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Flag of England
Royal Standard of England
Location of England within the United Kingdom.

England (en-us-England.ogg /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ ) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. Its mainland is on the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. England shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; and adjoins the Irish Sea to the north-west, the Celtic Sea to the south-west and the North Sea to the east. The English Channel separates it from continental Europe. In addition to the mainland, England includes over 100 smaller islands, including the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. England's population is about 51 million, around 84% of the United Kingdom.

England has been settled by humans of various cultures for over 29,000 years but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled Great Britain during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927 and after the Age of Discovery has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. England was where the English language, the Anglican Church and English law, which forms the basis of the common law legal systems of countries around the world, developed. The innovations that came from England have been widely adopted by other nations, such as its parliamentary system, which is the world's oldest. During the 18th century England underwent the Industrial Revolution and became the first country in the world to industrialise. Its Royal Society laid the foundations of modern experimental science.

Most of England is lowland but there are upland regions in the north (such as the Lake District, Pennines and Yorkshire Moors) and in the south and south west (such as Dartmoor, the Cotswolds, and the North and South Downs). London, a global city and England's capital, is the largest metropolian area in the United Kingdom and the largest urban zone in the European Union by most measures. The population of England is concentrated in London and the South East, as well as the conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East and Yorkshire, which developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century.

The Kingdom of England (which included Wales) was a sovereign state until 1 May 1707 when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year and resulted in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland that created the united Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1800 Great Britain was united with Ireland through another Act of Union 1800 to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. In 1922 the Irish Free State was established as a separate dominion but the Royal and Parliamentary Titles Act in 1927 reincorporated into the kingdom six Irish counties to officially create the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.

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Street markings and a sign (inset) with the white-on-red C alert drivers to the charge

The London congestion charge is a fee for some motorists travelling within those parts of London designated as the Congestion Charge Zone (CCZ). The main objectives of this charge are to reduce congestion, and to raise funds for investment in London's transport system. The zone came into operation in parts of Central London on 17 February 2003 and it was extended into parts of West London on 19 February 2007.

Although not the first scheme of its kind in the United Kingdom, it was the largest when it was introduced, and it remains one of the largest in the world. Worldwide, several cities have referenced the London scheme when considering their own possible schemes. A payment of £8 is required for each day a chargeable vehicle enters or travels within the zone between 7am and 6pm; a fine of between £60 and £180 is imposed for non-payment. The organisation responsible for the charge is Transport for London (TfL); Capita Group operates the scheme under contract. The system is run on a generally automatic basis using CCTV and Automatic Number Plate Recognition.

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A traditional phone box.

Photo credit: JimChampion

A telephone booth is a small structure furnished with a telephone located inside to verbally communicate with others. Traditional telephone boots are used less commonly in England nowadays, however are still preserved in older towns and villages.

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Bobby Robson
Sir Robert William Robson Kt CBE (born 18 February 1933), commonly known as Sir Bobby Robson (pronounced /ˈbɒbi ˈrɒbsən/), is a former international football player and former manager of several European clubs and the England national football team.

His professional playing career as an inside-forward spanned nearly 20 years, during which he played for just three clubs – Fulham, West Bromwich Albion and briefly for the defunct Vancouver Royals. He also made 20 appearances for England, scoring four goals.

He is now better known for his success as both a club and international manager, having won league championships in both the Netherlands and Portugal, earning trophies in England and Spain, and taking England to the semi-final of the 1990 World Cup. He was most recently a mentor to the manager of the Irish national football team.

Robson was created a Knight Bachelor in 2002, is a member of the English Football Hall of Fame and is the honorary president of Ipswich Town. He has, since 1991, had recurrent medical problems with cancer, and in August 2008, he admitted defeat to lung cancer. He stated "My condition is described as static and has not altered since my last bout of chemotherapy...I am going to die sooner rather than later. But then everyone has to go sometime and I have enjoyed every minute".

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I have seen much to hate here, much to forgive. But in a world where England is finished and dead, I do not wish to live.
Alice Duer Miller

Related WikiProjects

England • Bedfordshire • Brighton • Cheshire • Cornwall • Derbyshire • Greater Manchester • Lincolnshire • London • Merseyside • Northamptonshire • North East England • Sheffield • Warwickshire • West Midlands • Worcestershire • Yorkshire

Topics

Cities and major towns: BlackpoolBirminghamBristolLeedsLiverpoolLondonManchesterNewcastleNottinghamOxfordPortsmouthSheffieldSouthampton Stoke-on-Trent

Culture: The Football AssociationRugby Football UnionEngland and Wales Cricket BoardEnglish inventions and discoveries

Geography: GeologyClimateMountains and hillsIslandsRivers

Economy: Bank of EnglandLondon Stock ExchangeChancellor of the ExchequerMonetary Policy CommitteeHM Treasury

History: Timeline of British historyPrehistoric BritainRoman BritainAnglo-Saxon EnglandHouse of LancasterHouse of YorkHouse of TudorHouse of Stuart

Governance: Kingdom of EnglandPrime Minister of the United KingdomParliament of the United KingdomHome SecretaryLocal Government Boundary Commission for EnglandAdministrative divisions of England

Symbols: FlagsFlag of EnglandSt George's CrossTudor roseCoat of arms of England

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  • Please visit the English Wikipedians' notice board and help to write new England-related articles, and expand and improve existing ones.
  • Visit Wikipedia:WikiProject England/Assessment, and help out by assessing unrated English articles.
  • Add the Project Banner to English articles around Wikipedia.
  • Check for announcements and open tasks for ways to improve English related articles.
  • Help nominate and select new content for the England portal.
  • Requested articles: Charterhouse Lane • Renewable energy in England • Ealing Village
  • Expand: Dorothy BoydDavid Troughton

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