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The Indigenous peoples of North America Portal


Introduction

The term Indigenous peoples of North America encompasses the inhabitants of the North America region before the arrival of the first European explorers in the late 15th century, as well as many present-day ethnic groups who identify themselves with those historical peoples. The precise definition of the term is the topic of the Native American name controversy.

The most commonly preferred term for the indigenous peoples of what is now Canada is Aboriginal peoples. Of these Aboriginal peoples who are not Inuit or Métis, "First Nations" is the most commonly preferred term of self-identification. First Nations peoples make up approximately 3% of the Canadian population. The official term for First Nations people is Indian. See also: Portal:Aboriginal peoples in Canada

Indigenous peoples in what is now the United States are commonly called "American Indians" but more recently have been referred to as "Native Americans". American Indians make up 2% of the population, with more than 6 million people identifying themselves as Native Americans, although only 1.8 million are registered tribal members. A minority of US Native Americans live on Indian reservations.

The territory of modern-day Mexico was home to numerous indigenous civilizations, among others the Maya in the Yucatán (and into neighbouring areas of contemporary Central America); and the Aztecs, who, from their central capital at Tenochtitlan, dominated much of the centre and south of the country (and the non-Aztec inhabitants of those areas) when Hernán Cortés first landed at Veracruz.

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The Aztecs were a Pre-Columbian Mesoamerican people of central Mexico in the 14th, 15th and 16th centuries who built an extensive empire in the late Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. They called themselves Mexicas (Classical Nahuatl: Mexìcâ, IPA: [meˈʃiʔkaʔ]). This is the believed origin to the name of the country Mexico, which makes up much of where the Aztec civilization used to be.

The nucleus of the Aztec Empire was the Valley of Mexico, where their capital Tenochtitlan was built upon raised islets in Lake Texcoco. After the 1521 conquest of Tenochtitlan by Spanish forces and their allies which brought about the effective end of Aztec dominion, the Spanish founded the new settlement of Mexico City on the site of the now-ruined Aztec capital. The capital of the modern-day nation of Mexico, the greater metropolitan area of Mexico City now covers much of the Valley of Mexico and the now-drained Lake of Texcoco.

Aztec civilization and society possessed a vibrant culture which included mandatory education and rich and complex mythological and religious traditions. For Europeans, the most striking element of the Aztec culture was the practice of human sacrifice which was conducted throughout Mesoamerica prior to the Spanish conquest.

In what is probably the most widely known episode in the Spanish colonization of the Americas, Hernán Cortés conquered the Aztecs in 1521 thus immortalizing himself and the Aztec Hueyi Tlatoani, Moctezuma II (Montezuma II).

The Aztecs spoke Classical Nahuatl as did some of the other peoples under the domination of the Aztec Empire. Although some contemporary Nahuatl speakers identify themselves as Aztecs, the word is normally only used as a historical term referring to the empire of the Mexicas, as distinguished from the Mexicas alone.

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Ten bears.jpg
Any good thing you say to me shall
not be forgotten. I shall carry it as near to my heart as my children, and it shall be as often on my tongue as the name of the Great Spirit.

Chief Ten Bears of the Comanche
(1792 – 1873)

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Selected biography

Chief Crowfoot.jpg

Crowfoot (c. 183025 April 1890) or Isapo-Muxika (Blackfoot Issapóómahksika, "Crow-big-foot"[1]) was a chief of the Blackfoot First Nation in Canada.

Crowfoot was born in 1830 in an area later to become the province of Alberta. His parents were Packs a Knife (Istowun-eh'pata) and Attacked Towards Home (Axkahp-say-pi). His brother Iron Shield became Chief Bull. His mother remarried to Many Names.

Crowfoot was a warrior, fought as many as nineteen battles, and sustained many injuries during the course of his life. Despite this, he tried to obtain peace instead of tribal warfare. When the Canadian Pacific Railway sought to build their mainline through Blackfoot territory, negotiations with Father Albert Lacombe convinced Crowfoot that it should be allowed.

In 1877 Colonel James Macleod and Lieutenant-Governor David Liard drew up Treaty Number 7 and persuaded Crowfoot and other chiefs present to sign it.

Canadian Pacific Railway President William Van Horne gave Crowfoot a lifetime pass to ride on the CPR out of gratitude. Even though he was well respected for his bravery, he refused to join the North-West Rebellion of 1885, believing it to be a lost cause. In 1886, Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald invited Crowfoot to Ottawa. With him was Three Bulls and Red Crow, but Crowfoot fell ill and had to return from Ottawa.

Crowfoot died of tuberculosis on April 25, 1890 at Blackfoot Crossing.

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Miniconjou Chief Big Foot lies dead in the snow
The Wounded Knee massacre was the last major armed conflict between the Lakota Sioux and the United States, subsequently described as a "massacre" by General Nelson A. Miles in a letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs. More

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Nations, tribes and groups (United States & Canada) AlabamaAlgonquinAnishinaabeApacheApalacheeAppamattocArapahoBabineBlackfootCahuillaCatawbaCherokeeCheyenneChichimecaChickahominyChickasawChinookanChipewyanChiricahuaChoctawChumashCoeur d'AleneComancheCoreeCrowCupeñoDakelhDunnezaErielhonanEsselenHo-ChunkHopiHupaInnuIowaIroquoisJicarillaKalapuyaKatoKawKiowaKiskiackKoasatiKoyukonLaich-kwil-tachLakotaLipanLumbeeMahicanMakahMandanMattaponiMeherrinMescaleroMiccosukeeMi'kmaqMiwokModocMohawkMuscogee (Creek)NansemondNatchezNavajoNeutralNez PerceNomlakiNooksackNottowayNuu-chah-nulthOjibwaOhloneOmahaOsageOttawaPaiutePamunkeyPaspaheghPend d'OreillesPenobscotPomoPotawatomiPowhatanPuebloQuinaultRappanahockSahaptinSalinanSeminoleSenecaShawneeShoshoneSioux • Stó:lō • TakelmaThuleTlingitTongvaTsimshianTuscaroraUteWampanoagWappoWashitaw NationWashoeWintuWiyotYahiYakamaYuchiYuki
Mexico AztecChichimecaCholHuicholLacandonMayaMixtecNahuatlTarahumaraTarascanTotonacYaquiZacatecoZapotec
Organizations Absentee-Shawnee Tribe of Indians of OklahomaAk-Chin Indian CommunityAlabama-Quassarte Tribal TownAmerican Indian MovementBridge River Indian BandCarcross/Tagish First NationCherokee NationCherokee Nation Warriors SocietyChickasaw NationChoctaw Nation of OklahomaConfederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde Community of OregonCoushattaDelaware NationEastern Band of Cherokee IndiansEastern Shawnee Tribe of OklahomaIn-Shuck-ch NationHannahville Indian CommunityKamloops Indian BandKialegee Tribal TownKwanlin Dün First NationLillooet Tribal CouncilMississippi Band of Choctaw IndiansMowachaht/Muchalaht First NationsMusqueam Indian BandNisga'aQualla BoundaryPine Ridge ReservationShawnee TribeStockbridge-Munsee CommunityThlopthlocco Tribal TownConfederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian ReservationConfederated Tribes of SiletzUnited Keetoowah Band of Cherokee IndiansWhite Earth Indian Reservation
Personalities AnnawanAnna Mae Pictou-AquashHenry ArmstrongAttakullakullaAwashonksDennis BanksClyde BellecourtVernon BellecourtBob BengeBlack FoxBlue JacketElias BoudinotThe BowlWilliam Augustus BowlesJoseph BrandtJohn BrownJoe ByrdFrank Arthur CalderCheeseekauChief LeschiWard ChurchillCornplanterCornstalkCrazy HorseNed ChristieCochiseDeganawidaDoubleheadEstanislaoChief Dan GeorgeGeronimoThe GlassGraham GreeneHandsome LakeHanging MawElijah HarperIra HayesHiawathaCharles R. HicksWilliam HicksIshiEdward JohnJohn JollyChief JosephJunaluskaKanagatuckoMary John, Sr.Mangas ColoradasLittle TurkeyLittle TurtleWilma MankillerMaquinnaMassasoitAlexander McGillivrayWilliam McIntoshRussell MeansN. Scott MomadayAdrien-Gabriel MoriceMadame MontourMoytoy of CiticoMoytoy of TellicoNahnebahwequaJoseph OnasakenratOconostotaOpechancanoughOsceolaOstenacoEly S. ParkerQuanah ParkerPathkillerLeonard PeltierPocahontasPocatelloPopéRed JacketJohn RidgeJohn Rollin RidgeMajor RidgeRobbie RobertsonWill RogersJohn RossSacagaweaLouie SamSauganashSavanukahChief SeattleSequoyahShikellamyJay SilverheelsSitting BullNimrod Jarrett SmithSquantoWes StudiTahlonteeskeeTanaghrissonTatokaTecumsehTeedyuscungKateri TekakwithaTenskwatawaWilliam Holland ThomasJim ThorpeTiloukaiktTouch the CloudsJohn TrudellTsaliJames VannJoseph VannWamsuttaNancy WardWashakieStand WatieJohn WattsWeetamooWahunsenacawhFloyd Red Crow WestermanSarah WinnemuccaYonaguska
History Anglo-Cherokee WarApache WarsArikara WarBannock WarBattle of Blue LicksBattle of Burnt CornBattle of CarillonBattle of Claremore MoundBattle of Fallen TimbersBattle of Fort DuquesneBattle of Fort Oswego (1756)Battle of Fort William HenryBattle of Horseshoe BendBattle of Jumonville GlenBattle of Little BighornBattle of the MonongahelaBattle of NechesBattle of Lake OkeechobeeBattle of the Plains of AbrahamBattle of the WabashBlack Hawk WarBlack Hills WarCapture and rescue of Jemima BooneCayuse WarCharlottetown AccordCherokee Nation v. GeorgiaCherokee removalCheyenne WarChickamauga Wars (1776-1794)Code talkerColorado WarCreek WarDade MassacreDawes ActDunmore's WarFederal RoadFirst Anglo-Powhatan WarFort Loudoun (Tennessee)Fort Prince George (South Carolina)French and Indian WarGeorgia Land LotteryGoing Snake MassacreHistoric treaties of the Cherokee NationIndian Massacre of 1622Indian Reorganization ActIndian Removal ActKing Philip's WarKiowa-Comanche WarLong Walk of the NavajoModoc WarNickajack ExpeditionNorth-West RebellionNorthwest Indian WarOka CrisisOklahoma Indian Welfare ActPaiute WarPequot WarPontiac's RebellionRed Cloud's WarRed River RebellionRed River WarRed SticksRogue River WarsRoyal Proclamation of 1763Sand Creek MassacreSecond Seminole WarSeminole WarsSioux UprisingSpokane-Coeur d'Alene-Paloos WarState of MuskogeeState of SequoyahTecumseh's WarThird Seminole WarTimeline of Cherokee removalTrail of TearsTreaty of Bird’s FortTreaty of CussetaTreaty of Dancing Rabbit CreekTreaty of EastonTreaty of Fort Pitt (1778)Treaty of Fort StanwixTreaty of HolstonTreaty of HopewellTreaty of LochaberTreaty of New EchotaTreaty of Payne's LandingTuscarora WarWorcester v. GeorgiaWounded Knee IncidentWounded Knee MassacreYakima WarYamasee War
Linguistics AlgicAlseanCaddoanCoosanComecrudanChimakuanChinookanChumashanEskimo-AleutIroquoianKalapuyanKeresanKiowa-TanoanMaiduanMuskogeanNa-DenePalaihnihanPlateau PenutianPomoanSalishanShastanSiouan-CatawbanTsimshianicUtianUto-AztecanWakashanWintuanYokutsanYuki-WappoYuman-Cochimi
Culture Adena cultureAlachua cultureAngel MoundsAni-kutaniApalachee ProvinceAztalan State ParkBelle Glade cultureBlack drinkBlack Hawk State Historic SiteBuffalo jumpCades Pond cultureCahokiaCaloosahatchee cultureCamassiaCherokee ClansCherokee mythologyCherokee PathCherokee PhoenixChief Vann House Historic SiteChilhowee (Cherokee town)Chota (Cherokee town)Citico (Tellico archaeological site)Cochise TraditionCoosa chiefdomEtowah Indian MoundsFort Mountain State ParkGhost DanceGreat HiwasseeGreat Indian WarpathGreat TellicoGreen Corn CeremonyHistory of lacrosseHopewell cultureHolly Bluff SiteJoaraKeoweeKey MarcoKincaid Mounds State Historic SiteKings Crossing SiteKituwaLake Jackson Mounds Archaeological State ParkMedicine wheelMialoquo (Cherokee town)Mississippian cultureMoccasin BendMoundville Archaeological SiteNanih WaiyaNative American longhouseNew EchotaNikwasiNodena SiteOcmulgee National MonumentOld Stone Fort (Tennessee)Oshara TraditionOverhill CherokeePacahaParkin Archeological State ParkPeyotePinson MoundsPlaquemine cultureQuiggly holeRed Clay State ParkSoutheastern Ceremonial ComplexSpiro MoundsSwift Creek cultureTallassee (Cherokee town)TanasiThuja plicataTomotleyTown Creek Indian MoundTsenacommacahTuskegee (Cherokee town)Warriors Path State ParkWeeden Island cultureWerowocomocoWickliffe mounds; Windover Archaeological SiteWinterville SiteWriting-on-Stone Provincial Park

Distribution of Indigenous languages of North America

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