The Full Wiki

Popes: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


(Redirected to List of popes article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Plaque commemorating the popes buried in St. Peter's

The list of Popes chronologically lists the men who have been given the title Pope (or Bishop of Rome) by the Catholic Church. While there is actually no official list of popes, the Annuario Pontificio, published every year by the Vatican, contains a list that is generally considered to be the most authoritative. The Annuario Pontificio lists Benedict XVI as the 265th Bishop of Rome. That list is the one given here; it lists 263 men serving 265 pontificates (periods of Papal office), if Pope-elect Stephen is excluded (see below). The difference in these numbers is due to the fact that Benedict IX reigned during three non-consecutive periods between 1032 and 1048.

The term Pope (Latin: papa "father'") is used in several Churches to denote their high spiritual leaders (for example Coptic Pope). This title in English usage usually refers to the head of the Roman Catholic Church. The Roman Catholic pope officially uses the title of Pontifex Maximus. This title was first used by the Ancient Romans as the title of the high priest of the College of Pontiffs. Emperor Augustus later subsumed the office into his Imperial office[1] but Gratian dropped the title on the advice of Ambrose.[2]

Hermannus Contractus may have been the first historian to number the popes continuously. His list ends in 1049 with Pope Leo IX as number 154. Several changes were made to the list during the 20th century. Antipope Christopher was considered legitimate for a long time. Pope-elect Stephen was considered legitimate under the name Stephen II until the 1961 edition, when his name was erased. Although these changes are no longer controversial, a number of modern lists still include this "first Pope Stephen II". It is probable that this is because they are based on the 1913 edition of the Catholic Encyclopedia, which is in the public domain. In the year 2001 a rigorous study was made by the Catholic Church into the history of the papacy which "prompted almost 200 corrections to the existing biographies of the Popes, from St. Peter to John Paul II."[3]

The title Episcopus Romanus means Roman Bishop in Latin.

Chronological list of popes

1st–5th Centuries

1st Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
30 – 64/67 Pope-peter pprubens.jpg St. Peter
Simon Peter
שמעון בן יונה
(Shimon ben Yona)

Shimon Kipha
(Simeon Kephas – Simon the Rock)
Bethsaida, Galilea Disciple of Jesus from whom he received the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven, according to Matthew 16:18–19 . Executed by crucifixion upside-down; feast day (Feast of Saints Peter and Paul) 29 June, (Chair of Saint Peter) 22 February. Recognized as the first Bishop of Rome (Pope) appointed by Christ, by the Catholic Church. Also revered as saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 29 June.
64/67(?) – 76/79(?) Linus2.jpg St. Linus
Linus Tuscia (Northern Latium) Feast day 23 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.
76/79(?) – 88 Popeanacletus.JPG St. Anacletus
Anacletus Probably Greece Martyred; feast day 26 April. Once erroneously split into Cletus and Anacletus[4]
88/92 – 97/101 Clemens I.jpg St. Clement I
Clement Rome Feast day 23 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 November.
97/99 – 105/107 Evaristus.jpg St. Evaristus
Aristus Bethlehem, Palestine Feast day 26 October

2nd Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
105/107 – 115/116 Pope Alexander I.jpg St. Alexander I
Alexander Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 16 March.
115/116 – 125 SixtusI.jpg St. Sixtus I
  Rome or Greece Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
125 – 136/138 Telesphorus.JPG St. Telesphorus
136/138 – 140/142 Hyginus.jpg St. Hyginus
  Greece Traditionally martyred; feast day 11 January
140/142 – 155 Pius I.jpg St. Pius I
  Aquileia, Friuli, Italy Martyred by sword; feast day 11 July
155 – 166 Papa Aniceto cropped.jpg St. Anicetus
  Emesa, Syria Traditionally martyred; feast day 17 April
c.166 – 174/175 Soter.jpg St. Soter
  Fondi, Latium, Italy Traditionally martyred; feast day 22 April
174/175 – 189 Eleutherius.jpg St. Eleuterus
  Nicopoli, Epyrus Traditionally martyred; feast day 6 May
189 – 198/199 Victor I..jpg St. Victor I
  Northern Africa  
199 – 217 Saintz05.jpg St. Zephyrinus

3rd Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
c.217 – 222/223 CalixtusI.jpg St. Callixtus I
    Martyred; feast day 14 October
222/223 – 230 UrbanI.jpg St. Urban I
  Rome Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 25 May.
21 July 230
– 28 September 235
(5 years)
Pope Pontian.jpg St. Pontian
  Rome First Pope with firm dates of office
21 November 235
– 3 January 236
(44 days)
Pope Anterus.jpg St. Anterus
  Greece Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
10 January 236
– 20 January 250
(14 years)
Saint Fabian1.jpg St. Fabian
  Rome Feast day 20 January. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 5 August.
6/11 March 251
– June 253
(2 years)
Heiliger Cornelius.jpg St. Cornelius
    Died a martyr, through extreme hardship; feast day 16 September
25 June 253
– 5 March 254
(256 days)
Lucius I.jpg St. Lucius I
  Rome Feast day 4 March
12 May 254
– 2 August 257
(3 years)
Stephen I.jpg St. Stephen I
  Rome Martyred by beheading; feast day 2 August. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with the same feast day.
30/31 August 257
– 6 August 258
(340/341 days)
PopesixtusII.jpg St. Sixtus II
XYSTUS Secundus
  Greece Martyred by beheading. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 10 August.
22 July 259
– 26 December 268
(9 years)
Pope Dionysius.jpg St. Dionysius
  Greece Feast day 26 December
5 January 269
– 30 December 274
(5 years)
PopeFelixI.jpg St. Felix I
4 January 275
– 7 December 283
(8 years)
Eutychian.jpg St. Eutychian
17 December 283
– 22 April 296
(12 years)
PCaius.jpg St. Caius
    Martyred (according to legend) Feast day 22 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 11 August.
30 June 296
– 1 April 304
(7 years)
Marcellinus.jpg St. Marcellinus
    Feast day 26 April. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 7 June.

4th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
308 – 309 Papa Marcelo I.jpg St. Marcellus I
c.309 – c.310 Eusebius.jpg St. Eusebius
2 July 311
– 11 January 314
(2 years)
Pope miltiades.jpg St. Miltiades
  Africa First pope after the end of the persecution of Christians through the Edict of Milan (313 AD) issued by Constantine the Great
31 January 314
– 31 December 335
(21 years)
Sylvester I.jpg St. Sylvester I
  Sant'Angelo a Scala, Avellino Feast day 31 December. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 2 January. First Council of Nicaea, 325.
18 January 336
– 7 October 336
(263 days)
Marcus (papa).jpg St. Mark
  Rome Feast day 7 October
6 February 337
– 12 April 352
(15 years)
Iulius I.jpg St. Julius I
17 May 352
– 24 September 366
(14 years)
Paderborner Dom Dreifaltigkeitskapelle Liborius.jpg Liberius
    Earliest Pope not yet canonized by the Roman Church. Revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 27 August.
1 October 366
– 11 December 384
(18 years)
Saintdamasus.png St. Damasus I
  Idanha-a-Velha, Portugal Patron of Jerome, commissioned the Vulgate translation of the Bible. Council of Rome, 382
11 December 384
– 26 November 399
(14 years)
Siricius.jpg St. Siricius
    First Bishop of Rome to employ the title "Papa" ("Pope")
27 November 399
– 19 December 401
(2 years)
Anastasius I.jpg St. Anastasius I

5th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
22 December 401
– 12 March 417
(15 years)
Innocentius I.jpg St. Innocent I
    Visigoth Sack of Rome (410) under Alaric
18 March 417
– 26 December 418
(1 year)
Zosimus.jpg St. Zosimus
28/29 December 418
– 4 September 422
(3 years)
Pope Boniface I.jpg St. Boniface I
10 September 422
– 27 July 432
(9 years)
Celestine1pope.jpg St. Celestine I
  Rome, Western Roman Empire Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 8 April.
31 July 432
– March/August 440
(8 years)
Sixtuspope3.jpg St. Sixtus III
Papa XYSTUS Tertius
29 September 440
– 10 November 461
(21 years)
Greatleoone.jpg St. Leo I
(Leo the Great)
  Rome Convinced Attila the Hun to turn back his invasion of Italy. Feast day 10 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 18 February.
19 November 461
– 29 February 468
(6 years)
Nuremberg chronicles - Hilarius, Pope (CXXXVIv).jpg St. Hilarius
  Sardinia, Western Roman Empire  
3 March 468
– 10 March 483
(15 years)
Simplicius.jpg St. Simplicius
  Tivoli, Italy  
13 March 483
– 1 March 492
(8 years)
Felix3.jpg St. Felix III (Felix II)
Papa FELIX Tertius (Secundus)
  Rome Sometimes called Felix II
1 March 492
– 21 November 496
(4 years)
Papa Gelasio I.jpg St. Gelasius I
24 November 496
– 19 November 498
(1 year)
Anastasius II.jpg Anastasius II
Papa ANASTASIUS Secundus
22 November 498
– 19 July 514
(15 years)
Simmaco - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg St. Symmachus

6th–10th Centuries

6th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
20 July 514
– 19 July 523
(8 years)
Hormispope.jpg St. Hormisdas
  Frosinone, Southern Latium, Italy Father of Pope Silverius
13 August 523
– 18 May 526
(2 years)
Papa Ioannes I.jpg St. John I
13 July 526
– 22 September 530
(4 years)
Pope Felix III.jpg St. Felix IV (Felix III)
Papa FELIX Quartus (Tertius)
  Samnium Sometimes called Felix III
22 September 530
– 17 October 532
(2 years)
Boniface II.jpg Boniface II
Papa BONIFACIUS Secundus
  Rome to Ostrogoth parents  
2 January 533
– 8 May 535
(2 years)
Johannes II.jpg John II
Papa IOANNES Secundus
Mercurius Rome First pope to not use personal name. This was due to Mercury being a Roman god.
13 May 535
– 22 April 536
(346 days)
Agapitus I.jpg St. Agapetus I
  Rome, Ostrogothic Kingdom Feast days 22 April, 20 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 17 April.
1 June 536
– 11 November 537
(1 year)
Silverius.jpg St. Silverius
    Exiled; feast day 20 June, son of Pope Hormisdas
29 March 537
– 7 June 555
(18 years)
Vigilius.jpg Vigilius
16 April 556
– 4 March 561
(5 years)
Pope Pelagius I.jpg Pelagius I
17 July 561
– 13 July 574
(12 years)
Papa Joao III.jpg John III
Papa IOANNES Tertius
Catelinus Rome, Eastern Roman Empire  
2 June 575
– 30 July 579
(4 years)
Benedict I.jpg Benedict I
26 November 579
– 7 February 590
(10 years)
PopePelagiusII.jpg Pelagius II
Papa PELAGIUS Secundus
3 September 590
– 12 March 604
(13 years)
Gregorythegreat.jpg St. Gregory I, O.S.B.
(Gregory the Great)
  Rome First to formally employ the titles "Servus servorum Dei" and "Pontifex Maximus". Feast day 3 September. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 12 March.

7th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
13 September 604 – 22 February 606 Sabinian.jpg Sabinian
  Blera   1  
19 February 607 – 12 November 607 Boniface III.jpg Boniface III
  Rome   <1  
25 August 608 – 8 May 615 Pope Boniface IV.jpg St. Boniface IV, O.S.B.
  Marsi   6 First Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
19 October 615 – 8 November 618 StAdeodatus I.jpg Adeodatus I
  Rome   3 Sometimes called Deusdedit, and then Pope Adeodatus II is called Pope Adeodatus without a number
23 December 619 – 25 October 625 Papa Bonifacio V.jpg Boniface V
  Naples   5  
27 October 625 – 12 October 638 Onorio I - mosaico Santa Agnese fuori le mura.jpg Honorius I
  Campania, Byzantine Empire   2  
October 638 – 2 August 640 Severinopapa.jpg Severinus
  Rome   1  
24 December 640 – 12 October 642 Murner History Cod Karlsruhe 3117 (crop).jpg John IV
Papa IOANNES Quartus
  Zadar, Dalmatia, now Croatia   1  
24 November 642 – 14 May 649 Theodorus I.jpg Theodore I
  Palestine   6  
July 649 – 16 September 655 Pope Martin I.jpg St. Martin I
  Near Todi, Umbria, Byzantine Empire   6 Feast Day 12 November. Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 14 April.
10 August 654 – 2 June 657 PopeeugeneI.jpg St. Eugene I
  Rome   2  
30 July 657 – 27 January 672 Pope Vitalian.jpg St. Vitalian
  Segni, Byzantine Empire   14  
11 April 672 – 17 June 676 Adeodatus II.jpg Adeodatus II, O.S.B.
Papa ADEODATUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire   4 Sometimes called Pope Adeodatus (without a number) when Pope Adeodatus I is called Pope Deusdedit. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
2 November 676 – 11 April 678 Popedonus.jpg Donus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire   1  
27 June 678 – 10 January 681 Agatho.gif St. Agatho
  Sicily   2 Also revered as a saint in Eastern Christianity, with a feast day of 20 February.
December 681 – 3 July 683 LeoII-s.jpg St. Leo II
Papa LEO Secundus
  Sicily   1 Feast day 3 July
683/26 June 684 – 8 May 685 BenedictII.jpg St. Benedict II
Papa BENEDICTUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire   <1 Feast day 7 May
12 July 685 – 2 August 686 Johannes V.jpg John V
Papa IOANNES Quintus
  Syria   1  
21 October 686 – 22 September 687 Konon.jpg Conon
15 December 687 – 8 September 701 Sergius I.jpg St. Sergius I
  Sicily   13  

8th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
30 October 701
– 11 January 705
(3 years)
John VI.jpg John VI
Papa IOANNES Sextus
1 March 705
– 18 October 707
(2 years)
Byzantinischer Mosaizist um 705 002.jpg John VII
Papa IOANNES Septimus
  Greece Second Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor
15 January 708
– 4 February 708
(21 days)
Sisinnius.jpg Sisinnius
25 March 708
– 9 April 715
(7 years)
Costantinopapa.jpg Constantine
  Syria Last Pope to visit Greece until John Paul II in 2001
19 May 715
– 11 February 731
(15 years)
StgregoryII.jpg St. Gregory II
Papa GREGORIUS Secundus
  Rome, Byzantine Empire Feast day 11 February
18 March 731
– 28 November 741
(10 years)
SangregorioIII.jpg Gregory III
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius
  Syria Third Pope to bear the same name as his predecessor
3 December 741
– 14/22 March 752
(10 years)
Pope Zachary.jpg St. Zachary
  Greece Feast day 15 March
23 March 752
– 25 March 752
(Never took office as Pope.)
Stef2pope.jpg Pope-elect Stephen
Papa Electus STEPHANUS
    Sometimes known as Stephen II. Died three days after his election and was never consecrated into the office of Pope as such. Some lists still include his name. The Vatican sanctioned his addition to the list of Popes in the sixteenth century, however he was removed in 1961. He is no longer considered a Pope by the Catholic Church.
26 March 752
– 26 April 757
(5 years)
La donacion de Pipino el Breve al Papa Esteban II.jpg Stephen II (Stephen III)
Papa STEPHANUS Secundus (Tertius)
    Sometimes called Stephen III
29 May 757
– 28 June 767
(10 years)
Paul I.jpg St. Paul I
1/7 August 767
– 24 January 772
(4 years)
StephenIII.jpg Stephen III (Stephen IV)
Papa STEPHANUS Tertius (Quartus)
  Sicily Sometimes called Stephen IV
1 February 772
– 26 December 795
(23 years)
Pope Adrian I.jpg Adrian I
26 December 795
– 12 June 816
(20 years)
Leo III.jpg St. Leo III
Papa LEO Tertius
  Rome Crowned Charlemagne Imperator Augustus on Christmas Day, 800, thereby initiating what would become the office of Holy Roman Emperor requiring the imprimatur of the pope for its legitimacy

9th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
12 June 816 – 24 January 817 Stephen IV.jpg Stephen IV (Stephen V)
Papa STEPHANUS Quartus (Quintus)
      <1 Sometimes called Stephen V
25 January 817 – 11 February 824 Apsis - Paschalis I..gif St. Paschal I
  Rome   7  
8 May 824 – August 827 Eugene II.jpg Eugene II
Papa EUGENIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
August 827 – September 827 Valentine.jpg Valentine
  Rome   <1  
827 – January 844 Greg4papa.jpg Gregory IV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus
  Rome   17  
January 844 – 7 January 847 SergiusII.jpg Sergius II
Papa SERGIUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
January 847 – 17 July 855 Pope St. Leo IV.jpg St. Leo IV, O.S.B.
Papa LEO Quartus
  Rome   8 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
855 – 7 April 858 Ben3pope.jpg Benedict III
24 April 858 – 13 November 867 NicholasI.jpg St. Nicholas I
(Nicholas the Great)
  Rome   9  
14 December 867 – 14 December 872 Adrian II.jpg Adrian II
Papa HADRIANUS Secundus
  Rome   5  
14 December 872 – 16 December 882 GiovanniVIII.jpg John VIII
Papa IOANNES Octavus
  Rome   10  
16 December 882 – 15 May 884 Marinus I.jpg Marinus I
  Gallese, Rome   1  
17 May 884 – c.September 885 Papa Adriano III.jpg St. Adrian III
Papa HADRIANUS Tertius
885 – 14 September 891 Stephen V.jpg Stephen V (Stephen VI)
Papa STEPHANUS Quintus (Sextus)
  Rome     Sometimes called Stephen VI
19 September 891 – 4 April 896 PopeFormosusBW.jpg Formosus
  Ostia   4 Posthumously ritually executed following the Cadaver Synod
4 April 896 – 19 April 896 Boniface VI.jpg Boniface VI
  Rome   <1  
22 May 896 – August 897 Stephen VI.jpg Stephen VI (Stephen VII)
Papa STEPHANUS Sextus (Septimus)
      1 Sometimes called Stephen VII
August 897 – November 897 Romano papa.jpg Romanus
  Gallese, Rome   <1  
December 897 TeodoroII.jpg Theodore II
Papa THEODORUS Secundus
  Rome   <1  
January 898 – January 900 John IX.jpg John IX, O.S.B.
Papa IOANNES Nonus
  Tivoli, Italy     Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
900 – 903 BenedettoIV.jpg Benedict IV

10th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
July 903 – September 903 Pope Leo V.jpg Leo V
Papa LEO Quintus
  Ardea   <1  
29 January 904 – 14 April 911 SergiusIII.jpg Sergius III
Papa SERGIUS Tertius
  Rome   7 "Pornocracy" begins
April 911 – June 913 120-anastasio3.jpg Anastasius III
  Rome   2  
July/August 913 – February/March 914 Landopapa.jpg Lando
  Sabina, Italy   <1  
March 914 – May 928 IoannesX.jpg John X
Papa IOANNES Decimus
  Romagna, Italy   14  
May 928 – December 928 LeoVIpapa.jpg Leo VI
Papa LEO Sextus
  Rome   <1  
December 928 – February 931 Stephen VII.jpg Stephen VII (Stephen VIII)
Papa STEPHANUS Septimus (Octavus)
  Rome   2 Sometimes called Stephen VIII
February/March 931 – December 935 Ioannes XI.jpg John XI
Papa IOANNES Undecimus
  Rome   4  
3 January 936 – 13 July 939 Leone-VII.jpg Leo VII, O.S.B.
Papa LEO Septimus
      3 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
14 July 939 – October 942 Stephen VIII.JPG Stephen VIII (Stephen IX)
Papa STEPHANUS Octavus (Nonus)
  Germany   3 Sometimes called Stephen IX
30 October 942 – May 946 Marinus II.jpg Marinus II
Papa MARINUS Secundus
  Rome   3  
10 May 946 – December 955 Agapito II.jpg Agapetus II
Papa AGAPETUS Secundus
  Rome   9  
16 December 955 – 14 May 964 GiovanniXII.png John XII
Papa IOANNES Duodecimus
Octavian Rome   8 Deposed in 963 by Emperor Otto invalidly; end of the "Pornocracy"
22 May 964 – 23 June 964 BenedettoV.jpg Benedict V
  Rome   <1 Elected after John XII's death by the people of Rome, in opposition to the Antipope Leo VIII who was appointed by Emperor Otto; Benedict accepted his deposition in 964 leaving Leo as sole pope.
July 964 – 1 March 965 Leo VIII.jpg Leo VIII
Papa LEO Octavus
  Rome   <1 Appointed antipope by Emperor Otto in 963 in opposition to John XII and Benedict V. He became the true Pope after Benedict V was deposed
1 October 965 – 6 September 972 Ikkon Papa Giovanni XIII 2 small.JPG John XIII
Papa IOANNES Tertius Decimus
  Rome   6  
19 January 973 – June 974 BenedettoVI.jpg Benedict VI
  Rome, Papal States   1 Deposed and murdered
October 974 – 10 July 983 BenedettoVII.jpg Benedict VII
Papa BENEDICTUS Septimus
  Rome   8  
December 983 – 20 August 984 IoannesXIV.jpg John XIV
Papa IOANNES Quartus Decimus
Pietro Campanora Pavia   <1  
August 985 – March 996 IoannesXV.jpg John XV
Papa IOANNES Quintus Decimus
  Rome   10  
3 May 996 – 18 February 999 Otto III wird von Papst Gregor V. zum Kaiser gesalbt.jpg Gregory V
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus
Bruno of Carinthia Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2 First German Pope
2 April 999 – 12 May 1003 Silvester II.JPG Sylvester II
Papa SILVESTER Secundus
Gerbert d'Aurillac Auvergne region of France   4 First French Pope

11th–15th Centuries

11th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Election / Death or Resigned # years as Pope Notes
June 1003 – December 1003 Papa Joao XVII.jpg John XVII
Papa IOANNES Septimus Decimus
Siccone Rome, Papal States   <1  
25 December 1003 – July 1009 Ioannes XVIII.jpg John XVIII
Papa IOANNES DuodeVicesimus
Giovanni Fasano; Phasianus Rapagnano, Papal States   5  
31 July 1009 – 12 May 1012 Sergius IV.jpg Sergius IV
Papa SERGIUS Quartus
Pietro Boccapecora Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire   2  
18 May 1012 – 9 April 1024 150px-B Benedikt VIII.jpg Benedict VIII
Theophylactus II, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire   11  
April/May 1024 – 20 October 1032 150px-B Johannes XIX.jpg John XIX
Papa IOANNES UndeVicesimus
Romanus, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire   8  
1032 – 1044 BenedictusIX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire     1st Term
1045 Silvestro3.jpg Sylvester III
Papa SILVESTER Tertius
John, Bishop of Sabina Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire     Validity of election questioned; considered Anti-Pope; deposed at the Council of Sutri.
1045 – 1046 BenedictusIX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire     2nd Term; deposed at the Council of Sutri
April/May 1045 – 20 December 1046 150px-B Gregor VI.jpg Gregory VI
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus,
Johannes Gratianus Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire   1 Deposed at the Council of Sutri
24 December 1046 – 9 October 1047 Pope clement II.jpg Clement II
Papa CLEMENS Secundus
Suidger Hornburg, Duchy of Saxony, Holy Roman Empire   <1  
November 1047 – 1048 BenedictusIX.jpg Benedict IX
Theophylactus III, Conti di Tusculum Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire     3rd Term; deposed and excommunicated
17 July 1048 – 9 August 1048 B Damasus II1.jpg Damasus II
Papa DAMASUS Secundus
Poppo Pildenau, Duchy of Bavaria, Holy Roman Empire   <1  
12 February 1049 – 19 April 1054 Leon IX.jpg St. Leo IX
Papa LEO Nonus
Bruno, Count of Dagsbourg Eguisheim, Swabia, Holy Roman Empire   5 In 1054, Leo IX and Patriarch of Constantinople Michael I Cerularius excommunicated each other, beginning the still-existing East-West schism.
13 April 1055 – 28 July 1057 Vicii bild.jpg Victor II
Papa VICTOR Secundus
Gebhard, Count of Calw, Tollenstein, and Hirschberg Kingdom of Germany, Holy Roman Empire   2  
2 August 1057 – 29 March 1058 B Stephan IX.jpg Stephen IX (Stephen X), O.S.B.
Papa STEPHANUS Nonus (Decimus)
Frédéric de Lorraine Duchy of Lorraine, Holy Roman Empire   <1 Sometimes called Stephen X. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
6 December 1058 – 27 July 1061 Papa Nicolau II.jpg Nicholas II
Papa NICOLAUS Secundus
Gérard de Bourgogne Château de Chevron, Kingdom of Arles   2  
30 September 1061 – 21 April 1073 Papa Alexandre II.jpg Alexander II
Papa ALEXANDER Secundus
Anselmo da Baggio Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   11  
22 April 1073 – 25 May 1085 Pope Gregory VII.jpg St. Gregory VII, O.S.B.
Papa GREGORIUS Septimus
Hildebrand Sovana, Italy, Holy Roman Empire   12 Restricted the use of title "Papa" to the Bishop of Rome. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
24 May 1086 – 16 September 1087 Victor III.jpg Bd. Victor III, O.S.B.
Papa VICTOR Tertius
Desiderio; Desiderius; Dauferius Benevento, Duchy of Benevento   1 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
12 March 1088 – 29 July 1099 BlUrban II.gif Bd. Urban II, O.S.B.
Papa URBANUS Secundus
Odo of Lagery Lagery, County of Champagne, France   11 Started the First Crusade. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
13 August 1099 – 21 January 1118 B Paschalis II.jpg Paschal II, O.S.B.
Papa PASCHALIS Secundus
Raniero Bleda, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire   18 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.

12th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
24 January 1118
– 28 January 1119
(1 year)
GelasioII.gif Gelasius II, O.S.B.
Papa GELASIUS Secundus
Giovanni Coniulo Gaeta, Principality of Capua Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
2 February 1119
– 13 December 1124
(5 years)
Callistus II.gif Callixtus II
Papa CALLISTUS Secundus
Guido, Comte de Bourgogne Quingey, County of Burgundy, Holy Roman Empire Opened the First Council of the Lateran in 1123
15 December 1124
– 13 February 1130
(5 years)
B Honorius II.jpg Honorius II, Can.Reg.
Papa HONORIUS Secundus
Lamberto Scannabecchi Fiagnano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Maria di San Reno
14 February 1130
– 24 September 1143
(13 years)
B Innozenz II.jpg Innocent II, Can.Reg.
Gregorio Papareschi Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of Lateran; Convened the Second Council of the Lateran, 1139
26 September 1143
– 8 March 1144
(164 days)
Caelestinus II.jpg Celestine II
Guido Città di Castello, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
12 March 1144
– 15 February 1145
(340 days)
B Lucius II.jpg Lucius II, Can.Reg.
Papa LUCIUS Secundus
Gerardo Caccianemici dal Orso Bologna, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular of S. Frediano di Lucca
15 February 1145
– 8 July 1153
(8 years)
150px-B Eugen III.jpg Bd. Eugene III, O.Cist.
Papa EUGENIUS Tertius
Bernardo da Pisa Pisa, Republic of Pisa, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Order of Cistercians.
8 July 1153
– 3 December 1154
(1 year)
B Anastasius IV.jpg Anastasius IV
Corrado Demetri della Suburra Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
4 December 1154
– 1 September 1159
(4 years)
Pope Hadrian IV.jpg Adrian IV, O.S.A.
Papa HADRIANUS Quartus
Nicholas Breakspear Abbots Langley, Hertfordshire, Kingdom of England First and only English pope; purportedly granted Ireland to Henry II, King of England. Member of the Order of St. Augustine.
7 September 1159
– 30 August 1181
(21 years)
B-Alexander III1.jpg Alexander III
Papa ALEXANDER Tertius
Rolando Siena, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Third Council of the Lateran, 1179
1 September 1181
– 25 November 1185
(4 years)
Pope Lucius III.png Lucius III
Papa LUCIUS Tertius
Ubaldo Lucca, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
25 November 1185
– 19 October 1187
(1 year)
B Urban III.jpg Urban III
Papa URBANUS Tertius
Uberto Crivelli Cuggiono, Italy, Holy Roman Empire  
21 October 1187
– 17 December 1187
(57 days)
150px-B Gregor VIII.jpg Gregory VIII, Can.Reg.
Papa GREGORIUS Octavus
Alberto di Morra Benevento, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canon Regular Premostratense; Proposed the Third Crusade
19 December 1187
– 20 March 1191[5]
(3 years)
B Clemens III.jpg Clement III
Papa CLEMENS Tertius
Paolo Scolari Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
21 March 1191
– 8 January 1198
(6 years)
Celestin III.jpg Celestine III
Giacinto Bobone Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
8 January 1198
– 16 July 1216
(18 years)
Innozenz3.jpg Innocent III
Lothario dei Conti di Segni Gavignano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Fourth Council of the Lateran, 1215. Initiated the Fourth Crusade.

13th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
18 July 1216
– 18 March 1227
(10 years)
B Honorius III3.jpg Honorius III
Papa HONORIUS Tertius
Cencio Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Initiated the Fifth Crusade.
19 March 1227
– 22 August 1241
(14 years)
Gregory IX bas-relief in the U.S. House of Representatives chamber.jpg Gregory IX
Ugolino dei Conti di Segni Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Canonized Elisabeth of Hungary, 1235
25 October 1241
– 10 November 1241
(17 days)
B Colestin IV.jpg Celestine IV
Goffredo Castiglioni Milan, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Died before coronation.
25 June 1243
– 7 December 1254
(11 years)
Innocent IV - Council of Lyon - 002r detail.jpg Innocent IV
Sinibaldo Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire Convened the First Council of Lyons, 1245
12 December 1254
– 25 May 1261
(6 years)
B Alexander IV.jpg Alexander IV
Papa ALEXANDER Quartus
Rinaldo dei Conti di Jenne Jenne, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
29 August 1261
– 2 October 1264
(3 years)
Pope Urban IV.jpg Urban IV
Papa URBANUS Quartus
Jacques Pantaléon Troyes, County of Champagne, France  
5 February 1265
– 29 November 1268
(3 years)
Papst Clemens IV.jpg Clement IV
Papa CLEMENS Quartus
Gui Faucoi Saint-Gilles, Languedoc, France  
29 November 1268
– 1 September 1271
(2 years)
Ombrellino-keys.svg interregnum Almost 3 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
1 September 1271
– 10 January 1276
(4 years)
B Gregor X.jpg Bd. Gregory X
Papa GREGORIUS Decimus
Tebaldo Visconti Piacenza, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Second Council of Lyons, 1274.
21 January 1276
– 22 June 1276
InnocentV.jpg Bd. Innocent V, O.P.
Pierre de Tarentaise County of Savoy, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Dominican Order.
11 July 1276
– 18 August 1276
Papa Adriano V.jpg Adrian V
Papa HADRIANUS Quintus
Ottobuono Fieschi Genoa, Republic of Genoa, Holy Roman Empire  
8 September 1276
– 20 May 1277
B Johannes XXI.jpg John XXI
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Primus
Pedro Hispano Lisbon, Portugal Due to a confusion over the numbering of popes named John in the 13th century, there was no John XX. Killed in the collapse of his scientific laboratory
25 November 1277
– 22 August 1280
(2 years)
NicholasIII.jpg Nicholas III
Papa NICOLAUS Tertius
Giovanni Gaetano Orsini Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
22 February 1281
– 28 March 1285
(4 years)
B Martin IV.jpg Martin IV
Papa MARTINUS Quartus
Simon de Brion Meinpicien, Touraine, France  
2 April 1285
– 3 April 1287
(2 years)
PopeOnorioIV.jpg Honorius IV
Papa HONORIUS Quartus
Giacomo Savelli Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  
22 February 1288
– 4 April 1292
(4 years)
NicholasIV.jpg Nicholas IV, O.F.M.
Papa NICOLAUS Quartus
Girolamo Masci Lisciano, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire Member of the Franciscan Order.
4 April 1292
– 5 July 1294
(2 years)
Ombrellino-keys.svg interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
5 July 1294
– 13 December 1294
(223 days)
Celestin 5 statue.jpg St. Celestine V, O.S.B.
Pietro da Morrone Sant' Angelo Limosano, Kingdom of Sicily One of only two popes who abdicated. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
24 December 1294
– 11 October 1303
(8 years)
Bonifatius VIII Grabstatue.JPG Boniface VIII
Benedetto Caetani Anagni, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire  

14th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Notes
22 October 1303
– 7 July 1304
(260 days)
B Benedikt XI.jpg Bd. Benedict XI, O.P.
Papa BENEDICTUS Undecimus
Niccolò Boccasini Treviso, Italy, Holy Roman Empire Convened the Council of Vienne, 1311–1312. Member of the Dominican Order.
5 June 1305
– 20 April 1314
(8 years)
Papst klemens v.jpg Clement V
Papa CLEMENS Quintus
Bertrand de Got Villandraut, Gascony, France Pope at Avignon. Ordered the execution of the Knights Templar at the Council of Vienne.
20 April 1314
– 7 August 1316
Ombrellino-keys.svg interregnum 2 year period without a valid pope elected. This was due to a deadlock among cardinals voting for the pope.
7 August 1316
– 4 December 1334
(18 years)
John22.jpg John XXII
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Secundus
Jacques d'Euse; Jacques Duèse Cahors, Quercy, France Pope at Avignon
20 December 1334
– 25 April 1342
(7 years)
Benedikt XII1.gif Benedict XII, O.Cist.
Papa BENEDICTUS Duodecimus
Jacques Fournier Saverdun, County of Foix, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Cistercians.
7 May 1342
– 6 December 1352
(10 years)
Clemens VI.gif Clement VI, O.S.B.
Papa CLEMENS Sextus
Pierre Roger Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon
18 December 1352
– 12 September 1362
(9 years)
Innozenz VI.gif Innocent VI
Étienne Aubert Les Monts, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon
28 September 1362
– 19 December 1370
(8 years)
Urban V.gif Bd. Urban V, O.S.B.
Papa URBABUS Quintus
Guillaume (de) Grimoard Grizac, Languedoc, France Pope at Avignon. Member of the Order of Saint Benedict.
30 December 1370
– 26 March 1378
(7 years)
PopeGregoryXI.jpg Gregory XI
Papa GREGORIUS Undecimus
Pierre Roger de Beaufort Maumont, Limousin, France Pope at Avignon; returns to Rome; last French Pope
8 April 1378
– 15 October 1389
(11 years)
Urbanus VI.jpg Urban VI
Papa URBANUS Sextus
Bartolomeo Prignano Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism
2 November 1389
– 1 October 1404
(14 years)
IX.Bonifac.jpg Boniface IX
Pietro Tomacelli Naples, Kingdom of Naples Western Schism

15th Century

  • R This pope resigned his office.
  • B The exact birth date of Innocent VIII and almost all popes prior to Eugene IV is unknown, therefore the lowest probable age has been assumed for this table.
Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
17 October 1404
– 6 November 1406
(2 years)
Innocent VII.jpg Innocent VII
Cosimo Gentile Migliorati Sulmona, Kingdom of Naples 67 / 69 [B] Western Schism
30 November 1406
– 4 July 1415
(8 years)
Gregory XII.jpg Gregory XII
Papa GREGORIUS Duodecimus
Angelo Correr Venice, Republic of Venice 60 / 69 [R][B] Western Schism; abdicated during the Council of Constance, which had been called by his opponent John XXIII.
4 July 1415
– 11 November 1417
(2 years)
Ombrellino-keys.svg Interregnum Two year period without a valid pope elected. Alexander V and John XXIII were both antipopes during this period.
11 November 1417
– 20 February 1431
(13 years)
Martin V.jpg Martin V
Papa MARTINUS Quintus
Oddone Colonna Genazzano, Papal States 48 / 62 [B] Convened the Council of Basel, 1431
3 March 1431
– 23 February 1447
(15 years)
Portrait du pape Eugène IV.jpg Eugene IV, O.S.A.
Papa EUGENIUS Quartus
Gabriele Condulmer Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 63 [B] Member of the Augustinian Order. Crowned Sigismund emperor at Rome in 1433. Transferred the Council of Basel to Ferrara. It was later transferred again, to Florence, because of the Bubonic plague.
6 March 1447
– 24 March 1455
(8 years)
Nicholas V.jpg Nicholas V
Papa NICOLAUS Quintus
Tommaso Parentucelli Sarzana, Republic of Genoa 49 / 57 Held Jubilee of 1450; crowned Frederick III emperor at Rome in 1452.
8 April 1455
– 6 August 1458
(3 years)
Calixtus III.jpg Callixtus III
Papa CALLISTUS Tertius
Alfonso de Borgia Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 76 / 79 First Spanish Pope
19 August 1458
– 15 August 1464
(5 years)
Pintoricchio 012.jpg Pius II
Papa PIUS Secundus
Enea Silvio Piccolomini Corsignano, Republic of Siena 52 / 58  
30 August 1464
– 26 July 1471
(6 years)
Pietrobarbo.jpg Paul II
Papa PAULUS Secundus
Pietro Barbo Venice, Republic of Venice 47 / 54 Nephew of Eugene IV
9 August 1471
– 12 August 1484
(13 years)
Sixtus IV.PNG Sixtus IV, O.F.M.
Papa XYSTUS Quartus
Francesco della Rovere Celle Ligure, Republic of Genoa 57 / 70 Member of the Franciscan Order. Commissioned the Sistine Chapel
29 August 1484
– 25 July 1492
(7 years)
Innocent VIII.JPG Innocent VIII
Giovanni Battista Cybo Genoa, Republic of Genoa 51 / 59 [B] Appointed Tomás de Torquemada
11 August 1492
– 18 August 1503
(11 years)
Pope Alexander Vi.jpg Alexander VI
Rodrigo de Lanzòl-Borgia Xàtiva, Kingdom of Valencia, Crown of Aragon 61 / 72 Nephew of Callixtus III. Father to Cesare Borgia and Lucrezia Borgia. Divided the extra-European world between Spain and Portugal in 1493 by the Bull Inter caetera.

16th–20th Centuries

16th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
22 September 1503
– 18 October 1503
(27 days)
Pius III, Nordisk familjebok.png Pius III
Papa PIUS Tertius
Francesco Todeschini Piccolomini Siena, Republic of Siena 64 / 64 Nephew of Pius II
31 October 1503
– 21 February 1513
(9 years)
09julius.jpg Julius II
Papa IULIUS Secundus
Giuliano della Rovere Albisola, Republic of Genoa 59 / 69 Nephew of Sixtus IV; Convened the Fifth Council of the Lateran, 1512. Took effective control of the whole territory of the Papal States for the first time. Proposed plans for rebuilding of St. Peter's Basilica
9 March 1513
– 1 December 1521
(8 years)
Pope-leo10.jpg Leo X
Papa LEO Decimus
Giovanni di Lorenzo de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 37 / 45 Son of Lorenzo the Magnificent. Excommunicated Martin Luther
9 January 1522
– 14 September 1523
(1 year)
Hadrian VI.jpg Adrian VI
Adriaan Floriszoon Boeyens Utrecht, Bishopric of Utrecht, Holy Roman Empire (presently The Netherlands) 62 / 64 The only Dutch Pope. Last non-Italian to be elected pope until John Paul II in 1978. The tutor of Emperor Charles V
26 November 1523
– 25 September 1534
(11 years)
Clement VII. Sebastiano del Piombo. c.1531..jpg Clement VII
Papa CLEMENS Septimus
Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici Florence, Republic of Florence 45 / 56 Cousin of Leo X. Rome plundered by imperial troops ("Sacco di Roma"), 1527. He forbade the divorce of Henry VIII and crowned Charles V Emperor at Bologna in 1530. His niece Catherine de' Medici was married to the future Henry II of France.
13 October 1534
– 10 November 1549
(15 years)
Tizian 083b.jpg Paul III
Papa PAULUS Tertius
Alessandro Farnese Canino, Lazio, Papal States 66 / 81 Opened the Council of Trent in 1545. His illegitimate son became the first Duke of Parma.
7 February 1550
– 29 March 1555
(5 years)
Julius III.jpg Julius III
Papa IULIUS Tertius
Giovanni Maria Ciocchi del Monte Rome, Papal States 62 / 67  
9 April 1555
– 30 April or 1 May 1555
(22/23 days)
Pope Marcellus II.jpg Marcellus II
Papa MARCELLUS Secundus
Marcello Cervini Montefano, Marche, Papal States 53 / 53 Last to use birth name as regnal name
23 May 1555
– 18 August 1559
(4 years)
Pope Paul IV.jpg Paul IV
Papa PAULUS Quartus
Giovanni Pietro Carafa Capriglia Irpina, Campania, Kingdom of Naples 78 / 83  
26 December 1559
– 9 December 1565
(5 years)
Pius iv.jpg Pius IV
Papa PIUS Quartus
Giovanni Angelo Medici Milan, Duchy of Milan 60 / 66 Reopened the Council of Trent, 1562, it concluded its proceedings in 1563
7 January 1566
– 1 May 1572
(6 years)
El Greco 050.jpg St. Pius V, O.P.
Papa PIUS Quintus
Michele Ghislieri Bosco, Duchy of Milan 61 / 68 Member of the Dominican Order. Excommunicated Elizabeth I of England, 1570. Victory of Lepanto 1571
13 May 1572
– 10 April 1585
(12 years)
Gregory XIII.jpg Gregory XIII
Papa GREGORIUS Tertius Decimus
Ugo Boncompagni Bologna, Papal States 70 / 83 Reform of the calendar 1582
24 April 1585
– 27 August 1590
(5 years)
Sixtus5.jpg Sixtus V, O.F.M. Conv.
Papa XYSTUS Quintus
Felice Peretti Grottammare, Marche, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order.
15 September 1590
– 27 September 1590
(13 days)
Urban3355.jpg Urban VII
Papa URBANUS Septimus
Giovanni Battista Castagna Rome, Papal States 69 / 69 Shortest-reigning Pope; died before consecration.
5 December 1590
– 15/16 October 1591
(315/316 days)
Gregory XIV.PNG Gregory XIV
Papa GREGORIUS Quartus Decimus
Niccolò Sfondrati Somma Lombardo, Duchy of Milan 55 / 56  
29 October 1591
– 30 December 1591
(63 days)
Innocent9.jpg Innocent IX
Giovanni Antonio Facchinetti Bologna, Papal States 72 / 72  
30 January 1592
– 3 March 1605
(13 years)
Clem8.jpg Clement VIII
Papa CLEMENS Octavus
Ippolito Aldobrandini Fano, Marche, Papal States 55 / 69  

17th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
1 April 1605
– 27 April 1605
(27 days)
Leo XI 2.jpg Leo XI
Papa LEO Undecimus
Alessandro Ottaviano de' Medici Florence, Duchy of Florence 69 / 69  
16 May 1605
– 28 January 1621
(15 years)
Pope Paul V.jpg Paul V
Papa PAULUS Quintus
Camillo Borghese Rome, Papal States 52 / 68 Known for building projects, including the facade of St. Peter's Basilica.
9 February 1621
– 8 July 1623
(2 years)
Gregor XV.jpg Gregory XV
Papa GREGORIUS Quintus Decimus
Alessandro Ludovisi Bologna, Papal States 67 / 69  
6 August 1623
– 29 July 1644
(20 years)
Bernini-Urban8.jpg Urban VIII
Papa URBANUS Octavus
Maffeo Barberini Florence, Duchy of Florence 55 / 76 Trial against Galileo Galilei
15 September 1644
– 7 January 1655
(10 years)
Innocent-x-velazquez.jpg Innocent X
Giovanni Battista Pamphilj Rome, Papal States 70 / 80  
7 April 1655
– 22 May 1667
(12 years)
Alexander VII.jpg Alexander VII
Papa ALEXANDER Septimus
Fabio Chigi Siena, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 56 / 68  
20 June 1667
– 9 December 1669
(2 years)
Pope Clement IX.jpg Clement IX
Papa CLEMENS Nonus
Giulio Rospigliosi Pistoia, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 67 / 69  
29 April 1670
– 22 July 1676
(6 years)
Clement X.jpg Clement X
Papa CLEMENS Decimus
Emilio Altieri Rome, Papal States 79 / 86  
21 September 1676
– 11/12 August 1689
(12 years)
InnocentXI.jpg Bd. Innocent XI
Papa INNOCENTIUS Undecimus
Benedetto Odescalchi Como, Duchy of Milan 65 / 78  
6 October 1689
– 1 February 1691
(1 year)
Alexander VIII 1.jpg Alexander VIII
Papa ALEXANDER Octavus
Pietro Vito Ottoboni Venice, Republic of Venice 79 / 80  
12 July 1691
– 27 September 1700
(9 years)
Pope Innocent XII.jpg Innocent XII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Duodecimus
Antonio Pignatelli Spinazzola, Kingdom of Naples 76 / 85  

18th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
23 November 1700
– 19 March 1721
(20 years)
Clement XI.jpg Clement XI
Papa CLEMENS Undecimus
Giovanni Francesco Albani Urbino, Marche, Papal States 51 / 71 Chinese Rites Controversy.
8 May 1721
– 7 March 1724
(2 years)
InnocientXIII.jpg Innocent XIII
Papa INNOCENTIUS Tertius Decimus
Michelangelo de’ Conti Poli, Lazio, Papal States 65 / 68  
29 May 1724
– 21 February 1730
(5 years)
PopebenedictXIII.jpg Benedict XIII, O.P.
Papa BENEDICTUS Tertius Decimus
Pierfrancesco Orsini Gravina in Puglia, Kingdom of Naples 75 / 81 Member of the Dominican Order.
12 July 1730
– 6 February 1740
(9 years)
Pope Clement XII, portrait.jpg Clement XII
Papa CLEMENS Duodecimus
Lorenzo Corsini Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany 78 / 87  
17 August 1740
– 3 May 1758
(17 years)
Benoit XIV.jpg Benedict XIV
Papa BENEDICTUS Quartus Decimus
Prospero Lorenzo Lambertini Bologna, Papal States 65 / 83  
6 July 1758
– 2 February 1769
(10 years)
Clement xii.jpg Clement XIII
Papa CLEMENS Tertius Decimus
Carlo della Torre Rezzonico Venice, Republic of Venice 65 / 75  
19 May 1769
– 22 September 1774
(5 years)
PopeClement-XIV.JPG Clement XIV, O.F.M. Conv.
Papa CLEMENS Quartus Decimus
Giovanni Vincenzo Antonio Ganganelli Sant' Arcangelo di Romagna, Papal States 63 / 68 Member of the Conventual Franciscan Order. Suppressed the Jesuit Order.
15 February 1775
– 29 August 1799
(24 years)
Popepiusvi.jpg Pius VI
Papa PIUS Sextus
Count Giovanni Angelo Braschi Cesena, Papal States 57 / 81 Condemned the French Revolution and was expelled from the Papal States by French troops from 1798 until his death.

19th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
14 March 1800
– 20 August 1823
(23 years)
Jacques-Louis David 018.jpg Pius VII, O.S.B.
Papa PIUS Septimus
Barnaba Chiaramonti Cesena, Papal States 57 / 81 Member of the Order of Saint Benedict. Present at Napoleon's coronation as Emperor of the French. Temporarily expelled from the Papal States by the French between 1809 and 1814.
28 September 1823
– 10 February 1829
(5 years)
LeoXII.jpg Leo XII
Papa LEO Duodecimus
Count Annibale Sermattei della Genga Genga or Spoleto, Papal States 63 / 68  
31 March 1829
– 1 December 1830
(1 year)
Popepiusviii.jpg Pius VIII
Papa PIUS Octavus
Francesco Saverio Castiglioni Cingoli, Marche, Papal States 67 / 69  
2 February 1831
– 1 June 1846
(15 years)
GREGORYXVI.jpg Gregory XVI, O.S.B. Cam.
Papa GREGORIUS Sextus Decimus
Bartolomeo Alberto Cappellari Belluno, Republic of Venice 65 / 80 Member of the Camaldolese Order. The last non-bishop to be elected
16 June 1846
– 7 February 1878
(31 years)
Popepiusix.jpg Bd. Pius IX, O.F.S.
Papa PIUS Nonus
Count Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti Senigallia, Marche, Papal States 54 / 85 Opened First Vatican Council; lost the Papal States to Italy. Longest serving pope in history (see note on St. Peter.)
20 February 1878
– 20 July 1903
(25 years)
Leo XIII.jpg Leo XIII, O.F.S.
Papa LEO Tertius Decimus
Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci Carpineto Romano, Rome département, French Empire (now Italy) 67 / 93 Laid down the seeds of Catholic Social Teaching through his encyclical, Rerum Novarum (On Capital and Labor) and supported Christian Democracy as against communism; he is the third-longest reigning pope after Pius IX (reigned for 31 years) and John Paul II (reigned for 26 years)

20th Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
4 August 1903
– 20 August 1914
(11 years)
Popepiusx.jpg St. Pius X, O.F.S.
Papa PIUS Decimus
Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto Riese, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 68 / 79 Encouraged and expanded reception of Holy Communion. Most recent pope to be canonized.
3 September 1914
– 22 January 1922
(7 years)
Benedictus XV.jpg Benedict XV, O.F.S.
Papa BENEDICTUS Quintus Decimus
Giacomo Della Chiesa Genoa, Kingdom of Sardinia 59 / 67 Credited for intervening for peace during World War I. He is remembered by Pope Benedict XVI as "prophet of peace".
6 February 1922
– 10 February 1939
(17 years)
Papst Pius XI. 1JS.jpg Pius XI, O.F.S.
Papa PIUS Undecimus
Achille Ambrogio Damiano Ratti Desio, Lombardy-Venetia, Austrian Empire 64 / 81 Signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, establishing the Vatican City as a sovereign state.
2 March 1939
– 9 October 1958
(19 years)
Pacelli12.jpg Ven. Pius XII, O.F.S.
Papa PIUS Duodecimus
Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli Rome, Italy 63 / 82 Invoked papal infallibility in encyclical Munificentissimus Deus.
28 October 1958
– 3 June 1963
(4 years)
JeanXXIII fanon.jpg Bd. John XXIII, O.F.S.
Papa IOANNES Vicesimus Tertius
Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli Sotto il Monte, Bergamo, Italy 76 / 81 Opened Second Vatican Council; sometimes called "Good Pope John".
21 June 1963
– 6 August 1978
(15 years)
Pope Paul VI. 1967.jpg Servant of God Paul VI
Papa PAULUS Sextus
Giovanni Battista Enrico Antonio Maria Montini Concesio, Brescia, Italy 65 / 80 The last pope to be crowned with the Papal Tiara. First Pope to travel to the United States. Concluded Second Vatican Council.
26 August 1978
– 28 September 1978
(33 days)
Pope-john-paul-i.jpg Servant of God John Paul I
Albino Luciani Forno di Canale, Veneto, Italy 65 / 65 First Pope to use 'the First' in regnal name. First pope with two names, for his two immediate predecessors. Died early into a charismatic reign.
16 October 1978
– 2 April 2005
(26 years)
JohannesPaulII.jpg Ven. John Paul II
Karol Józef Wojtyła Wadowice, Poland 58 / 84 First Polish pope and first non-Italian pope in 455 years. Canonized more saints than all predecessors. Traveled extensively. Longest serving Pope since Pius IX (1846–1878) and 2nd longest serving Pope to date (see note on St. Peter. )

21st Century

Pontificate Portrait Name
English · Regnal (Latin)
Personal name Place of birth Age at Start/End of Papacy Notes
19 April 2005
– present
(4 years)
BentoXVI-30-10052007.jpg Benedict XVI
Papa BENEDICTUS Sextus Decimus
Joseph Alois Ratzinger Marktl am Inn, Bavaria, Germany 78 / - First German pope since Stephen IX in 1057. Oldest to become pope since Clement XII in 1730.

Religious Orders

33 popes have been members of religious orders. These have included:

  • 17 Benedictines (Gregory I, Boniface IV, Adeodatus II, Leo IV, John IX, Leo VII, Stephen IX, Gregory VII, Victor III, Urban II, Paschal II, Gelasius II, Celestine V, Clement VI, Urban V, and Pius VII), including 1 Camaldolese (Gregory XVI)
  • 6 Augustinians (Adrian IV and Eugene IV), including 4 Canons Regular (Honorius II, Innocent II, Lucius II, Gregory VIII)
  • 4 Dominicans (Innocent V, Benedict XI, Pius V, and Benedict XIII)
  • 4 Franciscans (Nicholas IV, Sixtus IV), including 2 Conventual Franciscans (Sixtus V and Clement XIV)
  • 2 Cistercians (Eugene III, and Benedict XII)

Notes on numbering of popes

A number of anomalies in the list given above need further explanation:

  • Felix II (356–357), Boniface VII (974, 984–985), John XVI (997–998), Benedict X (1058–1059) and Alexander V (1409–1410) are not listed because they are considered antipopes.[6]
  • The numbering of popes named Felix has been amended to omit antipope Felix II. However, most lists still call the last two Felixes Felix III and Felix IV. Additionally, there was an antipope Felix V.[6]
  • There has never been a pope John XX as a result of confusion of the numbering system in the 11th century.[7]
  • Pope-elect Stephen, who died before being consecrated, has not been on the Vatican's official list of popes since 1961, but appears on lists dating from before 1960.[7] The numbering of following popes called Stephen are nowadays given as Pope Stephen II to Pope Stephen IX, rather than Stephen III to Stephen X.
  • When Simon de Brion became pope in 1281, he chose to be called Martin. At that time, Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered to be Martin II and Martin III respectively, and so, erroneously, Simon de Brion became Pope Martin IV.[8]
  • Pope Donus II, said to have reigned about 974, never existed. The belief resulted from the confusion of the title dominus (lord) with a proper name. (Pope Joan also probably never existed; however, legends about her may have originated from stories about the pornocracy.)[9]
  • The status of Antipope John XXIII was uncertain for hundreds of years, and was finally settled in 1958 when Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli announced his own name as John XXIII. Baldassare Cossa, who was Antipope John XXIII, served as a Cardinal of the reunited church before his death in 1419 and his remains are found in the Battistero di San Giovanni (Florence).

See also



  1. ^ [1] Pontifex maximus: the Roman high priest.
  2. ^ Gratian (367-83 A.D.) Walter E. Roberts, Emory University
  3. ^ "Corrections Made to Official List of Popes". ZENIT. 2001-06-05. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  4. ^ The fourth pope Discussed in the article on Clement I
  5. ^ For the dates of death of Clement III and the election of Celestine III see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203–211
  6. ^ a b  Paschal Robinson (1913). "Antipope". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  7. ^ a b  Paschal Robinson (1913). "Chronological Lists of Popes". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  8. ^  Paschal Robinson (1913). "Pope Martin IV". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
  9. ^  Paschal Robinson (1913). "Popess Joan". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 


  • John N.D. Kelly, The Oxford Dictionary of Popes, Oxford University Press, 1986.
  • AA.VV., Enciclopedia dei Papi, Istituto dell'Enciclopedia italiana, 2000.
  • Pontificia Amministrazione della Patriarcale Basilica di San Paolo, I Papi. Venti secoli di storia, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 2002.

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Database error article)

From LoveToKnow 1911

(There is currently no text in this page)


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary




  1. Plural form of Pope.


  • Anagrams of eopps
  • Seppo


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikibooks, the open-content textbooks collection

< Biblical Studies | Christianity | Roman Catholicism


History of the Catholic Church

Several approaches to describing the history of the Catholic Church after Christ's Ascension may be used. Three different methods are currently in use in this page. The first is to organize it by the succession of each Roman Pontiff. The second way is to organize it by what was taking place within the Church at large. The third is to organize it by date.

Biographies of the Roman Pontiffs/Categorization by Pontificate

  • Saint Peter
  • Linus[1]
  • Anacletus
  • Clement I
  • Evaristus
  • Alexander I
  • Sixtus I
  • Telesphorus
  • Hyginus
  • Pius I
  • Anicletus [2]
  • Soter
Soter became Pope about the year 167, and was pope for about eight years. It appears that he was particularly known for his generosity, but this book currently has no information regarding any alms or kindness he bestowed. He either died or was martyred about the year 175.[3][2]
  • Eleuterus
  • Victor I
  • Zephyrinus
  • Callixtus I
  • Urban I
  • Pontian
  • Anterus
  • Fabian
  • Cornelius
  • Lucius I
  • Stephen I
  • Sixtus II
  • Dionysius
  • Felix I
  • Eutychian
  • Caius
  • Marcellinus
  • Marcellus I
  • Eusebius
  • Miltiades
  • Sylvester
  • Mark
  • Julius I
  • Liberius
  • Damasus I
  • Siricius
  • Anastasius I
  • Innocent I
  • Zosimus
  • Boniface I
  • Celestine I
  • Sixtus III
  • Saint Leo I the Great
  • Saint Hilarius
  • Simplicius
  • Felix III
  • Gelasius I
  • Anastasius II
  • Symmachus
He was the son of Fortunatus and a native of Sardinia. He was elected to the papacy on November 22, 498 at the Lateran Basilica. On the day of his consecration, a faction went to Santa Maria Maggiore and elected Archpresbyter Laurentius as an antipope.[3]
  • Hormisdas
  • Saint John I
  • Saint Felix IV
  • Boniface II
  • John II
  • Saint Agapetus I (also "Agapitus")
  • Saint Silverius
  • Vigilius
  • Pelagius I
  • John III
  • Benedict I
  • Pelagius II
  • Saint Gregory I the Great
  • Saint Sabinian
  • Boniface III
  • Saint Boniface IV
  • Adeodatus I
  • Boniface V
  • Honorius I
  • Severinus
  • John IV
  • Theodore I
  • Saint Martin I
  • Saint Eugene I
  • Saint Vitalian
  • Adeodatus II
  • Donus [4]
Donus became Pope on November 2, 676. While he was Pope he had the atrium in front of St. Peter's Basilica paved and St. Euphemia's on the Appian Way restored. He also had another church repaired which was either St. Paul's Outside the Walls or a church on the route to it. He died on April 11, 678 after a pontificate of one year, five months, and ten days.[4]
  • Saint Agatho
He was born in the late 500's and became Pope in 678. During his papacy he restored St. Wilfred to his see. He also had an ecumenical council held in Constantinople in 680 to suppress the Monothelite heresy, but died before he was able to sign the decrees of the council. He died in Rome in 681 and was buried in St. Peter's Basilica on January 10, 681. It appears he was responsible for a significant number of miracles and was sometimes called "Thaumaturgus" (Wonderworker), but this book currently has no information regarding what miracles he performed or which miracles were attributed to him.[5]
  • Saint Leo II
  • Saint Benedict II
  • John V
  • Conon
  • Saint Sergius I
  • John VI
  • John VII
  • Sisinnius
  • Constantine
  • Saint Gregory II
  • Gregory III
  • Saint Zachary
  • Stephen II[5]
  • Saint Paul I
  • Stephen III
  • Adrian I
  • Leo III
  • Stephen IV
  • Saint Paschal I
  • Eugene II
  • Valentine
  • Gregory IV
  • Sergius II
  • Saint Leo IV
  • Benedict III
  • Saint Nicholas I the Great
  • Adrian II
  • John VIII
  • Marinus I
  • Saint Adrian III
  • Stephen V
  • Formosus
  • Boniface VI
  • Stephen VI
  • Romanus
  • Theodore II
  • John IX
  • Benedict IV
  • Leo V
  • Sergius III
  • Anastasius III
  • Lando
Lando was the son of Taino and a native of the Sabina. It appears he became pope in either July or August of 913. He apparently granted a privilege of some variety to a church in Sabina. He died in either February or March of 914. He had a pontificate of slightly more than six months.[6]
  • John X
  • Leo VI
  • Stephen VII
  • John XI
  • Leo VII
  • Stephen VIII
  • Marinus II
  • Agapetus II
  • John XII
  • Benedict V
  • Leo VIII
  • John XIII
  • Benedict VI
  • Benedict VII
  • John XIV
  • John XV
  • Gregory V
  • Silvester II
  • John XVII [6]
  • John XVIII
  • Sergius IV
  • Benedict VIII
  • John XIX
  • Benedict IX
  • Silvester III
  • (second term of Benedict IX)
  • Gregory VI
  • Clement II
  • (third term of Benedict IX)
  • Damasus II
  • Saint Leo IX
  • Victor II
  • Stephen IX
  • Nicholas II
  • Alexander II
  • Saint Gregory VII
  • Blessed Victor III
  • Blessed Urban II
He was born about 1042 with the name Otho[7] of Lagery in Châtillon-sur-Marne in Champagne. He studied in Reims, and was promoted to the office of an archdeacon and canon while residing there. He went to Cluny about 1070 and joined the monastery there, and was later advanced to the position of prior. Saint Hugh sent him to Rome to assist Pope Gregory VII, and became Cardinal Bishop of Ostia in 1078. He was assigned to be the legate to Germany and France from 1082 to 1085. When he returned to Rome in 1085, Victor III had been elected to the papacy. After Pope Victor III died, Otho was elected to the papacy on March 12, 1088, and took the name Urban II. During the course of his papacy the possession of Rome frequently changed hands between him and the antipope Guibert of Ravenna. In November of 1095 he convened a council in Clermont, at which the First Crusade was proclaimed and Philip of France was excommunicated on account of adultery. Urban regained possession of the Castel Sant'Angelo in 1098, and convened a council in Bari to attempt a reconciliation with Eastern bishops by addressing the matter of the filioque clause. He died on July 29, 1099, was buried in the crypt of Saint Peter's Basilica, and was beatified on _______ by Pope Leo XIII. [7]
  • Paschal II
  • Gelasius II
  • Callixtus II
  • Honorius II
  • Innocent II
  • Celestine II
  • Lucius II
  • Blessed Eugene III
  • Anastasius IV
  • Adrian IV
  • Alexander III
  • Lucius III
  • Urban III
  • Gregory VIII
  • Clement III
  • Celestine III
  • Innocent III
  • Honorius III
  • Gregory IX
  • Celestine IV
  • Innocent IV
  • Alexander IV
  • Urban IV
  • Clement IV
  • Blessed Gregory X
  • Blessed Innocent V
  • Adrian V
  • John XXI
  • Nicholas III
  • Martin IV [8]
  • Honorius IV
  • Nicholas IV
  • Saint Celestine V
  • Boniface VIII
  • Blessed Benedict XI
  • Clement V
  • John XXII
  • Benedict XII
  • Clement VI
  • Innocent VI
  • Blessed Urban V
  • Gregory XI
  • Urban VI
  • Boniface IX
  • Innocent VII
  • Gregory XII
  • Martin V
  • Eugene IV
  • Nicholas V
  • Callixtus III
  • Pius II
  • Paul II
  • Sixtus IV
  • Innocent VIII
  • Alexander VI
  • Pius III
  • Julius II
  • Leo X
  • Adrian VI
  • Clement VII
  • Paul III
  • Julius III
  • Marcellus II
  • Paul IV
  • Pius IV
  • Saint Pius V
  • Gregory XIII
  • Sixtus V
  • Urban VII
  • Gregory XIV
  • Innocent IX
  • Clement VIII
  • Leo XI
  • Paul V
He was originally born as Camillo Borghese on September 17, 1550 in Rome. He became a cardinal in 1596. He died on January 28, 1621.[8]
  • Gregory XV
  • Urban VIII
  • Innocent X
  • Alexander VII
  • Clement IX
  • Clement X
  • Blessed Innocent XI
  • Alexander VIII
  • Innocent XII
  • Clement XI
  • Innocent XIII
  • Benedict XIII
  • Clement XII
His original name was Lorenzo Corsini. He was born on April 7, 1652 in Florence. He became titular archbishop of Nicomedia in 1691 and a cardinal-deacon on May 17, 1706. He was elected to the papacy on July 12, 1730. During his pontificate he paved the streets of Rome and restored the Arch of Constantine. In 1738 he issued the first papal decree against the Freemasons. He died on February 6, 1740.[9]
  • Benedict XIV
  • Clement XIII
  • Clement XIV
  • Pius VI
  • Pius VII
  • Leo XII
  • Pius VIII
  • Gregory XVI
  • Blessed Pius IX
Pius IX was born with the name Giovanni Maria Mastai-Ferretti in Sinigaglia on May 13, 1792. He ws ordained on April 10, 1819. He was promoted to the position of Archbishop of Spoleto by Pope Leo XII on May 21, 1827. He was assigned to the Diocese of Imola by Pope Gregory XVI.[10]
  • Leo XIII
Leo XIII was born with the name Gioacchino Vincenzo Raffaele Luigi Pecci on March 2, 1810 in Carpineto to Count Lodovico Pecci and Anna ProsperiBuzi. Gioacchino entered the Collegio Romano in 1824, and received his doctorate in 1832. He was promoted to the rank of domestic prelate in January of 1837 by Gregory XVI. He was ordained on December 31, 1837 by Cardinal Odeschalchi at the chapel of Saint Stanislaus on the Quirinal. Pope Gregory XVI assigned him to Benevento, where he worked diligently to annihilate the brigands and smugglers infesting the region. Pope Gregory XVI then assigned him to Perugia, where Gioacchino started a savings bank specifically to assist farmers and small businesses in obtaining low interest rates. In January of 1843 Gioacchino was promoted to the position of nuncio to Brussels, and was consecrated titular bishop of Damiata on February 19, 1843 by Cardinal Lambruschini. Pope Gregory XVI appointed Gioacchino to the See of Perugia when it became vacant, but permitted him to retain the title of Archbishop. He was created a cardinal on December 19, 1853 by Pope Pius IX. He was appointed to be the Camerlengo in August of 1877, and was elected to the papacy on February 20, 1878, taking the name Leo XIII. He wrote the encyclical Rerum Novarum, dated May 18, 1891. He died in Rome on July 20, 1903.[11]
  • Saint Pius X was born Giuseppe Sarto on June 2, 1835 in Venice. His father was a postman. Giuseppe did well in his studies, gaining a scholarship to study at the seminary of Padua in 1850. He was ordained in 1858 became Patriarch of Venice in 1893. He was crowned Pope on Sunday, August 9, 1903.[12] Died in 1914.[13]
  • Benedict XV
  • Pius XI
  • Pius XII
  • John XXIII
  • Paul VI
  • John Paul I
  • John Paul II
  • Benedict XVI


Organization by Era

[10] After the Ascension of the Lord, the Apostolic Age was begun, which ended with the death of the last Apostle, Saint John the Evangelist.

This was followed by the Age of Martyrs.

After the death of Nero, persecutions of Christians were intermittent, and varied in rigor. This period was ended with the Edict of Milan, which was promulgated by the Emperor Constantine in 313. [14]

This was followed by the Dawn of the Early Heresies.

Soon after the Christians were no longer threatened with civil punishment on account of the Faith, heretical sects arose which frequently had a twofold aim: to both advance a particular doctrine and to also gain control of the Church through the aid of civil leaders sympathetic to their cause. Some of the principal heretical sects at this time were the Arians, the Nestorians, the Gnostics, and the Monophysites. An unusual reversal of the state of affairs occurred during the reign of Julian the Apostate, who attempted to restore paganism and rebuild the Temple in Jerusalem, of which both attempts failed.

This was roughly at the same time as the Conversion of Europe to Christianity.

While large portions of the Roman Empire were coming under the control of heretical sects, large portions of Europe were also converting from paganism to Christianity, particularly Ireland, France, and Germany. Eventually Europe became, in a sense, a Christian continent in which most of the inhabitants were either Catholic or belonged to a heretical or schismatic sect.

This was followed by the Middle Ages and the Crusades.

Hostility between nations, the possession of properties, and the quest for additional revenues and incomes frequently gave rise to clashes between the Church and rulers of nations and other principalities, particularly regarding the appointment of bishops. When the Muslims succeeded in their conquest of the Holy Land, Blessed Pope Urban II declared a crusade to regain the Holy Land in 1095, and subsequent crusades were declared when necessary. Toward the end of the Middle Ages the Bubonic Plague ravaged Europe, in which many pious clergy cared for the sick and also contracted the disease, while many of the less pious clergy fled and returned after the plague had subsided.

This was followed by the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the Counter-Reformation.

Besides the bubonic plague, several factors also contributed heavily to the progression of the era: the "Avignon Captivity" and the "Great Schism," the conflicting interests of the Catholic Church and national governments (especially regarding revenues, property ownership, and the appointment of bishops), the conflicts between European nations (particularly the "Hundred Year's War" between France and England), the immoral lives of many of the clergy and many members of the upper classes, and the reintroduction of pagan culture. The French cardinal _________ was elected to the papacy on ___________ and took the name ______________, but Rome was the scene of much self-destruction by the local Italians. The French king __________ extended the invitation to Pope _________ to come to peaceful Avignon and take residence for a while, and the Popes did not want to leave Avignon and return to Rome for over one hundred years. When Pope _________ finally submitted to the entreaties and rebukes of Saint Catherine of Siena (?) and Saint Gertrude (?), it was only a few yers before he was disgustd with the situation in Rome and wanted to return to Avignon, which was only prevented on account of his death. His successor, the Roman (?) cardinal _____________ was elected on _________ and took the name ___________, but the cardinals soon disliked him and elected the French cardinal __________ as an antipope, who took the name ________________. An attempt to solve this division of the Church was later made to persuade the successors to both simultaneously resign and permit the cardinals to elect a new pope, but this only resulted in three "popes." Eventually this situation was ended at a conclave (?) when the Roman pope and third "pope" (Pisan?) simultaneously resigned, the cardinals eleced Cardinal ______________ to the papacy (who took the name _________), and the majority (or was it all?) of the European nations transferred their allegiance to the new pope.
Saint Peter's Basilica was in the process of construction, and Pope ______________ announced that an indulgence (plenary or partial?, also, did one have to follow the usual conditions to obtain it: pray for the pope, confession, communion, no attachment to sin?) could be gained when a person contributed (how much?) to its construction. The pope appointed the Dominicans to handle the collection of the funds, which was greatly resented by the Augustinians. One of the Augustinians, Martin Luther, voiced his distaste of the situation differently than most and began condemning the indulgences themselves, and his superior ____________ was delighted and encouraged Martin Luther to continue his denunciation of the indulgences. The Dominicans in turn invoked higher authority, and when Luther's superior found that the papal authorities were determined to censure Luther if he continued, he privately advised Luther to cease the accusations. Luther, however, enjoyed the publicity and respect he received,[11] and decided to enter into complete rebellion instead. Flocks of commoners hastened to his side, and looted monasteries and churches to enrich themselves. A great number of princes declared their support of Luther, and hastily seized ecclesiastical properties for themselves.
King Henry VII of England's son Arthur had married Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand), but Arthur died during his father's reign, so Arthur's brother Henry married Catherine (now his brother's widow). This Henry ascended to the throne as King Henry VIII of England. Some time after his ascension to the throne, he published a rebuttal of Luther's doctrines, and received the title "Defender of the Faith" from Pope ____________. At one point, Henry had a sinful relationship with Mary Boleyn, but did not publicise it. When he later wished to have a relationship with Mary Boleyn's sister Anne Boleyn, Anne Boleyn firmly said she would only do so if she was his queen. Henry VIII decided to try to get an annulment, and approached the matter by confiding to Cardinal Wolsey (the English Chancellor) that he was being tormented by scruples regarding the validity of his marriage to Catherine. Wolsey was delighted to hear this and proposed that the king marry the French princess ______________. Henry was not pleased and told Wolsey he wanted to marry Anne Boleyn. Wolsey wished to object to Henry's marriage to a mere local noblelady rather than a marriage that would strengthen the bond between England and its most powerful ally at the time, but seeing the heightening anger of Henry, Wolsey acquiesced to his monarch's wishes. A delegation was sent to Pope ________ which related that Henry was concerned about his marriage to Catherine and asked about getting a n annulment. The pope's responded that he trusted Henry's judgement on the issue and told him to follow the normal local procedures to investigate whether the marriage was valid and issue an annulment if necessary, but the pope also asked Henry to wait until Charles V (Catherine's nephew) was defeated by the Italian and papal forces significantly enough in order that Charles V would not take revenge on the pope because of the annulment. After Charles V was no longer a threat, the process in England was started to investigate the validity of the marriage to Catherine, but soon was stalled by the lack of impediments in the marriage to Catherine and the existence of an impediment in the proposed marriage to Anne Boleyn. Another delegation was sent to the pope to request special permission to remove the impediment to the proposed marriage to Anne Boleyn, which the pope granted (?). The English bishops, however, were faced with a problem: to the best of their knowledge the marriage to Catherine was perfectly valid, but they knew Henry wished to get the annulment so that he could marry Anne Boleyn. Rather than attempt to declare a false annulment for which the bishops would be morally responsible, an attempt was made to deceive the pope into declaring an annulment through the pope's ignorance of the situation. (correct?) The pope, however, was growing suspicious of the matter and seriously began to doubt the honesty of Henry's statements regarding Anne Boleyn's exemplary virtue and piety. After being bombarded with a distasteful number of requests for the annulment,[12] Pope __________ determined that the marriage to Catherine was valid. Cranmer proposed to Henry VIII that he free himself from the moral jurisdiction by taking control of the Church of England, which Henry promptly did. After Henry's death and his son Edward's death, Queen Mary I of England attempted to restore Catholicism to England, but when she was ready to die, King Philip II of Spain (who was married to Queen Mary) did want the monarchy to pass to Mary of the Scots (who was married to the King of France), as it could be a powerful alliance against Spain. Mary selected Anne Boleyn's daughter Elisabeth to be her successor, and Elizabeth promised Mary to keep England Catholic. Upon Mary's death and Elisabeth's coronation, Elisabeth promptly disregarded her promise and, by the end of her life, had completely undone the work of Mary and firmly entrenched England in Anglicanism.
An interest in pagan culture and a laxness in restraining immorality both arose during this era. The philosophies and writings of pagan authors were reintroduced, which were soon followed by the narratives of pagan deities and myths, the paintings and sculptures of pagan deities, and the required study of mythology. As for immorality, many of the clergy had mistresses, carnivals were reintroduced, and nudity and impurity were glorified in the works of the most skilled artists of the era. The Council of Trent was convened in ________ and addressed many of the problems wrought by heresy and the immoral conduct of the clergy.

This was followed by the Enlightenment.

The reintroduction of philosophies and writings by pagan writers, which were not suppressed or greatly opposed in the work of the Counter-Reformation, may have sown the seeds of alternative ideals and alternative morality which greatly or completely excluded the Creator in philosophical reasoning processes. Self-made philosophers abounded, and were highly endorsed by those who were comforted by the new norms of morality these philosophers set. These philosophers frequently clashed with the Catholic Church, and many times resorted to violence, particularly in the case of the French Revolution.

This was followed by the Industrial Revolution.

Inventors were constantly discovering and designing faster and more efficient ways of performing common tasks which were frequently laborious, and were inventing new products to promote a better and higher standard of living. This era, which was so full of promise for the betterment of the whole human race, was instead beset by the poverty of many. A primary factor of this widespread poverty was the greed of business owners who, while living luxuriously themselves, paid their laborers wages which could scarcely support the laborers and their families. The seeds sown by the carnivals and amusements (which had not been greatly opposed in the work of the Conter-Reformation as a whole) may have contributed to a second factor of this widespread poverty: the frivolity of many members of the lower classes who squandered their wages with amusements, alcohol, tobacco products, and other pleasures.[13] In the United States a movement among workers called the Knights of Labor was begun to unite laborers together to require business owners to pay higher wages. Regarding this, Pope Leo XIII wrote the encyclical Rerum Novarum which required the laborers to respect the property of their employers and to work well, while also requiring employers to pay decent wages that would support the laborers and their families. Pope Leo XIII's encyclical was mostly ignored, and additional self-made philosophers such as Karl Marx arose to offer alternatives. These philosophers were also highly endorsed by those who felt comfortable with the alternative ideals and the alternative morals presented by them. Some philosophers presented that man was nothing but a brute beast, that there was no life after death and no punishment after death for those who did evil, that there was no God, that man should follow his desires and indulge in his passions, and that women were inferior to men unless they become like men. Other philosophers taught that laborers should unite to overthrow the upper classes, and, soon after, they also taught that the government should take possession of the property of the upper classes and control the means of production and wealth itself. The methods proposed by these philosophers usually resulted in one of two things when they were observed: either the strong oppressed the weak, or the weak united and invoked the government, which first seized the property and possessions of the strong, then oppressed the weak without fear of opposition.
Also in this era was the Reunification of Italy, which mostly took away the temporal power of the papacy and placed Italy and the Pope on bad terms with one another.

This was followed by the Modern Age:

The ideas of the self-made philosophers of the Industrial Age were heavily implemented in this era, and reaped their bountiful harvest. World War I vanquished the strongest and hurled monarchs from their thrones, and in World War II the "strong" first slaughtered the weak by the millions, the weak then vanquished the strong, and in the end much of Asia and Europe came to be governed by governments that oppressed the weak without any fear of opposition. Self-made philosophers abounded and new ideas were introduced: the government, its wellbeing, and its safety were the basis of morality; the government could determine when citizens were no longer useful and exterminate them when they were no longer necessary or considered useful; the government could determine when life started, define who was and was not a person, and exterminate anyone who they did not consider a "real" person; chastity and purity were unnecessary and regular indulgence of the passions was encouraged; people should not be held responsible for their actions; and may other ideas which, although the general idea was not new, were presented in a different manner than in former eras.
Also in this era Pope Pius XI signed the Lateran Treaty with Italy, which allotted Vatican City to the popes with an annuity in recompense for the papal states. Pius XI then had the relative freedom to write encyclicals against the errors held by surrounding nations such as Germany, Russia, Spain, and even Italy itself. This sovereignty also assisted his successor Pope Pius XII in his protection of Jews from the Nazis during World War II.
In 1962 Pope John XXIII opened the Second Vatican Council, which was originally convened to freshen the doctrine of the Church. In the course of the Council, Pope John XXIII died and was succeeded by Pope Paul VI, who wrote the encyclical Humanae Vitae while the Council was still in progress. This encyclical was greatly disliked by many of the bishops, who often voiced their opposition to it publicly. When the Council was finished in 1965, the bishops returned to their dioceses and implemented whatever they wished to implement. Soon churches were being razed and rebuilt to modern architectural tastes, liturgical abuses were widespread, divorce and adultery became common among Catholics, and millions left the Faith. The seeds sown by mythology and the impurity and nudity in the works of the skilled artists of the Renaissance (which were not greatly opposed in the work of the Counter-Reformation) may have born the following bountiful fruit: impurity and unchaste behavior became relatively normal among Catholics, and paganism and superstition once again became common among educated persons.
Beginning with Pope Paul VI, the popes began to visit countries on a regular basis. Pope John Paul II visited many countries during his pontificate, and even learned languages so that he would be able to speak to the people in their native tongue. Pope Benedict XVI followed a similar itinerary during the beginning years of his pontificate.

Chronological Organization of Facts

  • 1st Century AD
On Pentecost Sunday the Holy Spirit descended on the twelve Apostles in the Upper Room.
Saint Paul is converted to Christianity.
The Roman Emperor Nero begins his persecution of Christians after a fire devours much of the city of Rome.
Saints Peter and Paul are martyred in Rome.
Jerusalem is conquered by Roman forces
79 June 23 Emperor Vespasian dies. [15]
  • 2nd Century AD
117 August 7 Emperor Trajan dies. [16]
  • 3rd Century AD
  • 4th Century AD
313 Diocletian dies. [17]
313 Constantine I legalizes Christianity by the Edict of Milan [18]
325 The first Council of Nicea was convened to make a determination on Arianism.


337 May Emperor Constantine the Great dies. [20]
Emperor Julian the Apostate attempts to restore paganism and rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem.
363 June 26 Emperor Julian the Apostate dies. [21]
387 Saint Augustine is baptised by Saint Ambrose.
  • 5th Century AD
Saint Jerome completes the Vulgate Bible.
  • 6th Century AD
  • 7th Century AD
  • 8th Century AD
741 October 21 King Charles Martel of the Franks dies. [22]
768 September 24 King Pepin the Short of the Franks dies. [23]
800 Charlemagne crowned Emperor of the Romans by Pope Leo III
  • 9th Century AD
  • 10th Century AD
973 May 7 Emperor Otto I the Great dies. [24]
  • 11th Century AD
1095 Blessed Pope Urban II preaches the First Crusade to regain the Holy Land.
  • 12th Century AD
  • 13th Century AD
1216 June 16 Pope Innocent III dies. [25]
St. Dominic founds the Dominican order. [26]
1226 October 3: St. Francis, founder of the Franciscan order, dies in Assisi. [27]
  • 14th Century AD
1309 Pope Clement V moves Roman Curia from Rome to Avignon.
1378 Pope Gregory XI moves papacy back to Rome from Avignon.
  • 15th Century AD
Saint Joan of Arc mostly frees France from English rule.
Johannes Gutenberg begins production of the Bible with the printing press.
Columbus discovers America
  • 16th Century AD
1547 January 28 King Henry VIII of England dies.[28]
1558 Charles V, former Holy Roman Emperor, dies. [29]
1558 November 17 Queen Mary Tudor of England dies. [30]
The apparitions of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Saint Juan Diego
The Jesuit order is founded. [31]
1598 September 13 King Philip II of Spain dies. [32]
  • 17th Century AD
1626 November 18: St. Peter's Basilica dedicated by Urban VIII. [33]
  • 18th Century AD
American War for Independence begins
French Revolution begins
  • 19th Century AD
The Louisiana Purchase is bought by the USA
The American Civil War is fought
Unification of Italy
Marian apparitions to Saint Bernadette at Lourdes, France
The Spanish-American War is fought
  • 20th Century AD
Pope St. Pius X dies during World War I, succeeded by Pope Benedict XV
1917: Marian apparitions at Fatima
Lenin gains control of Russia
Creation of Poland
Pope Benedict XV dies, succeeded by Pope Pius XI
Pius XI signs treaty with Italy, recognizing the existence of the Vatican City State
Germany annexes Austria
Pope Pius XI dies, is succeeded by Pope Pius XII
World War II is declared
World War II is ended, large sections of Europe are dominated by Communist rule.
Pope Pius XII dies, is succeeded by Pope John XXIII
Pope John XXIII opens the Second Vatican Council
Pope John XXIII dies, is succeeded by Pope Paul VI
Pope Paul VI writes the encyclical Humanae Vitae
Pope Paul VI dies, is succeeded by Pope John Paul I
Pope John Paul I dies shortly after the beginning of his pontificate, is succeeded by Pope John Paul II
The Berlin Wall is razed.
  • 21st Century AD
Pope John Paul II dies, succeeded by Pope Benedict XVI

Biographies of the Saints

These have been moved to: Christianity/Roman_Catholicism/Saint_Biographies


  1. A large number of the early pontiffs were canonized Saints, and will be properly labeled in future editions of this book
  2. This is the correct spelling, and this pope's name was slightly different than the name of Anacletus
  3. Catholic Encyclopedia says a less likely source (Harnack) says he was pope from 166 to 174.
  4. His name can also be written Domnus.[1]
  5. another Stephen was elected before him but died before episcopal consecration, so he is not classified as a pontiff for the purposes of this book. Numbering in this book is calculated as though he was not a pontiff. Old references (and maybe even some new ones) might include him as a pontiff.
  6. John XVII took the "XVII" because it was thought at the time that Antipope John XVI was a true Pope.
  7. or Otto or Odo
  8. He took the "IV" because Marinus I and Marinus II were mistakenly considered Martin II and Martin III at the time. There is no Martin II or Martin III.
  9. see Wikipedia w:List_of_popes
  10. Most of this section of Organization by Era was composed by memory rather than through verification, is mostly unverified, some facts may be incorrect, may not completely or properly conform to the neutral point of view policy, and may contain original research or untrue comparisons. The Section on the Popes and the Chronological order of events are mostly verified and NPOV, however.
  11. History of England, Volume 4?, written by Lingard?,this was done from memory, not with the text in front of the contributor, so some facts may be inaccurate
  12. History of England, Volume 4?, written by Lingard?,this was done from memory, not with the text in front of the contributor, so some facts may be inaccurate
  13. Maybe this is not really a significant factor or, even if it is, it does not need mentioning here. Then again, maybe it does.

Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address