Portland, Maine: Wikis


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City of Portland
—  City  —
Aerial View of Downtown Portland


Nickname(s): The Forest City
Motto: Resurgam  (Latin)
"I Will Rise Again"
Coordinates: 43°39′54″N 70°16′9″W / 43.665°N 70.26917°W / 43.665; -70.26917
Country  United States
State  Maine
County Cumberland
Settled 1633
Incorporated July 4, 1786
 - Type City Council and City Manager
 - City Manager Joseph E. Gray
 - City 52.6 sq mi (136.2 km2)
 - Land 21.2 sq mi (54.9 km2)
 - Water 31.4 sq mi (81.2 km2)
Elevation 62 ft (19 m)
Population (2007)
 - City 62,875
 Density 3,029.2/sq mi (1,169.6/km2)
 Urban 188,080
 Metro 513,102
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
ZIP codes 04101, 04102, 04103, 04104, 04108, 04109, 04112, 04116, 04122, 04123, 04124
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-60545
GNIS feature ID 0573692
Website http://www.portlandmaine.gov/

Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maine and the county seat of Cumberland County.[1] The 2007 estimated city population was 62,875. Portland is Maine's cultural, social and economic capital. It is also the principal city of the Portland-South Portland-Biddeford metropolitan area, with a population of 513,102, which includes Cumberland, York, and Sagadahoc counties. Tourists are drawn to Portland's historic Old Port district along Portland Harbor, which is at the mouth of the Fore River and part of Casco Bay, and the Arts District, which runs along Congress Street in the center of the city. Portland Head Light in nearby Cape Elizabeth is also a popular tourist draw.

The city seal depicts a phoenix rising out of ashes, which aligns with its motto, Resurgam, Latin for "I will rise again", in reference to Portland's recoveries from four devastating fires.[2] The city of Portland, Oregon, was named for Portland, Maine.[3]

Portland Public Schools is the largest school system in Maine, serving approximately 7,000 students.



Gun recovered from USS Maine on Munjoy Hill

Native Americans called it Machigonne. The first European settler was Capt. Christopher Levett, an English naval captain granted 6,000 acres (24 km2) by King Charles I of England in 1623 to found a settlement in Casco Bay. A member of the Council for New England and agent for Ferdinando Gorges, Levett built a stone house where he left a company of ten men, then returned to England and wrote a book about his voyage to drum up support for the settlement.[4] The settlement failed, and the fate of Levett's colonists is unknown. The explorer sailed from England to the Massachusetts Bay Colony to meet John Winthrop in 1630, but never returned to Maine. Fort Levett in the harbor is named for him.[5][6]

The peninsula was first permanently settled in 1633 as a fishing and trading village named Casco. When the Massachusetts took over Casco Bay in 1658, the town's name changed again to Falmouth. In 1676, the village was destroyed by the Wampanoags during King Philip's War. It was rebuilt, then destroyed again in 1690. On October 18, 1775, Falmouth was bombarded in the Revolution by the Royal Navy under command of Captain Henry Mowat.[7]

Longfellow Square in c. 1906

Following the war, a section of Falmouth called The Neck developed as a commercial port and began to grow rapidly as a shipping center. In 1786, the citizens of Falmouth formed a separate town in Falmouth Neck and named it Portland. Portland's economy was greatly stressed by the Embargo Act of 1807 (prohibition of trade with the British), which ended in 1809, and the War of 1812, which ended in 1815.

In 1820, Maine became a state with Portland its capital. In 1832 the capital was moved to Augusta. In 1851, Maine led the nation by passing the first state law to prohibit the sale of alcohol except for "medicinal, mechanical or manufacturing purposes." The law subsequently became known as the Maine law as 18 states quickly followed Maine. On June 2, 1855, the Portland Rum Riot occurred.

Portland became the primary ice-free winter seaport for Canadian exports upon completion of the Grand Trunk Railway to Montreal in 1853. The Portland Company manufactured more than 600 19th century steam locomotives. Portland became a 20th century rail hub as five additional rail lines merged into Portland Terminal Company in 1911. Canadian export traffic was diverted from Portland to Halifax, Nova Scotia following nationalization of the Grand Trunk system in 1923; and 20th century icebreakers later enabled ships to reach Montreal in winter.

The Great Fire of July 4, 1866, ignited during the Independence Day celebration, destroyed most of the commercial buildings in the city, half the churches and hundreds of homes. More than 10,000 people were left homeless.

View of Portland harbor, 1853

The erection of the Maine Mall, an indoor shopping center established in the suburb of South Portland during the 1970s, had an economically depressive effect on Portland's downtown. But that trend would reverse, as tourists and new businesses patronized the old seaport. In the 1990s and 2000s, rapid development occurred and continues to occur in the historically industrial Bayside neighborhood, as well as the emerging harborside Ocean Gateway neighborhood at the base of Munjoy Hill.[8][9][10]. The Maine College of Art has been a revitalizing force downtown, attracting students from around the country, and restoring as its main facility the historic Porteous building on Congress Street.


A panoramic view of the City of Portland from across Back Cove.


Downtown Portland
  • Ranked as Bon Appétit magazine's "America's Foodiest Small Town" (2009).[11]
  • Ranked #1 on Forbes.com "America's Most Livable Cities" (2009).[12]
  • Ranked #12 on Frommer's 2007 "Top Travel Destinations".[13]
  • Ranked #20 in Inc. Magazine 2006 "Boom Town List of Hottest Cities for Entrepreneurs".
  • Ranked #7 on the 2005 list of the "100 Best Art Towns in America" by Countryman Press.
  • Named #15 in medium-sized "Top U.S. Cities for Doing Business" by Inc. Magazine, May 2005
  • Named #1 "Top Market in Small Business Vitality".
  • Named #14 in "Best Performing Cities" index by the Milken Institute, November 2004.
  • Named as one of "50 Fabulous Gay-Friendly Places to Live".[14]

Geography and climate

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.6 square miles (136.2 km²), of which, 21.2 square miles (54.9 km²) of it is land and 31.4 square miles (81.2 km²) of it (59.65%) is water. Portland is located on a peninsula beside Casco Bay on the Gulf of Maine and the Atlantic Ocean.

Portland borders South Portland, Westbrook and Falmouth. The city is located at 43.66713 N, 70.20717 W.

Climate data for Portland, Maine
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 31
Average low °F (°C) 12
Precipitation inches (mm) 4.09
Snowfall inches (mm) 19.0
Source: The Weather Channel[15] Weatherbase.com[16] September 2009


Downtown at Christmas
Eastern Promenade Park, overlooking Casco Bay
East End
Old Port

Portland is organized into neighborhoods that are generally recognized by residents, but have no legal or political significance. City signage does, in many cases, name various neighborhoods or intersections (which are often called corners). Some city neighborhoods have a local neighborhood association whose self-appointed responsibility is to maintain on-going relations with the City government on issues affecting the neighborhood.

Several neighborhoods incorporate the name "Deering" in some way. This is a result of the March 8, 1899 merger of Portland with the neighboring city of Deering, which comprised the northern and eastern sections of the city prior to the merger. Portland's Deering High School was formerly the public high school for Deering.


Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1790 2,240
1800 3,704 65.4%
1810 7,169 93.5%
1820 8,581 19.7%
1830 12,598 46.8%
1840 15,218 20.8%
1850 20,815 36.8%
1860 26,341 26.5%
1870 31,413 19.3%
1880 33,810 7.6%
1890 36,425 7.7%
1900 50,145 37.7%
1910 58,571 16.8%
1920 69,272 18.3%
1930 70,810 2.2%
1940 73,643 4.0%
1950 77,634 5.4%
1960 72,566 −6.5%
1970 65,116 −10.3%
1980 61,572 −5.4%
1990 64,358 4.5%
2000 64,249 −0.2%
Est. 2010 64,000 −0.4%

At the 2005-2007 American Community Survey Estimates, the city's population was 88.3% White (86.0% non-Hispanic White alone), 6.6% Black or African American, 0.9% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.1% Asian, 1.6% from some other race and 1.4% from two or more races. 2.3% of the total population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. [2] 40.7% of the population had a Bachelor's degree or higher. [3]

As of the census[18] of 2000, there were 64,250 people, 29,714 households, and 13,549 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,029.2 people per square mile (1,169.6/km²). There were 31,862 housing units at an average density of 1,502.2/sq mi (580.0/km²).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Portland's immediate metropolitan area ranked 147th in the nation in 2000 with a population of 243,537, while the Portland/South Portland/Biddeford metropolitan area included 487,568 total inhabitants. This has increased to an estimated 513,102 inhabitants as of 2007.[19] Much of this increase in population has been due to growth in the city's southern and western suburbs.

The racial makeup of the city was 91.27% White, 3.08% Asian, 2.59% African American, 0.47% Native American, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.67% from other races, and 1.86% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.52% of the population. Portland also has a large Muslim community, with many Somali and Sudanese immigrants. The largest ancestries include: Irish (21.2%), English (19.2%), Italian (10.8%), French (10.5%), and German (6.9%). [4]

There were 29,714 households out of which 21.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 32.1% were married couples living together, 10.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 54.4% were non-families. 40.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.08 and the average family size was 2.89.

In the city the population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 10.7% from 18 to 24, 36.1% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 13.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 91.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.0 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $35,650, and the median income for a family was $48,763. Males had a median income of $31,828 versus $27,173 for females. The per capita income for the city was $22,698. About 9.7% of families and 14.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.5% of those under age 18 and 11.9% of those age 65 or over.


Due to being Maine's largest city, its proximity to Boston (115 miles to the south) and having the state's largest port, Portland has become Maine's economic capital. The local economy has shifted over the years from relying primarily on fishing, manufacturing and agriculture towards a much more service-based economy. Most national financial services organizations with significant operations in the state have their Maine base here, such as Bank of America, Key Bank, Fidelity Investments, Anthem Blue Cross & Blue Shield, and Aetna. Several notable companies headquartered or partially headquartered here include: Unum, TD Bank, Maine Bank & Trust, ImmuCell Corp, and Pioneer Telephone. Several other notable companies that have an impact on the Greater Portland economy are located in the suburbs of South Portland, Westbrook and Scarborough.

Portland has a low unemployment level when compared to national averages and the state average. Portland and surrounding communities also have higher median incomes than most other Maine communities.

Fishing vessels in c. 1908

According to the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers 2005 Annual Table Report[citation needed], the Port of Portland ranked as:

  • The largest foreign inbound tonnage transit port in the United States;
  • the largest tonnage port in New England;
  • The 25th largest port in the United States; and
  • The largest oil port on the US East Coast.

The Portland-Montreal Pipe Line, a crude oil pipeline that stretches from South Portland to Montreal, was a major contributing factor in these rankings.


City Hall in c. 1910

The city has adopted a council-manager style government that is detailed in the city charter. The citizens of Portland are represented by a city council which are charged with the responsibilities of making policy, passing ordinances, approving appropriations, appointing the city manager and overseeing the municipal government. The city council is an elected body of nine members for which the citizens of Portland vote. The city is made up into five voting districts, with each district electing a city councilor to represent their neighborhood interests for a three year term. There are also four members of the city council which are elected at-large.[20] From the nine council members a chairman is elected by a simple majority to serve a one year term presiding over all council meetings. The chairman is popularly known as the Mayor, which is primarily a ceremonial position. The current mayor is Nick Mavodones.

A city manager is appointed by the city council. The city manager is responsible for the daily operations and workings of the city government. Consulting with the city council the city manager appoints heads of city departments and prepares annual budgets. The city manager directs all city agencies and departments, and is responsible for the executing laws and policies passed by the city council.[20]

Aside from the main city council there is also an elected school committee for the Portland Public School system. The school committee is made up in the same manner of the city council with five district members, four at-large members and one chairman.[21] There are also three students from the local high schools elected to serve on the board. There are many other boards and committees such as the Planning Committee, Board of Appeals, and Harbor Commission, etc. These committees and boards have limited power in their respective areas of expertise. Members of boards and committees are appointed by city council members.

Notable buildings

Custom House, completed 1872

The spire of the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception has been a notable feature of the Portland skyline since its completion in 1854. In 1859, Ammi B. Young designed the Marine Hospital, the first of three local works by Supervising Architects of the U.S. Treasury Department. Although the city lost to redevelopment its 1867 Greek Revival post office, which was designed by Alfred B. Mullett of white Vermont marble and featured a Corinthian portico, Portland retains his equally monumental 1872 granite Second Empire-Renaissance Revival custom house.

A more recent building of note is Franklin Towers, a 17-story residential tower completed in 1969. At 204 feet (62.2 meters), it is Portland's (as well as Maine's) tallest building. It is next to the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception on the city skyline. During the building boom of the 1980s, several new buildings rose on the peninsula, including the 1983 Charles Shipman Payson Building by Henry N. Cobb of Pei, Cobb, Freed & Partners at the Portland Museum of Art complex (a component of which is the 1801 McLellan-Sweat Mansion), and the Back Bay Tower, a 15-story residential building completed in 1990.[22] Recent development in the Bayside area on Marginal Way is anchored by 84 Marginal Way, or the InterMed Center, which features college student housing and commercial offices, and is the only mostly glass tower in Portland.

477 Congress Street (known locally as the Time and Temperature Building) is situated near Monument Square in the Arts District and is a major landmark: the 14-story building features a large electronic sign on its roof that flashes time and temperature data, as well as parking ban information in the winter. The sign can be seen from nearly all of downtown Portland. The building is home to the studio of ABC affiliate WMTW-TV 8, as well as several radio stations.

The Eastland Park Hotel, completed in 1927, is a prominent hotel located on High St. in downtown Portland.


See also


High schools

Colleges and universities


Maine Narrow Gauge Railroad

Sites of interest

Downtown Arts District, centered on Congress Street, is home to the Portland Museum of Art, Portland Stage Company, Maine Historical Society & Museum, Maine College of Art, Children's Museum of Maine, SPACE Gallery, Merrill Auditorium, the Kotzschmar Memorial Organ, and Portland Symphony Orchestra, as well as many smaller art galleries and studios.

Baxter Boulevard around Back Cove, Deering Oaks Park, the Eastern Promenade, Lincoln Park, Riverton Park and the Western Promenade are all historical parks within the city. Other parks and natural spaces include Payson Park, Post Office Park, Baxter Woods, Evergreen Cemetery and the Fore River Sanctuary. The non-profit organization Portland Trails also maintains an expansive network of walking and hiking trails throughout the city and neighboring communities.

Other sites of interest include:


WCSH is the city's NBC affiliate, located at One Congress Square.

Portland is home to a concentration of publishing and broadcast companies, advertising agencies, web designers and commercial photography studios.

The city's primary daily newspaper is The Portland Press Herald, published Monday through Saturday, and The Maine Sunday Telegram, published on Sundays. Both are published by MaineToday Media, Inc., which also operates an entertainment website, MaineToday.com, and the Portland entertainment magazine, The Maine Switch. In February 2009 a second daily, the Portland Daily Sun, began operation; it is owned and published by the Conway Daily Sun in New Hampshire. Portland is also the home office of The Exception Magazine, an online newspaper that covers Maine.

Portland is also covered by an alternative weekly newspaper, The Portland Phoenix, published by the Phoenix Media/Communications Group, which also produces a New England-wide news, arts, and entertainment website, thephoenix.com, and the quarterly lifestyle magazine, Portland {STYLE}.

There is also a weekly community newspaper, The Portland Forecaster, and The Bollard, a monthly alternative magazine, as well as The West End News, The Munjoy Hill Observer, The Baysider, The Waterfront, Portland Magazine, Port City Life, and The Companion, an LGBT publication.

The Portland broadcast media market is the largest one in Maine in both radio and television. A whole host of radio options are available in Portland, including WFNK (Classic Hits), WJAB (Sports), WTHT (Country), WBQW (Classical), WHXR (Rock), WHOM (Adult Contemporary), WJBQ (Top 40), 98.9 WCLZ (Adult Album Alternative), WBLM (Classic Rock), WYNZ ('60s-'70s Hits), and WCYY (Modern rock). WMPG is a local non-commercial radio station, run by community members and the University of Southern Maine. The Maine Public Broadcasting Network's radio news operations are based in Portland.

The area is served by local television stations representing most of the television networks. These stations include WCSH 6 (NBC), WMTW 8 (ABC), WGME 13 (CBS), WPFO 23 (Fox), WPME 35 (MyNetworkTV), and WPXT 51 (The CW). There is no PBS affiliate licensed to the city of Portland but the market is served by WCBB Channel 10 in Augusta and WMEA-TV Channel 26 Biddeford.

Channel Call Sign Network
23 WPFO Fox
35 WPME MyNetworkTV
51 WPXT The CW

Movies filmed in Portland


Club League Venue Established Championships
Portland Sea Dogs EL, Baseball Hadlock Field 1994 1
Portland Pirates AHL, Ice hockey Cumberland County Civic Center 1993 1
Portland Phoenix FC USL PDL, Soccer Fitzpatrick Stadium 2009 0
Maine Red Claws NBA D-League, Basketball Portland Exposition Building 2009 0
Portland Sea Dogs in May 2007, with the Portland Exposition Building in the background

The city is home to three minor-league teams. The AA Portland Sea Dogs, a farm team of the Boston Red Sox, play at Hadlock Field. Additionally, there are the American Hockey League Portland Pirates. Skating at the Cumberland County Civic Center, they are an affiliate of the Buffalo Sabres. In 2009, the Maine Red Claws began playing at the Portland Exposition Building. The Red Claws are part of the NBA Development League.

The Portland Sports Complex, located off of Park and Brighton Avenues near I-295 and Deering Oaks park, houses several of the city's stadiums and arenas, including:

  • Hadlock Field - baseball (Capacity 7,368)
  • Fitzpatrick Stadium - football, soccer, lacrosse, field hockey, and outdoor track (Capacity 6,000+ seated)
  • Portland Exposition Building - basketball, indoor track, concerts and trade shows (Capacity 2,000)
  • Portland Ice Arena - hockey and figure skating (Capacity 400)

The Portland area has eleven professional golf courses, 124 tennis courts, and 95 playgrounds. There are also over 100 miles (160 km) of nature trails.

Portland hosts the Maine Marathon each October.

Food and beverage

Lobster, fresh from the Gulf of Maine

The downtown and Old Port districts have a high concentration of eating and drinking establishments, with many more to be found throughout the rest of the peninsula, outlying neighborhoods, and neighboring communities. Local lore holds that Portland ranks among the top U.S. cities in restaurants and bars per capita. According to the Maine Restaurant Association, Portland is currently home to about 230 restaurants.[23]

Portland has also developed a national reputation for the quality of its restaurants and eateries. In the spring of 2007, Portland was nominated as one of three finalists for "Delicious Destination of the Year" at the 2007 Food Network Awards.[24] In 2009, Portland was named the "Foodiest Small Town in America" by Bon Appétit magazine, as well as featured in the New York Times as a food destination.[25][5] Many local chefs have also gained national attention over the past few years.[26][27][28]

The city and outlying region played host to Rachael Ray in an episode of her Food Network Series $40 a Day.

Portland is home to a number of microbreweries and brewpubs, including the D. L. Geary Brewing Company, Gritty McDuff's Brewing Company, Shipyard Brewing Company, Casco Bay Brewing Co., Sebago Brewing Company, and Allagash Brewing Company.

Portland is the birthplace of the "Italian sandwich." Southern Maine’s signature sandwich, it is called simply "an Italian" by locals. Italian sandwiches are available at many stores, but most famously at Amato's Italian delicatessens, which claims to have originated the sandwich (hence the name). [6]

The Portland Farmers' Market takes place every Wednesday in Monument Square and every Saturday in Deering Oaks Park during the warm months and every other Wednesday in Monument Square during the winter. Fresh fish and seafood can be purchased at a number of markets on the wharves along Commercial Street.



Maine Medical Center and a jetBlue airliner, viewed from the South Portland side of the Portland International Jetport, 2009.

Maine Medical Center a Level One Trauma Center is the largest hospital in Maine and is continuing to expand its campus and services. Mercy Hospital, a faith-based hospital, is the fourth-largest hospital in the state and began construction on its new campus along the Fore River in late 2006. The project is expected to be constructed in several phases, with completion of the first phase scheduled for 2008. [7]

Two formerly independent hospitals within the city are now being utilized in a different manner. The former Brighton Medical Center is now owned by Maine Medical Center, housing a minor care center under the name Brighton First Care and New England Rehab. A state-of-the-art simulation center is currently in development at the Brighton campus, and is slated to open in 2010. [8] Prior to being Brighton Medical Center, the hospital was the Osteopathic Hospital. The former Portland General Hospital is now home to the Barron Center nursing facility.


Portland from above, looking north along I-295

Portland is accessible from I-95.svg I-95 (the Maine Turnpike), I-295.svg I-295, and US 1.svg U.S. 1. Also, US 302.svg U.S. Route 302, a major travel route and scenic highway between Maine and Vermont, has its eastern terminus in Portland.

Concord Coach Lines bus service connects Portland to 14 other communities in Maine as well as to Boston's South Station and Logan Airport. Amtrak's Downeaster train service connects the city with Boston's North Station. Both Concord Coach Lines and Amtrak's Downeaster can be found at the Portland Transportation Center on Thompsons Point Road. Greyhound Lines on Saint John Street connects to 17 Maine communities and to more than 3,600 US destinations.

A carsharing service provided by U Car Share is available as well.

The city operates several transportation hubs. In addition to the transportation center, commercial air service is available at the Portland International Jetport, which is located west of the city's downtown district. Several car rental agencies are located at the jetport.

The Port of Portland is the second-largest cruise and passenger destination in the state (next to Bar Harbor). Ferry service is available year-round to many destinations in Casco Bay. Since May 22, 2006, Bay Ferries has operated a high speed ferry called The Cat which offers summer passenger and car ferry service to Yarmouth, Nova Scotia, making the trip in five hours. Until 2005, Scotia Prince Cruises had offered service that took eleven hours.

There are two public bus systems in Portland. The Portland Explorer is a service that connects various transportation centers within the city and the METRO provides public bus transit throughout Portland and the surrounding area.

Numerous private taxi cab companies operate in and around Portland.

Notable residents

Birthplace of Thomas B. Reed c. 1915 (since demolished)
Wadsworth-Longfellow House c. 1910

Sister cities

Portland has four sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International (SCI):

See also


  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Template.cfm?Section=Find_a_County&Template=/cffiles/counties/usamap.cfm. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  2. ^ http://www.mainehistory.org/pdf/Falmouth_Fire.pdf
  3. ^ "Portland: The Town that was Almost Boston". Portland Oregon Visitors Association. http://www.travelportland.com/media/history.html. Retrieved 2006-11-18. 
  4. ^ Christopher Levett, of York: The Pioneer Colonist in Casco Bay, James Baxter Phinney,1893
  5. ^ The Maine Reader: The Down East Experience from 1614 to the Present, Charles E. Shain, 1997
  6. ^ Christopher Levett: The First Owner of the Soil of Portland, Collections of the Maine Historical Society, 1893
  7. ^ "Jedediah Preble letter on Mowat kidnapping, 1775". http://www.mainememory.net/bin/Detail?ln=7479. Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  8. ^ "Bayside is a journey of many 'next steps'". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). 2006-10-16. http://business.mainetoday.com/news/061016bayside.html. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  9. ^ Bouchard, Kelley (2006-10-06). "Riverwalk: Parking garage due to rise; luxury condos to follow". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/061006riverwalk.html. Retrieved 2006-11-13. 
  10. ^ Turkel, Tux (2007-02-06). "An urban vision rises in Bayside". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://business.mainetoday.com/news/070206bayside.html. Retrieved 2007-02-27. 
  11. ^ "America's Foodiest Small Town". http://www.bonappetit.com/magazine/2009/10/americas_foodiest_small_town_2009. 
  12. ^ "America's Most Livable Cities". 2009-04-01. http://www.forbes.com/2009/04/01/cities-city-ten-lifestyle-real-estate-livable-cities.html. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  13. ^ "Frommer's Top Travel Destinations for 2007". Frommer's (Wiley Publishing, Inc.). 2006-11-21. http://www.frommers.com/destinations/article.cfm?destid=362&articleid=4056&t=Frommer%27s%20Top%20Travel%20Destinations%20for%202007. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  14. ^ Kompes, Gregory A. (2005). 50 Fabulous Gay-friendly Places to Live. Career Press. pp. 163. ISBN 1564148270. 
  15. ^ "Average Weather for Portland, ME - Temperature and Precipitation". Weather.com. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USME0328?from=36hr_bottomnav_undeclared. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  16. ^ "Weatherbase: Historical Weather for Portland, Maine, United States". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=060627&refer=. Retrieved September 5, 2009. 
  17. ^ [1], accessed December, 2007.
  18. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  19. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2007 (CBSA-EST2007-01)" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. 2008-03-27. http://www.census.gov/population/www/estimates/metro_general/2007/CBSA-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2008-04-04. 
  20. ^ a b © Copyrighted
  21. ^ Copyrighted
  22. ^ CB Richard Ellis/The Boulos Company. "Greater Portland Area 2006 Office Market Survey" (PDF). http://www.cbre.com/NR/rdonlyres/3CB731EA-C269-11D5-A91D-00508B5B0FEB/328757/PortlandMarketSurvey2006.pdf. Retrieved August 10, 2006. 
  23. ^ Huang, Josie (2007-04-23). "Portland diners keep fast-food urges under control". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070423fastfood.html. Retrieved 2007-04-23. 
  24. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-16). "Portland has taste of food fame, but the other Portland is served". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070416delicious.html. Retrieved 2007-04-16. 
  25. ^ Goad, Meredith (2009-09-18). "A second course of food glory". Portland Press Herald. http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/story.php?id=284061&ac=PHnws. Retrieved 2009-09-25. 
  26. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-05). "Food could put Portland on the map". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/news/local/070405food.html. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  27. ^ Goad, Meredith (2007-04-11). "Where chefs come to shine". Portland Press Herald (Blethen Maine Newspapers, Inc.). http://pressherald.mainetoday.com/foodhealth/soup2nuts/070411soupnuts.html. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 
  28. ^ James Beard Awards: and the nominees might be... - Dishing - Boston.com
  29. ^ Who Was Who in America, Historical Volume, 1607–1896. Marquis Who's Who. 1967. 
  30. ^ Japan index of Sister Cities International retrieved on December 9, 2008

External links

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PORTLAND, the largest city of Maine, U.S.A., the countyseat of Cumberland (disambiguation)|Cumberland county, and a port of entry, on Casco Bay, about 115 m. by rail N.N.E. of Boston. Pop. (1890), 36,425; (1900), 50,145, of whom 34,918 were born in Maine, 3125 in the other New England states, 4476 in Canada, and 3273 in Ireland, and 291 were negroes; (1910 census) 58,571. Portland is served by the Maine Central, the Boston & Maine, and the Grand Trunk railways; by steamboat lines to New York, Boston, Bar Harbor, Saint John, N.B., and other coast ports, and, during the winter season, by the Allan and Dominion transatlantic lines. It is connected by ferry with South Portland.

Public interest centred for some years round the allegation that he lived a double life and was identical with Mr T. C. Druce, an upholsterer of Baker Street, London, who, in 1851, married Annie May. The "Druce case," involving a claim to the title and estates, by Mrs Druce (widow of W. T. Druce, son of T. C. Druce by Annie May) on behalf of her son, aroused much attention from 1897 to 1908. The duke of Portland was undoubtedly buried in Kensal Green cemetery in 1879. "Druce," on the other hand, was supposed to have died in 1864 and been interred in Highgate cemetery, his will bequeathing over £70,000 in personal estate. Mrs Druce's claims had two aspects, both as involving the revocation of probate of T. C. Druce's will, and also as identifying Druce with the duke of Portland. But her application to have the grave in Highgate opened (with the object of showing that the coffin there was empty), though granted by Dr Tristram, chancellor of the diocese of London, was thwarted by a caveat being entered on the part of the executor of T. C. Druce's will; and the case became the subject of constant proceedings in the law-courts without result. Meanwhile it was discovered that children of T. C. Druce by a former wife were living in Australia, and Mrs Druce's claims fell into the background, the case being taken up independently by Mr G. H. Druce as the representative of this family, from 1903 onwards. A company to finance his case was formed in 1905, and in the autumn of 1907 he instituted a charge of perjury against Mr Herbert Druce, T. C. Druce's younger son and executor, for having sworn that he had seen his father die ill 1864. Sensational evidence of a mock burial was given by an American witness named Caldwell, and others; but eventually it was agreed that the grave at Highgate should be opened. This was done on December the 30th, and the body of Mr T. C. Druce was then found in the coffin. The charge of perjury at once collapsed and was withdrawn on January 6th, the opening of the grave definitely putting an end to the story of an identity between the two men.

The hilly peninsula, to which Portland was confined until the annexation of the town of Deering in 1899, is nearly 3 m. in length by about 4 m. in average width; at its east end is Munjoy Hill, 160 ft. above the sea, and its west end Bramhall Hill, 15 ft. higher. Portland's total land area is about 212 sq. m. The scenery in and about the city is noted for its picturesqueness, and this, with its delightful summer climate and historic interest, attracts a large number of visitors during the summer season. Munjoy Hill commands a fine view of Casco Bay, which is overlooked by other wooded heights. There is excellent yachting in the bay, which contains many beautiful islands, such as Peaks and Cushing's islands. Bramhall Hill commands an extensive view west and north-west of the bay, the mainland, and the White Mountains some 80 m. distant.

The city's park system includes the Western Promenade, on Bramhall Hill; the Eastern Promenade, on Munjoy Hill; Fort Allen Park, at the south extremity of the latter promenade; Fort Sumner, another small park farther west, on the same hill; Lincoln Park, containing 2 acres of beautiful grounds near the centre of the city; Deering's Oaks (made famous by Longfellow), the principal park (50 acres) on the peninsula, with many fine old trees, pleasant drives, and an artificial pond used for boating; and Monument Square and Boothby Square. There are many pleasant drives along the shore of the bay or the banks of rivers, and some of these lead to popular resorts, such as Riverton Park, on the Presumpscot; Cape Cottage Park, at the mouth of the harbour; and Falmouth Foreside, bordering the inner bay.

The streets of Portland are generally well paved, are unusually clean, and, in the residence districts, where the fire of 1866 did not extend, they are profusely shaded by elms and other large trees - Portland has been called the "Forest City." Congress Street, the principal thoroughfare, extends along the middle of the peninsula north-east and south-west and from one end of it to the other, passing in the middle of its course through the shopping district.

In Portland's architecture, both public and private, there is much that is excellent; and there are a number of buildings of historic interest. The Post Office, at the corner of Exchange and Middle streets, is of white Vermont marble and has a Corinthian portico. The granite Customs House, extending from Fore Street to Commercial Street, is large and massive. The Public Library building is Romanesque and elaborately ornamented; the building was presented to the city by James P. Baxter; in the library is the statue, by Benjamin Paul Akers (1825-1861), of the dead pearl-diver, well known from Hawthorne's description in The Marble Faun. The Cumberland County Court House, of white Maine granite, occupies the block bounded by Federal, Pearl, Church and Newbury streets; immediately opposite (to the south-west) is the Federal Court building, also of Maine granite. The Portland Observatory, on Munjoy Hill, erected in 1807 to detect approaching vessels, rises 222 ft. above tide-water. In Monument Square, the site of a battery in 1775 is a soldiers' and sailors' monument (1889), a tall granite pedestal surmounted by a bronze female figure, by Franklin Simmons; at the corner of State Street is a statue of Henry W. Longfellow by the same sculptor; and where Congress Street crosses the Eastern Promenade, a monument to the first settlers, George Cleeve and Richard Tucker. On the Western Promenade there is a monument to Thomas Brackett Reed, who was a native and a resident of Portland. On Congress Street, below the Observatory, is the Eastern Cemetery, the oldest burying ground of the city; in it are the graves of Commodore Edward Preble, and of Captain Samuel Blythe (1784-1813) and Captain William Burroughs (1785-1813), who were killed in the engagement between the British brig "Boxer" and the American brig "Enterprise," their respective ships, off this coast on the 5th of September 1813. The cemetery also contains monuments to Alonzo P. Stinson, the first soldier from Portland killed in the Civil War, to the Portland soldiers in the War of Independence, and to Rear-Admiral James Alden (1810-1877), of the U.S. Navy, a native of Portland. Among the churches are the Cathedral of the Immaculate Conception (Roman Catholic), with a spire 236 ft. high, and St Luke's (Protestant Episcopal) Cathedral. In the Williston Church (Congregational), in Thomas Street, the Young People's Society of Christian Endeavor was founded in 1881 by the Rev. Francis E. Clark, then pastor of the church. The finest residence district is on Bramhall Hill. Many houses, especially in State, Danforth and Congress streets, are simple in style and old-fashioned in architecture. Of special interest to visitors is the WadsworthLongfellow House - the early home of Henry W. Longfellow - which was built in1785-1786by General Peleg Wadsworth (1748-1829), a soldier of the War of Independence, a representative in Congress from 1793 to 1807, and the grandfather of the poet; was given by Longfellow's sister, Mrs Anne Longfellow Pierce (1810-1901) to the Maine Historical Society; and contains interesting relics of the Wadsworth and Longfellow families, and especially of the poet himself. Behind the "Home" is the Library of the Maine Historical Society. The birthplace of Longfellow is now a tenement house at the corner of Fore and Hancock streets, near the Grand. Trunk railway station.

In Portland, as in Bangor, the Maine Music Festival (begun in 1897) is held every year in October, three concerts being given by a chorus composed of local choruses trained in different cities of the state for the festival.

Among the institutions are: The Medical School of Maine, the medical department of Bowdoin College - instruction being given. here during the last two years of the course; Westbrook Seminary (chartered in 1831, and empowered to grant degrees in 1863); the Public Library, containing (1910) 65,000 vols.; the Library of the Maine Historical Society (30,000 vols.); the Mechanics' Library, the Greenleaf Law Library, the Maine General Hospital, and the United States Marine Hospital. The Portland Society of Natural History, founded in 1843 and incorporated in 1850, has a building (1880) containing a library and natural history collections. The city is supplied with good water from Lake Sebago, 17 m. distant.

The harbour has an artificial breakwater and extensive modern fortifications (Fort Preble, on the Cape Shore; Fort Levett, on Cushing's Island; Fort Williams, at Portland Head; and Fort McKinley, on Great Diamond Island) among the best equipped in the United States. For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal. The principal exports are grain, livestock and fruit. In 1908 the exports were valued at $11,353,339 and the imports at $1,189,964. The Grand Trunk Railroad Company has here two of the largest grain warehouses on the Atlantic Coast. In 1905 Portland was the first manufacturing city of the state, with a factory product valued at $9,132,801 (as against $8,527,649 for Lewiston, which outranked Portland in 1900); here are foundries and machine-shops, planing-mills, car and railway repair shops, packing and canning establishments - probably the first Indian corn canned in the United States was canned near Portland in 1840 - potteries, and factories for making boots, shoes, clothing, matches, screens, sleighs, carriages, cosmetics, &c. Shipbuilding and fishing are important industries.

The first permanent settlement on the peninsula was. established by George Cleeve and Richard Tucker at the foot of Munjoy Hill in 1633 immediately after they had been ejected from land which they had claimed at the mouth of the Spurwink. Soon the hill at the east end became the property of George Munjoy and that at the west end the property of George Bramhall. The Indian name of the peninsula was Machegonne, and the new settlement was during the next few years known by various names, such as Casco, Casco Neck, Cleeve's Neck, and Munjoy's Neck. In 1658 Massachusetts extended its jurisdiction over this part of Maine. The peninsula, with considerable neighbouring territory and Cape Elizabeth, was organized as a town in 1718 and was named Falmouth. The town suffered so severely from the Indians in 1676 that it was deserted until 1678. It was attacked in 1689, and in 1690 it was utterly destroyed by the French and Indians, and remained desolate until after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. When the port of Boston was closed by Great Britain in 1774 the bell of the old First Parish Church (Unitarian) of Portland (built 1740; the present building dates from 1825) was muffled and rung from morning till night, and in other ways the town showed its sympathy for the patriot cause. As a punishment, on the 18th, of October 1775, the town was bombarded and burned by a British fleet. The peninsula portion of Falmouth was incorporated as a distinct town in 1786 and was named Portland. Portland was the capital of the state from 1820 to 1832 and in the latter year was chartered as a city. In 1886 a large central portion of the city, about 200 acres, was destroyed by a fire resulting from a Fourth of July celebration. Portland was the birthplace of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Thomas Brackett Reed, Edward Preble and his nephew George Henry Preble, Mrs Parton ("Fanny Fern"), Nathaniel Parker Willis, Seargent Smith Prentiss and Neal Dow, and it was the home of William Pitt Fessenden, Theophilus Parsons and Simon Greenleaf.

See W. Willis, The History of Portland (Portland, 1865), and William Goold, Portland in the Past (Portland, 1886).

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Simple English

Portland, Maine
—  City  —
Nickname(s): The Forest City
Motto: Resurgam (Latin for "I will rise again")
Coordinates: 43°39′54″N 70°16′9″W / 43.665°N 70.26917°W / 43.665; -70.26917
Country United States
State [ Maine
County Cumberland
Settled 1632
Incorporated 1786
 - Mayor Edward J. Suslovic
 - City 52.6 sq mi (136.2 km2)
 - Land 21.2 sq mi (54.9 km2)
 - Water 31.4 sq mi (81.2 km2)
Elevation 62 ft (19 m)
Population (2000)
 - City 64,249
 Density 3,029.2/sq mi (1,169.6/km2)
 Urban 243,537
 Metro 489,343
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 207
FIPS code 23-60545
GNIS feature ID 0573692
Website http://www.portlandmaine.gov/

Portland is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maine. The city's population was 64,249 as of the 2000 Census


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