had first appeared in the LeSabre.)[2] It is estimated that just 3,662 Tempests were ordered with the 215 engine, or about 1 percent of production. This motor produced, in its various incarnations, from 155 to 215 hp (160 kW) despite weighing just 330 lb (150 kg) installed. The Pontiac 215 blocks are distinct from other Buick 215 blocks because in addition to the factory Buick markings they were hand-stamped at the Pontiac plant with the VIN numbers of the individual cars they were installed in. Thus in 1961 all Pontiac 215 blocks begin "161P"; the 1962 cars, "162P." Further code numbers told whether the car had an automatic or manual transmission. In 1961 this would have been either a three-speed column-shifted manual with a non-synchromesh first gear or a two-speed automatic controlled by a small lever on the dash to the right of the ignition. This automatic, called "TempesTorque" in company literature but unmarked on the unit itself, was a type of Powerglide similar to, but sharing very few parts with, the one in the Chevrolet Corvair. (The next year a floor-mounted, fully synchromesh four-speed manual was added.) At the introduction the Tempest was only available as a four-door pillared sedan and as a Safari station wagon. A pair of two-door coupes, one of which was named LeMans, were added at the end of 1961, both in the 1961 body style.

By the time the 1962 models arrived, LeMans, primarily a trim package upgrade featuring front bucket seats, also came as a new convertible. There were now a total of four models: station wagon, sedan, coupe, and convertible. All four came as Tempest; customers who wanted a more deluxe coupe or convertible could pay extra for Tempest LeMans. There was no LeMans station wagon or sedan. And although Oldsmobile and Buick had pillarless hardtops in the higher-option Cutlass and Skylark respectively, there was no pillarless hardtop LeMans. In 1963, the LeMans became a separate series, reaching nearly 50 percent of all combined Tempest and LeMans production.

The 1963 version, slightly larger and heavier than the previous two years (now designated a "senior compact"), and with a redesigned transaxle that improved handling, offered a high-performance option much more powerful than the scarcely ordered 215. The 215 was replaced by Pontiac's new 326-cubic inch (5.3 L) V8, a motor with the same external dimensions of the venerable 389, but different internals, designed to produce more torque. A new version of the automatic transmission (now officially stamped "TempesTorque" on the case) was designed with beefier internals to handle it; the four-speed was not, so few, if any, V8 cars were built with four speeds (the three-speed remained for both motors, however). The high-compression 326's output was 260 hp (197 kW) and 352 ft·lbf (477 N·m) of torque. The actual displacement was 336 cubic inches, but according to lore, since no GM division was allowed to have a motor larger than the Corvette's 327, the advertised number was 326. The cast-iron mill brought weight up 260 pounds over a 195 cubic inches Trophy 4 and weight distribution changed only marginally to 54/46. Performance was strong enough that Car Life magazine stated; "No one will wonder why they didn't use the 389," and fuel economy with the 326 ranged up to 19 mpg. The V8 option proved popular: 52 percent of the 131,490 Tempests and LeMans sold in 1963 were ordered with the 326. The 326 sold in the 1963 cars is a one year-only motor; the next year the displacement was adjusted so that it was actually 326 cubic inches.

Super Duty

Perhaps the most famous Tempests built were the 1963 Super Duty cars. Just 14 in number and built to compete in the NHRA Factory Experimental class, they were built at the Pontiac plant in Michigan over Christmas 1962 with the knowledge of the impending General Motors ban on factory racing.[3] Among those who successfully raced the Tempest Super Duty cars was Wild Bill Shrewsberry who drove for Mickey Thompson in the 1963 NHRA Winternationals with average times in the low twelve-second range. Shrewsberry still owns his car and it is still equipped with Pontiac's "Powershift" transaxle as retrofitted later in the 1963 season. Developed specifically for the Super Duty, this was essentially two Powerglide automatics in a single four-speed unit, allowing clutchless shifting in much the same manner as modern drag racing transmissions.

On October 31, 2008, one of the most rare factory race cars, the missing Stan Antlocer Super Duty Tempest LeMans Coupe was auctioned on eBay. The seller started the auction at $500 being unaware of the car's true value. Eventually, the car was sold for $226,521.[4][5][6]

1964-67

Second generation
1965 Pontiac Tempest 2-door black.jpg
Production 1964-1967
Class Mid-size
Body style(s) 4-door station wagon
4-door sedan
2-door coupe
2-door convertible
Layout FR layout
Platform A-body
Engine(s) 215 cu in (3.5 L) I6
230 cu in (3.8 L) OHC I6
326 cu in (5.3 L) V8
400 cu in (6.6 L) V8
Transmission(s) 2-speed automatic
3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
3-speed manual
Related Chevrolet Chevelle
Pontiac LeMans
Oldsmobile Cutlass
Buick Special

In 1964, the Tempest was redesigned as a more-conventional vehicle and enlarged from a compact to an intermediate-sized car with a 115-inch (2,900 mm) wheelbase and an overall length of 203 inches (5,200 mm). The unibody, curved driveshaft and transaxle were gone in favor of the traditional front engine, front transmission, frame and solid rear axle design used by all of GM's other cars, with the exception of the Corvair. Together with its sister cars the Oldsmobile F-85/Cutlass and Buick Special/Skylark, the Tempest/LeMans moved to the new A body platform shared with the new Chevrolet Chevelle, and all three cars received updates and modifications standardizing them throughout - including the wheels - by GM edict. The LeMans name was discontinued as a separate series, so now the cars were, in ascending order, base Tempest, Tempest Custom, and Tempest LeMans.

Replacing the previous half-a-V8 four-cylinder engine as standard equipment was a new 215 cubic-inch inline six-cylinder engine with one-barrel carburetor and 140 horsepower (100 kW). This six was basically a bored out version of the Chevrolet-built 194 cubic-inch six and offered as Pontiac exclusive. Optional engines included two versions of the 326 cubic-inch Pontiac V8 introduced the previous year, a two-barrel 250 horsepower (190 kW) regular fuel option; or the 280-horsepower 326 HO engine with four-barrel carburetor and 10.5 to 1 compression ratio which required premium fuel. Transmissions included a standard three-speed manual with column shift, four-speed manual with floor-mounted Hurst shifter or a two-speed automatic - the latter being a version of Buick's Super Turbine 300.

The popularity of the high-performance V8 package the year before prompted Pontiac to make it available again on the Tempest LeMans and give it a name: GTO, producing a watershed car of the 1960s and 1970s.

Interestingly, the success of the GTO prompted Oldsmobile to rush out its own high-performance option package for the F-85/Cutlass called the 442 that year, and the next year, for Buick to release a high-performance version of the Skylark called the Skylark Gran Sport, or GS. Both cars would enjoy success and contribute to what in retrospect has become the "muscle car" era.

Engine offerings for the 1965 Tempest were the same as 1964, except the 326 HO was uprated to 285 horsepower (213 kW). Styling changes included a new split grille with vertical headlights similar to the larger Pontiacs, revised taillights and a more slanted rear deck. A two-door hardtop coupe was added to the Tempest Custom line, while the LeMans got a four-door sedan with a plush interior done in Preston Cloth trim similar to the full-sized Bonneville Brougham.

A major facelift was made on the 1966 Tempest that included more rounded bodylines with a Coke-bottle effect similar to the full-sized Pontiacs. New four-door pillarless hardtop sedans were added to the Tempest Custom line. Under the hood, the Chevy-derived 215 six was replaced by a new Pontiac-built 230 cubic-inch overhead cam six, the only such engine found in an American production car at that time. The base OHC had a one-barrel carburetor and was rated at 165 horsepower (123 kW), designed for economy buyers. Optionally available as part of the Sprint option package on two-doors was a four-barrel, high-compression 207 horsepower (154 kW) version of the OHC six, marketed as an alternative to higher-priced European sport sedans, which had similar OHC engines. For those wanting V8 power, the 326 and 326 HO options continued with horsepower ratings of 250 and 285 horsepower (213 kW), respectively.

Only minor changes were made to the 1967 Tempest, Custom and LeMans models. Engines and transmission offerings were the same as before except the four-barrel OHC six was uprated to 215 horsepower (160 kW). Front disc brakes were a new option along with a stereo 8-track tape player and hood-mounted tachometer.

1968 restyle

1968-69 body style.

A restyled Tempest was introduced for 1968 with more rounded styling cues, concealed windshield wipers, a return to horizontal headlights and a split-wheelbase mode of 112 inches (2,800 mm) for two-doors and 116 for four-door models. The OHC sixes were enlarged from 230 to 250 cubic inches with horsepower ratings unchanged while the 326 V6 was replaced by a new 350 cubic-inch V8 with horsepower ratings of 250 with two-barrel or 320 with four-barrel carb. The same lineup of models including the base Tempest, Tempest Custom and LeMans continued as in previous years.

Other than elimination of vent windows on hardtop coupes, styling only received minor revisions for 1969, when the Tempest Custom was renamed the Custom S for this one year. However model offerings were the same as 1968. A new three-speed Turbo Hydra-matic 350 transmission was introduced and available with all engines as an alternative to the older two-speed automatic. Engine offerings were the same as before except for the 350 HO V8 getting a five-horsepower jump to 325. A new locking steering column with relocated ignition switch was introduced and front seat headrests became standard equipment.

Minor styling revisions highlighted the 1970 Tempest, which would be the final year for the nameplate in the U.S. Initially the line was down to just two- and four-door sedans but expanded at mid-year with the introduction of the low-priced T-37 hardtop coupe, billed as GM's lowest-priced hardtop coupe.[citation needed] The Custom S became the LeMans this year and the previous LeMans series was renamed the LeMans Sport. The Pontiac-built OHC six-cylinder engine was replaced by a Chevy-built 250 inch inline six while the 350 V8 was down to a two-barrel 255 horsepower (190 kW) version. New engine offerings included 400 cubic-inch V8s rated at 265 horsepower (198 kW) with two-barrel carburetor and 8.6 to 1 compression ratio or 330 with four-barrel and 10.25 to 1 compression.

The Tempest nameplate was phased out after the 1970 model year. For 1971, it would be replaced by a new T-37 series that included each of the three bodystyles offered on the '70 Tempest and T-37. After this year, the T-37 would be dropped and for 1972 all Pontiac intermediates took the LeMans nameplate except the GTO.

Third generation

Third generation
Pontiac Tempest (Canadian-spec)
Production 1988-1991
Assembly Linden, New Jersey
Wilmington, Delaware
Class Compact
Body style(s) 4-door sedan
Layout FF layout
Platform L-body
Engine(s) 2.0 L 122 I4
2.2 L 2200 I4
2.8 L LB6 V6
3.1 L LH0 V6
Transmission(s) 5-speed manual
3-speed automatic
4-speed automatic
Wheelbase 103.4 in (2626 mm)
Length 183.4 in (4658 mm)
Width 68.0 in (1727 mm)
Height 56.2 in (1427 mm)
Curb weight 2,595 lb (1,177 kg)
Related Chevrolet Corsica

For Canada only, a rebadged version of the compact L-body Chevrolet Corsica was sold as the Pontiac Tempest starting in 1987. This car slotted between the Grand Am and 6000. It was discontinued in 1991, and this car (along with the 6000) was replaced by the Pontiac Grand Prix sedan. The 87-91 Pontiac Tempest came in two trim levels, base (equivalent to the US Corsica LT) and LE (equivalent to the US Corsica LTZ) The main differences that separates the Tempest from its L-Body twin are different grille, emblems and taillights (the taillights were later adopted as the US Corsica's taillights) The only other difference were wheel options, DRLs and a metric instrument cluster.

References

Cited References
  1. ^ Flory, J. "Kelly", Jr. American Cars 1946-1959 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Coy, 2008), p.1021.
  2. ^ Flory, p.1021.
  3. ^ Hemmings Motor News: Master Wagon
  4. ^ eBay Find of the Day: 1963 LeMans Tempest sells for $226,521
  5. ^ eBay Motors: 1963 Pontiac Le Mans TEMPEST
  6. ^ http://www.sportscarmarket.com/Profiles/2009/March/American/ Report on the "barn find" 1963 Super Duty which also chronicles Wild Bill Shrewsberry's accomplishments at Sportscarmarket.com

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