Port Stephens: Wikis


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Port Stephens
Port Stephens - Yacaba, the northern headland at the entrance of Port Stephens
Yacaba, the northern headland at the entrance of Port Stephens
Location New South Wales
Coordinates 32°41′57″S 152°7′26″E / 32.69917°S 152.12389°E / -32.69917; 152.12389Coordinates: 32°41′57″S 152°7′26″E / 32.69917°S 152.12389°E / -32.69917; 152.12389
Primary sources Karuah River, Myall River, Tilligerry Creek
Primary outflows Tasman Sea
Basin countries Australia
Max length 24 km (15 mi)
Max width 6.5 km (4.0 mi)
Surface area 118.9 km2 (45.9 sq mi)
Shore length1 113 km (70 mi)
Settlements Anna Bay, Bobs Farm
Bundabah, Carrington
Corlette, Hawks Nest
Karuah, Lemon Tree Passage
Mallabula, Nelson Bay
North Arm Cove, Oyster Cove
Pindimar, Salamander Bay
Soldiers Point, Shoal Bay
Swan Bay, Tahlee
Tanilba Bay, Taylors Beach
Tea Gardens
Entrance of Karuah River into Port Stephens (seen from Tanilba Bay, approximately 7.7 km away)

Port Stephens is a large natural harbour located about 160 kilometres (99 mi) north-east of Sydney in New South Wales, Australia.[1] It lies wholly within the Port Stephens Local Government Area (LGA) although its northern shoreline forms the boundary between the Port Stephens and Great Lakes LGAs.[2] More than 26,000 people live within 3 km (1.9 mi) of its 113 km (70 mi) long shoreline and more than 32,000 live within 10 km (6 mi).[3]



Port Stephens has a narrow entrance between two striking hills of volcanic origin. The southern headland, "Tomaree" or "South" Head, rises to 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) while "Yacaba", the northern headland, is 210 m (690 ft) AMSL. The harbour is mostly shallow and sandy but contains sufficient deep water to accommodate large vessels; the RMS Queen Mary moored there during World War II. After its recovery from the wreck site in 1974 the bow of the MV Sygna, a 53,000 tonne Norwegian bulk carrier that was shipwrecked on Stockton Beach earlier that year, was moored in Port Stephens, at Salamander Bay, for almost two years.[4]

With an area of approximately 119 square kilometres (45.9 sq mi) Port Stephens is larger than Sydney Harbour. It extends approximately 24 km (15 mi) inland from the Tasman Sea and at its widest point, between Tanilba Bay and Tahlee, it is 6.5 km (4 mi) across. The narrowest point is between Soldiers Point and Pindimar where the distance is only 1.1 km (0.7 mi). Between Nelson Bay and Tea Gardens, in the most well known section of the port, it is 3.8 km (2.4 mi) wide.

The Karuah River drains into Port Stephens at its north-western corner. The Myall River (through the Myall Lakes) drains into the port on its northern shore, about 5.7 km (3.5 mi) from the mouth of the port. Twelve Mile Creek drains into the port's south-western corner.

Looking towards the mouth of Port Stephens along Jimmys Beach from Winda Woppa

The southern shore of the port is divided into two distinct areas known as the Tomaree and Tilligerry peninsulas. These are separated by Tilligerry Creek, a body of water covering approximately 7.7 km2 (3.0 sq mi), which drains the land in the low-lying areas of Salt Ash, Bobs Farm, Tanilba Bay and Mallabula.[5] While it is geographically closer to major centres such as Sydney and Newcastle the Tilligerry peninsula lacks the urban development that has occurred on the much larger (25 km2 (10 sq mi) vs 115 km2 (44 sq mi) respectively) Tomaree peninsula. Although Lemon Tree Passage, on the Tilligerry Peninsula, and Soldiers Point, on the Tomaree Peninsula, are only 2.9 km (1.8 mi) from each other, physical separation of the suburbs by Port Stephens and Tilligerry Creek results in them being almost 40 km (25 mi) from each other by road.

Karuah township, located at the north-western corner of the port on the mouth of the Karuah River, experiences similar geographical separation from the Tilligerry Peninsula. Despite being only 7.7 km (4.8 mi) from Tanilba Bay, the road distance between the two suburbs is 40 km (25 mi).

The western shore and the western part of the northern shore of the port are largely undeveloped with the flora ranging from scrubland in the west to the large tracts of bushland which are present along most of the northern shore. Closer to the mouth of the port, at and near Winda Woppa, sandy beaches are prevalent. These extend from Jimmys Beach, near the mouth of the port, to the mouth of the Myall River, a distance of approximately 5.2 km (3.2 mi).[1][6]


The port was named by Captain Cook when he passed on 11 May 1770, honouring Sir Philip Stephens, who was Secretary to the Admiralty.[7] Stephens was a personal friend of Cook and had recommended him for command of the voyage.[8] It seems Cook's initial choice had actually been Point Keppel and Keppel Bay, but instead he used Keppel Bay later.[9]

The first ship to enter the port was the Salamander, a ship of the Third Fleet that later gave the suburb of Salamander Bay its name, in 1791.[10] In that same year escaped convicts, then known as 'bolters', discovered coal in the area.

In 1795 the crew of the HMS Providence discovered a group of escaped convicts, living with the Worimi people. Port Stephens became a popular haven for escaped convicts and so in 1820 a garrison of soldiers was established at what is now known as Soldiers Point.[10]

The 63 tonnes (62 long tons) cutter Lambton, commanded by Captain James Corlette, began shipping timber and wool out of the port in 1816.[10] The suburb of Corlette was named after the captain.[11]

Port Stephens has rather poor soil for the most part, and has limited agricultural potential. For this reason, no large towns developed there historically and it was never developed as a significant port. The major city and port of Newcastle developed at the mouth of the Hunter River, about 45 km (28 mi) south-west of Port Stephens.

Troops and landing craft crews training at HMAS Assault during World War II

Despite this, in 1920 there was a push for Port Stephens to be the capital city of a new state in a proposal originating from the country newspaper The Daily Observer. The proposal was the Observer's editor Victor Charles Thompson's idea in response to continuing rural Australian antipathy at the Sydney-centralised funding and governance that many rural newspapers claimed had neglected to aid rural Australian towns.[12]

During World War II, the remoteness and lack of any significant civilian population lead to the Royal Australian Navy establishing HMAS Assault, an amphibious landing training establishment, at Nelson Bay. The Sick Bay from HMAS Assault still stands and is used by the Port Stephens Community Arts Centre.[13][14]

A number of small towns developed around the port as fishing, holiday and retirement communities. Since the 1970s, with improved road access from Sydney, and the increasing popularity of coastal retirement lifestyles, there has been major expansion of these towns.


Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park

On 1 December 2005 the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park was established.[15] The park includes all of Port Stephens, the Karuah and Myall rivers and all their creeks and tributaries under tidal influence.[16] The park was established to protect the wide variety of sea life that inhabit the port and nearby coastal areas of the Tasman Sea from just south of Forster to the northern end of Stockton Beach.

Examples of some of the sea life that inhabits Port Stephens


Nelson Bay at Dusk from Gan Gan Lookout

According to the Australian Bureau of Statistics, at the time of the 2006 Census, more than 85% of the population around Port Stephens resided in towns and suburbs that have developed on or near the southern shores of the port. More than 22,188 people live within 3 km (1.9 mi) of the port in the suburbs of Corlette, Lemon Tree Passage, Mallabula, Nelson Bay, Oyster Cove, Salamander Bay, Shoal Bay, Soldiers Point, Tanilba Bay and Taylors Beach. Another 5,343 people live in other suburbs on the Tomaree peninsula that are within 10 km (6 mi) of Port Stephens. These suburbs include Anna Bay,Note1 Boat Harbour, Bobs Farm, Fingal Bay, Fishermans Bay and One Mile.

Most urban development to the south of Port Stephens has occurred on the Tomaree peninsula in the suburbs of Corlette, Nelson Bay, Salamander Bay, Shoal Bay and Soldiers Point.

On the western shore is the suburb of Swan Bay, a small community of around 100 persons. The main industry in the area is oyster farming, however a small tourist resort is located near the mouth of Twelve Mile Creek. Karuah township, which has a population of 857, is at the north-western corner of the port, at the mouth of the Karuah River.

East of the Karuah River, in the Great Lakes Council LGA there are 3,584 people living in Bundabah, Carrington, Hawks Nest, North Arm Cove, Pindimar, Tahlee and Tea Gardens.

Tourism and recreation

Shoal Bay beach in Port Stephens

Port Stephens is a popular tourism destination with a strong focus on aquatic activities such as whale and dolphin watching, fishing and recreational boating.[17]


  1. ^  Although 900 metres (2,953 ft) of Anna Bay's shoreline actually touches Port Stephens near Taylor's Beach, none of its residents live in this area. The vast majority of Anna Bay residents live close to the Tasman Sea shoreline, well away from Port Stephens, although there is a small community living near the border between Anna Bay and Taylor's Beach.


  1. ^ a b "Port Stephens". Department of Lands - Spatial Information eXchange. New South Wales Department of Lands. http://imagery.maps.nsw.gov.au/?role=mysuburb&search=suburb&suburb=Port%20Stephens. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  2. ^ "Geographical Names Register Extract: Port Stephens". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. http://www.gnb.nsw.gov.au/name_search/extract?id=ujjtvqUluj. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  3. ^ Based on population figures from the Australian Bureau of Statistics 2006 Census
  4. ^ "Major Oil Spills in Australia, Sygna, Newcastle, 26 May 1974". Australian Marine Safety Authority. http://www.amsa.gov.au/Marine_Environment_Protection/Major_Oil_Spills_in_Australia/Sygna/index.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  5. ^ "Tilligerry Creek". Department of Lands - Spatial Information eXchange. New South Wales Department of Lands. http://imagery.maps.nsw.gov.au/?role=mysuburb&search=suburb&suburb=Tilligerry%20Creek. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  6. ^ Measurements from 1:100000 maps 9232 NEWCASTLE and 9332 PORT STEPHENS
  7. ^ Reed, A.W. (1969). Place-Names of New South Wales: Their Origins and Meanings, p. 120. Sydney: A.H & A.W. Reed
  8. ^ Robert Kerr (2004-12-22). "A General History and Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. 12". Project Gutenberg. http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14423. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  9. ^ Parkin, Ray (2003) H.M. Bark Endeavour, p. 213. Carlton South, Victoria: The Miegunyah Press. ISBN 0-522-85093-6.
  10. ^ a b c "History of Port Stephens". http://www.portstephens-australia.com/history.php. Retrieved 2008-07-09.   (see "Early development of Port Stephens" section)
  11. ^ "Geographical Names Register Extract: Corlette". Geographical Names Register (GNR) of NSW. Geographical Names Board of New South Wales. http://www.gnb.nsw.gov.au/name_search/extract?id=JPckwpsyan. Retrieved 2008-07-10.  
  12. ^ Rod Kirkpatrick (August 2000). "How newspaper editors helped the country become politically articulate" (PDF). Australian Journalism Review. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/eserv/UQ:11235/kir02.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  13. ^ "HMAS Assault, Port Stephens, New South Wales during WW2". Peter Dunn. 2008-01-05. http://www.ozatwar.com/ran/hmasassault.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  14. ^ "Home Page". Port Stephens Community Arts Centre. http://www.artscentre.nelsonbay.com/index.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  15. ^ "Port Stephens Marine Park". Australian Marine Conservation Society. http://www.amcs.org.au/default2.asp?active_page_id=270. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  16. ^ "Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park". Marine Parks Authority NSW. http://www.mpa.nsw.gov.au/psglmp.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
  17. ^ "Port Stephens Visitor Centre, Port Stephens Accommodation, Port Stephens Tours". Port Stephens Council. http://www.portstephens.org.au/visitstephens.asp. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
    "Tourist Information - Nelson Bay & Port Stephens". Imagine Cruises Nelson Bay. http://www.imaginecruises.com.au/tourism/index.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
    "Tourism at Port Stephens - Port Stephens Australia". http://www.portstephens-australia.com/tourism_overview.php. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  
    "Port Stephens". Australian Explorer. http://www.australianexplorer.com/port_stephens.htm. Retrieved 2008-07-08.  

External links

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

There's more than one place called Port Stephens:


Falkland Islands

  • Port Stephens - a settlement on West Falkland
This article is a disambiguation page. If you arrived here by following a link from another page you can help by correcting it, so that it points to the appropriate disambiguated page.


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