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Communism is a a political ideology that seeks to establish a future without social class or formalized state structure, and with social organization based upon common ownership of the means of production. It can be classified as a branch of the broader socialist movement. Communism also refers to a variety of political movements which claim the establishment of such a social organization as their ultimate goal.

Early forms of human social organization have been described as "primitive communism." However, communism as a political goal generally is a conjectured form of future social organization which has never been implemented. There is a considerable variety of views among self-identified communists, including Maoism, Trotskyism, council communism, Luxemburgism, and various currents of left communism, which are in addition to more widespread varieties. However, various offshoots of the Soviet and Maoist forms of Marxism-Leninism comprise a particular branch of communism that has been the primary driving force for communism in world politics during most of the 20th Century.

Selected article

The History of the Portuguese Communist Party (Portuguese: Partido Comunista Português, pron. IPA: [pɐɾ.'ti.ðu'niʃ.tɐ puɾ.tu.'ɣeʃ] or PCP), spans a period of more than 85 years, since its foundation in 1921 as the Portuguese section of the Communist International (Comintern) to the present. The Party is still an active force within Portuguese society.

After its foundation, the party experienced little time as a legal party before it was forced underground after a military coup in 1926. After some years of internal reorganization, that adapted the PCP to its new clandestine condition and enlarged its base of support, the Party became a force in the opposition to the dictatorial regime led by António de Oliveira Salazar, despite being brutally suppressed several times during the 48 years of resistance and having spent several years with little connection with the Comintern and the World Communist Movement.

After the end of the dictatorship, with the Carnation Revolution in 1974, the party became a major political force within the new democratic regime, mainly among the working class. Despite being less influential since the fall of the Socialist bloc in eastern Europe, it still enjoys popularity in vast sectors of Portuguese society, particularly in the rural areas of the Alentejo and Ribatejo, and also in the heavily industrialized areas around Lisbon and Setúbal, where it holds the leadership of several municipalities. (continued...)

Selected biography

Rohana Wijeweera (born 14 July 1943 - died 13 November 1989) was the leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna, a prominent follower of Che Guevara and Sri Lankan revolutionary whose communist views of spreading wealth to the poorer classes earned him great popularity.

His father was an active member of Communist Party of Sri Lanka (pro-Soviet wing) and very close to Dr. S.A. Wickramasinghe. Later he was disabled after an attack of the opponent United National Party (UNP) thugs. He went to Lumumba University to study medicine. He conducted revolutionary activities and felt that the system existing in the USSR at that time was not real communism. He was expelled from Russia as a result of this. He returned to Sri Lanka and gained a large following in his beliefs in helping the poor. On the 14th May 1965 he formed the JVP after a discussion in a house at Akmeemana in Galle district southern Sri Lanka.

Like Che Guevara he raised an army but the Government found out and he was not prepared; the 1971 uprising followed: a brief but violent struggle that claimed 15,000 lives. Wijeweera was imprisoned but remained a popular figure. In the 1977 elections, J.R Jayawardene promised to release him if he was elected. This earned him many votes and when Jayawardene was elected, Wijeweera was released.

The JVP was offered a chance at democratic elections and gained around 4% of the votes in the 1982 presidential election. However, civil disorder and mistreatment of the Tamil minority in Sri Lanka followed. Jayawardene blamed the JVP for this and the leaders of the JVP were captured. Wijeweera managed to escape, but in the violence that followed, Wijeweera was captured and killed. (continued...)


"When I give food to the poor, they call me a saint. When I ask why the poor have no food, they call me a Communist."
Hélder Câmara

"Let the ruling classes tremble at a Communist revolution. The proletarians have nothing to lose but their chains. They have a world to win. Working men of all countries, unite!"
Karl Marx

Struggles of masses and ideas. An epic that will be carried forward by our peoples, mistreated and scorned by imperialism; our people, unreckoned with until today, who are now beginning to shake off their slumber. Imperialism considered us a weak and submissive flock; and now it begins to be terrified of that flock...”
Che Guevara

"We must have faith in the masses and we must have faith in the Party. These are two cardinal principles. If we doubt these principles, we shall accomplish nothing."
Mao Zedong

"You are pitiful isolated individuals; you are bankrupts; your role is played out. Go where you belong from now on -- into the dustbin of history!"
Leon Trotsky

"The devotion of such titans of spirit as Lenin to an Ideal must bear fruit. The nobility of his selflessness will be an example through centuries to come, and his Ideal will reach perfection."
Mahatma Gandhi

"Canadian capital has a long history of racism. Racist theories of white supremacy were used to justify the brutal plunder and looting of the Aboriginal peoples. Racism, xenophobia, regionalism, sexism and anti-Semitism, and other forms of discrimination – including discrimination against gays, lesbians, bisexuals and transgendered people; against immigrant, cultural and minority religious groups and atheists; against older workers, pensioners and the disabled – have been used to divide the working class and undermine the unity of the people's struggles."
2001 party program of the CPC, chapter 2, section 6, paragraph 10, sentence 2 – 4

Selected picture

Lenin's Tomb.jpg
The Lenin Mausoleum at Red Square, Moscow.

Photo credit: Robert Lawton

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