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Portuguese Republic
República Portuguesa
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem"A Portuguesa"
Location of  Portugal  (green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]

(and largest city)
38°46′N 9°9′W / 38.767°N 9.15°W / 38.767; -9.15
Official language(s) Portuguese
Recognised regional languages Mirandese1
Ethnic groups  96.87% Portuguese and 3.13% legal immigrants (Cape Verdeans, Brazilians, Ukrainians, Angolans, etc.) (2007)[1]
Demonym Portuguese
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Aníbal Cavaco Silva (PSD)
 -  Prime Minister José Sócrates (PS)
 -  Assembly President Jaime Gama (PS)
Formation Conventional date for Independence is 1139 
 -  Founding 868 
 -  Re-founding 1095 
 -  De facto sovereignty 24 June 1128 
 -  Kingdom 25 July 1139 
 -  Recognized 5 October 1143 
 -  Papal Recognition 23 May 1179 
 -  Restoration of independence 1 December 1640 
 -  Restoration of independence recognized 13 February 1668 
 -  Republic 5 October 1910 
EU accession 1 January 1986
 -  Total 92,090 km2 (110th)
35,645 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.5
 -  July 2009 estimate 10,707,924 (77th)
 -  2001 census 10,355,824 
 -  Density 114/km2 (87th)
295/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $236.049 billion[2] (46th)
 -  Per capita $22,232[2] (39th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $244.640 billion[2] (37th)
 -  Per capita $23,041[2] (32nd)
HDI (2007) 0.909 (very high) (34th)
Currency Euro ()² (EUR)
Time zone WET³ (UTC0)
 -  Summer (DST) WEST (UTC+1)
Date formats dd-mm-yyyy, yyyy-mm-dd, yyyy/mm/dd (CE)
Drives on the right (since 1928)
Internet TLD .pt4
Calling code 351
1 Mirandese, spoken in some villages of the municipality of Miranda do Douro, was officially recognized in 1999 (Lei n.° 7/99 de 29 de Janeiro), since then awarding an official right-of-use Mirandese to the linguistic minority it is concerned.[3] The Portuguese Sign Language is also recognized.
2 Before 1999: Portuguese escudo.
3 Azores: UTC-1; UTC in summer.
4 The .eu domain is also used as it is shared with other European Union member states.
Portugal en-us-Portugal.ogg /ˈpɔrtjəɡəl/ , officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa),[4] is a country located in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Portugal is the westernmost country of mainland Europe and is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east. .The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.^ The archipelagos of Azores and Madeira have theirs origins on volcanic activities and theirs terrains are very rough.

^ It is bordered by Spain on the east and north and by the Atlantic Ocean on the west and south.The Portuguese territory is divided in three parts: the mainland, the autonomous region of Madeira and Azores which have their own administration.

^ From the US State Department : "PORTUGAL - (Includes travel to the Azores and Madeira Islands.

The land within the borders of today's Portuguese Republic has been continuously settled since prehistoric times. Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici, Cynetes, Phoenicians, Carthaginians Romans and many Germanic tribes such as the Suevi, the Buri and the Visigoths, all left their influence on what is today Portuguese territory. The territory was integrated in the Roman Empire as the province of Lusitania and Roman settlers strongly influenced Portuguese culture, particularly the Portuguese language, mostly derived from Latin. In the 5th century, after the fall of the Roman empire, it was occupied by different Germanic tribes. .In the early 8th century the Muslim Moors conquered the Christian Germanic kingdoms, occupying most of the Iberian Peninsula.^ Located on the west part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal occupies an area of 92,152 km2.

Later, during the Christian Reconquista (Reconquering), the County of Portugal was settled, as part of the Kingdom of Galicia. Portugal emerged during the 12th century from this brief earldom and would establish almost its entire modern-day borders in 1249.
.During the 15th and 16th centuries, with a global empire that included possessions in Africa, Asia and South America, Portugal was one of the world's major economic, political and military powers.^ PR Newswire (press release), NY - Feb 22, 2007 SunTechnics is one of the global leading suppliers of turnkey renewable energy systems and has founded subsidiaries in Portugal, Singapore, and South Korea ...

^ The world's largest-producing solar power plant was inaugurated Wednesday in Portugal.

In 1580 it was united with Spain by a period called the Iberian Union; however, in 1640 it went on to re-establish total sovereignty and independence during the Portuguese Restoration War that resulted in the establishment of a new dynasty and a return to the previous separation between the two crowns and empires.
The 1755 Lisbon earthquake, Spanish and French invasions, which preceded the loss of its largest territorial possession abroad, Brazil, resulted in both the disruption of political stability and potential economic growth as well as the reduction of Portugal's international status as a global power during the 19th century. After the overthrow of the monarchy in 1910, a republic was established that was then followed by a dictatorship. With the Portuguese Colonial War and the Carnation Revolution coup d'état in 1974, the ruling dictatorship was deposed in Lisbon and the country handed over its last overseas provinces (most prominently Angola and Mozambique in Africa); the last overseas territory, Macau, was handed over to China in 1999.
.Portugal is a developed country [5] and it has the world's 19th-highest quality-of-life, according to The Economist Intelligence Unit.^ I wonder what the trends are in Portugal...Those with little money, little need for money, are they living with increasing or decreasing quality of life?

It is the 14th-most peaceful and the 13th-most globalized country in the world. .It is a member of the European Union (joined the then EEC in 1986, leaving the EFTA where it was a founding member in 1960) and the United Nations; as well as a founding member of the Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, OECD, NATO, Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the European Union's Eurozone, and also a Schengen state.^ This is a look at what countries currently are part of the Schengen community.



.The early history of Portugal, whose name derives from the Roman name Portus Cale, is shared with the rest of the Iberian Peninsula.^ Located on the west part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal occupies an area of 92,152 km2.

^ Portugal is a country with a rich seafaring community and it is situated on the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula west of Spain.

^ Portugal's climate is influenced by the landmass of the Iberian Peninsula while simultaneously being a coastal country with weather affected by the sea.

The region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Gallaeci, Lusitanians, Celtici and Cynetes, visited by Phoenicians and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions (as Lusitania after 45 BC until 298, settled again by Suevi, Buri, and Visigoths, and conquered by Moors. Other minor influences include some 5th century vestiges of Alan settlement, which were found in Alenquer, Coimbra and even Lisbon.[6]
.In 868, during the Reconquista (by which Christians reconquered the Iberian Peninsula from the Muslim and Moorish domination), the First County of Portugal was formed.^ Located on the west part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal occupies an area of 92,152 km2.

^ Portugal is a country with a rich seafaring community and it is situated on the west coast of the Iberian Peninsula west of Spain.

^ Portugal's climate is influenced by the landmass of the Iberian Peninsula while simultaneously being a coastal country with weather affected by the sea.

A victory over the Muslims at Battle of Ourique in 1139 is traditionally taken as the occasion when Portugal was transformed from a county (County of Portugal as a fief of the Kingdom of León) into an independent kingdom: the Kingdom of Portugal.
The Castle of Guimarães, Guimarães – the city is known as the cradle of Portugal.
On 24 June 1128, the Battle of São Mamede occurred near Guimarães. At the Battle of São Mamede, Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his mother, Countess Teresa, and her lover, Fernão Peres de Trava, in battle — thereby establishing himself as sole leader. Afonso Henriques officially declared Portugal's independence when he proclaimed himself king of Portugal on 25 July 1139, after the Battle of Ourique, he was recognized as such in 1143 by Alfonso VII, king of León and Castile, and in 1179 by Pope Alexander III.
Afonso Henriques and his successors, aided by military monastic orders, pushed southward to drive out the Moors, as the size of Portugal covered about half of its present area. In 1249, this Reconquista ended with the capture of the Algarve on the southern coast, giving Portugal its present day borders, with minor exceptions. In 1348 and 1349, like the rest of Europe, Portugal was devastated by the Black Death.[7]
In 1373, Portugal made an alliance with England, which is the longest-standing alliance in the world.
Progress of the Christian Reconquista.
In 1383, the king of Castile, husband of the daughter of the Portuguese king who had died without a male heir, claimed his throne. An ensuing popular revolt led to the 1383-1385 Crisis. A faction of petty noblemen and commoners, led by John of Aviz (later John I), seconded by General Nuno Álvares Pereira defeated the Castilians in the Battle of Aljubarrota. This celebrated battle is still a symbol of glory and the struggle for independence from neighbouring Spain.
In the following decades, Portugal spearheaded the exploration of the world and undertook the Age of Discovery. Prince Henry the Navigator, son of King João I, became the main sponsor and patron of this endeavor.
In 1415, Portugal conquered the first of its overseas colonies by conquering Ceuta, a prosperous Islamic trade center in North Africa. There followed the first discoveries in the Atlantic: Madeira and the Azores, which led to the first colonization movements.
Portuguese explorations: arrival places and dates; main Portuguese trade routes in the Indian Ocean (blue); territories of the Portuguese empire under King John III rule (1521–1557) (green).
Throughout the 15th century, Portuguese explorers sailed the coast of Africa, establishing trading posts for several common types of tradable commodities at the time, ranging from gold to slaves, as they looked for a route to India and its spices, which were coveted in Europe. In 1498, Vasco da Gama finally reached India and brought economic prosperity to Portugal and its population of 1,5 million residents then.
In 1500, Pedro Álvares Cabral, en route to India, discovered Brazil and claimed it for Portugal.[8] Ten years later, Afonso de Albuquerque conquered Goa, in India, Ormuz in the Persian Strait, and Malacca, now a state in Malaysia. Thus, the Portuguese empire held dominion over commerce in the Indian Ocean and South Atlantic. The Portuguese sailors set out to reach Eastern Asia by sailing eastward from Europe landing in such places like Taiwan, Japan, the island of Timor, and it may also have been Portuguese sailors that were the first Europeans to discover Australia and even New Zealand.[9]
An anachronistic map of the Portuguese Empire (1415–1999). Red – actual possessions; Olive – explorations; Orange – areas of influence and trade; Pink – claims of sovereignty; Green – trading posts; Blue – main sea explorations, routes and areas of influence. The disputed Portuguese discovery of Australia is not shown.
Portugal's independence was interrupted between 1580 and 1640. Because the heirless King Sebastian died in the battle of Alcácer Quibir in Morocco, Philip II of Spain claimed his throne and so became Philip I of Portugal. Although Portugal did not lose its formal independence, it was governed by the same monarch who governed Spain, briefly forming a union of kingdoms, as a personal union.
The joining of the two crowns deprived Portugal of a separate foreign policy, and led to the involvement in the Eighty Years War being fought in Europe at the time between Spain and The Netherlands. War led to a deterioration of the relations with Portugal's oldest ally, and the loss of Hormuz. From 1595 to 1663 the Dutch-Portuguese War primarily involved the Dutch companies invading many Portuguese colonies and commercial interests in Brazil, Africa, India and the Far East, resulting in the loss of the Portuguese Indian Sea trade monopoly.
In 1640, John IV spearheaded an uprising backed by disgruntled nobles and was proclaimed king. The Portuguese Restoration War between Portugal and Spain on the aftermath of the 1640 revolt, ended the sixty-year period of the Iberian Union under the House of Habsburg. This was the beginning of the House of Braganza, which was to reign in Portugal until 1910. On 1 November 1755, Lisbon, the largest city and capital of the Portuguese Empire, was strongly shaken by an earthquake which killed thousands and destroyed a large portion of the city.
In the autumn of 1807, Napoleon moved French troops through Spain to invade Portugal. From 1807 to 1811, British-Portuguese forces would successfully fight against the French invasion of Portugal. .Portugal began a slow but inexorable decline until the 20th century.^ Meanwhile Portugal was declining in the 17th century.

^ Portugal kept its largest colony, Brazil , until the 19th century and its huge African empire until the late 20th century.
  • Portugal - MSN Encarta 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the Late Middle-Ages, declining as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre with the foundation of the University of Coimbra in 1290.

This decline was hastened by the independence in 1822 of the country's largest colonial possession, Brazil.
Map of the Portuguese Overseas provinces in Africa by the time of the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974).
At the height of European colonialism in the 19th century, Portugal had already lost its territory in South America and all but a few bases in Asia. .During this phase, Portuguese colonialism focused on expanding its outposts in Africa into nation-sized territories to compete with other European powers there.^ At the height of its global empire, Portugal has territorial possessions in Africa, Asia and mostly in South Americas where to this day, the Portuguese cultural heritage can be seen and felt in the Brazil and other South American countries.
  • Portugal Diary | Portugal Blog 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A series of costly colonial wars in Africa beginning in the 1960s drained Portuguese resources and weakened the national economy.
  • Portugal - MSN Encarta 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal considers Olivença (Olivenza in Spanish, administrated by Spain) Portuguese territory de jure, based on agreements of both nations in the Vienna Treaty of 1815 , but there are not strong diplomatic actions to take it back.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Portuguese territories eventually included the modern nations of Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, Angola, and Mozambique.

20th century

In 1910, a revolution deposed the Portuguese monarchy and its last King, Manuel II, but chaos continued and considerable economic problems were aggravated by the military intervention in World War I, which led to a military coup d'état in 1926. This in turn led to the establishment of the right-wing dictatorship of the Estado Novo under António de Oliveira Salazar. Portugal was one of only five European countries to remain neutral in World War II.
In December 1961 the Portuguese army and navy were involved in armed conflict in its colony of Portuguese India against an Indian invasion. The operations resulted in the defeat of the isolated and relatively small Portuguese garrison which was forced to surrender. The outcome was the loss of the Portuguese territories in the Indian subcontinent. Also in the early 1960s, independence movements in the Portuguese overseas provinces of Angola, Mozambique and Guinea in Africa, resulted in the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). Throughout the colonial war period Portugal had to deal with increasing dissent, arms embargoes and other punitive sanctions imposed by most of the international community.
Ceremony of the handover of Macau to the People's Republic of China, in December 1999.[10]
In April 1974 a bloodless left-wing military coup in Lisbon, known as the Carnation Revolution, led the way for a modern democracy as well as the independence of the last colonies in Africa shortly after. These events prompted a mass exodus of Portuguese citizens from Portugal's African territories (mostly from Portuguese Angola and Mozambique),[11][12] creating over a million destitute Portuguese refugees — the retornados.
Portugal's last overseas territory, Macau, was not handed over to the People's Republic of China until 1999, under the 1987 joint declaration that set the terms for Macau's handover from Portugal to the P. R. of China. In 2002 the independence of East Timor (Asia) was formally recognized by Portugal, after an incomplete decolonization process that was started in 1975 because of the Carnation Revolution.
From the 1940s to the 1960s, Portugal was a founding member of NATO, OECD and EFTA. In 1986, Portugal joined the European Union (then the European Economic Community). In 1999 Portugal was one of the founding countries of the euro and the Eurozone. It is also a co-founder of the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), established in 1996 and headquartered in Lisbon.

Government and politics

Portugal is a democratic republic ruled by the Constitution of 1976 with Lisbon, the nation's largest city, as its capital. The four main governing components are the President of the Republic, the Parliament, known as Assembly of the Republic, the Government, headed by a Prime Minister, and the courts. .The constitution grants the division or separation of powers among legislative, executive, and judicial branches.^ The Constitution grants the complete separation between these powers.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal also ranks first, globally, in terms of open political competition for both the executive and legislative branches of government, and in regulation of the electoral system.
  • The 2009 Legatum Prosperity Index 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Portugal like most European countries has no state religion, making it a secular state.
The president, who is elected to a five-year term, has a supervising non-executive role. The current President is Aníbal Cavaco Silva. The Parliament is a chamber composed of 230 deputies elected in four-year terms. The government is headed by the prime minister (currently José Sócrates) who chooses the Council of Ministers, comprising all the ministers and state secretaries.
The national and regional governments (those of Azores and Madeira autonomous regions), and the Portuguese parliament, are dominated by two political parties, the Socialist Party and the Social Democratic Party. Minority parties Unitarian Democratic Coalition (Portuguese Communist Party plus Ecologist Party "The Greens"), Bloco de Esquerda (The Left Bloc) and CDS-PP (Popular Party) are also represented in the parliament and local governments.
The courts are organized in several categories comprising the judicial, administrative, and fiscal branches. The supreme courts are courts of last appeal. A thirteen-member constitutional court oversees the constitutionality of the laws.

Executive branch

The President, elected to a 5-year term by direct, universal suffrage, is also commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Presidential powers include appointing the prime minister and Council of Ministers, in which the president must be guided by the assembly election results; dismissing the prime minister; dissolving the assembly to call early elections; vetoing legislation, which may be overridden by the assembly; and declaring a state of war or siege.
The Council of State, a presidential advisory body, is composed of six senior civilian officers, any former presidents elected under the 1976 constitution, five members chosen by the assembly, and five selected by the president. The government is headed by the presidentially appointed prime minister, who names the Council of Ministers. A new government is required to define the broad outline of its policy in a program and present it to the assembly for a mandatory period of debate. Failure of the assembly to reject the program by a majority of deputies confirms the government in office.
Main office holders
Office Name Party Since
President Aníbal Cavaco Silva PSD 9 March 2006
Prime Minister José Sócrates PS 12 March 2005

Legislative branch

The four main organs of the national government are the presidency, the prime minister and Council of Ministers (the government), the Assembly of the Republic (the parliament), and the judiciary. The Assembly of the Republic is a unicameral body composed of up to 230 deputies. Elected by universal suffrage according to a system of proportional representation, deputies serve terms of office of 4 years, unless the president dissolves the assembly and calls for new elections.

Foreign relations and armed forces

Location of the disputed territory of Olivença.
Location of the Savage Islands, the southernmost region of Portugal.
A member state of the United Nations since 1955, Portugal is also a founding member of NATO (1949), OECD (1961) and EFTA (1960); it left the latter in 1986 to join the European Economic Community, that would become the European Union in 1993. In 1996 it co-founded the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP), which seeks to foster closer economic and cultural ties between the world's Lusophone nations. In addition, Portugal is a full member of the Latin Union (1983) and the Organization of Ibero-American States (1949).
It has a friendship alliance and dual citizenship treaty with its former colony, Brazil. Portugal and England (subsequently, the UK) share the world's oldest active military accord through their Anglo-Portuguese Alliance, which was signed in 1373.
The only international disputes concerns the municipality of Olivença. Under Portuguese sovereignty since 1297, the municipality of Olivença was ceded to Spain under the Treaty of Badajoz in 1801, after the War of the Oranges. Portugal claimed it back in 1815 under the Treaty of Vienna.
There are also some controversies over the Savage Islands. 1881 – The Spanish Foreign Affairs Ministry stated during the meeting that " is not clear if the sovereignty of the island belongs to Spain or Portugal". 1911 – In September the Portuguese government received an official communication from the Spanish government in which it was stated that Spain would build a lighthouse in the islands and had decided to include them in the Canary archipelago. Portuguese administration protested and it was agreed not to take any actions that might endanger a friendly solution to the dispute. The Permanent Commission of International Maritime Law gave sovereignty of the Savage Islands to Portugal on February 15, 1938. Nevertheless, bilateral diplomatic relations between the two neighbouring countries are cordial, as well as within the European Union.


The armed forces have three branches: Army, Navy, and Air Force. .The military of Portugal serves primarily as a self-defense force whose mission is to protect the territorial integrity of the country and providing humanitarian assistance and security at home and abroad.^ John deserves credit for his policy of peace abroad and for the colonization of Brazil, in which he had the assistance of the Jesuits, who civilized the natives and protected them from the European settlers.
  • Portugal - Catholic Encyclopedia - Catholic Online 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The continuing armed conflicts with guerrillas in the African territories, requiring about 40% of Portugal's annual budget to be devoted to military spending, drained the country's resources.
  • Portugal Facts, information, pictures | articles about Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Portugal News - Breaking World Portugal News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ AngloINFO in Portugal In 2007, AngloINFO lanched its first websites in Portugal, AngloINFO Lisbon , serving the country's exciting capital city, and AngloINFO Algarve for the popular southern region.
  • AngloINFO Portugal. Everything for expats living in or moving to Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

As of 2002, the total armed forces of Portugal numbered 43,600 active personnel including 2,875 women. Reservists numbered 210,930 for all services.
The army had 25,400 personnel with equipment including 187 main battle tanks. The navy of 10,800, including 1,580 marines, had two submarines, six frigates, and 28 patrol and coastal combatants. The air force of 7,400 was equipped with 50 combat aircraft. Paramilitary police and republican guards, the Guarda Nacional Republicana (GNR), number 40,900. GNR is a police force under the authority of the military, its soldiers are subject to military law and organization. It has provided detachments for participation in international operations in Iraq and East Timor. The United States maintains a military presence with 770 troops in the USA Air Force Base at Terceira Island, in the Azores. Portugal participates in peacekeeping operations in several regions. Defense spending in 1999–00 was $1.3 billion, representing 2.2 percent of GDP.
Since the early 2000s compulsory military service is no longer practiced. .The changes also turned the forces' focus towards professional military engagements.^ During the Durão Barroso government the Armed Forces were fully professionalized and obligatory military service was abolished in 2003.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The age for voluntary recruitment is set at 18. In the 20th century, Portugal engaged in two major military interventions: the First Great War and the Portuguese Colonial War (1961–1974). Portugal has participated in peacekeeping missions in East Timor, Bosnia, Kosovo, Afghanistan, Iraq (Nasiriyah) and Lebanon. The Portuguese Military's Rapid Reaction Brigade, a combined force of the nation's elite Paratroopers, Special Operations Troops Centre and Commandos, is a special elite fighting force.

Law and criminal justice

The Portuguese legal system is part of the civil law legal system, also called the continental family legal system. .Until the end of the 19th century, French law was the main influence.^ The main factor in the transformation of the commercial economy at the end of the seventeenth century was the development of Brazilian gold production.
  • Chapter 18: Spain and Portugal, vol. 2 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Since then the major influence has been German law. The main laws include the Constitution (1976, as amended), the Civil Code (1966, as amended) and the Penal Code (1982, as amended). .Other relevant laws are the Commercial Code (1888, as amended) and the Civil Procedure Code (1961, as amended).^ However, there is no criminal liability for such violations of personal rights and currently there is no protection of personal data laws (through data protection laws or any other laws) under the current Turkish Criminal Code.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The Civil Code makes no mention of men bound by religious vows , because the law does not know them.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ Telephone tapping is governed by the Penal code and Penal Procedure code amended by the 1997 Telecommunication Act.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Portuguese law applied in the former colonies and territories and continues to be the major influence for those countries. .Portugal's main police organizations are the Guarda Nacional Republicana – GNR (National Republican Guard), a gendarmerie; the Polícia de Segurança Pública – PSP (Public Security Police), a civilian police force who work in urban areas; and the Polícia Judiciária – PJ (Judicial Police), a highly specialized criminal investigation police which is overseen by the Public Ministry.^ The State, Civil Society and Public Administration in Portugal: towards a new paradigm of public service, of the role of the State and of public polic .
  • Portugal Conferences, Conventions, Trade Shows and Meetings 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Reference]

Geography and climate

Lagoa das Furnas- a lagoon in the island of São Miguel, Azores.
Cork oak on wheat field, a typical image of the Alentejo region.
Praia da Marinha, a typical image of the Algarve region.
The highest point in mainland Portugal, the Serra da Estrela mountain range.
Mount Pico, in the island of Pico, Azores, is Portugal's highest point.
The typical landscape of the Douro Valley.
Look towards Pico das Torres, in the island of Madeira.
Cape Roca, Europe's most western continental point.
Mainland Portugal is split by its main river, the Tagus. The northern landscape is mountainous in the interior with plateaus indented by river valleys, whereas the south, that includes the Algarve and the Alentejo, features mostly rolling plains and a climate somewhat warmer and drier than in the north.
The Algarve, separated from the Alentejo by mountains, has a climate much like the southern coastal areas of Spain. Portugal's highest point is Mount Pico on Pico Island in the Azores. This is an ancient volcano measuring 2,350 m (7,710 ft). Mainland Portugal's highest point is Serra da Estrela, with the summit being 1,993 m (6,539 ft) above sea level.
Portugal has a Mediterranean climate, Csa in the south and Csb in the north, according to the Köppen climate classification. Portugal is one of the warmest European countries: the annual average temperature in mainland Portugal varies from 13 °C (55.4 °F) in the mountainous interior north to over 18 °C (64.4 °F) in the south and on the Guadiana basin. In some areas, as in the Tejo and Douro basins, annual average temperatures can be as high as 20 °C (68 °F). Here in the summer temperatures may be over 50 °C (122 °F) as it is documented in a climatology study done recently, for example in the Arqueology Park in Côa, Douro valley.[13]
The record high of 50.5 °C (122.9 °F) was recorded in Riodades, São João da Pesqueira.[14] The annual average rainfall varies from a bit more than 3,000 mm (118.1 in) in the mountains in the north to less than 600 mm (23.6 in) in southern parts of Alentejo. The country has around 2500–3200 hours of sunshine a year, an average of 4–6 h in winter and 10–12 h in the summer, with higher values in the southeast and lower in the northwest.
The Madeira and Azores archipelagos have a narrower temperature range with annual average temperatures exceeding 20 °C (68 °F), according to the Portuguese Meteorological Institute, in the south coast of Madeira Island. The annual average rainfall in the mainland varies from a bit more than 3,000 mm (118.1 in) in the mountains in the north to less than 300 mm (11.8 in) in Massueime region, near Côa on the Douro river . In the Pico mountain, in Azores, is the rainiest spot of Portugal, reaching over 6,250 mm (246.1 in) per year, according to IM (Portuguese Meteorological Institute).[15]
The islands of the Azores are located in the Mid-Atlantic Ridge whilst the Madeira islands were formed by the activity of an in-plate hotspot, much like the Hawaiian Islands. Some islands have had volcanic activity as recently as 1957. Both the Azores and the Madeira Islands have a subtropical climate, but there are differences between the islands, mainly because of differences in temperature and rainfall.
Some islands in Azores do have dry months in the summer therefore a Mediterranean climate according to Koppen-Geiger ( both Csa and Csb types) Maritime Temperate ( Cfb) in some islands ( Flores) and Humid subtropical (Cfa) in the others (Corvo), according to Koppen-Geiger where are no dry months in the summer. The Savage Islands, that belong to the Madeira archipelago, have a Desertic climate (BWh) with an annual average rainfall of just around 150 mm (5.9 in). The sea surface mean temperatures in these archipelagos vary from 16 °C (60.8 °F)-18 °C (64.4 °F) in winter to 23 °C (73.4 °F)-24 °C (75.2 °F) in the summer, occasionally reaching 26 °C (78.8 °F).
In South Azores, there´s an oceanic area, inside Portuguese maritime territory which has the unique tropical climate (As type according to Koppen-Geiger)known in Europe, because of Gulf Stream influence on this area. Sea temperatures here are over 20 °C (68 °F) even on the peak of the winter ( Source AEMET).
Portugal's Exclusive Economic Zone, a seazone over which the Portuguese have special rights over the exploration and use of marine resources, has 1,727,408 km². This is the 3rd largest Exclusive Economic Zone of the European Union and the 11th largest in the world.

Fauna and Flora

Montesinho Natural Park, in northeastern Portugal.
Conservation areas of Portugal include one national park (Parque Nacional), 12 natural parks (Parque Natural), 9 natural reserves (Reserva Natural), 5 natural monuments (Monumento Natural), and 7 protected landscapes (Paisagem Protegida), ranging from the Parque Nacional da Peneda-Gerês to the Parque Natural da Serra da Estrela to the Paul de Arzila. Climate and geographical diversity shaped the Portuguese Flora.
As far as Portuguese forests are concerned, because of economic reasons the pine tree (especially the Pinus pinaster and Pinus pinea species), the chestnut tree (Castanea sativa), the cork oak (Quercus suber), the holm oak (Quercus ilex), the Portuguese oak (Quercus faginea), and the eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus) are very widespread.
A chameleon from the Algarve region.
Mammalian fauna is diverse and includes the fox, badger, Iberian lynx, Iberian Wolf, wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), wild cat (Felis silvestris), hare, weasel, polecat, chameleon, mongoose, civet, brown bear (spotted near Rio Minho, close to Peneda-Gerês) and many others. Portugal is an important stopover place for migratory birds, in places such as Saint Vicent Cape or Monchique mountain, where thousands of birds that fly from Europe to Africa in the Autumn or on the opposite direction can be seen in the Spring. They congregate there because the Iberian Peninsula is the closest place in Europe to Africa. Portugal has around 600 bird species and almost every year there are new records. The islands have some species of American, European, and African origin, while the mainland shares European and African bird species.
Portugal has over 100 freshwater fish species and vary from the giant European catfish (Tejo International Natural Park) to some small and endemic species that live only in small and located lakes (West Zone, for example). Some of these rare and specific species are highly endangered because of habitat loss, pollution and drought. Marine fish species number are on the thousands mark and include the sardine (Sardina pilchardus), tuna and Atlantic mackerel. The marine bioluminescence is very well-represented (in different colors spectra and forms), with interesting phenomena like the glowing plankton, that is possible to observe in some beaches. In Portugal it is also possible to observe the upwelling phenomena, especially on the west coast, which makes the sea extremely rich in nutrients and biodiversity. Portuguese marine waters are one of the richest in biodiversity in the world.
There are many endemic species of Insect fauna, that are only found in some places in Portugal, others are more widespread like the stag beetle (Lucanus cervus) and the cicada. Macaronesian islands (Azores and Madeira) have many endemic species (like birds, reptiles, bats, insects, snails and slugs) that developed differently from other places in the world because of their isolated locations and so very unique species have evolved there. Only in Madeira island is possible to observe more than 250 species of land gastropods. Laurissilva is a unique type of subtropical rainforest in Europe and in the world. It is found in Madeira and The Azores and also on the Canary islands, Spain.

Administrative divisions

Portugal has an administrative structure of 308 municipalities (Portuguese singular/plural: concelho/concelhos), which are subdivided into more than 4,000 parishes (freguesia/freguesias). .Municipalities are grouped for administrative purposes into superior units.^ Portugal has an administrative structure based on 308 municipalities (concelho - singular, concelhos - plural), which are subdivided into more than 4,000 parishes (freguesias, singular - freguesia).
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^ Notwithstanding, larger territorial units have been created by the initiative of groups of municipalities to answer the need for supra-municipal coordination especially in heavily urbanised areas.
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^ Municipalities are grouped for administrative purposes into superior units, the most significant being the classification since 1976, into either mainland (Portugal continental) or insular (Portugal insular) territory.
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For continental Portugal the municipalities are gathered in 18 districts, while the islands have a regional government directly above them. Thus, the largest unit of classification is the one established since 1976 into either mainland Portugal (Portugal Continental) or the autonomous regions of Portugal (Azores and Madeira).
The 18 districts of mainland Portugal are: Aveiro, Beja, Braga, Bragança, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Évora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisbon, Portalegre, Porto, Santarém, Setúbal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real and Viseu – each district takes the name of the district capital.
The European Union's system of Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics is also used. According to this system, Portugal is divided into 7 regions (Açores, Alentejo, Algarve, Centro, Lisboa, Madeira and Norte), which are subdivided into 30 subregions.
  District Area Population     District Area Population
1 Lisbon 2761 km² 2.124.426 PortugalNumbered.png 10 Guarda 5518 km² 173.831
2 Leiria 3,517 km2 (1,358 sq mi) 477.967 11 Coimbra 3947 km² 436.056
3 Santarém 6,747 km2 (2,605 sq mi) 445.599 12 Aveiro 2808 km² 752.867
4 Setúbal 5,064 km2 (1,955 sq mi) 815.858 13 Viseu 5007 km² 394.844
5 Beja 10.225 km2 (4 sq mi) 154.325 14 Bragança 6608 km² 148.808
6 Faro 4,960 km2 (1,915 sq mi) 421.528 15 Vila Real 4328 km² 218.935
7 Évora 7393 km² 170.535 16 Porto 2395 km² 1.867.986
8 Portalegre 6065 km² 119.543 17 Braga 2673 km² 879.918
9 Castelo Branco 6675 km² 208.069 18 Viana do Castelo 2255 km² 252.011
Autonomous Regions
Autonomous Region Area Population Demonym
2.333 km²
801 km²



Population of Portugal, in thousands (1961–2003)
The population of Portugal has been relatively homogeneous for most of its history. A single religion (Catholicism) and a single language have contributed to this ethnic and national unity, namely after the expulsion of the Moors, Moriscos and Sephardi Jews.[17]
Portugal was one of the last western European nations to give up its colonies and overseas territories (among them Angola and Mozambique in 1975), turning over the administration of Macau to the People's Republic of China in 1999. Its colonial history has long since been a cornerstone of its national identity, as has its geographic position at the southwestern corner of Europe looking out to the Atlantic ocean.
Native Portuguese are an Iberian ethnic group and their ancestry is very similar to other western and southern European peoples, particularly from Spain, with whom it shares ancestry and has cultural proximity. It is largely consistent with the geographic position of the western part of the Iberian peninsula, located on the extreme southwest of continental Europe. There are clear connections with Mediterranean people as well as with those of Atlantic and Western Europe.
The most important demic influence in modern Portuguese seems to be the oldest one — current interpretation of Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggests that modern-day Portuguese traces largely a significant amount of their origin to the paleolithic peoples which began arriving to the European continent around 45,000 years ago. All subsequent migrations did leave an impact, genetically and culturally, but the main populational source of the Portuguese is still paleolithic.
The Instituto Nacional de Estatística (INE, Portugal's official bureau of statistics), estimated that, according to the 2001 census, the population was 10,355,824 of which 52% was female, 48% was male. By 2007, Portugal had 10,617,575 inhabitants of whom about 332,137 were legal immigrants.[1] Portugal, long a country of emigration (the vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry),[18] has now become a country of net immigration,[19] and not just from the last Indian (Portuguese until 1961), African (Portuguese until 1975), and Far East Asian (Portuguese until 1999) overseas territories.
Since the 1990s, along with a boom in construction, several new waves of Ukrainian, Brazilian, people from the former Portuguese colonies in Africa and other Africans have settled in the country. Those communities currently make up the largest groups of immigrants in Portugal. Romanians, Moldovans and Chinese have also chosen Portugal as destination.
A number of EU citizens mostly from the United Kingdom, but also from Nordic countries, are permanent residents of the country, with the British community being mostly composed of retired pensioners and choosing to live in the Algarve and Madeira.[20] Portugal's Gypsy population, estimated at about 40,000,[21] offers another element of ethnic diversity. Most gypsies live apart, and primarily in the south. They can often be found at rural markets selling clothing and handicrafts.
View over Lisbon.
View over Porto's old town, with Dom Luís Bridge in the foreground.
There are seven Greater Metropolitan Areas (GAMs): Algarve, Aveiro, Coimbra, Lisbon, Minho, Porto and Viseu.
e • d 
Rank City name Population Metropolitan area Population Subregion Population
1 Lisbon 564,657 G.M.A. of Lisbon 2,661,850 Grande Lisboa 2,003,580
2 Porto 263,131 G.M.A. of Porto 1,679,854 Grande Porto 1,572,176
3 Vila Nova de Gaia 178,255 G.M.A. of Porto Grande Porto
4 Amadora 175,872 G.M.A. of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
5 Braga 109,460 G.M.A. of Minho 797,909 Cávado 404,681
6 Almada 101,500 G.M.A. of Lisbon Península de Setúbal
7 Coimbra 101,069 G.M.A. of Coimbra 435,900 Baixo Mondego 340,342
8 Funchal 100,526 N/A* N/A* Madeira 245,806
9 Setúbal 89,303 G.M.A. of Lisbon Península de Setúbal 714,589
10 Agualva-Cacém 81,845 G.M.A. of Lisbon Grande Lisboa
Source of the city populations: INE census, 2001.
* – The Autonomous Region of Madeira is not a Metropolitan Area.


Church and state were formally separated during the Portuguese First Republic (1910–26), a separation reiterated in the Portuguese Constitution of 1976. Portugal is a secular state. Other than the Constitution, the two most important documents relating to religious freedom are the 2001 Religious Freedom Act and the 1940 Concordata (as amended in 1971) between Portugal and the Holy See.
Portuguese society is Roman Catholic. 84.5% of the population are Roman Catholic and 2.2% being other Christian faiths.[22]
Many Portuguese holidays, festivals and traditions have a Christian origin or connotation. Although relations between the Portuguese state and the Roman Catholic Church were generally amiable and stable since the earliest years of the Portuguese nation, their relative power fluctuated. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the church enjoyed both riches and power stemming from its role in the reconquest and its close identification with early Portuguese nationalism and the foundation of the Portuguese educational system, including the first university. The growth of the Portuguese overseas empire made its missionaries important agents of colonization with important roles of evangelization and teaching in all inhabited continents.


Portuguese is the official language of Portugal. Portuguese is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal, from the Galician-Portuguese language. It is derived from the Latin spoken by the romanized Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula around 2000 years ago. In the 15th and 16th centuries, it spread worldwide as Portugal established a colonial and commercial empire (1415–1999).
As a result, nowadays the Portuguese language is also official and spoken in Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, and East Timor. These countries, plus Macau Special Administrative Region (People's Republic of China), make up the Lusosphere, term derived from the ancient Roman province of Lusitania, which currently matches the Portuguese territory south of the Douro river. Mirandese is also recognized as a co-official regional language in some municipalities of northeastern Portugal. It retains fewer than 5,000 speakers in Portugal (a number that can be up to 12,000 if counting second language speakers).


Maia Municipality, in Porto Metropolitan Area, is among the most industrialized municipalities in Portugal.
Portugal's economic development model has been changing from one based on public consumption and public investment to one focused on exports, private investment, and development of the high-tech sector. Business services have overtaken more traditional industries such as textiles, clothing, footwear, cork (of which Portugal is the world's leading producer),[23] wood products and beverages.[24]
The country changed its political regime in 1974 because of the Carnation Revolution, culminating with the end of one of its most notable periods of economic growth, which had started in the 1960s.[25]
View over the Nations' Park, in eastern Lisbon.
Oeiras Municipality, in Lisbon Metropolitan Area, is home of the headquarters of many multinational companies operating in Portugal.
Portugal has a strong tradition in the fisheries sector and is one of the countries with the highest fish consumption per capita.[26]
Travel and tourism will continue to be extremely important for Portugal, with visitor numbers forecast to increase significantly over the next five years. However, there is increasing competition from Eastern European destinations such as Croatia who offer similar attractions to Portugal, and are often cheaper. Portugal must keep its focus on its niche attractions such as health, nature and rural tourism to stay ahead of its competitors.[27]
Most industry, business and finance are concentrated in Lisbon and Porto metropolitan areas. The districts of Aveiro, Braga, Coimbra, and Leiria are the biggest economic centres outside those two main metropolitan areas. Modern non-traditional technology-based industries like aerospace, biotechnology, and software, have been developed in several locations across the country. Alverca, Covilhã,[28] Évora,[29] and Ponte de Sor are the main centres of Portuguese aerospace industry.
The insurance sector has performed well, partly reflecting a rapid deepening of the market in Portugal. While sensitive to various types of market and underwriting risks, both the life and non-life sectors, overall, are estimated to be able to withstand a number of severe shocks, even though the impact on individual insurers varies widely.[30]
The Global Competitiveness Report for 2005, published by the World Economic Forum, placed Portugal's competitiveness in the 22nd position, but the 2008–2009 edition placed Portugal in the 43rd position out of 134 countries and territories.[31] Research about quality of life by the Economist Intelligence Unit's quality of life survey placed Portugal as the country with the 19th-best quality of life in the world for 2005, ahead of other economically and technologically advanced countries like France, Germany, the United Kingdom and South Korea, but 9 places behind its only neighbour, Spain.[32] This is despite the fact that Portugal remains the country with the lowest per capita GDP in Western Europe.[33]
The poor performance of the Portuguese economy was explored in April 2007 by The Economist which described Portugal as "a new sick man of Europe".[34] From 2002 to 2007, the unemployment rate increased by 65% (270,500 unemployed citizens in 2002, 448,600 unemployed citizens in 2007).[35] By early December 2009, unemployment had reached 10.2% – a 23-year record high. In December 2009, ratings agency Standard and Poor's lowered its long-term credit assessment of Portugal to "negative" from "stable," voicing pessimism on the country's structural weaknesses in the economy and weak competitiveness that would hamper growth and the capacity to strengthen its public finances and reduce debt.[36]
Corruption has become an issue of major political and economic significance for the country. Some cases are well known and were widely reported in the media, such as the affairs in several municipalities involving local town hall officials and businesspersons, as well as a number of politicians with wider responsibilities and power.[37][38]
Major State-owned companies include Águas de Portugal (water), Caixa Geral de Depósitos (banking), Comboios de Portugal (railways), CTT (postal services) and Rádio e Televisão de Portugal (media). Publicly owned companies like EDP, Galp, Jerónimo Martins, Millennium bcp, Portugal Telecom and Sonae are among the largest corporations of Portugal by both number of employees and net income. Most of these large companies are listed on the stock exchange. The major stock exchange of Portugal is the Euronext Lisbon which is part of the NYSE Euronext, the first global stock exchange. The PSI-20 is Portugal's most selective and widely known stock index. Portugal's central bank is the Banco de Portugal, which is an integral part of the European System of Central Banks.


Alqueva Dam, Alentejo. A hydroelectric power generation facility which created the largest artificial lake in Western Europe.
In 2006 the world's largest solar power plant began operating in the nation's sunny south while the world's first commercial wave power farm opened in October 2006 in the Norte region. As of 2006, 66% of electricity production was from coal and fuel power plants. A total of 29% was produced by hydroelectrics and 6% by wind energy .[39] In 2008, up to 43% of the electricity consumed in the country had been produced through the renewable energies, even though the hydroelectric production had decreased because of the sever drought that regularly affects the country.[40]


Officially, in 2009 the unemployment increased to 10.2% in the third quarter of 2009.[41] In 2008, about 8% of the people with a degree were unemployed, and a much larger proportion were underemployed.[42] Nearly 60,000 people with an academic degree are unemployed in Portugal.[42] According to Eurostat, Portugal was the 9th poorest country of the 27 member states of the European Union by purchasing power, for the period 2005–2007.[33] The last European survey of workers, published in 2007 and which formed the basis of this 2009 research study showed that Portugal is the 5th European country with lower quality of work.[43]

Science and technology

The headquarters (rectorate) of the University of Porto (UP) – UP is the largest Portuguese university by both number of students and research output.
Scientific and technological research activities in Portugal are mainly conducted within a network of R&D units belonging to public universities and state-managed autonomous research institutions like the INETI – Instituto Nacional de Engenharia, Tecnologia e Inovação and the INRB – Instituto Nacional dos Recursos Biológicos. The funding and management of this research system is mainly conducted under the authority of the Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education (MCTES) itself and the MCTES's Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT). The largest R&D units of the public universities by volume of research grants and peer-reviewed publications, include biosciences research institutions like the Instituto de Medicina Molecular, the Centre for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, the IPATIMUP, and the Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular.
Among the private universities, notable research centers include the Facial Emotion Expression Lab. Internationally notable state-supported research centres in other fields include the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, a joint research effort of both Portugal and Spain. Among the largest non-state-run research institutions in Portugal are the Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência and the Champalimaud Foundation which yearly awards one of the highest monetary prizes of any science prize in the world. .A number of both national and multinational high-tech and industrial companies, are also responsible for research and development projects.^ Levels of entrepreneurship and innovation are healthy, despite low funding for research and development Portugal’s internet infrastructure could be improved as bandwidth and numbers of secure internet servers are both above the global averages.
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^ All this notwithstanding, value added in the service industry is impressive at 72% of GDP, and a high number of royalty receipts means the country is able to capitalise on its intellectual property.
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^ His son Diniz, called the Farmer King because of his encouragement of agriculture, founded the nation's first university (the University of Coimbra) and was responsible for the development of the Portuguese navy.
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One of the oldest learned societies of Portugal is the Sciences Academy of Lisbon.
The Lisbon Oceanarium, the largest aquarium in Europe.
Portugal made agreements with several European scientific organizations aiming at full membership. These include the European Space Agency (ESA), the European Laboratory for Particle Physics (CERN), ITER, and the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Portugal has entered into cooperation agreements with MIT (USA) and other North American institutions to further develop and increase the effectiveness of Portuguese higher education and research.
Portugal has the largest aquarium in Europe, the Lisbon Oceanarium, and have several other notable organizations focused on science-related exhibits and divulgation, like the state agency Ciência Viva, a programme of the Portuguese Ministry of Science and Technology to the promotion of a scientific and technological culture among the Portuguese population,[44] the Science Museum of the University of Coimbra, the National Museum of Natural History at the University of Lisbon, and the Visionarium.
With the emergence and growth of several science parks throughout the world which helped create many thousands of scientific, technological and knowledge-based businesses, Portugal started to develop several[45] science parks across the country. These include the Taguspark (in Oeiras), the Coimbra iParque (in Coimbra), the Madeira Tecnopolo[46] (in Funchal), Sines Tecnopolo[47] (in Sines), Tecmaia[48] (in Maia) and Parkurbis[49] (in Covilhã). Companies locate in the Portuguese science parks to take advantage of a variety of services ranging from financial and legal advice through to marketing and technological support.
The sole Portuguese science-related Laureate, having been awarded the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1949, was Egas Moniz.


Library of the Convent of Mafra.
The tower of the University of Coimbra, Coimbra – the university is one of the oldest in continuous operation in the world.
The educational system is divided into preschool (for those under age 6), basic education (9 years, in three stages, compulsory), secondary education (3 years, till the 12th grade), and higher education (university and polytechnic).
Total adult literacy rate is 95%. Portuguese primary school enrollments are close to 100%. About 35% of college-age students (20 years old) attend one of the country's higher education institutions[50] (compared with 50% in the United States and 35% in the OECD countries). In addition to being a key destination for international students, Portugal is also among the top places of origin for international students. All higher education students, both domestic and international, totaled 380,937 in 2005.
Portuguese universities have existed since 1290. The oldest Portuguese university was first established in Lisbon before moving to Coimbra. The largest university in Portugal is the University of Porto. Universities are usually organized into faculties. Institutes and schools are also common designations for autonomous subdivisions of Portuguese higher education institutions, and are always used in the polytechnical system. The Bologna process has been adopted since 2006 by Portuguese universities and polytechnical institutes. Higher education in state-run educational establishments is provided on a competitive basis, a system of numerus clausus is enforced through a national database on student admissions.


Hospital of São Teotónio, Viseu.
According to the latest Human Development Report, the average Life Expectancy in 2007 was 78.6 years.
The Portuguese health system is characterized by three coexisting systems: the National Health Service (NHS), special social health insurance schemes for certain professions (health subsystems) and voluntary private health insurance. The NHS provides universal coverage. In addition, about 25% of the population is covered by the health subsystems, 10% by private insurance schemes and another 7% by mutual funds.
The Ministry of Health is responsible for developing health policy as well as managing the NHS. Five regional health administrations are in charge of implementing the national health policy objectives, developing guidelines and protocols and supervising health care delivery. Decentralization efforts have aimed at shifting financial and management responsibility to the regional level. In practice, however, the autonomy of regional health administrations over budget setting and spending has been limited to primary care.
The NHS is predominantly funded through general taxation. Employer (including the state) and employee contributions represent the main funding sources of the health subsystems. In addition, direct payments by the patient and voluntary health insurance premiums account for a large proportion of funding.
Similar to the other Eur-A countries, most Portuguese die from noncommunicable diseases. Mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is higher than in the Eurozone, but its two main components, ischaemic heart disease and cerebrovascular disease, display inverse trends compared with the Eur-A, with cerebrovascular disease being the single biggest killer in Portugal (17%). Portuguese people die 12% less often from cancer than in the Eur-A, but mortality is not declining as rapidly as in the Eur-A. Cancer is more frequent among children as well as among women younger than 44 years. Although lung cancer (slowly increasing among women) and breast cancer (decreasing rapidly) are scarcer, cancer of the cervix and the prostate are more frequent. Portugal has the highest mortality rate for diabetes in the Eur-A, with a sharp increase since the late 1980s.
Portugal's infant mortality rate has dropped sharply since the 1980s, when 24 of 1000 newborns died in the first year of life. It is now around 3 deaths per a 1000 newborns. This improvement was mainly due to the decrease in neonatal mortality, from 15.5 to 3.4 per 1000 live births.
People are usually well informed about their health status, the positive and negative effects of their behaviour on their health and their use of health care services. Yet their perceptions of their health can differ from what administrative and examination-based data show about levels of illness within populations. Thus, survey results based on self-reporting at the household level complement other data on health status and the use of services. Only one third of adults rated their health as good or very good in Portugal (Kasmel et al., 2004). This is the lowest of the Eur-A countries reporting and reflects the relatively adverse situation of the country in terms of mortality and selected morbidity.[51]


The Orient Station (Gare do Oriente), Lisbon.
Transportation was seen as a priority in the early 1970s because of the fast growing economy, and again in the 1990s, after the 1974 Carnation Revolution, pushed by the growing use of automobiles and mass consumption. The country has a 68,732 km (42,708 mi) network of roads, of which almost 3,000 km (1,864 mi) are part of a 44 motorways system. Portugal was among the first countries in the world to have a motorway, opened in 1944, linking Lisbon to the National Stadium, the future highway Lisbon-Cascais (now A5). However, although they were later built a few other sections in the 1960 and 1970, only in late 1980 started the construction of motorways in a large scale.
Vasco da Gama Bridge, over the Tagus River, is the longest bridge in Europe.[52][53]
Founded in 1972, Brisa is the largest highway management concessionaire. With 89,015 km2 (34,369 sq mi), Continental Portugal has 3 international airports located near Lisbon, Porto and Faro. The national railway system service is provided by Comboios de Portugal. The major seaports are located in Leixões, Aveiro, Figueira da Foz, Lisbon, Setúbal, Sines and Faro.
The two largest metropolitan areas have subway systems: Lisbon Metro and Metro Sul do Tejo in the Lisbon Metropolitan Area and Porto Metro in the Porto Metropolitan Area, each with more than 35 km (22 mi) of lines. In Portugal, Lisbon tram services have been supplied by the Companhia de Carris de Ferro de Lisboa (Carris), for over a century. In Porto a tram network, of which only a tourist line on the shores of the Douro remain, began construction in 12 September 1895, the first in the Iberian Peninsula. All major cities and towns have their own local urban transport network, as well as taxi services.
Rail transport of passengers and goods is derived using the 2,791 km (1,734 mi) of railway lines currently in service, of which 1,430 km (889 mi) are electrified and about 900 km (559 mi) allow train speeds greater than 120 km/h (75 mph). The railway network is managed by the REFER while the transport of passengers and goods are the responsibility of Caminhos de Ferro Portugueses (CP), both public companies. In 2006 the CP carried 133 million passengers and 9,750,000 t (9,600,000 LT; 10,700,000 ST) of goods.
.Lisbon's geographical position makes it a stopover point for many foreign airlines at airports all over the country.^ A number of foreign airlines also have scheduled stops at Lisbon's international airport.
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^ The Registry's purpose is to register all persons making up the country's population using data enabling their identity to be certified or attested reliably.
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The government decided to build a new airport outside Lisbon, in Alcochete, to replace Lisbon's Portela airport. Currently, the most important airports are in Lisbon, Faro, Porto, Funchal (Madeira), and Ponta Delgada (Azores).


Portugal has developed a specific culture while being influenced by various civilizations that have crossed the Mediterranean and the European continent, or were introduced when it played an active role during the Age of Discovery.
Belém Tower, Lisbon. A UNESCO World Heritage Site and a typical example of Portugal's unique Manueline architecture.
Since the 1990s, Portugal has increased the number of public cultural facilities, in addition to the Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation established in 1956 in Lisbon. These include the Belém Cultural Center in Lisbon, Serralves Foundation and the Casa da Música, both in Porto, as well as new public cultural facilities like municipal libraries and concert halls which were built or renovated in many municipalities across the country.


Traditional architecture is distinctive and include the Manueline, also known as Portuguese late Gothic, a sumptuous, composite Portuguese style of architectural ornamentation of the first decades of the 16th century, incorporating maritime elements and representations of the Portuguese Age of Discovery. Modern Portugal has given the world renowned architects like Eduardo Souto de Moura, Álvaro Siza Vieira and Gonçalo Byrne. Internally, Tomás Taveira is also noteworthy.


Portuguese cinema has a long tradition, reaching back to the birth of the medium in the late 19th century. Portuguese film directors such as Arthur Duarte, António Lopes Ribeiro, Pedro Costa, Manoel de Oliveira, António-Pedro Vasconcelos, João Botelho and Leonel Vieira, are among those that gained notability. Noted Portuguese film actors include Joaquim de Almeida, Maria de Medeiros, Diogo Infante, Soraia Chaves, Vasco Santana, Ribeirinho, and António Silva, among many others.


Luís de Camões, Portuguese poet of the 16th century.
Portuguese literature, one of the earliest Western literatures, developed through text and song. Until 1350, the Portuguese-Galician troubadours spread their literary influence to most of the Iberian Peninsula.[54] Gil Vicente (ca. 1465 – ca. .1536), was one of the founders of both Portuguese and Spanish dramatic traditions.^ By the eighteenth century the landed wealth of the Portuguese church was apparently proportionately greater than that of the Spanish church, amounting to nearly one-third of the cultivated soil in the kingdom.
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^ While total Portuguese trade has increased dramatically over the last 10 years, the U.S. percentage of it--both exports and imports--has declined.

Adventurer and poet Luís de Camões (ca. 1524–1580) wrote the epic poem "Os Lusíadas" (The Lusiads), with Virgil's Aeneid as his main influence. Modern Portuguese poetry is rooted in neoclassic and contemporary styles, as exemplified by Fernando Pessoa (1888–1935). Modern Portuguese literature is represented by authors such as Almeida Garrett, Camilo Castelo Branco, Eça de Queiroz, Sophia de Mello Breyner Andresen and António Lobo Antunes. Particularly popular and distinguished is José Saramago, winner of the 1998 Nobel Prize for literature.


.Portuguese cuisine is diverse.^ Portuguese cuisine is particularly diverse; various recipes of rice, potatoes, bread, meat, sea-food, and fish are the staple foods in the country.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Portuguese consume a lot of dry cod (bacalhau in Portuguese), for which there are hundreds of recipes. There are more than enough bacalhau dishes for each day of the year. Two other popular fish recipes are grilled sardines and caldeirada, a potato-based stew that can be made from several types of different, scrambled fish or meats or even vegetables. Typical Portuguese meat recipes, that may be made out of beef, pork, lamb, or chicken, include cozido à portuguesa, feijoada, frango de churrasco, leitão (roasted piglet) and carne de porco à alentejana.
Typical fast food dishes include the francesinha from Porto, and bifanas (grilled pork) or prego (grilled beef) sandwiches which are well known around the country. The Portuguese art of pastry has its origins in Middle-Ages Catholic monasteries widely spread across the country. These monasteries, using very few ingredients (mostly almonds, flour, eggs and some liquor), managed to create a spectacular wide range of different pastries, of which pastéis de Belém (or pastéis de nata) originally from Lisbon, and ovos-moles from Aveiro are good examples. Portuguese cuisine is very diverse, with different regions having their own traditional dishes. The Portuguese have a cult for good food and throughout the country there are myriad good restaurants and small typical tascas.
Portuguese wines have deserved international recognition since the times of the Roman Empire, which associated Portugal with their god Bacchus. .Today the country is known by wine lovers and its wines have won several international prizes.^ Today the country is known by wine lovers, and its wines had won several international prizes.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Some of the best Portuguese wines are: Vinho Verde, Vinho Alvarinho, Vinho do Douro, Vinho do Alentejo, Vinho do Dão, Vinho da Bairrada and the sweet: Port Wine, Madeira Wine and the Moscatel from Setúbal and Favaios. Port Wine is well known around the world and the most widely known wine type in the world. The Douro wine region is the oldest in the world.


The Fado, painting by Portuguese artist José Malhoa (1855-1933).
Casa da Música, a concert hall in Porto.
Portuguese music encompasses a wide variety of genres. The most renowned is fado, a melancholy urban music, usually associated with the Portuguese guitar and saudade, or longing. Coimbra fado, a unique type of fado, is also noteworthy. Internationally notable performers include Amália Rodrigues, Carlos Paredes, José Afonso, Mariza, Carlos do Carmo, António Chainho, Mísia, and Madredeus. One of the most notable Portuguese musical groups outside the country, and specially in Germany, is the goth-metal band Moonspell.
In addition to fado and folk, the Portuguese listen to pop and other types of modern music, particularly from North America and the United Kingdom, as well as a wide range of Portuguese and Brazilian artists and bands. Bands with international recognition include Blasted Mechanism and The Gift, both of which were nominated for an MTV Europe Music Award.
Portugal has several summer music festivals, such as Festival Sudoeste in Zambujeira do Mar, Festival de Paredes de Coura in Paredes de Coura, Festival Vilar de Mouros near Caminha, and Optimus Alive!, Rock in Rio Lisboa and Super Bock Super Rock in Greater Lisbon. .Out of the summer season, Portugal has a large number of festivals, designed more to an urban audience, like Flowfest or Hip Hop Porto.^ Currently, mainstream music in Portugal is in a rural and urban duality where the Portuguese pop-rock and hip hop tuga (a mixture of hip-hop, African music and Reggae, primarily performed by African-Portuguese) are popular with the younger and urban population, while pimba (a simple and cheery variety of folk music) and folklore are more popular in the rural areas.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He's got two sites I anxious to check out in more detail and add to my Links to Portugal list in the sidebar.

^ Since the dawn of Portugal's foundation that their founder and people have used a number of curse words and insults that have lived trough out the ages and still are a part of their culturality.
  • Portugal - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Furthermore, one of the largest international Goa trance festivals takes place in central Portugal every two years, and the student festivals of Queima das Fitas are major events in a number of cities across Portugal. In 2005, Portugal held the MTV Europe Music Awards, in Pavilhão Atlântico, Lisbon.
Fandango is one of the most popular regional dances.
In the Classical music domain, Portugal is represented by names as the pianist Artur Pizarro, Maria João Pires, Sequeira Costa, and in the past by the great cellist Guilhermina Suggia. Notable composers include José Vianna da Motta, Carlos Seixas, João Domingos Bomtempo, João de Sousa Carvalho, Luís de Freitas Branco and his student Joly Braga Santos, Fernando Lopes-Graça, Emmanuel Nunes and Sérgio Azevedo.


It has also a rich history as far as painting is concerned. The first well-known painters date back to the XV century – like Nuno Gonçalves – were part of the Gothic painting period. José Malhoa, known for his work Fado, and Columbano Bordalo Pinheiro (who painted the portraits of Teófilo Braga and Antero de Quental) were both references in naturalist painting.
The 20th century saw the arrival of Modernism, and along with it came the most prominent Portuguese painters: Amadeo de Souza-Cardoso, who was heavily influenced by French painters, particularly by the Delaunays. Among his best known works is Canção Popular a Russa e o Fígaro. Another great modernist painter/writer was Almada Negreiros, friend to the poet Fernando Pessoa, who painted his (Pessoa's) portrait. He was deeply influenced by both Cubist and Futurist trends. Prominent international figures in visual arts nowadays include painters Vieira da Silva, Júlio Pomar, and Paula Rego.


Opening ceremony of the UEFA Euro 2004, at Estádio do Dragão, Porto.
Football (soccer) is the most popular and played sport. There are several football competitions ranging from local amateur to world-class professional level. The legendary Eusébio is still a major symbol of Portuguese football history. FIFA World Player of the Year winners Luís Figo and Cristiano Ronaldo, are among the numerous examples of other world-class football (soccer) players born in Portugal and noted worldwide. Portuguese football managers are also noteworthy, with José Mourinho and Manuel José among the most renowned.
The Portuguese national teams, have titles in the FIFA World Youth Championship and in the UEFA youth championships. The main national team – Selecção Nacional – finished second in Euro 2004 (held in Portugal), reached the third place in the 1966 FIFA World Cup, and reached the fourth place in the 2006 FIFA World Cup, their best results in major competitions to date.
Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Futebol Clube do Porto, and Sporting Clube de Portugal are the largest sports clubs by popularity and in terms of trophies won, often known as "os três grandes" ("the big three"). They have 12 titles won in the European UEFA club competitions, were present in many finals and have been regular contenders in the last stages almost every season. Other than football, many Portuguese sports clubs, including the "big three", compete in several other sports events with a varying level of success and popularity, these may include basketball, futsal, handball, and volleyball.
Pavilhão Atlântico (Atlantic Pavilion), an indoor sports venue and concert hall in Lisbon.
Portugal has a successful rink hockey team, with 15 world titles and 20 European titles, making it the country with the most wins in both competitions. The most successful Portuguese rink hockey clubs in the history of European championships are Futebol Clube do Porto, Sport Lisboa e Benfica and Óquei de Barcelos. The national rugby union team made a dramatic qualification into the 2007 Rugby World Cup and became the first all amateur team to qualify for the World Cup since the dawn of the professional era. The Portuguese national rugby sevens team has performed well, becoming one of the strongest teams in Europe, and proved their status as European champions in several occasions.
Surfing and Body Boarding are very popular in Portugal. In the picture the World Surfing Championships being held in Madeira.
In athletics, the Portuguese have won a number of gold, silver and bronze medals in the European, World and Olympic Games competitions. Cycling, with Volta a Portugal being the most important race, is also a popular sports event and include professional cycling teams such as Sport Lisboa e Benfica, Boavista, Clube de Ciclismo de Tavira, and União Ciclista da Maia. The country has also achieved notable performances in sports like fencing, judo, kitesurf, rowing, sailing, surfing, shooting, triathlon and windsurf, owning several European and world titles. The paralympic athletes have also conquered many medals in sports like swimming, boccia and wrestling.
In motor sport, Portugal is internationally noted for the Rally of Portugal, and both the Estoril and Algarve Circuits, whilst Tiago Monteiro is a successful Portuguese racing driver, having competed in the Champ Car World Series in the USA, Formula One between 2005 and 2006, and most recently the World Touring Car Championship.
Northern Portugal has its own original martial art, Jogo do Pau, in which the fighters use staffs to confront one or several opponents.
In equestrian sports, Portugal won the only Horseball-Pato World Championship (in 2006), achieved the third position in First Horseball World Cup (organized in Ponte de Lima, Portugal, in 2008), achieved several victories in the Working Equitation European Cup.

International rankings

Organization Survey Ranking
Institute for Economics and Peace Global Peace Index[55] 14 out of 144
United Nations Development Programme Human Development Index 34 out of 182
Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 35 out of 180
World Economic Forum Global Competitiveness Report 43 out of 133

See also


  1. ^ a b INE, Statistics Portugal
  2. ^ a b c d "Portugal". International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 2009-10-01. 
  3. ^ The Euromosaic study, Mirandese in Portugal, – European Commission website. Retrieved January 2007.
  4. ^ (Portuguese) Portal do Governo
  5. ^ Appendix B – International Organizations and Groups: developed countries (DCs), CIA — The World Factbook — Appendix B, The World Factbook
  6. ^ Milhazes, José. Os antepassados caucasianos dos portuguesesRádio e Televisão de Portugal in Portuguese.
  7. ^ Black Death, Great Moments in Science, ABC Science
  8. ^ The standard view of historians is that Cabral was blown off course as he was navigating the currents of the South Atlantic, sighted the coast of South America, thereby accidentally discovering Brazil. For an account of an alternative view of the discovery of Brazil, however, see Alternative theory of the European discovery of Brazil
  9. ^ Map proves Portuguese discovered Australia: new book, in Reuters (Wed Mar 21, 2007) – (see Theory of Portuguese discovery of Australia)
  10. ^ Macau Handover Ceremony – 1999,
  11. ^ Flight from Angola, The Economist (August 16, 1975).
  12. ^ Dismantling the Portuguese Empire, Time Magazine (Monday, July 07, 1975).
  13. ^ [1]
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ "Instituto de Meteorologia, IP Portugal". Retrieved 2010-01-27. 
  16. ^ "Districts of Portugal". Retrieved 2008-10-06. 
  17. ^ "Portugal". The Virtual Jewish History Tour.
  18. ^ Portugal – Emigration
  19. ^ "Portugal sees integration progress", BBC News, November 14, 2005
  20. ^ "Brasileiros são a maior colónia estrangeira em Portugal". Embaixada de Portugal No Brasil. 
  21. ^ Etnia cigana. A mais discriminada, (Expresso-05.04.2008)
  22. ^ "CIA — The World Factbook – Portugal". 17 January 2009. 
  23. ^ Grande Enciclopédia Universal, p. 10543, "Portugal", para. 4
  24. ^ Investing in Portugal Report, Financial Times
  25. ^ (Portuguese) Fundação da SEDES – As primeiras motivações, "Nos anos 60 e até 1973 teve lugar, provavelmente, o mais rápido período de crescimento económico da nossa História, traduzido na industrialização, na expansão do turismo, no comércio com a EFTA, no desenvolvimento dos sectores financeiros, investimento estrangeiro e grandes projectos de infra-estruturas. Em consequência, os indicadores de rendimentos e consumo acompanham essa evolução, reforçados ainda pelas remessas de emigrantes.", SEDES
  26. ^ (Portuguese) PESSOA, M.F.; MENDES, B.; OLIVEIRA, J.S. CULTURAS MARINHAS EM PORTUGAL, "O consumo médio anual em produtos do mar pela população portuguesa, estima-se em cerca de 58,5 kg/ por habitante sendo, por isso, o maior consumidor em produtos marinhos da Europa e um dos quatro países a nível mundial com uma dieta à base de produtos do mar."
  27. ^ [3], Euromonitor International
  28. ^ (Portuguese) Covilhã: Aleia vai montar avião até agora vendido em kit e jactos portugueses em 2011, 14th April 2008
  29. ^ (Portuguese) Évora aprova isenções fiscais aos projectos da Embraer, Diário Digital (22nd August 2008)
  30. ^ Portugal: Financial System Stability Assessment, including Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes on the following topics: Banking Supervision, Securities Regulation, and Insurance Regulation, IMF, (October 2006)
  31. ^ "The Global Competitiveness Index rankings". World Economic Forum. Retrieved 2009-03-20. 
  32. ^
  33. ^ a b (Portuguese) Portugueses perderam poder de compra entre 2005 e 2007 e estão na cauda da Zona Euro, Público (December 11, 2008)
  34. ^ "A new sick man of Europe", The Economist, 2007-04-14.
  35. ^ Luis Miguel Mota, População desempregada aumentou 65% em cinco anos, (6th June 2008)
  36. ^ Standard and Poor's pessimistic on Portugal, Agence France-Presse (December 7, 2009)
  37. ^ Eurojust chief embroiled in Portuguese corruption scandal, (May 13, 2009)
  38. ^ People & Power, Al Jazeera, Al Jazeera (March 2008)
  39. ^ "IEA Energy Statistics: Portugal". International Energy Agency. 2006. Retrieved 2009-04-07. 
  40. ^ Staff (2009-04-08). "Fontes renováveis originaram 43% da electricidade consumida" (in Portuguese). Diário Digital. Retrieved 2009-04-17. 
  41. ^ (Portuguese) Taxa de desemprego desce para 7,3 por cento no segundo trimestre, Público (14th August 2008)
  42. ^ a b (Portuguese) Licenciados desempregados mais do que duplicaram desde 2002, Diário Digital (19th February 2008)
  43. ^ (Portuguese) Portugal é um dos países com pior qualidade de emprego, (May 28, 2009).
  44. ^ Ciência Viva
  45. ^ Tecparques – Associação Portuguesa de Parques de Ciência e Tecnologia
  46. ^ Madeira Tecnopolo
  47. ^ Sines Tecnopolo
  48. ^ Tecmaia
  49. ^ Parque de Ciência e Tecnologia da Covilhã (Parkurbis)
  50. ^ (Portuguese) Um Contrato de confiança no Ensino Superior para o futuro de Portugal, Government of Portugal official site
  51. ^ see
  52. ^
  53. ^ Curious? Read
  54. ^ Poesia e Prosa Medievais, p. 9, para. 4
  55. ^ "Vision of Humanity". Vision of Humanity. Retrieved 2010-02-04. 


  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal I — A Formação do Território QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-106-6)
  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal II — A Afirmação do País QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-107-4)
  • de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal III — A Epopeia dos Descobrimentos QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-108-2)
  • de Macedo, Newton & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal IV — Glória e Declínio do Império QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-109-0)
  • Ribeiro, Ângelo & Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal V — A Restauração da Indepêndencia QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-110-4)
  • Saraiva, José Hermano História de Portugal X — A Terceira República QuidNovi, 2004 (ISBN 989-554-115-5)
  • Loução, Paulo Alexandre: Portugal, Terra de Mistérios Ésquilo, 2000 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-04-8)
  • Muñoz, Mauricio Pasto: Viriato, A Luta pela Liberdade Ésquilo, 2003 (third edition; ISBN 972-8605-23-4)
  • Grande Enciclopédia Universal Durclub, 2004
  • Constituição da República Portuguesa, VI Revisão Constitucional, 2004
  • Programa do Movimento das Forças Armadas, 1974

External links

General information

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Iberia : Portugal
Quick Facts
Capital Lisbon
Government parliamentary democracy
Currency euro (EUR)
Area 92,391 sq km
Population 10,084,245 (July 2002 est.)
Language Portuguese
Religion Roman Catholic 84%, Protestant
Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +351
Internet TLD .pt
Time Zone UTC
Portugal [1], in Southern Europe, shares the Iberian peninsula at the western tip of Europe with Spain. Geographically and culturally somewhat isolated from its neighbor, Portugal has a rich, unique culture, lively cities and beautiful countryside. Although it was once one of the poorest countries in Western Europe, the end of dictatorship and introduction of Democracy in 1974, as well as its incorporation into the European Union in 1986, has meant significantly increased prosperity. However it may be one of the best value destinations on the Continent. This is because the country offers outstanding landscape diversity, due to its North-South disposition along the western shore of the Iberian peninsula. You can travel in a single day from green mountains in the North, covered with vines and all varieties of trees to rocky mountains, with spectacular slopes and falls in the Centre, to a near-desert landscape in the Alentejo region and finally to the glamorous beach holidays destination Algarve. The climate, combined with investments in the golfing infrastructure in recent years, has also turned the country into a golfing haven. Portugal was recently named "Best Golf Destination 2008" by readers of Golfers Today, a British publication. Fourteen of Portugal's courses are rated in the top 100 best in Europe. If you want a condensed view of European landscapes, culture and way of life, Portugal might very well fit the bill.
Map of Portugal
Map of Portugal

Mainland Portugal

If you plan to have restful, quiet holidays, do not go to the Algarve (in Southern Portugal the Alentejo is fine year around) during the high season (roughly mid-July to mid-September), when facilities are packed.

Autonomous Islands

  • Lisbon (Lisboa) - national capital, city of the seven hills
  • Aveiro - the "Venice" of Portugal
  • Braga - city of Archbishops
  • Coimbra - home of the ninth oldest university in the world.
  • Évora - "Museum City", Alentejo regional capital
  • Funchal - the capital of Madeira
  • Guimarães - the founding place of the nation
  • Porto (Oporto) - the northern capital, "Invincible City", along the river Douro and the Atlantic Ocean
  • Tomar - Templar city
  • Viseu - In the heart of Portugal (No Coração de Portugal)


Portugal is 900 years old, and even though it has a relatively small area, it played a crucial role in world history. During XV and XVI century Portugal started a major chapter in world history with the New World Discoveries ("Descobrimentos"). It established a sea route to India, and colonized areas in Africa (Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde...), South America (Brazil), Asia (Macau,...), and Oceania (East-Timor,...) creating an empire. The Portuguese language continues to be the biggest connection between these countries.
In 1910, the Republic was established, abolishing the Monarchy. However, this Republic was fragile and a military dictatorship was implemented, which lasted for 40 years, plunging the country into a marked stagnation. In 1974, Portugal became a free democracy, and in 1986 it joined the current European Union, quickly approaching European standards of development.


Portugal is one of the warmest European countries. In mainland Portugal, yearly temperature averages are about 15°C (55°F) in the north and 18°C (64°F) in the south. Madeira and Azores have a narrower temperature range as expected given their insularity, with the former having low precipitation in most of the archipelago and the latter being wet and rainy. Spring and Summer months are usually sunny and temperature maximum are very high during July and August, with maximums averaging between 35°C and 40°C (86°F - 95°F) in the interior of the country, 30°C and 35°C in the north, and occasionally reaching 45°C (113°F) in the south. Autumn and Winter are typically rainy and windy, yet sunny days are not rare either. Temperatures rarely fall below 5°C (41°F) nearer to the sea, averaging 10°C (50°F), but can reach several degrees below 0°C (32°F) further inland. Snow is common in winter in the mountainous areas of the north, especially in Serra da Estrela but melts quickly once the season is over. Portugal's climate can be classified as Mediterranean (particularly the southern parts of the Algarve and Alentejo, though technically on Atlantic shore).

Get in

Portugal is a member of the Schengen Agreement. For EU, EEA (Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway) or Swiss citizens, an officially approved ID card (or a passport) is sufficient for entry. In no case will they need a visa for a stay of any length. Others will generally need a passport for entry.
There are no border controls between countries that have signed and implemented the treaty - the European Union (except Bulgaria, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Norway and Switzerland. Likewise, a visa granted for any Schengen member is valid in all other countries that have signed and implemented the treaty. But be careful: Not all EU members have signed the Schengen treaty, and not all Schengen members are part of the European Union.
Airports in Europe are thus divided into "Schengen" and "non-Schengen" sections, which effectively act like "domestic" and "international" sections elsewhere. If you are flying from outside Europe into one Schengen country and continuing to another, you will clear Immigration and Customs at the first country and then continue to your destination with no further checks. Travel between a Schengen member and a non-Schengen country will result in the normal border checks. Note that regardless of whether you travelling within the Schengen area or not, some airlines will still insist on seeing your ID card or passport.
Keep in mind that the counter begins once you enter any country in the Schengen Area and is not reset by leaving a specific Schengen country for another Schengen country, or vice-versa.
As of January 2010 only the citizens of the following non-EU/EEA/Swiss countries do not need a visa for entry into the Schengen Area; note that they must not stay longer than three months in half a year and must not work while in the EU: Andorra, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia, Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Brazil, Brunei, Canada, Chile, Costa Rica, Croatia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Israel, Japan, Macedonia*, Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Monaco, Montenegro*, New Zealand, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, San Marino, Serbia*/**, Seychelles, Singapore, South Korea, United States, Uruguay, Vatican City, Venezuela, additionally persons holding British National (Overseas), Hong Kong SAR or Macau SAR passports.
Note that
  • while British subjects with the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British Overseas Territories citizens connected to Gibraltar are considered "United Kingdom nationals for European Union purposes" and therefore eligible for unlimited access to the Schengen Area,
  • British Overseas Territories citizens without the right of abode in the United Kingdom and British subjects without the right of abode in the United Kingdom as well as British Overseas citizens and British protected persons in general do require visas.
However, all British Overseas Territories citizens except those solely connected to the Cyprus Sovereign Base Areas are eligible for British citizenship and thereafter unlimited access to the Schengen Area.
Further note that
(*) Macedonian, Montenegrin and Serbian citizens need a biometric passport to enjoy visa-free travel and
(**) Serbian citizens with passports issued by the Serbian Coordination Directorate (Serbs residing in Kosovo) still do need a visa.

By plane

Almost all major airlines fly to Portugal (British Airways, Air France, Lufthansa), besides the country's own TAP Portugal. However, there are some cheap fares to be had from the no-frills airlines, like Aer Lingus, Monarch, easyJet, Ryanair and Vueling who have recently started flying to Lisbon (LIS), Porto (OPO) and Faro (FAO) at good prices. There are three international airports in the mainland: Lisbon/Portela (in the north of the city, and not far from the centre),near Loures; Porto/Pedras Rubras/Sá Carneiro (also north of the city and relatively close to it), in Maia; and Faro, in the Algarve.
The Madeira and Azores Islands also have international airports, Madeira/Funchal(FNC); Ponta Delgada (PDL)(São Miguel island).
From the United States, US Airways [2] offers many flights to Portugal via Philadelphia, SATA INT./AIR AZORES, from Boston, and Providence(seasonally), TAP Portugal and Continental from Newark.

By train

Trains reach most larger cities from Lisbon to Porto,Braga,Aveiro,Coimbra,Evora,Faro. Lisbon is connected to Madrid, Spain; Porto to VigoSpain; Vilar Formoso to Spain, France and the rest of Europe. In the South it is not possible to enter Portugal from Spain. There are no train connections from i.e. Sevilla to Faro. The only option is to use buses, there are many. Southeast Portugal is connected by international train (linha do Leste and linha de Caceres) [Elvas/Caia,Portugal & Bagajoz,Spain] or [Marvao-Beira, Portugal & Valencia de Alcantara, Spain.] For more information, contact: CP [3], Portuguese Railways.
  • Spain/Portugal: ALSA [4] and Auto Res [5]
  • Oporto/Portugal: Porto Airport Taxi
  • Lisbon/Portugal: Lisbon Airport Taxi
  • Also from Madrid/Paris: Aníbal [6]

By boat

The country is served by numerous sea ports that receive a lot of foreign traffic, mostly merchant but also passengers boats (mainly cruisers).

Get around

Rail travel in Portugal is usually slightly faster than travel by bus, but services are less frequent and cost more. The immediate areas surrounding Lisbon and Porto are reasonably well-served by suburban rail services.
The rail connections between the main line of Portugal, i.e. between Braga and Faro are good. The Alfa-Pendular (fast) trains are comfortable, first class is excellent. The Alfa-Pendular train stops only at main cities stations and often requires advance reservations,(recommended) between Braga, Porto, Gaia, Aveiro, Coimbra, Lisbon and Faro.
Intercity trains will take you to further destinations, specially in the interior, such as Évora, Beja and Guarda.
By bus: Unfortunately the rail network is limited, so you may find yourself busing about to get anywhere off the beaten path. Rede Expresso [7] is one of the largest inter-city bus companies.
Lisbon and Porto, the two largest urban cities, have a clean modern and air-conditioned metro systems (underground/subway and light railway).
Road traffic in Lisbon and Porto is pretty congested all day round and gets completely stuck in the rush hours, at least in the main roads to exit or enter the city. Car travel is the most convenient or only method to reach areas outside the main cities, however (car rental is not too expensive, but the associated insurance is - unless you book the total package abroad). Heed the advice about the quality of some people's driving skills mentioned above.
Generally speaking, Portugal is not a good country for hitchhiking. In the deserted country roads in the South, you might wait for many hours before you are offered a ride. Try to speak with people on gas stations or parking lots etc. Drivers tend to be suspicious, but when you show them that they should not be afraid, they will probably accept you and mostly also show their genorosity. Try to look neat and clean. The hippy style will get you nowhere. As everywhere in the world, two males hitchiking together will not get a ride from anyone.

By car

Roads are generally good, and you can reach almost all major cities with ease, either by motorway or by good, modern roads. The biggest cities are well served by modern highways (most have tolls), and you can travel the full North-South length of the country without ever leaving the highway, if you choose to.
However, some secondary roads are ill-treated and may be dangerous if proper care is not taken. Also, Portuguese driving can seem erratic and, frankly, scary to the uninitiated. The country shares with most southern european countries something that the successive Portuguese governments have been trying to fight: terrible road behaviour from some drivers. In order to fight this, road laws changed recently in order to punish with great severity speeding, driving without license, driving under the influence of alcohol or narcotics, etc.
The motorways with the most reckless driving are those 50 km around Lisbon or Porto, the A1 and A2 and the Algarve.
(From someone on a motor touring holiday in late 2006: The most obvious bit of selfish driving is overtaking. You can be on a 2-lane toll highway and be unable to see any other traffic except the car you're overtaking at 30 kph over the speed limit and the car about 6 feet from your back end flashing its headlights to get past you. "Letting on" manners when slip roads come on to fast roads are also pretty poor. On other roads, you'll get used to two classic Portuguese experiences: suicidal overtaking attempts and the resultant absurdly overdone signs indicating when you can and can't overtake - sometimes all of 5 yards apart, and the "penalty stop" traffic light as you enter the 50 kph zone in each small town, with camera to decide whether you're over the speed limit. Rather absurdly, once you're through this, you can go as fast as you like - we never saw a second penalty stop signal. Someone really should add up the cost of all the no-overtaking signs and tell Portuguese drivers how many they must be paying for each.)
It is probably unwise for those unfamiliar with Portuguese driving to try to drive in Lisbon or Porto - be aware if you do that city drivers give no quarter and have limited respect for lane markings (where lane markings exists!). If you do want to try, choose a weekend or an hour outside the rush hour periods. These are early mornings (8AM - 9.30AM) and late afternoons (5PM - 7.30PM). Other Portuguese cities are much better, but often have very narrow roads.
Toll highways: Portugal has a unified electronic toll paying system - it's usually on the one or two left most lanes of the toll booths, marked with a green "V" (Via Verde - "Green Lane"). As most foreign travelers don't subscribe to the system, pay the toll to a person in a booth (cash and most debit and credit cards accepted). If you by chance get distracted and go through the Via Verde lane, you have 48 hours to go to a Via Verde office [8], phone 707 500 900 (8:30am-8:30pm), and pay the toll without a fine.


The official language of Portugal is Portuguese. Portuguese is today one of the world's major languages, ranked 6th according to number of native speakers (approximately 240 million). It is the language with the largest number of speakers in South America, spoken by almost all of Brazil's population. It is also the official language in Angola, Mozambique, Cape Verde, São Tomé and Príncipe, Guinea-Bissau, East Timor and Macau.
Portuguese is a Romance Language. Although it may be mutually intelligible with Spanish to a wide extent, with about 90% of lexical similiarity (both in vocabulary and grammar), it is far from identical. Portuguese are proud people and are uneasy when foreigners from non-Spanish speaking countries speak that language when traveling in Portugal. While many words may be spelt almost the same as in Spanish (or Italian), the pronunciation differs considerably. This is because Portuguese has several nasal diphthongs not present in those languages. Spanish is widely understodd, but it's not always the best language to use unless you're from a Spanish-speaking country.
It is also worth mentioning that pronunciation in Portugal differs significantly from that in Brazil. The difference is basically in pronunciation and a few vocabulary differences, which make it tricky even for Brazilians to understand the European Portuguese accent, although not vice versa because Brazilian pop culture (soap opera and pop music, for instance) is very popular in Portugal. Nevertheless, the current media has made these difficulties in understanding each others accent irrelevant.
English is spoken in many tourist areas, but it is far from ubiquitous. Portuguese often watch American movies with the original English soundtrack and Portuguese subtitles so many are quite well versed with English due to this exposure. Younger Portuguese will speak at least some English, and many speak English fluently due to English classes in school. In the main tourist areas you will almost always find someone who can speak the main European languages. Hotel personnel are required to speak English, even if sketchily. French has almost disappeared as a second language, except possibly amonng older people. German or Spanish speakers are rare. Approximately 32% of Portuguese people can speak and understand English, while 24% can speak and understand French. Despite Spanish being mutually intelligible in a sense that most Portuguese understand it written and/or spoken, only 9% of the Portuguese population can speak it fluently. If you're a Spanish speaker, chances are you'll understand each other very well without a translator for the most part.
Portuguese people are of generally excellent humor when they are talking with someone who cannot speak their language. This means that all types of shop owners, sales-folk, and people curious about you will take time to try to carve out any means of communication, often with funny and unexpected results. Helping a foreigner is considered a pleasant and rewarding occasion and experience. If you attempt to speak correct Portuguese, especially if slightly beyond the trivial, with locals, you will be treated with respect and often the locals will apologize for how "difficult" it is to learn Portuguese, or how "hard" the language is, and will almost adopt you. This might encourage travelers to learn the very basics of Portuguese, such as daily greetings and the routine "please-thank you" exchanges.
In Miranda do Douro, a town in the North East, and its vicinity some people speak a regional language called Mirandese, in addition to Portuguese, although rarely in front of people they do not know.


If you are into visiting beautiful monuments and enjoy remarkable views, then Lisbon, Sintra, and Porto are the top three places, and all of them are well worth a visit. But don't overlook Viana do Castelo, Braga, Guimarães, Coimbra, Tomar, Aveiro, Amarante, Braga, Bragança, Chaves, Lamego, Viseu, Vila Real, Lagos, Silves, Évora, Angra as they also have wonderful monuments and places of interest.
The most popular beaches are in the Algarve, which has stunning coastlines and gobs of natural beauty. The water along the southern coast tends to be warmer and calmer than the water along the west coast, which is definitely Atlantic and doesn't benefit of the Gulf Stream. For surfing, or just playing in the surf there are great beaches all along the west coast, near Lisbon and Peniche.
For nightlife Lisbon, Porto and Albufeira, Algarve are the best choices as you have major places of entertainment.
If you want to spend your holidays in the countryside, you might want to visit Viana do Castelo, Chaves, Miranda do Douro, Douro Valley, Lamego, Tomar, Leiria, Castelo Branco, Guarda, Portalegre, Évora, Elvas or even Viseu.
And even if you wish to observe wild life in its natural state, Madeira and Azores Islands are places to remember, not forgetting of course the Natural Reserve of Peneda-Gerês, the Douro Valley and Serra da Estrela.


Beaches: Surrounded by sea in almost its entirety, the Portuguese beaches are well worth visiting. A lot of activities are offered, from surfing, to kite-surfing, and during the summer months the most frequented beaches offer sand based activities such as aerobics. If you're not the type of breaking into a sweat during holidays, almost every single public beach will have a bar where locals sit. Some of the most popular beaches are (from north to south):
  • Espinho, near Oporto, in Costa Verde/Green Coast, northern region.
  • Figueira da Foz, near Coimbra, in Silver Coast/Costa de Prata, central region.
  • Peniche
  • Praia das Maçãs and Praia Grande[Sintra], Carcavelos and Estoril[Cascais], near Lisbon, in the Costa de Lisboa.
  • Zambujeira do Mar, in the Alentejo region/Costa Alentejana e Vicentina.
  • Salema, Praia da Rocha, in the Algarve.
Golf: The climate, combined with investments in the golfing infrastructure in recent years, has turned the country into a golfing haven. Portugal was recently named "Best Golf Destination 2006" by readers of Golfers Today, a British publication. Fourteen of Portugal's courses are rated in the top 100 best in Europe. Portugal is also a great location to learn the game and perfect technique. Many resorts offer classes with the pros. Courses can satisfy the most demanding golfer, while newcomers won't be intimidated, unless they find the beautiful landscapes and stunning vistas distracting to their game. Locals have mixed feelings about golf courses, namely due to the huge amounts of water required to maintain them and their apparent pointlessness.
The countryside also offers a great deal of possibilities, although you will have to incite the travel agent's advice a little more than usual, as they tend to just sell beach holidays. Cycling through the mountainous terrain of Geres or white-water rafting in the affluents of river Douro is an exhilirating experience.


There are several Fairs, specially in the Summer months, particularly in Northern Portugal. During the summer, music festivals are also very common. In the north of the country two of the oldest festivals such as Paredes de Coura and Vilar de Mouros. The regions chosen for the festivals are most of the time surrounded by beautiful landscapes and pleasant villages. In the south, the most famous one is Festival do Sudoeste, in the west part of the south cost with a summer landscape and never ending beaches.
Major events of the year are listed at tourist board's official site, [9].


Currency, ATMS, Exchange

Portugal is part of the Eurozone and uses the euro as its currency (symbol: ). ATMs accepting international cards can be found everywhere, and currency conversion booths spring up wherever there is a steady flow of tourists (although the closer they are to tourist attractions, the worse the rates they offer).


In smaller (non-high-street) shops you can try some haggling, especially if you offer to buy multiple items. You might want to check your change, though: although not a widespread practice, some shopkeepers might "accidentally" overcharge tourists.


Tipping in restaurants is optional - if you are not too happy with the service, don't tip. 10% is a good value tip, although most people would just round up the total bill to the next euro. In expensive restaurants tipping is expected and the percentage is about the same as it is in the US, 10-15%, the difference being that you will not be too frown upon if you do not tip. Keep in mind that whilst tipping, many Portuguese just simply leave the coin portion of their change, not considering actual percentages. Waiters are viewed as professionals in Portugal. A 'tip' is considered a note of appreciation, not a means to make up for a tiny salary.
If at all, a taxi driver should be tipped 10%, less could be seen as being offensive.

What to buy

Designer clothes Altough not widely known internationally, Portugal has several independent fashion designers. The list includes: Fátima Lopes [10], Maria Gambina [11]. Some of them have dedicated shops in Lisbon.
Regional specials Dolls in Nazaré.


This is potentially the most varied experience to have in the country and is clearly a favorite local hobby.
Portuguese cuisine evolved from hearty peasant food drawn from the land, the seafood of the country's abundant coast and the cows, pigs and goats raised on the limited grazing land of its interior. From these humble origins, spices brought back to the country during the exploration and colonisation of the East Indies and the Far East helped shape what is regarded as 'typical' Portuguese cuisine which, conversely, also helped shape the cuisine in the regions under Portuguese influence, from Cape Verde to Japan.
Soup is the essential first course of any Portuguese meal. The most popular is the Minho specialty, caldo verde, made from kale, potatoes and spiced, smoked sausage. It's here in the Minho that you can sample the best vinho verde, which rarely is bottled. In many places, especially near the seashore, you can have a delightful and always varied fish soup, sometimes so thick it has to be eaten with the help of a fork.
You will see another Portuguese staple bacalhau (dried codfish) everywhere. Locals will tell you that there are as many ways to cook this revered dish as there are days in the year, or even more.
The most common of Portugal's delicious fish (peixe) dishes revolve around sole (linguado) and sardines (sardinha) although salmon (salmão) and trout (truta) are also featured heavily, not mentioning the more traditional mackerel (carapau), whiting (pescada), rock bass (robalo), frog fish (tamboril) and a variety of turbot (cherne). These are boiled, fried, grilled or served in a variety of sauces.
There are many varieties of rice-based specialties, such as frog fish rice, octopus rice, duck rice and seafood rice.
In most places you will easily find fresh seafood: lobster (lagosta), lavagante, mussel (mexilhão), oysters (ostras), clam (amêijoas), goose barnacle (perceves).
Depending on how touristic the area you are in, you'll see grills, thick with the smoke of charring meat, in front of many restaurants during your stay. Other than traditional sardines, Portuguese grilled chicken -- marinated in chilli, garlic and olive oil -- is world famous, although people tired of tasteless industrial poultry farm produce might opt for a tasty veal cutlet (costeleta de novilho) instead, or simply grilled pork.
In the North, you can find many manners of kid, and in the Alentejo, lamb ensopado and many types of pork meat, including the tastier black pork; the best considered parts of pork being the secretos and the plumas. In the Alentejo, you are likely to be served pork instead of veal if you ask for the ubiquitous bitoque (small fried beef, fried potatoes, egg). A widely found traditional dish is pork and clam, Carne de Porco à Alentejana, as well as fried, bread-covered cuttlefish slices (tiras de choco frito). Sometimes you can also find wild boar dishes.
Definitely a major specialty is Mealhada's (near Coimbra) suckling pig roast (leitão) with the local sparkling wine and bread. Much like the pastel de nata, you shouldn't miss it.
Vegetarians may have a tough time of it in Portugal, at least in traditional Portuguese restaurants. In most restaurants, vegetables (usually boiled or fried potatoes) are simply a garnish to the main meat dish. Even 'vegetarian' salads and dishes may just substitute tuna (which locals don't seem to regard as a 'meat') for ham or sausage. Usually, a salad is just lettuce and tomato with salt, vinegar and olive oil. However, the Portuguese really like their choose-5-items salad bars, and restaurants serving Indian, Chinese, Mexican, or Italian fare can be found in most cities. At any rate, just mention you're vegetarian, and something can be found that meets your preference although in the long run you might be unable to thrive on it.
In many Portuguese restaurants, if you order a salad it will come sprinkled with salt - if you are watching your salt intake, or just do not like this idea, you can ask for it "sem sal" (without salt) or more radically "sem tempêro" (no conditioning).
A few restaurants, particularly in non-tourist areas, do not have a menu; you have to go in and ask and they will list a few items for you to choose from. It is wise to get the price written down when you do this so as to avoid any nasty surprises when the bill comes. However, in this type of restaurants, the price for each one of the options is very similar, varying around from €5 to €10 per person.
Most restaurants bring you a selection of snacks at the start of your meal - bread, butter, cheese, olives and other small bites - invariably there is a cover charge on these items, around €5. Do not be afraid to ask how much the cover charge is, and get them to take the items away if it is too much or if you are not planning to eat as much. It can be quite reasonable, but occasionally you will get ripped off. If you send them away, still, you should check your bill at the end. Better restaurants can bring you more surprising, nicely prepared and delicious small dishes and bites and charge you more than €5 for each of them; you can usually choose those you want or want not, as in these cases the list is longer; and if the price is this high and you make an acceptable expense, opt for not ordering a main course.
If you have kitchen facilities, Portuguese grocery stores are surprisingly well-stocked with items such as lentils, veggie burgers, couscous, and inexpensive fruits, vegetables, and cheeses. If you like hard cheese, try "Queijo da Serra", if you prefer soft cheese,try requeijao. Unfortunately, the success of the "Queijo da Serra" also allowed the proliferation of industrial and taste-devoid varieties, unrelated to the real thing. On larger shops mostly found in the principal cities, you can also find many unusual items such as exotic fruits or drinks.
In some grocery stores and most supermarkets the scales are in the produce section, not at the checkout. If you don't weigh your produce and go to the checkout, you will probably be told Tem que os pesar or Tem que pesar,"tem que ser pesado" ("You have to weigh them"/it(they) must be weighed).
Portugal is famous for its wide variety of amazing pastries, or pastéis(singular: pastel). The best-loved pastry, pastéis de nata (called just natas further north), is a flaky pastry with custard filling topped with powdered sugar (açúcar) and cinnamon (canela). Make sure you try them, in any "pastelaria". The best place is still the old Confeitaria dos 'Pastéis de Belém' in Belém, although most "pastelarias" make a point of excelling at their "pastéis". For once, all the guide books are right. You may have to queue for a short time, but it'll be worth it. Some people like them piping hot and some don't.
Also nice, if dryish, are the bolo de arroz (literally, "rice cake") and the orange or carrot cakes.
From the more egg-oriented North to almond-ruled South, Portuguese pastry and sweet desserts are excellent and often surprising, even after many years.
On October/November, roasted chestnuts (castanhas) are sold on the streets of cities from vendors sporting fingerless gloves tending their motorcycle driven stoves: a treat!
The Portuguese love madly their thick, black expresso coffee (bica), and miss it sorely when abroad.
  • Sintra: queijadas de Sintra or the travesseiros
  • Mafra: specialty bread, Pão de Mafra
  • Mafra: special cake from the town: "Fradinhos"
When traveling in Portugal, the drink of choice is wine. Red wine is the favorite among the locals, but white wine is also popular. Also Portugal along with Spain have a variation of the white wine that is actually green (Vinho Verde). Its a very crisp wine served cold and goes best with many of the fish dishes. Drinking wine during a meal is very common in Portugal, and also after the meal is finished people will tend to drink and talk while letting their food digest. (Don't let yourself be bullied into drinking if you're driving, though!)
Port wine may be an aperetif or dessert. Alentejo wine may not be worldwide known as Porto, but is quite as good. Portugal as also other defined wine regions (regiões vinhateiras) which make also some of the very best of wines like Madeira, Sado or Douro.
Folks might find it a bit difficult to refrain from drinking, even if there are very good reasons to do so (such as the above mentioned driving). Nowadays the "I have to drive" excuse works ok. The easiest way is to explain that one can't for health reasons. The Portuguese aren't as easily insulted as others when it comes to refusing the obvious hospitality of a drink, but a lie such as "I'm allergic" might make clear a situation where one would have to otherwise repeatedly explain a preference in some regions of Portugal; but it won't work in other regions where obviously made-up excuses will tag you as unreliable ("I don't want to, thanks" might then work). Drinking is considered almost socially intimate.
Be careful of 1920 and Agua Ardente (burning water), both pack a mighty punch.
Portugal is well known as the home of Port wines.
A glass of tawny port wine
A glass of tawny port wine
Porto is famous for the eponymous port wine, a fortified wine (20%) made by adding brandy to the wine before fermentation is complete. The end product is strong, sweet, complex in taste and if properly stored will last 40 years or more.
There are many, many grades of port, but the basic varieties are:
  • Vintage, the real deal, kept in the bottle for 5-15 years, can be very expensive for good years. It is, nevertheless, worth it.
  • Late-Bottled Vintage (LBV), simulated vintage kept in barrel longer, ready to drink. Nice if you are on a budget.
  • Tawny, aged for 10-40 years before bottling, which distinguishes itself by a more brownish red color and a slightly smoother bouquet and flavor. As with any wine, the older it gets, the more rounded and refined it will be.
  • Ruby, the youngest and cheapest, with a deep red "ruby" color.
  • White port is a not-so-well-known variety, and it is a shame. You will find a sweet and a dry varietal, the latter of which mixes well with tonic water and should be served chilled (if drunk alone) or with lots of ice (with tonic), commonly used as an aperitif.
  • Another good choice is the ubiquitous vinho verde (green wine), which is made mostly in the region to the north of Porto (the Minho.) It's a light, dry and refreshing wine (approx. 9% -9.5% in volume), made from region specific grapes with relatively low sugar content. Mostly white, and sometimes slightly sparkling. Very nice, and very affordable.


The youth hostel network has a great number of hostels around the country [12]. There are also many camping places. 'Wild camping' (camping outside camping parks) is not allowed, unless you have the land owner's agreement.
There's a wide and abundant hotel offering all through Portugal.
If budget is a concern, and you want a true 'typical-portuguese' experience, gather your courage and try one Residencial, the home-like hostels ubiquitous in cities and most towns. In most places you can get a double room for €25-€35 (Oct 2006). Be sure, however, of the quality of the rooms.
On the luxury side, you might try the 'Pousadas de Portugal', a network of hotels managed by the Pestana Group remarkable for using very beautiful ancient buildings like Palaces and Castles and also for having excellent service, consistent all over the country. You will do well in eating out eventually, as the cuisine of Pousadas is frequently both expensive and boring, although it appears the trend is changing for the better (mid-2008).
The "Casas de Campo" (Turismo de Habitação, Turismo Rural, Agro-Turismo), when traveling through the countryside, are also an affordable, picturesque and comfortable B&Bs. Don't expect them to be open all year round, and try to contact them beforehand if your itinerary depends on them.

Stay safe

As regarding violent crime, Portugal is generally safe. This does not mean that you should throw caution to the wind and let down your guard. In particular, there is a refreshing lack of boozy stupidity at the weekends, despite the profusion of bars open to all hours in the major cities. Also, there are no internal conflicts to speak of, and no terrorism-related danger.
Like any big city, there are some areas of Lisbon and Porto that you might want to avoid, especially at night. Also like in any other tourist areas, you might want to have in mind that pickpockets do tend to target tourists more frequently - but some common sense should be enough to keep you safe. Wear a money belt or keep your documents and money in an inside pocket. Public transport places and queues are the most usual places for pickpockets.
Especially aboard the Metro in Lisbon, gangs of Gypsies are becoming more and more famous for pickpocketing anyone aboard. When the metro gets crammed, they too, pack themselves in and while one may bump into your really roughly, up to three more people may be waiting in the wings to grab your camera, wallet, or anything else you carry. Many are under 18 and take advantage of the non-harsh laws on minors. If you try to run them down, you will often be met with a large group of the Gypsies outside the metro station, and a fight may be neccessary to get your items back.
-Dont keep anything valuable in your back or side (cargo) pockets on the Lisbon metro -Put your backpack or fanny pack in front, and keep your hands on it at all times -If it is at all possibly try to sit (anywhere) or stand as far from the doors as possible.
Currently (mid-2008) gang violent crime has been on the rise, mostly aimed at ATMs, shops, banks and motorway service areas. Primarily gangs of gypsies have been known to 'jump' people after they have put in the PIN and select €500 (the max amount) to withdraw from the ATM. If you are attacked do not react, give what you're asked to give and stay alive and well. Don't use weapons even for self-defense, the legal system will be harsh on you.

Stay healthy

Major cities are well served with medical and emergency facilities. BPublic hospitals are at European standards. The national emergency number is 112. Bottled/spring water (água mineral) is recommended as per use but the network's water is perfectly safe. Members of the European Union receive free medical health care as long as they hold an European Health Insurance Card (EHIC).


If you make an effort to speak some Portuguese with the people there, it can go a long way in being more accepted in the culture. A large percentage of the younger population especially speak some English, and many Portuguese understand Spanish quite well. At the very least starting a conversation with Portuguese, then switching to English can be a successful technique to obtain this type of help.
When visiting churches or other religious monuments, try to wear appropriate clothes. That means that shoulders and knees should be covered.
Smoking in public enclosed places (taxis and transport, shops and malls, cafés and hotels, etc.) is not allowed and is subject to a fine, unless in places showing the appropriate blue sign.
It is not unusual for women to sunbathe topless in the beaches of southern Portugal, and there are several naturist beaches too. Thong bikinis are acceptable throughout the country's beaches.
There are no serious political or social issues to be avoided. Of the issues below, it is possible to say that most (but not all) Portuguese will find them far-fetched, adequate to fringe activists, shrug them off and suggest you to pick an interesting conversation subject instead.
Some cities in Portugal still stage bullfighting events. In Portugal, traditionally, and contrary to what happens in Spain, the bull is never killed during the bullfight and is many times "re-used" for other bullfights. However, it is totally wrong to assume that all Portuguese people support or even faintly like bullfights. If you like bullfighting, it is better to keep this opinion to yourself, as the issue is sensitive to the many Portuguese who are indifferent to bullfighting and are offended by acts of cruelty. You might also end up offending someone if you make generalizations or insist that bullfighting is a part of Portuguese culture. If you do not support bullfighting, it is also better to keep the opinion to yourself or to be cautious when sharing it, as bullfight supporters tend to have a violent character, and others find the subject distasteful. You might protest simply by avoiding visiting cities and towns that still stage bullfights; this will effectively restrain your travel possibilities. A very few border towns actively defied the law and law enforcement agents and killed the bull in the arena (Barrancos).
Tread lightly on the Galician issue. While some Portuguese consider the Galician language to be rustic and refuse any relation with Portuguese, some others (as well as Brazilians and other speakers of Portuguese) will insist that Galician is a dialect of their language (and is so classified in the Britannica.) Spaniards may tell you otherwise, although Galicia, an autonomous region in northwestern Spain, has expressed interest in joining the official association of Portuguese-speaking countries. The argument arises because official written Galician uses the Spanish version of the Latin alphabet and much of Spanish phonetic rules, although the differences are very blurry between spoken Portuguese and Galician and often can understand each other (specially in Northern Portugal) without the need of a translator, much like Bulgarian and Macedonian in the Balkans.
Try to avoid "Olivença" issue as a very few people over-react to it and you will have to listen to long and inflamed historical and political explanations.
Other touchy subjects include abortion rights, death penalty, slavery (specially the idea that Portugal was the major offender in past centuries' slave trade), the Portuguese Colonial War and decolonization process, and North/South rivalry (i.e., Lisbon vs Porto).
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Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Part of the Comparative law and justice Wikiversity Project
Flag of Portugal.


Basic Information

Portugal is the one hundred and tenth ranked country in terms of the size of it landmass.[1] .The population is ranked seventy-sixth in regards to the world with a population of 10,707,924.[2] Portugal is located in Europe directly next to spain.^ Portugal is a member of the Council of Europe and recently signed and ratified the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (ETS No.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ Spain is a member of the Council of Europe and has signed and ratified the Convention for the Protection of Individuals with Regard to Automatic Processing of Personal Data (ETS No.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.Portugal occupies 92,090 sqaure kilometers of land, the terrain of the land has mountains to the north and rolling plains to the south.^ On the south part of the Tejo river the terrain is formed by rolling plains, with low altitude, where the plains prevail.

^ Located on the west part of the Iberian Peninsula, Portugal occupies an area of 92,152 km2.

^ On the north of the Tejo river, it is very rough, with mountains, except the coast plain, and with an average height above 400 meters.

[3] .Portugal's weather is different between its north and south.^ Host ID : POR080 SfCfNa1c3ArKaPiTtWgawbLepDsY7 Location: On the banks of the Alqueva Dam (frontier between Portugal and Spain) 30km north of Reguengos de Monsaraz and 30km south of Alandroal.

Cool and rainy in the north and hot and dry in the south.[4] .The total population of portugal is estimated to be around 10,707,924. Within this population roman catholics dominate most of the religions with 84.5% as followers.9% of the populations religion is unknown, 2.2% is christian, 0.3% is other and 3.9% is athiest.^ Host ID : POR152 SgCfNa2c2ArvKaPtTtWgacLegpDsH6Y5B4 - 10 1 ha small farm with horse-riding school and other animals near small village in western Algarve (Portugal).


Economic Development, Health, and Education

Portugal economy was in a steady decline up into the year 2007. Portugal changed there currency in 2002 to the euro. .Portugal educational systems struggle and always seem as it is an unmoving and and unwavering obtacle.^ Education System in Portugal .

.In 2005 the budget deficit was at an all time high at 6% and it declined in 2007 to 2.6% which was a great leap or them because they were not expecting such a cut to happen so fast.^ Feb 2007 by heather She’s a fellow expat but we’re not friends because we’re expats nor because we’re bloggers but we’re friends because of all the illogical reasons that people become friends.

$236.5 billion is portugal GDP(2008 est.)which is ranked 48 compared to the rest o the world. Portugal prides it self on the production of grain, potatoes, tomatoes, olives, grapes, sheep, cattle, goats, swine, poultry, dairy products, and fish which is there main source o argiculture. In their industry section of there country textiles, clothing, footwear, paper, chemicals, auto-parts manufacturing, base metals, diary products, wine and other foods, porcelain and ceramics, glassware, technology, telecommunications, ship construction and refurbishment, and tourism. The unemployment rate went from 8% in 2007 to 7.6% in 2008. 18 percent o the popuation is below the poverty line.[6]

Brief History

In the 15th and 16th century portugal was a global maritime power. Portugal lost all of its wealth when it lost Lisbon to a severe destruction in 1755. Lisbon suffered severe destruction in an earthquake. In 1910 the monarchy had been disposed and or the next six generations portugal was ran by opressive governments. A left wing military coup turned the country into accepting democratic reforms. After accepting democratic reforms Portugal granted Independence to all of its African colonies.[7]


Portugal in its long form of a name is known as Portuguese Republic. Portugal is its conventional short form of a name. The government type is parliamentary democracy. [8]


In article 116 of Portugals constitution it explains the general principles of elections. .Any person who is voting or who wants to be a candidate must register.^ For personal data processing by the private sector, an application must first be made to the Minister for Justice who thereafter issues an authorization for such processing to take place.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

There is a single registration system for all elections by direct universal suffrage.Election campaigns must follow rules in acordane to freedom of propaganda,equality of opportunity and treatment for all candidates involved in the election. Impartiality towards candidates on the part of public bodies.Supervision of vote-counting. The citizens have the duty to collaborate with the election administrators only in ways recognized by the law. Votes cast are given to the respective candidate. .After an election has occured the courts are to judge the regularity and validity of the acts of electoral procedure.^ The Act is enforced by the Guarantor for the Safeguard of Confidential and Personal Data, a judge of the Administrative Court.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Also article 129 explains the election system of portugal. .A candidate who recieves more than half the votes validly is elected the President of the Republic.^ Food I Like More than half of food consumed from domestic sources .

Blank ballots are not considered as having been validly casted. .If no candidate recieves the number of votes needed to gain office, there is then a second election on the twenty-first day following the date of the first election.^ There is no privacy oversight agency in the U.S. The Office of Management and Budget plays a limited role in setting policy for federal agencies and has not been particularly active or effective.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Only the top two candidates who have received the most votes and who have not withdrawn from the election stand for election in the second election.[9]

Courts and Criminal Law

.The Constitutional Court, was made by constitutional reform of 1982. The duty of this court judges whether legislative acts are legal and constitutional.^ The Official Information Act 1982 and the Local Government Official Information and Meetings Act 1987 are freedom of information legislation.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act is enforced by the Guarantor for the Safeguard of Confidential and Personal Data, a judge of the Administrative Court.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Among other duties, this court also overlooks the ability of the president to carry out presidential actions and to examine international relations, treaties, and agreements to if they are constitutional or not. Ten of its thirteen members are chosen by the Assembly of the Republic. .The Supreme Court of Justice is designated the "highest court of law," but "without prejudice to the jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court," and heads the court system that deals with civil and criminal cases.The first courts to try a case are the municipal and district courts.^ The Supreme Court has ruled that there is a limited constitutional right of privacy based on a number of provisions in the Bill of Rights and subsequent amendments.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian Supreme Court ruled in 1998 that individuals have a right to live anywhere without getting permission from local officials.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ No one shall have the right to enter the home against the will of persons residing in it except in cases stipulated by the federal law or under an order of a court of law."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

Then follows after the ruling courts of appeal. As of the early 1990s, there were four of these latter courts. The Supreme Court of Justice may serve as a court of first instance in some cases and as an appeals court in others.[10] .The Supreme Court of Administration examines the fiscal and administrative conduct of government institutions.^ The Supreme Court ruled in July 1998 that Administrative Order No.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

It is not concerned with the state's political decisions or legislation. One section of this court deals with administrative disputes. Below this are three courts of first instance. Another section deals with tax disputes and is supported by courts of first and second instance. In addition to these courts, there is a Court of Audit situated in the Ministry of Finance.Overseeing the nominations, training, promotions, transfers, and professional conduct of Portugal's judges are the Higher Council of the Bench and the Superior Council of the Administrative and Fiscal Courts. .These bodies have the right to discipline judges whose conduct does not comply with the law.^ These rights may be restricted by a judgeís order for the investigation of serious crimes."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ Pursuant to Article 24 of the Civil Code, an individual whose personal rights are violated unjustly may request from the judge protection against the violation.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The Russian law does not establish a central regulatory body for data protection and it is not clear that it has been effective.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.Also looking after the rights of the citizens is the ombudsman, elected by the Assembly of the Republic for a four-year term.^ We are looking for short term, and for right couple/person long term.

In the early 1990s, this official received some 3,000 complaints a year from Portuguese who felt they had been improperly dealt with by state institutions.[11]


Anybody violating the law of Portugal whether knowingly or unknowingly will be arrested or even imprisoned. .This is like this because Portugal believes that even if not a citizen of Portugal you must abide by the rules set forth by the constitution.^ I believe that your opinion of Portugal is one that is shared BY MANY. What you think is not unusual.

.Portugal was one of the first countries in the world to abolish the death penalty during the 19th century.^ Portugal is one of he Schengen countries.

.The Most time that can be served in prison is 25 years, they do not have a life sentence.^ The prison sentence for violating the regulation is one to two years.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, failure to destroy the data required to be destroyed within a specific time period is a criminal offense with a prison sentence of 6 months to one year.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ A prison sentence of one to four years is contemplated for these offences.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.They believe that a person will be rehabilatated after 25 years.In 2001 Portugal decriminalized drugs for personal use.^ In an effort to reduce the number of addicts in the prison system, the Portuguese government has an enacted some radical policies in the last few years with the eventual decriminalization of all illicit drugs in July of 2001.

^ Until July 1, 2001, drug use, possession, and acquisition in Portugal were punishable by penalties up to 3 months in prison or a fine for small quantities.

^ While drug use, possession, and acquisition are still illicit activities in Portugal, these acts have been decriminalized.


Legal Personnel

The Public Prosecutors represent the State. .They take criminal proceedings, defend democratic legality, and defend such interests which are indicated by law.^ In the draft law, it is considered a criminal offense to cause the data to be seized by others, to be deteriorated, or to be damaged as a result of failure to take the necessary security measures.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ However, there is no criminal liability for such violations of personal rights and currently there is no protection of personal data laws (through data protection laws or any other laws) under the current Turkish Criminal Code.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

The prosecutors as a whole have an independent and represent what is conformity with the law. Public Prosecutors are responsible magistrates. There power cannot be transferred, suspended, retired, or dismissed except as provided by law. .The AttorneyGeneral has the power to appoint, assign, transfer, and promote the Public Prosecutors.^ Such power of access requires the consent of the Public Prosecutor.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.Him being able to that also gives him the power to exercise disciplinary action against the Prosecutors.The Attorney General is the highest power in public prosecution.^ Such power of access requires the consent of the Public Prosecutor.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

The law determines membership and power of the Attorney General's Office. The Attorney-General presides over the Higher Council of the Public Prosecution. [13]

Law Enforcement

.The police has the job of defending democratic legality and the rights and protection of the citizens of Portugal.^ Article 47 states, "Everyone shall have the right to legal protection of his private and family life, of his honor and good reputation and to make decisions about his personal life."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The Norwegian Supreme Court has held that there exists in Norwegian law a general legal protection of "personality" which embraces a right to privacy.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.The police rules are provided for by law and may not be used beyond what is strictly necessary.^ Public authorities shall not acquire, collect nor make accessible information on citizens other than that which is necessary in a democratic state ruled by law.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ The administrative authority may make home visits only to certify compliance with sanitary and police rules; the presentation of books and papers indispensable to verify compliance with the fiscal laws may be required in compliance with the respective laws and the formalities proscribed for their inspection.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

[14] .They can only do what is granted to them under the law.^ Any restriction of this right shall be allowed only under an order of a court of law."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ A person may be deprived of citizenship or subjected to restrictions on his or her civil capacity only in cases and under conditions laid down by law, and never on political grounds."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

They cannot abuse there power and go over the top with the way they handle situations. There major job is the prevention of crimes. .Which includes crimes against the security of the State, and to the rights, freedoms, and safeguards of citizens.^ The Latvian Defense Ministry responded by stating Latvia's "military counterintelligence service reserves the right to ensure the security of communications at the Ministry of Defense and structures of the national armed forces."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ More generally, section 110c of the Constitution places state authorities under an express duty to "respect and secure human rights."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ Article 21 of the Bill of Rights Act 1990 states, "Everyone has the right to be secure against unreasonable search or seizure, whether of the person, property, or correspondence or otherwise."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.The law determines the system governing the security forces, each of which has a single organization for the whole national territory.^ The Latvian Defense Ministry responded by stating Latvia's "military counterintelligence service reserves the right to ensure the security of communications at the Ministry of Defense and structures of the national armed forces."
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ One agency not governed by the restrictions imposed on law enforcement and the NZSIS is the Government Communications Security Bureau (GCSB), the signals intelligence (SIGINT) agency for New Zealand.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]

^ An inspector has the right to access data, check data transfer and security systems, and determine whether the information gathered is appropriate for the purpose which it is supposed to serve.
  • Privacy and Human Rights 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: Original source]


Crime Rates and Public Opinion

The otal prison population of portugal is 13,384 prisoners. The crime trend went up sharply in 2000 to 2002. Thefts have increased in recent years, raising the low crime rate. Travelers may become targets of pickpockets and purse snatchers, particularly at popular tourist sites, restaurants, or on public transportation.[16] .Possession and consumption of small quantities of narcotics were decriminalized in 2000 and legalized a year later.^ Until July 1, 2001, drug use, possession, and acquisition in Portugal were punishable by penalties up to 3 months in prison or a fine for small quantities.

^ On July 1, 2001, Law 30/2000 took effect in Portugal, decriminalizing drug use, possession and acquisition for the "casual" user as well as the addict.

^ This new law did not legalize drug use, but removed criminal penalties for use, possession, and acquisition for all illicit drugs in quantities up to a 10-day supply.

Rates of Key Crimes in
Theft Rapes Murder
1875 per 100,000 people 4 per 100,000 people 3 per 100,000 people
Hover here


Family Law

The Family is basic just like America. Everyone has the right to start a family and marry on terms of complete equality. The requirements for and effects of marriage and its dissolution by death or divorce are regulated by law without distinction as to the form in which the marriage is or was contracted. Spouses have equal rights and duties with respect to their civil as well as the maintenance and upbringing of their children. Children born out of wedlock may not for that reason be the subject of discrimination. Parents have the right and the duty to bring up and maintain their children. Children are not to be separated from their parents unless they fail to perform their fundamental duties towards the former, and then only by judicial decision. Adoption is regulated and protected in accordance with the law.[19]

Social Inequality

All of the citizens have the same social dignity and are all equal before the law. .No one is privileged, favored, injured, deprived of any right, or exempt from any duty because of his ancestry, sex, race, language, territory of origin, religion, political or ideological convictions, education, economic situation, or social condition.^ However I believe the numbers are growing and it's just not people who have careers/formal education in economics and finance, it's people like me who have no background in the money industries at all.

The only inequality that i have found present in portugal is the working class. They have upper class which is the rich people. Then a working class that works hard for there money. Also they have a poor class that struggles to get any money.[20]

Human Rights

The rights of all Portuguese citizens are protected by the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. It is also protected by the Portuguese Constitution. The purpose of the Portuguese Constitution is to ensure that all of its citizens including adualts and children are equal and have the opportunity of equal justice, dignity and rights. Portugal's Constitution holds alot of information regarding the rights and civil liberties of each of its citizens. There constituion is very similiar to our constitution and it covers the rights from A to Z. Articles 24 to 47 deal with the personal rights, freedoms, and the safeguards.The Articles 48 to 52 deal with the politcal freedoms. Articles 53 to 57 deal with all rights for workers. .The article 58 to 72 deal with the articles of social rights, and the economics rights as well as the duties you have as a parent.^ Well they are meant to be encouraging and getting you headed in the right direction toward a healthy lifestyle.

.If you want to actually read what the articles are saying go to this website^ This mail order device from diverts the water from the downspout to anywhere you want it to go, usually into a rainbarrel.

Works Cited==
  1. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  2. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  3. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  4. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  5. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  6. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  7. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  8. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  9. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  10. "CIA - The World Factbook -- Portugal." Welcome to the CIA Web Site Central Intelligence Agency. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  11. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  13. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  14. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  15. "Portugal." Welcome to Travel.State.Gov. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  16. "Portugal." Welcome to Travel.State.Gov. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  17. "Portugal - Crime." The S&S Media Technology Group. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  18. "Portugal - Crime." The S&S Media Technology Group. Web. 20 Nov. 2009. <>.
  19. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  20. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.
  21. "ICL - Portugal - Constitution." Portugals Constitution. Web. 24 Nov. 2009. <>.

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

PORTUGAL, a republic of western Europe, forming part of the Iberian Peninsula, and bounded on the N. and E. by Spain, and on the S. and W. by the Atlantic Ocean. Pop. (1900), 5,016,267; area, 34,254 sq. m. These totals do not include the inhabitants and area of the Azores and Madeira Islands, which are officially regarded as parts of continental Portugal. In shape the country resembles a roughly drawn parallelogram, with its greatest length (362 m.) from N. to S., and its greatest breadth (140 m.) from E. to W. For map, see Spain. The land frontiers are to some extent defined by the course of the four principal rivers, the Minho and Douro in the north, the Tagus and Guadiana in the south; elsewhere, and especially in the north, they are marked by moun- Proetie P Y ? Y Y and Coasrsts. tain ranges; but in most parts their delimitation was originally based on political considerations. In no sense can the boundary-line be called either natural or scientific, apart from the fact that the adjacent districts on either side are poor, sparsely peopled, and therefore little liable to become a subject of dispute. The Portuguese seaboard is nearly 500 m. long, and of the six ancient provinces all are maritime except Traz-osMontes. From the extreme north to Cape Mondego and thence onward to Cape Carvoeiro the outline of the coast is a long and gradual curve; farther south is the prominent mass of rock and mountain terminating westward in Capes Roca and Espichel; south of this, again, there is another wide curve, broken by the headland of Sines, and extending to Cape St Vincent, the southeastern extremity of the country. The only other conspicuous promontory is Cape Santa Maria, on the south coast. The only deep indentations of the Portuguese littoral are the lagoon of Aveiro and the estuaries of the Minho, Douro, Mondego, Tagus, Sado and Guadiana, in which are the principal harbours. The only islands off the coast are the dangerous Farilhoes and Berlings (Portuguese Berlengas) off Cape Carvoeiro.
Table of contents

Physical Features

Few small countries contain so great a variety of scenery as Portugal. The bleak and desolate heights of the Serra da Estrella and the ranges of the northern frontier are almost alpine in character, although they nowhere reach the limit of perpetual snow. At a lower level there are wide tracts of moorland, covered in many cases with sweet-scented cistus and other wild flowers. The lagoon of Aveiro, the estuary of the Sado and the broad inland lake formed by the Tagus above Lisbon, recall the waterways of Holland. The sand-dunes of the western coast and the Pinhal de Leiria resemble the French Landes. The Algarve and parts of Alemtejo might belong to North-West Africa rather than to Europe. The Paiz do Vinho, on the Douro, and the Tagus near Abrantes, with their terraced bush-vines grown up the steep banks of the rivers, are often compared with the Rhine and the Elbe. The harbours of Lisbon and Oporto are hardly inferior in beauty to those of Naples and Constantinople. Apart from this variety, and from the historic interest of such places as Braga, Bussaco, Cintra, Coimbra, or Torres Vedras, the attractiveness of the country is due to its colouring, and not to grandeur of form. Its landscapes are on a small scale; it has no vast plains, no inland seas, no mountain as high as 7000 ft. But its flora is the richest in Europe, and combines with the brilliant sunshine, the vivid but harmonious costumes of the peasantry, and the white or paletinted houses to compensate for any such deficiency. This wealth of colour gives to the scenery of Portugal a quite distinctive character and is the one feature common to all its varieties.
The orography of Portugal cannot be scientifically studied except in relation to that of Spain, for there is no dividing line between the principal Portuguese ranges and the highlands of Galicia, Leon and Spanish Estremadura. Three so-called Portuguese systems are sometimes distinguished: (1) the Transmontane, stretching between the Douro and the Minho; (2) the Beirene, between the Douro and the Tagus; (3) the Transtagine, south of the Tagus. The following ranges belong to the Transmontane system, which is the southern extension of the mountains of Galicia: Peneda (4728 ft.), forming the watershed between the river Lima and the lower Minho; the Serra do Gerez (4817 ft.), which rises like a gigantic wall between the Lima and the Homem, and sends off a spur known as the Amarella, Oural and Nora, south-westward between the Homem and the Cavado; La Raya Seca, a continuation of Gerez, which culminates in Larouco (4390 ft.) and contains the sources of the Cavado; Cabreira (4196 ft.), which contains the sources of the river Ave and separates the basin of the Tamega from that of the Cavado; Marao (4642 ft.), Villarelho (3547 ft.) and Padrella (3763 ft.), forming together a large massif between the rivers Tamega, Tua and Douro; and Nogueira (4331 ft.) and Bornes (3944 ft.), which divide the valley of the Tua from that of the Sabor. The Beirene system comprises two quite distinct mountain regions. North of the Mondego it includes Montemuro (4534 ft.), separating the Douro from the upper waters of its left-hand tributary the Paiva; Gralheira (3681 ft.) between the Paiva and the Vouga; the Serra do Caramullo (35 11 ft.), between the Vouga and the Dao; and the Serra da Lapa (3215 ft.), which gives rise to the Paiva, Tavora, Vouga and ado. South of these ranges, but nominally included in the same system, is the Serra da Estrella, the loftiest ridge in Portugal (6532 ft.). The Estrella Mountains, which enclose the headwaters of the Mondego in a deep ravine, stretch from north-east to south-west and are continued in the same direction by the Serra de Lousa (3944 ft.). They form the last link in the chain of mountain ranges, known to Spanish geographers as the Carpetano-Vetonica, which extends across the centre of the Peninsula from east to west. The greater part of the Serra da Estrella constitutes the watershed between the Mondego and Zezere. Lesser ranges, which are included in the Beirene system and vary in height from 2000 to 4000 ft., are the Mesas, between the rivers Coa and Zezere; the Guardunha and Moradal, separating the Zezere from the Ponsul and Ocreza, tributaries of the Tagus; the Serra do Aire, and various ridges which stretch south-westward as far as the mountains of Cintra (q.v.). The Transtagine Mountains cannot rightly be described as a single system, as they consist for the most part of isolated ranges or massifs. The Serra da Arrabida (1637 ft.) rises between Cape Espichel and Setubal. Sao Mamede (3363 ft.), with the parallel and lower Serra de Portalegre, extends along part of the frontier of northern Alemtejo. Ossa (2129 ft.), Caixeiro (1483 ft.), Monfurado (1378 ft.) and Mendro (1332 ft.) form the high ground between the rivers Sado, Sorraia and Guadiana. East of the Guadiana the outliers of the Spanish Sierra Morena enter Portuguese territory. The Serra Grandola and Monte Cereal, two low ranges stretching from north to south, skirt the coast of southern Estremadura. In the extreme south the ranges are more closely massed together. They include Monchique, with the peak of Foya or Foia (2963 ft.), and various lower ranges. There are numerous large expanses of level country, the most notable of these being the plains (cameos) of the Tagus valley, and of Aviz or Benavilla, Beja and Ourique, in Alemtejo; the high plateaux (cimas) of Mogadouro in Traz-os-Montes and Ourem between the Tagus and the upper Sorraia; the highly cultivated lowlands (veigas) of Chaves and Valenta do Minho in the extreme north; and the marshy flats (baixas) along the coast of Alemtejo and the southern shore of the lower Tagus.
The three principal rivers which flow through Portugal to the sea - the Douro, Tagus and Guadiana - are described in separate articles. The chief Portuguese tributaries of the Douro are the Tamega, Tua and Sabor on the north, the Agueda, Coa and Paiva on the south; of the Tagus, the Ocreza, Ponsul and Zezere on the north, the Niza and Sorraia on the south, while into the Guadiana, on its right or Portuguese bank, flow the Caia, Degebe, Cobres, Oeiras and Vascao. The whole country drains into the Atlantic, to which all the main rivers flow in a westerly direction except the Guadiana, which turns south by east in the lower part of its course. The Minho (Spanish Mino) is the most northerly river of Portugal, and in size and importance is only inferior to the three great waterways already mentioned. It rises in the highlands of Galicia, and, after forming for some distance the boundary between that province and Entre-Minho-e-Douro, falls into the sea below the port of Caminha. Its length is 170 m. Small coasters can ascend the river as far as Salvatierra in Galicia (20 m.), but larger vessels are excluded by a sandy bar at the mouth. Between the Minho and Douro the chief rivers are the Lima (Spanish Limia or Antela), which also rises in Galicia, and reaches the sea at Vianna do Castello; the Cavado, which receives the Homem on the right, and forms the port of Espozende in its estuary; and the Ave, which rises in the Serra da Cabreira and issues at the port of Villa do Conde. Between the Douro and Tagus the Vouga rises in the Serra da Lapa and reaches the sea through the lagoon of Aveiro; the Mondego flows north-east through a long ravine in the Serra da Estrella, and then bends back so as to flow west-south-west. Its estuary contains the important harbour of Figueira da Foz; its chief tributaries are the Dao on the right, and the Alva, Ceira and Arunca on the left; its length is 125 m. of which 52 m. are navigable by small coasters. Several comparatively unimportant streams, chief among which are the Liz and Sizandro, enter the Atlantic between the mouths of the Mondego and Tagus. Between the Tagus and Cape St Vincent the principal rivers are the Sado, which is formed by the junction of several lesser streams and flows north-west to the port of Setubal; and the Mira, which takes a similar direction from its headwaters south of Monte Vigia to the port of Villa Nova de Milfontes. On the south coast the united waters of the Odelouca and Silves form the harbour of Villa Nova de Portimao, and the Algoz, Algibre or Quarteira, and the Asseca flow into the sea farther east. Portugal abounds in hot and medicinal springs, such as those of Caldas de Monchique, Caldas da Rainha and Vidago.


By far the greater part of Portugal is occupied by ancient rocks of Archean and Palaeozoic age, and by eruptive masses which probably belong to various periods. All the higher mountains are formed of these rocks, and it is only near the coast and in the plain of the Tagus that later deposits are found. The Mesozoic beds form an irregular triangle extending from Lisbon and Torres Novas on the south to Oporto on the north. There are also a narrow strip along the southern shores of the Algarve and a few smaller patches along the western coast. The Tertiary deposits cover the plain of the Tagus and are found in other low-lying areas near the coast. Of the Lower Palaeozoic rocks the Ordovician appears to be the most widely-spread. Large areas have been referred to the Cambrian, but it is only at Villa Boim, about 6 m. W.S.W. of Elvas, that Cambrian fossils have been found. The Ordovician beds have yielded fossils in several places, Vallongo and Bussaco being amongst the best-known localities. The succession is similar to that of Brittany and Spain. Supposed Silurian beds have been described at Portalegre, and in the same neighbourhood Devonian fossils have been found. The Lower Carboniferous, which belongs to the " Culm " facies so widely spread in central Europe, occupies a wide area in southern Portugal; but the Upper Carboniferous is very restricted in extent, and occurs in small basins like those of the Central Plateau of France, resting unconformably upon the rocks below. The deposits in these basins consist largely of coarse sandstones and conglomerates, amongst which lie seams of coal. It is possible that some of these deposits may belong to the Permian or at least to the Perma-Carboniferous. Of the Mesozoic systems the Jurassic is the most widely-spread. Supposed Triassic beds are found, but they are confined chiefly to the eastern margin of the Mesozoic area north of Lisbon. The Jurassic deposits are partly marine and partly fresh-water or terrestrial, including beds of lignite. On the whole, excepting in eastern Algarve, the Upper Jurassic beds indicate the neighbourhood of a shore-line. The Cretaceous system is very limited in extent. Its most interesting feature is the occurrence near its summit, north of Cape Mondego, of sands and gravels containing plant remains. Here both Cretaceous and Tertiary forms are found, and the Mondego beds seem to represent the passage between the. two systems. At the close of the Cretaceous period great eruptions of basalt and basaltic tuff took place, especially in the Lisbon area. The volcanic rocks then formed are followed by marine deposits of Oligocene and Miocene age. Towards the north these are associated with fresh-water limestones, indicating the presence of land in that direction. Marine Pliocene beds occur at the mouth of the Tagus. The contemporaneous beds inland are of freshwater origin. Eruptive masses of various age are found in many localities. The Cintra granite sends veins into the base of the Upper Jurassic, and is very probably of Tertiary age. The Serra de Monchique is petrographically of great interest. It consists chiefly of elaeolite-syenite and other rocks derived from the same igneous magma.


The climate of Portugal is equable and temperate. Lisbon, Coimbra, Evora and Oporto have mean temperatures between 60° and 61.5° F., and the daily variation nowhere exceeds 23°. This equability of temperature is partly caused by the very heavy rainfall precipitated on Portugal as one of the westernmost countries of Europe and the one most exposed to the Atlantic. The rainfall has been as heavy as 16 ft. in a year, and sometimes, as in the winter of 1909-1910, great damage is wrought by floods. Heavy fogs are also common along the coast, rendering it dangerous to ships. The rainfall is heaviest in the north and on the Serra da Estrella; it is least in Algarve. A fine climate and equability of temperature are not universal in Portugal; they are to be enjoyed mainly in Beira and Estremadura, especially at Cintra and Coimbra, and in the northern provinces. In the deep valleys where the mountains keep off the cool winds, it is excessively hot in summer; while on the summits of the mountains snow lies for many months. The meteorological station on the Serra da Estrella, with a mean annual temperature of 44.7° F., is the coldest spot in Portugal in which systematic observations are taken. Montalegre has a mean of 48.3° and Guarda of 50.3°. Even in Lisbon the yearly variation is not less than 50°. In Alemtejo the climate is very unfavourable, and, though the heat is not so great as in Algarve (where Lagos has a mean of 63°), the country has a more deserted appearance; while in winter when the Tagus overflows, unhealthy swamps are left. Notwithstanding that Algarve is hotter than Alemtejo, a profuse vegetation takes away much of the tropical effect. Portugal is very rarely visited by thunderstorms; but shocks of earthquake are frequently felt, and recall the great earthquake of Lisbon (q.v.) in 1755.

Fauna and Flora

An account of the fauna of the Iberian Peninsula as a whole is given under Spain. Wolves are found in the wilder parts of the Serra da Estrella, and wild boars are preserved in some districts. As far as the constituents of its flora are concerned Portugal is not very dissimilar from Spain, but their distribution is peculiar. The vegetation of Spain is distributed in clearly marked zones; but over the whole of Portugal, except the hottest parts of Algarve and Alemtejo, the plants of northern Europe flourish side by side with cacti, palms, aloes and tree-ferns (see Cintra). This is largely due to the fact that the moistureladen winds from the Atlantic penetrate almost as far inland as the Portuguese frontier, but do not reach the interior of Spain. The soil is fertile, and the indigenous flora has been greatly enriched by the importation of such plants as the agave, the Mexican opuntia, the American maple, the Australian eucalyptus, the Scotch fir and the so-called Portuguese cypress (Cupressus lusitanica) from the Azores. There are many fine tracts of forest, among which may be mentioned the famous convent-wood of Bussaco (q.v.); cork trees are extensively cultivated, Barbary oaks (Quercus ballota, Port. azinheira) furnish edible acorns and excellent timber for charcoal, and carob-trees (Ceratonia siliqua, Port. alfarrobeira) also produce edible seed-pods somewhat resembling beans. Elms, limes and poplars are common north of the Tagus, ilexes, araucarias, myrtles, magnolias and a great variety of conifers in all parts. The Serra da Estrella has a rich alpine flora, and the lagoon of Aveiro contains a great number of aquatic plants.


The population of Portugal numbered 4,550,699 in 18 7 8, 5, 0 49,7 2 9 in 1890 and 5,423,132 in 1900. These totals include the inhabitants of the Azores and Madeira, which together amounted to 406,865 in 1900. Few immigrants enter the country, but the birth-rate is about 30 per 1000, while the mortality is only about 20 per 1000. Large bodies of emigrants, chiefly recruited from the sober, hardy and industrious peasantry of the northern provinces, annually leave Portugal to seek fortune in America. A few go to the Portuguese colonies, the great majority to Brazil. Many of these emigrants return with considerable savings and settle on the land. The mortality is highest among male children, and the normal excess of females is in the proportion of 109 to loo. Six-sevenths of the population of continental Portugal inhabit the provinces north of the Tagus. The density of population is greatest in Madeira (479.5 per sq. m. in 1900), Entre-Minho-e-Douro (419.5) and the Azores (277.9), nowhere else does it reach 200 per sq. m. In Alemtejo the percentage sinks to 45.1, and for the whole country, including the islands, it amounts only to 152.8.
The Portuguese people is composed of many racial elements. Its earliest known ancestors were the Iberians. The peasantry, especially in the north, are closely akin to the Galician and Asturian Spaniards in character, physique and dialect; and these three ethnical groups - Portuguese of the north, Galicians, Asturians - may perhaps be regarded as the purest representatives of the Spanish stock. The first settlers with whom they intermarried were probably Carthaginians, who were followed in smaller numbers by. Greeks; but the attempts which have sometimes been made to ascribe certain attributes of the Portuguese to the influence of these races are altogether fanciful. The Romans, whose supremacy was not seriously threatened for some six centuries after the Punic Wars, gave to Portugal its language and the foundation of its civilization; there is, however, no evidence that they seriously modified the physical type or character of its people. In these respects the Suevic and Visigothic conquests left a more permanent impression, especially in the northern provinces. After 711 came the long period of Moorish (i.e. Arab and Berber) predominance. The influence of the Moors was greatest south of the Tagus. In Alemtejo, and still more in Algarve, Arab and Berber types are common; and the influence of these races can everywhere be discerned in the architecture, handicrafts and speech of the peasantry. So complete was the intellectual triumph of the Moors that an intermediate " Mozarabic " population arose, Portuguese in blood, Christian in religion, but Arab in language and manners. Many of the Mozarabs even adopted the characteristic Mahommedan rite of circumcision. Under the tolerant rule of Islam the Portuguese Jews rose to a height of wealth and culture unparalleled in Europe; they intermarried with the Christians both at this period and after their forced conversion by King Emanuel I. (1495-1521). After 1450 yet another ethnical element was introduced into the nation, through the importation of African slaves in vast numbers. Negroid types are common throughout central and southern Portugal. No European race confronted with the problem of an immense coloured population has solved it more successfully than the Portuguese and their kinsmen in Brazil; in both countries intermarriage was freely resorted to, and the offspring of these mixed unions are superior in character and intelligence to most half-breeds.

National Characteristics

The normal type evolved from this fusion of many races is dark-haired, sallow-skinned, browneyed and of low stature. The poorer classes, above all the fishermen and small farmers, are physically much finer than the wellto-do, who are prone to excessive stoutness owing to their more sedentary habits. The staple diet of the labouring classes and small farmers is fish, especially the dried codfish called bacalhdo, rice, beans, maize bread and meal, olive oil, fruit and vegetables. Meat is rarely eaten except on festivals. In Alemtejo chestnuts and figs are important articles of diet. Drunkenness is extremely rare. There is no single national dress, but a great variety of picturesque costumes are worn. The sashes, broad-brimmed hats and copper-tipped quarterstaves of the men, and the brilliant cotton dresses and gold or silver filigree ornaments worn on holidays by the women are common throughout the country; but many classes have their own costumes, varying in detail according to the district or province. These costumes may be seen at their best at bull-fights and at such popular festivals as the romarias or pilgrimages, which combine religion with the attractions of a fair. The national sport of bull-fighting is conducted as humanely as possible, for the Portuguese are lovers of animals. The artistic sense of the nation is perhaps greatest among the peasantry, although Portugal has the most illiterate peasantry in western Europe. It is manifested in their poetry and music even more than in their admirable costumes and in the good taste which has preserved the Roman or Moorish forms of their domestic pottery. Even the men and women who till the soil are capable of improvizing verse of real merit, and sometimes excel in the ancient and difficult art of composing extempore amoebean rhymes. In this way, although the ancient ballads are not forgotten, new words are also fitted to the plaintive folk-tunes (fados) which every farm-hand knows and sings, accompanied sometimes by a rude clarinet or bagpipes, but more frequently by the so-called Portuguese guitar - an instrument which resembles a mandolin rather than the guitars of Italy and Spain. The native dances, slow but not ungraceful, and more restrained than those of Andalusia or the south of France, are obviously Moorish in origin, and depend for their main effects on the movement of the arms and body. Many curious superstitions survive in the country districts, including the beliefs in witches (feitigeiras, bruxas) and werewolves (lobishomens); in sirens (sereias) which haunt the dangerous coast and lure fishermen to destruction; in fairies (fadas) and in many kinds of enchantment. It will be observed that the nomenclature of Portuguese folk-lore suggests that the popular superstitions are of the most diverse origin - Latin, Greek, Arabic, native: lobishomem is the Latin lupus homo, wolf-man, sereia is the Greek aaprt y, bruxa is Arabic, feitireira and fada Portuguese. Other beliefs can be traced to Jewish and African sources.

Chief Towns

The chief towns of Portugal are Lisbon (pop. 1900, 356,009), the capital and principal seaport; Oporto (167,955), the capital of the northern provinces and, after Lisbon, the most important centre of trade; the seaports of Setubal (22,074), Ilhavo (12,617), Povoa de Varzim (12,623), Tavira (12,175), Faro (11,789),(11,789), Ovar (10,462), Olhao (10,009) Vianna do Castello (io,000), Aveiro (9975), Lagos (8291), Leixoes (7690) and Figueira da Foz (6221); and the inland cities or towns of Braga (24,202), Louie (22,478), Coimbra (18,144), Evora (16,020), Covilha (15,469), Elvas (13,981), Portalegre (11,820), Palmella (11,478), Torres Novas (10,746), Silves (9687), Lamego (9471), Guimaraes (9104), Beja (8885), Santarem (8628),(8628), Vizeu (8057), Estremoz (7920), Monchique (7345), Castello Branco (7288), Abrantes (7255), Torres Vedras (6900), Thomar (6888), Villa Real (6716), Chaves (6388), Guarda (6124), Cintra (5914), Braganza (5535), Mafra (4769), Leiria (4459), Batalha (3858), Almeida (2330), Alcobaga (2309), Bussaco (1661). All these are described in separate articles.


Up to 1851 there was practically no good carriage road in the country except the highway between Lisbon and Cintra. In 1853 the work of constructing a proper system of roads was undertaken, and by the end of the century all the larger towns were linked together by the main or " royal " highways to which the " district " and " municipal " roads were subsidiary. Each class of road was named after the authority responsible for its construction and upkeep. In some of the remoter rural districts there are only bridle-paths, or rough tracks, which become almost impassable in wet seasons, and are never suitable for vehicles less solid than the Portuguese ox-carts. The first railway was opened in 1853 to connect Lisbon with Badajoz. In 1910 1758 m. were completed, of which 672 m. were state lines. The Portuguese ] railways meet the Spanish at Valenta do 1Vlinho on the northern frontier, at Barca d'Alva, at Villar Formoso, near Valencia de Alcantara, and near Badajoz on the eastern frontier. In some of the chief towns there are electric tramways. The most important internal waterways are the lower Tagus and the Douro between Oporto and the Paiz do Vinho. In 1908, 11,045 vessels of 19,354,967 tons entered Portuguese seaports, but a very large majority of these ships were foreign, and especially British. The postal and telegraphic services are adequate; tel° p hone systems are installed in Lisbon, Oporto and other large towns; and the Eastern Telegraph Co. has an important cable station at Carcavellos near Lisbon (q.v.).
Land Tenure. - Four modes of land tenure are common in Portugal. The poor and thinly-peopled region of Alemtejo is divided into large estates, and cultivated by tenant farmers. Numerous estates in various provinces are held on the metayage system. In the north, where the land is much subdivided, peasant proprietorship and a kind of emphyteusis (see Roman Law) are the most usual tenures. The Portuguese form of emphyteusis is called aforamento; the landlord parts with the user of his property in exchange for a quit-rent (foro or canon). He may evict his tenant should the rent be in arrear for five years, and may at any time distrain if it be overdue; but he cannot otherwise interfere with the holding, which the tenant may improve or neglect. Should the tenant sell or exchange his interest in the property, the right of pre-emption is vested in the landlord, and a corresponding right is enjoyed by the tenant should the quitrent be for sale. As this tenure is very ancient, though modified in 1832 and 1867, the value of such holdings has been greatly enhanced with the improvement of the land and the decline in the purchasing power of currency.


Many of the instruments and processes of Portuguese agriculture and viticulture were introduced by the Romans, and are such as Columella described in the 1st century A.D. The characteristic springless. ox-cart which is used for heavy loads may be seen represented on Roman frescoes of even earlier date. One form of plough still used consists of a crooked bough, with an iron share attached. Oxen are employed for all field-work; those of the commonest breed are tawny, of great muscular power, very docile, and with horns measuring 5 or 6 ft. from tip to tip. The ox-yokes are often elaborately carved in a traditional pattern in which Gothic and Moorish designs are blended. The Moors introduced many improvements, especially in the system of irrigation; the characteristic Portuguese wells with their perpetual chains or buckets are of Moorish invention, and retain their Moorish name of noras. In all, rather more than 45% of the country is uncultivated, chiefly in Alemtejo, Traz-os-Montes and the Serra da Estrella. The principal grain-crops are maize, wheat and rye; rice is grown among the marshes of the coast. Gourds, pumpkins, cabbages and other vegetables are cultivated among] the cereals.. The large onions sold in Great Britain as Spanish are extensively produced in the northern provinces. Every district has its vineyards, the finest of which are in the Paiz do Vinho (see Oporto and Wine). The bush vines of this region are more exposed to the attacks of Oidium Tuckeri, which invaded the country in 1851, and of Phylloxera vastatrix, which followed in 1863, than the more deeply-rooted vines trained on trellises or trees. Both these pests have been successfully combated, largely by the use of sulphur and by grafting immune American vines upon native stocks. In addition to grapes the commoner fruits include quinces, apples, pears, cherries, limes, lemons and loquats (Port. nespras); Condeixa is famous for oranges, Amarante for peaches, Elvas for plums, the southern provinces for carobs and figs. Large quantities of olive oil are manufactured south of the Douro. Almost all cattle, except fighting-bulls, are stall-fed. The fighting-bulls are chiefly reared in the marshes and alluvial valleys; they are bred for strength and swiftness rather than size, and a good specimen should be sufficiently agile to leap over the inner barrier of the arena (about 68 in. high). Large herds of swine are fed in the oak and chestnut woods of Alemtejo; sheep and goats are reared in the mountains, where excellent cheeses are made from goats' milk.


About 50,000 Portuguese are classed as hunters and fishermen. The majority of these are employed in the sardine and tunny fisheries. This industry is carried on in a fleet of more than to,000 small vessels, including the whalers of the Azores and the cod-boats which operate outside Portuguese waters. The fishermen and fisherwomen form a quite distinct class of the people; both sexes are noted for their bodily strength, and the men for their bold and skilful seamanship. Tunny and sardines are cured and exported in large quantities, oysters are also exported, and many other sea fish, such as hake, sea-bream, whiting, conger and various flat-fish are consumed in the country. In the early years of the 10th century the competition of foreign steam trawlers inflicted much hardship on the fishermen. The average yearly value of the fish landed in Portugal (exclusive of cured fish from foreign countries) is about 800,000. Salmon, lampreys and eels are caught in some of the larger rivers; trout abound in the streams of the northern provinces; but many fresh-water fish common elsewhere in Europe, including pike, perch, tench and chub, are not found.


It is usually stated that Portugal is rich in minerals, especially copper, but that want of capital and, especially in the south, of transport and labour, has retarded their exploitation. The mineral deposits of the country are very varied, but their extent is probably exaggerated. The average yearly output from 1901 to 1905 was worth less than £300,000. Copper is mined in southern Portugal. Common salt (chiefly from Alcacer do Sal near Setubal), gypsum, lime and marble are exported; marble and granite of fine quality abound in the southern provinces. Iron is obtained near Beja and Evora, tin in the district of Braganza. Lead, wolfram, antimony and auriferous quartz exist in the districts of Coimbra, Evora, Beja and Faro. Lignite occurs at many points around Coimbra, Leiria and Santarem; asphalt abounds near Alcobaca; phosphorite, asbestos and sulphur are common south of the Tagus. Petroleum has been found near Torres Vedras; pitchblende, arsenic, anthracite and zinc are also mined. Gold was washed from some of the Portuguese rivers before the Christian era, and among the Romans the auriferous sands of the Tagus were proverbially famous; it is, however, extremely improbable that large quantities of gold were ever obtained in this region, although small deposits of alluvial gold may still be found in the valleys of the Tagus and Mondego.


The Methuen Treaty of 1703 prevented the establishment of some manufacturing industries in Portugal by securing a monopoly for British textiles, and it was only after 1892 that Portuguese cotton-spinning and weaving were fostered by heavy protective duties. In 20 years these industries became the most important in the country after agriculture, the wine and cork trades and the fisheries. In connexion with the wine trade there are many large cooperages; cork products are extensively manufactured for export. Lisbon is the headquarters of the ship-building trade. Here, and in other cities, tanning, distilling, various metallurgical industries, and manufactures of soap, flour, tobacco, &c., are carried on; the entire output is sold in Portugal or its colonies. There is a steady trade in natural mineral waters, which occur in many parts of continental Portugal and the Azores. From the 16th century to the 18th many artistic handicrafts were practised by the Portuguese in imitation of the fine pottery, cabinetwork, embroideries, &c., which they imported from India and Persia. Portuguese cabinet-work deteriorated in the 19th century; the glassworks and potteries of the Aveiro and Leiria districts have lost much of their ancient reputation; and even the exquisite lace of Peniche and Vianna do Castello is strangely neglected abroad. The finest Caldas da Rainha china-ware, with its fantastic representations of birds, beasts and fishes, still commands a fair price in foreign markets; but the blue and white ware originally copied from Delft and later modified under the influence of Persian pottery is now only 'manufactured in small quantities, of inferior quality. Skilful copies of Moorish metal-work may be purchased in the goldsmiths' and silversmiths' shops of. Lisbon and Oporto; conspicuous among these are the filigree ornaments which are bought by the peasant women as investments and by foreign visitors as curiosities. In 1900 the total industrial population of Portugal was 455,296.


The annual value of the foreign trade of Portugal amounts approximately to £19,000,000. The following table shows the value for five years of the exports, and of all imports not reexported (exclusive of coin and bullion): - In 1910 the principal exports, in order of value, were wine (chiefly port, common wines and Madeira), raw and manufactured cork, preserved fish, fruits and vegetables, cottons and yarn, copper ore, timber, olive oil, skins, grain and flour, tobacco and wool. The imports were raw and manufactured cotton, wool and silk, wheat and maize, coal, iron and machinery, dried codfish, sugar, rice, hides and skins, oils. The United Kingdom, which annually purchases wine to the value of about £900,000 and cork to the value of about £500,000, is the chief consumer of Portuguese goods, and the chief exporter to Portugal. Germany and the United States rank respectively second and third among the countries which export to Portugal; Spain, which buys bullocks and pigs, Brazil, which buys wine, and the Portuguese colonies, which buy textiles, are among the chief purchasers of Portuguese products. In addition to its direct foreign commerce Portugal derives much benefit from its share in the trade between South America and Europe. Large liners from Liverpool, Southampton, London, Hamburg, Havre and Antwerp call regularly for passengers or cargo at Leixoes or Lisbon, or both ports, on their way to and from South America (especially Brazil). In connexion with this trade an important tourist traffic, chiefly from Great Britain and Germany, was developed towards the end of the 19th century.

Banks and Money

In 1910 the Bank of Portugal, to which the XXII. 5 a treasury was deeply indebted, had a capital of £1,500,000, and a monopoly of note issue in continental Portugal, but the notes of the Ultramarine Bank circulated in the colonies. The notes of the Bank of Portugal in circulation amounted in value to about £14,000,000. For an account of the Monte Pio Geral, which is a combined bank, pawnbroking establishment and benefit society, see Pawnbroking; the deposits in the Monte Pio and the State Savings Bank amounted in 1910 to some £5,228,000. There are also many private banks, including savings banks. Gold is the standard of value, but the actual currency is chiefly Bank of Portugal notes. The values of coin and notes are expressed in multiples of the real (plural reis), a monetary unit which does not actually exist. The milreis, 1000 reis of the par value of 4s. 5d. (or 4.5 milreis to the pound sterling) and the conto of reis (moo milreis) are used for the calculation of large sums. Gold pieces of 10, 5, 2 and 1 milreis were coined up to 1891; 10, 5, and 2 testoon (testdo) pieces, worth respectively 1000, 500 and 200 reis, are coined in silver; testoons of Ioo reis and half testoons of 50 reis, in nickel; pieces of 20, 10 and 5 reis in bronze. The milreis fluctuates widely in value, the balance of exchange being usually adverse to Portugal; for the purposes of this article the milreis has been taken at par. The British sovereign is legal tender for 4500 reis, but in practice usually commands a premium. The metric system of weights and measures has been officially adopted, but many older standards are used, such as the libra (1.012 lb avoirdupois), alqueire (0.36 imperial bushel), moio (2.78 imp. bushels), almude of Lisbon (3.7 imp. gallons) and almude of Oporto (5.6 imp. gallons).


For the five financial years,1901-1902to 1905-1906, the average revenue of Portugal was about £13,300,000 and the average expenditure £13,466,000. The chief sources of revenue were customs duties, taxes on land and industries, duties on tobacco and breadstuffs, the Lisbon octroi, receipts from national property, registration and stamps, &c. The heaviest expenditure (nearly £ 5,000,000) was incurred for the service of the consolidated debt; payments for the civil list, cortes, pensions, &c., amounted to more than £2,000,000, and the cost of public works to nearly as large a sum. The ministries of war and marine together spent about £ 2,500,000 each year. The practice of meeting deficits by loans, together with the great expenditure, after 1853, on public works, especially roads and railways, explains the rapid growth of the national debt in modern times. In 1853 the total public debt, internal and external, amounted to £2,082,680. It exceeded £90,000,000 in 1890, and in1891-1892the finances of the kingdom reached a crisis, from which there was no escape except by arranging for a reduction in the amount payable as interest (see History, below). By the law of the 26th of February 1892 30% was deducted from the internal debt payable in currency; by the law of the 20th of April 1893 663% was deducted from the interest on the external debt, due in gold. A law of the 9th of August 1902 provided for the conversion of certain gold debts into three series of consolidated debt, at reduced interest. In 1909 the total outstanding debt amounted to £161,837,430, made up as follows: new external 3% converted in three series, £34,223,465 42% tobacco loan £7,267,480; internal 3% (quoted in London) £ 11 3, 1 3 2 ,979. Internal debt at 3, 4 and 42% was also outstanding to the amount of £7,213,506.


Up to October 1910 the government was an hereditary and constitutional monarchy, based on the constitutional charter which was granted by King Pedro IV. on the 29th of April 1826, and was afterwards several times modified; the most important changes were those effected by the acts of the 5th of July 1852, the 24th of July 1885, and the 28th of March and 25th of September 1895. The revolution of the 5th of October 1910 brought the monarchy to an end and substituted republican government for it. The monarchical constitution recognized four powers in the state - the executive, moderating, legislative and judicial. The two first of these were vested in the sovereign, who might be a woman, and who shared the legislative power with two chambers, the Camara dos Pares or House of Peers, and the Camara dos Deputados or House of Commons; these were collectively styled the Corks Geraes, or more briefly the Conies. The royal veto could not be imposed on legislation passed twice by both houses. The annual session lasted four months, and a general election was necessary at the end of every four years, or immediately after a dissolution. A committee representing both houses adjudicated upon all cases of conflict between Peers and Commons; should it fail to reach a decision, the dispute was referred to the sovereign, whose award was final. Up to 1885 some members sat in the House of Peers by hereditary right, while others were nominated for life. It was then decided that such rights should cease, except in the case of princes of royal blood and members then sitting, and that when all the hereditary peerages had lapsed the house should be composed of the princes of the royal blood, the archbishops and bishops of the continental dioceses, a hundred legislative peers appointed by the king for life, and fifty elected every new parliament by the Commons. In 1895 the number of nominated life peers was reduced to ninety and the elective branch was abolished. Subject to certain limitations and to a property qualification, any person over 40 years of age was eligible to a peerage. The titles and social position of the Portuguese aristocracy were not affected when its political privileges were abolished. In the nomination of life peers, and in certain administrative matters the sovereign was advised by a council of state, whose twelve members were nominated for life and were principally past or present ministers. The sovereign exercised his executive power through a cabinet which was responsible to the cortes, and consisted of seven members, representing the ministries of (I) the interior, (2) foreign affairs, (3) finance, (4) justice and worship, (5) war, (6) marine and colonies, (7) public works, industry and commerce. The House of Commons was composed of 148 members, representing the 26 electoral divisions of Portugal, the Azores and Madeira, which returned 113 elected members and 35 representatives of minorities, and of 7 members representing the colonies. Peers, naturalized foreigners and certain employees of the state were unable to sit in the House of Commons; members were required to be graduates of one of the highest, secondary or professional schools, or to possess an income of not less than 400 milreis (88). All members might, in connexion with their official duties, travel free on railways and ships owned by the state; but since 1892 none had received any salary except the colonial members, who were paid loo milreis (£22) per month during the session, and So milreis (III) per month during the remainder of the year. All male citizens 21 years old who could read and write, or who paid taxes amounting to 500 reis yearly, had the parliamentary franchise, except convicts, beggars, undischarged bankrupts, domestic servants, workmen permanently employed by the state and soldiers or sailors below the rank of commissioned officer. (For changes made under republican rule, see History, § 8.) Local Government. - Continental Portugal was formerly divided for administrative purposes into six provinces which corresponded to a great extent with the natural geographical divisions of the country and are described in separate articles; the names of these, which are still commonly used, are Entre-Minho-e-Douro (also called Entre-Douro-e-Minho or Minho), Traz-os-Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alemtejo and Algarve. The province of Douro, another administrative division of less antiquity, comprised the present districts of Aveiro and Oporto, or part of Beira and EntreMinho-e-Douro. The six ancient provinces were subdivided on the 28th of June 1833 into districts, each named after its chief town, as follows: Entre-Minho-e-Douro into Vianna do Castello, Braga, Oporto; Traz-os-Montes, into Villa Real, Braganza; Beira, into Aveiro, Vizeu, Coimbra, Guarda, Castello Branco; Estremadura, into Leiria, Santarem, Lisbon; Alemtejo, into Portalegre, Evora, Beja; Algarve was renamed Faro. In 1910 the Azores comprised three districts and Madeira formed one. Each district was governed by a commission composed of (I) the civil governor, who was nominated by the central authority and presided over the commission; (2) the administrative auditor; and (3) three members chosen by indirect suffrage. The districts were divided into communes (concelhos), each administered by an elected council, and a mayor nominated by the central authority. The mayor could not preside over the council, which appointed one of its own members to preside and to give effect to its decisions. The communes were subdivided into parishes (freguesias), which were administered by the elected council (junta de parochia) over which the parish priest (presbitero) presided, and by the regedor, an official who represented the mayor of the commune and was nominated by the civil governor. The central authority had almost complete control over local administration through its representatives, the civil governor, mayors and regedores. Justice. - In 1910 Portugal was divided into 193 judicial districts (comarcas), in each of which there was a court of first instance. The three courts of appeal (tribunaes de relacao) sat at Lisbon, Oporto and Ponta Delgada (Azores), and there was a Supreme Court in Lisbon.


At the beginning of the 19th century Portugal possessed a larger colonial empire than any European power except Great Britain and Spain. At the beginning of the 10th century its transmarine possessions had been greatly reduced in size by the loss of Brazil, but were still only surpassed in extent by those of three powers - Great Britain, France and Germany. Their total area was about 803,000 sq. m., of which 7 9 4,000 sq. m. are in Africa. They comprised, in Africa, the Cape Verde Islands, St Thomas and Prince's Islands, Portuguese Guinea, Angola and Portuguese East Africa, or Mozambique; in India, Goa, Damaun and Diu; in China, Macao; and in the Malay Archipelago part of Timor. All these are described in separate articles. In all the white population is in a minority; in most the climate is unsuitable for European colonization, nor is the commercial value of the colonies commensurate with their extent. Viewed as a whole, Portuguese administration has been carried on under difficulties which have rendered it costly and inefficient, the home government being compelled to contribute a large annual subsidy towards its maintenance. The amount paid in subsidies from 1870 to 1900 was about £15,000,000.


Roman Catholicism was the state religion until 1910, but other creeds were tolerated, and the Church lost its temporal authority in 1834, when the monasteries were suppressed and their property confiscated for the first time. There are three ecclesiastical provinces - Braga, Lisbon and Evora, each under an archbishop. The archbishop of Braga, whose see is the most ancient, has the title of Primate; the archbishop of Lisbon has the honorary title of Patriarch, and is usually elected a cardinal. His province includes Madeira, the Azores and the West African colonies. There are fourteen dioceses, of which Oporto is the most important. The annual revenues of the upper hierarchy of the Church amounted, up to 1910, to about £65,000. In some of the larger towns the foreign residents have their own places of worship. (See further under History.) Education. - Primary education is regulated by a law of 1844, under which children between the ages of 7 and 15 are bound to attend a school, should there be one within a mile, under penalty to the parents of a fine and deprivation of civil rights. This law has not been strictly enforced; primary education was never properly organized; and, according to census returns, the proportion of the population (including children) unable to read was 82.4% in 1878, 79.2 in 1890 and 78.6 in 1900. There were in 1910 5250 public and 1750 private primary schools. In the chief towns there are training schools for teachers. The system of secondary education was reorganized in 1894. In 1905 there were state lyceums in each district capital and in Guimardes, Lamego and Amarante; 5 municipal lyceums, at Celorico de Basto, Chaves, Ponte de Lima, Povoa de Varzim and Setubal; military and naval colleges; a secondary school for girls in Lisbon; numerous private secondary schools and ecclesiastical seminaries; industrial, commercial and technical schools; and pilot schools at Lisbon, Oporto, Faro and Ponta Delgada (Azores). Other important educational institutions are described under Lisbon and Oporto. The national university is at Coimbra (q.v.).


Under the monarchy, the army was maintained at its normal strength partly by voluntary enlistment and conscription, the chief law regulating it being that of 1887, as variously modified in subsequent years. The cortes fixed the number of conscripts to be enrolled in each year: in 1905, 15,000 men for the army, moo for the navy, 500 for the municipal guards and 400 for the fiscal guards. The organization of the army was based on the acts of the 7th of September 1899 and the 24th of December 1901. With certain exceptions all men over 21 years of age were liable for service3 years in the regular army, 5 years in the first reserve and 7 years in the second reserve; but exemption could always be purchased. In time of war, the municipal guards, numbering about 2200, and the fiscal guards, numbering about 5200, might be incorporated in the army. The total effective force of the active army on a peace footing was 1787 officers, 31,281 men, 6479 horses and mules and 100 guns. The total effective force on a war footing, inclusive of reservists, municipal guards and fiscal guards, was 4221 officers, 178,603 men, 19,600 horses and mules and 336 guns. Lisbon, Elvas and Angra in the Azores, were considered first-class fortresses, but only Lisbon had modern defences. The Portuguese navy in 1910 consisted of 1 armoured vessel, 5 protected cruisers, 2 third-class cruisers, 19 gunboats, I torpedo gunboat, 4 torpedo boats, 16 river gunboats, 4 transports and 3 training ships. Twelve other vessels, including 2 submarines, were under construction. The whole fleet was manned by about 5000 men.


Numerous official reports, chiefly statistical, are published periodically in Lisbon; a few are written in French, the majority in Portuguese. Read in conjunction with the British consular and diplomatic reports, they afford a comprehensive survey of the movement of population, the progress of trade, &c. The following state papers deserve special notice: Caminhos de ferro (1877, &c.), Commercio e navigarao (annual, issued by the Ministry of Marine), Le Portugal vinicole (1900), Le Portugal .... agricole (1900), Notas sobre Portugal (2 vols., 1908). For geology, see the section of Le Portugal .... agricole written by P. Choffat and entitled " Apergu de la geologie de Portugal," also " The Work of the Portuguese Geological Survey," by Philip Lake, in Science Progress (1896) v. 439-453; both these summaries refer to the most important original papers. Two illustrated volumes by Oswald Crawford, Portugal Old and New (London, 1880) and Round the Calendar in Portugal (London, 1890) contain much valuable information on agriculture, viticulture and peasant life in the northern provinces. Through Portugal, by Major Martin Hume (London, 1907) and Lisbon and Cintra, by A. A. Inchbold (London, 1908), describe the towns, &c., most frequently visited by tourists, and are illustrated in colours. Le Portugal (Paris, 1899), by 18 writers, is a brief but encyclopaedic description of continental Portugal. See also Portugal: its Land and People, by W. H. Koebel (London, 1909), and Portuguese Architecture, by W. C. Watson (London, 1908). The following books deal comprehensively with the Portuguese colonies; As Colonias portuguezas, by E. J. de Vasconcellos (2nd ed., Lisbon, 1903), Les Colonies portugaises, by A. de Almada Negreiros (Paris, 1908). (K. G. J.) History Throughout the centuries which witnessed the destruction of Carthaginian power by Rome, the establishment and decline of Latin civilization, the invasion by Alani, Suevi and other barbarian races, the resettlement under Visigothic rule and the overthrow of the Visigoths by Arab and Berber tribes from Africa, Portugal remained an undifferentiated part of Hispania, without sign of national consciousness. The Iberian Peninsula was one: and its common history is related under Spain. It is true that some Portuguese writers have sought to identify their race with the ancient Lusitani, and have claimed for it a separate and continuous existence dating from the 2nd century B.C. The revolt of Lusitania against the Romans has been regarded as an early manifestation of Portuguese love of liberty, Viriathus as a national hero. But this theory, which originated in the 15th century and was perpetuated in the title of The Lusiads, has no historical foundation. In 1095 Portugal was an obscure border fief of the kingdom of Leon. Its territories, far from the centres of European civilization and consisting largely of mountain, moorland and forest, were bounded on the north by the Minho, on the south by the Mondego. Its name (Portucalia, Terra portucalensis) was derived from the little seaport of Portus Cale or Villa Nova de Gaia, now a suburb of Oporto, at the mouth of the Douro. Its inhabitants, surrounded by Moorish or Spanish enemies and distracted by civil war, derived such rudiments of civilization as they possessed from Arabic or Leonese sources. But from these obscure beginnings Portugal rose in four centuries to be the greatest maritime, commercial and colonial power in Europe.
The history of the nation comprises eight periods. (I) Between 1095 and 1279 a Portuguese kingdom was established and extended until it reached its present continental limits. (2) Between 1279 and 1415 the monarchy was gradually consolidated in spite of resistance from the Church, the nobles and the rival kingdom of Castile. (3) In 1415 began a period of crusades and discoveries, culminating in the discovery of an ocean-route to India (1497-1499). (4) From 1499 to 1580 Portugal acquired an empire stretching from Brazil eastward to the Moluccas, reached the zenith of its prosperity and entered upon a period of swift decline. (5) Spanish kings ruled over Portugal from 1581 to 1640. (6) The chief event of the years 1640 to 1755 was the restoration of the Portuguese monarchy. (7) Between 1755 and 1826 the reforms of Pombal and the Peninsular War prepared the country for a change from absolutism to constitutional monarchy. (8) In 1826 the era of constitutional government began.
1. The Establishment of the Monarc/iy. - The origin of Portugal, as a separate state, was an incident in the Christian reconquest of Spain. Towards the close of the 11th century crusading knights came from every part of Europe to aid the kings of northern and central Spain in driving out the Moors. Among these adventurers was Count Henry of Burgundy, an ambitious warrior who, in 1095, married Theresa, natural daughter of Alphonso VI., king of Leon. The county of Portugal, which had already been won back from the Moors (1055-1064), was included in Theresa's dowry. Count Henry ruled as a vassal of Alphonso VI., whose Galician marches were thus secured against any sudden Moorish raid. But in 1109 Alphonso VI. died, bequeathing all his territories to his legitimate daughter Urraca, and Count Henry at once invaded Leon, hoping to add to his own dominions at the expense of his suzerain. After three years of war against Urraca and other rival claimants to the throne of Leon, Count Henry himself died in 1112. He left Theresa to govern Portugal north of the Mondego during the minority of her infant son Affonso Henriques (Alphonso I.): south of the Mondego the Moors were still supreme.
Theresa renewed the struggle against her half-sister and suzerain Urraca in 1116-1117, and again in I r 20; in 1121 she was besieged in Lanhoso and captured. But a peace was negotiated by the archbishops Diogo p g Y o P g Gelmires of Santiago de Compostela and Burdino of Braga, rival churchmen whose wealth and military resources enabled them to dictate terms. Bitter jealousy existed between the two prelates, each claiming to be primate of " all the Spains," and their antagonism had some historical importance in so far as it fostered the growth of separatist tendencies among the Portuguese. But the quarrel was temporarily suspended because both Gelmires and Burdino had reason to dread the extension of Urraca's authority. It was arranged that Theresa should be liberated and should continue to hold the county of Portugal as a fief (honor) of Leon. During the next five years she lavished wealth and titles upon her lover Fernando Peres, count of Trava, thus estranging her son, the archbishop of Braga and the nobles, most of whom were foreign crusaders. In I128, after her power had been crushed in another unsuccessful conflict with Leon and Castile, she was deposed by her own rebellious subjects and exiled in company with Peres. She died in 1130. Alphonso, who became count of Portugal in 1128, was one of the warrior heroes of medieval romance; his exploits were sung by troubadours throughout south-western Europe, and even in Africa " ibn Errik " - the son of Henry - was known and feared. The annals of his reign have been encum Alphonso 1., bered with a mass of legends, among which must be g g included the account of a cortes held at Lamego in 1143; probably also the description of the Valdevez tournament, in which the Portuguese knights are said to have vanquished the champions of Leon and Castile. Alphonso was occupied in almost incessant border fighting against his Christian or Moorish neighbours. Twelve years of campaigning on the Galician frontier were concluded in 1143 by the peace of Zamora, in which Alphonso was recognized as independent of any Spanish sovereign, although he promised to be a faithful vassal of the pope and to pay him a yearly tribute of four ounces of gold. In 1167, however, the war was renewed. Alphonso succeeded in conquering part of Galicia, but in attempting to capture the frontier fortress of Badajoz he was wounded and forced to surrender to Ferdinand II. of Leon (1169). Ferdinand was his son-in-law, and was probably disposed to leniency by the imminence of a Moorish invasion in which Portugal could render useful assistance. Alphonso was therefore released under promise to abandon all his conquests in Galicia.
He had already won many victories over the Moors. At the beginning of his reign the religious fervour which had sustained the Almoravide dynasty was rapidly subsiding; in Portugal independent Moorish chiefs ruled over cities and petty states, ignoring the central government; in Africa the Almohades were destroying the remnants of the Almoravide power. Alphonso took advantage of these dissensions to invade Alemtejo, reinforced by the Templars and Hospitallers, whose respective headquarters were at Soure and Thomar. On the 25th of July 1139 he defeated the combined forces of the Moors on the plains of Ourique, in Alemtejo. Legend has magnified the victory into the rout of 200,000 Moslems under five kings; but so far was the battle from being decisive that in 1140 the Moors were able to seize the fortress of Leiria, built by Alphonso in 1135 as an outpost for the defence of Coimbra, his capital. In 1144 they defeated the Templars at Soure. But on the 15th of March 1147 Alphonso stormed the fortress of Santarem, and about the same time a band of crusaders on their way to Palestine landed at Oporto and volunteered for the impending siege of Lisbon. Among them were many Englishmen, Germans and Flemings, who were afterwards induced to settle in Portugal. Aided by these powerful allies, Alphonso captured Lisbon on the 24th of October 1147. This was the greatest military achievement of his reign. The Moorish garrisons of Palmella, Cintra and Almada soon capitulated, and in 1158 Alcacer do Sal, one of the chief centres of Moorish commerce, was taken by storm. At this time, however, the Almohades had triumphed in Africa and invaded the Peninsula, where they were able to check the Portuguese reconquest, although isolated bands of crusading adventurers succeeded in establishing themselves in various cities of Alemtejo. The most famous of these free-lances was Giraldo Sempavor (" Gerald the Fearless "), who captured Evora in 1166. In 1171 Alphonso concluded a seven years' truce with the Moors; weakened by his wound and by old age, he could no longer take the field, and when the war broke out afresh he delegated the chief command to his son Sancho. Between 1179 and 1184 the Moors retrieved many of their losses in Alemtejo, but were unable to retake Santarem and Lisbon. Alphonso died on the 6th of December 1185. He had secured for Portugal the status though not the name of an independent kingdom, and had extended its frontier southwards from the Mondego to the Tagus. He had laid the foundation of its navy and had strengthened, if he did not inaugurate, that system of co-operation between the Crown and the military orders which afterwards proved of incalculable service in the maritime and colonial development of the nation.
Sancho I. continued the war against the Moors with varying fortune. In 1189 he won Silves, then the capital of Algarve; in 1192 he lost not only Algarve but the greater part of Alemtejo, including Alcacer do Sal. A eace was ancho 1, g p 11 8 ,x1 211 . then arranged, and for the next eight years Sancho was engaged in hostilities against Alphonso IX. of Leon. The motives and course of this indecisive struggle are equally obscure. It ended in 1201, and the last decade of Sancho's reign was a period of peaceful reform which earned for the king his popular name of o Povoador, the " maker of towns." He granted fresh charters to many cities, legalizing the system of self-government which the Romans had bequeathed to the Visigoths and the Moors had retained or improved. Lisbon had already (1179) received a charter from Alphonso I. Sancho also endeavoured to foster immigration and agriculture, by granting estates to the military orders and municipalities on condition that the occupiers should cultivate or colonize their lands. Towards the close of his reign he became embroiled in a dispute with Pope Innocent III. He had insisted that priests should accompany their flocks in battle, had made them amenable to secular jurisdiction, had withheld the tribute due to Rome and had even claimed the right of disposing of ecclesiastical domains. Finally he had quarrelled with Martinho Rodrigues, the unpopular bishop of Oporto, who was besieged for five months in his palace and then forced to seek redress in Rome (1209). As Sancho was in weak health and had no means of resisting Papal pressure, he made full submission (1210); and after bestowing large estates on his sons and daughters, he retired into the monastery of Alcobaca (q.v.), where he died in 1211.
The reign of Alphonso II. (" the Fat ") is noteworthy for the first meeting of the Portuguese cortes, to which the upper hierarchy of the Church and the nobles (fidalgos and ricos homens) were summoned by royal writ. The king was no warrior, but in 1212 a Portuguese con- 1223. tingent aided the Castilians to defeat the Moors at Las Navas de Tolosa, and in 1217 the ministers, bishops and captains of the realm, reinforced by foreign crusaders, retook Alcacer do Sal. Alfonso II. repudiated the will of his father, refused to surrender the estates left to his brothers, who went into exile, and only gave up the property bequeathed to his sisters after a prolonged civil war in which Alphonso IX. of Leon took part against them. Even then he compelled the heiresses to take the veil. His attempts to strengthen the monarchy and fill the treasury at the expense of the Church resulted in his excommunication by Pope Honorius III., and Portugal remained under interdict until Alphonso II. died in 1223.
Sancho II. succeeded at the age of thirteen. To secure the removal of the interdict the leading statesmen who were identified with the policy of his father - Goncalo Mendes the 23 chancellor, Pedro Annes the lord chamberlain 1223--121248. (mordomo-mor) and Vicente, dean of Lisbon - resigned their offices. Estevao Soares, archbishop of Braga, placed himself at the head of the nobles and churchmen who threatened to usurp the royal power during Sancho II.'s minority, and negotiated an alliance with Alphonso IX., by which it was arranged that the Portuguese should attack Elvas, the Spaniards Badajoz. Elvas was taken from the Moors in 1226, and in 1227 Sancho assumed control of the kingdom. He reinstated Pedro Annes, made Vicente chancellor, and appointed Martim Annes chief standard-bearer (alferes mor). He continued the crusade against the Moors, who were driven from their last strongholds in Alemtejo, and in 1239-1244, after a dispute with ROme which was once more ended by the imposition of an interdict and the submission of the Portuguese ruler, he won many successes in the Algarve. But his career of conquest was cut short by a revolution (1245), for which his marriage to a Castilian lady, D. Mecia Lopez de Haro, furnished a pretext. The legitimacy of the union has been questioned, on grounds which appear insufficient; but of its unpopularity there can be no doubt. The bishops, resenting the favour shown by Sancho to his father's anti-clerical ministers, took advantage of this unpopularity to organize the rebellion. They found a leader in Sancho's brother Alphonso, count of Boulogne, who owed his title to a marriage with Matilda, countess of Boulogne. The pope issued a bull of deposition in favour of Alphonso, who reached Lisbon in 1246; and after a civil war lasting two years Sancho II. retired to Toledo, where he died in January 1248.
One of the first acts of the usurper, and one of the most important, was to abandon the semi-ecclesiastical titles of visitor (visitador) or defender (curador) of the realm, and to 111., 1248- proclaim himself king (rei). Hitherto the position 1279. of the monarchy had been precarious; as in Aragon the nobles and the church had exercised a large measure of control over their nominal head, and though it would be pedantry to over-emphasize the importance of the royal title, its assumption by Alphonso III. does mark a definite stage in the evolution of a national monarchy and a centralized government. A second stage was reached shortly afterwards by the conquest of Algarve, the last remaining stronghold of the Moors. This drew down upon Portugal the anger of Alphonso X. of Leon and Castile, surnamed the Wise, who claimed suzerainty over Algarve. The war which followed was ended by Alphonso III. consenting to wed Donna Beatriz de Guzman, illegitimate daughter of Alphonso X., and to hold Algarve as a fief of Castile. The celebration of this marriage, while Matilda, countess of Boulogne and first wife of Alphonso III., was still alive, entailed the imposition of an interdict upon the kingdom. In 1254 Alphonso III. summoned a cortes at Leiria, in which the chief cities were represented, as well as the nobles and clergy. Fortified by their support the king refused to submit to Rome. At the cortes of Coimbra (1261), he further strengthened his position by conciliating the representatives of the cities, who denounced the issue of a debased coinage, and by recognizing that taxation could not be imposed without consent of the cortes. The clergy suffered more than the laity under a prolonged interdict, and in 1262 Pope Urban VI. legalized the disputed marriage and legitimized Dom Diniz, the king's eldest son. Thus ended the contest for supremacy between Church and Crown. The monarchy owed its triumph to its championship of national interests, to the support of the municipalities and military orders, and to the prestige gained by the royal armies in the Moorish and Castilian wars. In 1263 Alphonso X. renounced his claim to suzerainty over Algarve, and thus the kingdom of Portugal simultaneously reached its present European limits and attained its complete independence. Lisbon was henceforth recognized as the capital. Alphonso III. continued to reign until his death in 1279, but the peace of his later years was broken by the rebellion (1277-1279) of D. Diniz,' the heir-apparent.
2. The Consolidation of the Monarchy: 1279-1415. - The chief problems now confronting the monarchy were no longer military, but social, economic and constitutional. It is true that the reign of Diniz was not a period of uninterrupted peace. At the outset his legitimacy was disputed by his brother Alphonso, and a brief civil war ensued. Hostilities between Portugal and the reunited kingdoms of Leon and Castile were terminated in 1297 by a treaty of alliance, in accordance with which Ferdinand IV. of Leon and Castile married Constance, daughter of Diniz, while Alphonso, son of Diniz, married Beatrice of Castile, daughter of Ferdinand. A further outbreak of civil war, between the king and the heir-apparent, was averted in 1293 by the queen-consort Isabella of Portugal, who had married Diniz in 1281, and was canonized for her many virtues in the 16th century. She rode between the hostile camps, and succeeded in arranging an honourable peace between her husband and her son.
These wars were too brief to interfere seriously with the social reconstruction to which the king devoted himself. At his accession the Portuguese people was far from homogeneous; it would be long before its component g ? g p races - Moors and Mozarabs of the south, Galicians of the north, Jews and foreign crusaders - could be fused into one nationality. There were also urgent economic problems to be solved. The Moors had made Alemtejo the granary of Portugal, but war had undone their work, and large tracts of land were now barren and depopulated. Commerce and education had similarly been subordinated to the struggle for national existence. The machinery of administration was out of date and complicated by the authority of feudal and ecclesiastical courts. The supremacy of the Crown, though recognized, was still unstable. It was Diniz who initiated the needful reforms. He earned his title of the rei lavrador or "farmer king " by introducing improved methods of cultivation and founding agricultural schools. He encouraged maritime trade by negotiating a commercial treaty with England (1294) and forming a royal navy (1317) under the command of a Genoese admiral named Emmanuele di Pezagna (Manoel Pessanha). In 1290 he founded the university of Coimbra (q.v.). He was a poet and a patron of literature and music (see Literature, below). His chief administrative reforms were designed to secure centralized government and to limit the jurisdiction of feudal courts. He encouraged and nationalized the military orders. In 1290 the Portuguese knights of Sao Thiago (Santiago) were definitely separated from the parent Spanish order. The orders of Crato and of St Benedict of Aviz had already been established, the traditional dates of their incorporation being 1113 and 1162. After the condemnation of the Templars by Pope Clement V. (1312) an ecclesiastical commission investigated the charges against the Portuguese branch of the order, and found in its favour. As the Templars were rich, influential and loyal, Diniz took advantage of the death of Clement V. to maintain the order under a new name; the Order of Christ, as it was henceforth called, received the benediction of the pope in 1319 and subsequently played an important part in the colonial expansion of Portugal.
Alphonso IV. adhered to the matrimonial policy initiated by Diniz. He arranged that his daughter Maria should wed Alphonso XI. of Castile (1328), but the marriage precipitated the war it was intended to avert, and IV., 1325- peace was only restored (1330) after Queen Isabella 1357. had again intervened. Pedro, the crown prince, afterwards married Constance, daughter of the duke of Penafiel (near Valladolid), and Alphonso IV. brought a strong Portuguese army to aid the Castilians against the Moors of Granada and their African allies. In the victory won by the Christians on the banks of the river Salado, near Tarifa, he earned his title of Alphonso the Brave (1340). In 1347 he married his daughter Leonora 1 Throughout this article the abbreviation D. is used for the Portuguese title Dom and for its feminine form Dona (see DoMINus).
(Lenor) to Pedro IV. of Aragon. The later years of his reign were darkened by the tragedy of Inez de Castro. He died in 1357, and the first act of his successor, Pedro the Severe, 1., was to take vengeance on the murderers of Inez. Pedro 1357-1367. Throughout his reign he strengthened the central government at the expense of the aristocracy and the Church, by a stern enforcement of law and order. In 1361, at the cortes of Elvas, it was enacted that the privileges of the clergy should only be deemed valid in so far as they did not conflict with the royal prerogative. Pedro maintained friendly relations with England, where in 1352 Edward III. issued a proclamation in favour of Portuguese traders, and in 1353 the Portuguese envoy Affonso Martins Alho signed a covenant with the merchants of London, guaranteeing mutual good faith in all commercial dealings.
The foreign policy of Diniz, Alphonso IV. and Pedro I. had been, as a rule, successful in its main object, the preservation of peace with the Christian kingdoms of Spain; in consequence, the Portuguese had advanced in prosperity and culture. They had supported the monarchy because it was a national institution, hostile to the tyranny of nobles and clergy. During the reign of Ferdinand (1367-1383) and under the regency of Leonora the ruling dynasty ceased to represent the national will; the Portuguese people therefore made an end of the dynasty and chose its own ruler. The complex events which brought about this crisis may be briefly summarized.
Ferdinand, a weak but ambitious and unscrupulous king, claimed the thrones of Castile and Leon, left vacant by the death of Pedro I. of Castile (1369); he based his claim on the fact that his grandmother Beatrice 1367-1385. belonged to the legitimate line of Castile. When the majority of the Castilian nobles refused to accept a Portuguese sovereign, and welcomed Henry of Trastamara (see Spain: History), as Henry II. of Castile, Ferdinand allied himself with the Moors and Aragonese; but in 1371 Pope Gregory XI. intervened, and it was decided that Ferdinand should renounce his claim and marry Leonora, the daughter of his successful rival. Ferdinand, however, preferred his Portuguese mistress, Leonora Telles de Menezes, whom he eventually married. To avenge this slight, Henry of Castile invaded Portugal and besieged Lisbon. Ferdinand appealed to John of Gaunt, who also claimed the throne of Castile, on behalf of his wife Constance, daughter of Pedro I. of Castile. An alliance between Portugal and England was concluded; and although Ferdinand made peace with Castile in 1374, he renewed his claim in 1380, after the death of Henry of Castile, and sent Joao Fernandes Andeiro, count of Ourem, to secure English aid. In 1381 Richard II. of England despatched a powerful force to Lisbon, and betrothed his cousin Prince Edward to Beatrice, only child of Ferdinand, who had been recognized as heiress to the throne by the cortes of Leiria (1376). In 1383, however, Ferdinand made peace with John I. of Castile at Salvaterra, deserting his English allies, who retaliated by ravaging part of his territory. By the treaty of Salvaterra it was agreed that Beatrice should marry John I. Six months later Ferdinand died, and in accordance with the terms of the treaty Leonora became regent until the eldest son of John I. and Beatrice should be of age.
Leonora had long carried on an intrigue with the count of Ourem, whose influence was resented by the leaders of the aristocracy, while her tyrannical rule also aroused of bitter opposition. The malcontents chose D. John, 1383.1383. grand-master of the knights of Aviz and illegitimate son of Pedro the Severe, as their leader, organized a revolt in Lisbon, and assassinated the count of Ourem within the royal palace (Dec. 6, 1383). Leonora fled to Santarem and summoned aid from Castile, while D. John was proclaimed defender of Portugal. In 1384 a Castilian army invested Lisbon, but encountered a heroic resistance, and after five months an outbreak of plague compelled them to raise the siege. John I. of Castile, discovering or alleging that Leonora had plotted to poison him, imprisoned her in a convent at Tordesillas, where she died in 1386. Before this, Nuno Alvares Pereira, constable of Portugal, had gained his popular title of " The Holy Constable " by twice defeating the invaders, at Atoleiro and Trancoso in the district of Guarda.
On the 16th of April 1385 the cortes assembled at Coimbra declared the crown of Portugal elective, and at the instance of Joao das Regras, the chancellor, D. John was chosen king. No event in the early constitutional history of Portugal is more important than this election, which definitely affirmed the national character of the monarchy. The choice of the grand-master of Aviz ratified the old alliance between the Crown and the military orders; his election by the whole cortes not only ratified the alliance between the Crown and the commons, but also included the nobles and the Church. The nation was unanimous.
Ferdinand had been the last legitimate descendant of Count Henry of Burgundy. With John I. began the rule of a new dynasty, the House of Aviz. The most urgent matter which confronted the king - or the group of statesmen, led by Joao das Regras and the " Holy Constable " who inspired his policy - was the menace of Castilian aggression. But on the 14th of August 1385 the Portuguese army, aided by 500 English archers, utterly defeated the Castilians at Aljubarrota. By this victory the Portuguese showed themselves equal in military power to their strongest rivals in the Peninsula. In October the " Holy Constable " won another victory at Valverde; early in 1386 5000 English soldiers, under John of Gaunt, reinforced the Portuguese; and by the treaty of Windsor (May 9, 1386), the alliance between Portugal and England was confirmed and extended. Against such a combination the Castilians were powerless; a truce was arranged in 1387 and renewed at intervals until 1411, when peace was concluded. D. Diniz, eldest son of Inez de Castro, claimed the throne and invaded Portugal in 1398, but his supporters were easily crushed. The domestic and foreign policy pursued by John I. until his death in 1433 may be briefly described. At home he endeavoured to reform administration, to encourage agriculture and commerce, and to secure the loyalty of the nobles by grants of land and privileges so extensive that, towards the end of his reign, many nobles who exercised their full feudal rights had become almost independent princes. Abroad, he aimed at peace with Castile and close friendship with England. In 1387 he had married Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt; Richard II. sent troops to aid in the expulsion of D. Diniz; Henry IV., Henry V. and Henry VI. of England successively ratified the treaty of Windsor; Henry IV. made his ally a knight of the Garter in 1400. The convent of Batalha (q.v.), founded to commemorate the victory of Aljubarrota, is architecturally a monument of the English influence prevalent at this time throughout Portugal.
The cortes of Coimbra, the battle of Aljubarrota and the treaty of Windsor mark the three final stages in the consolidation of the monarchy. A period of expansion oversea began in the same reign, with the capture of Ceuta in Morocco. The three eldest sons of King John and Queen Philippa - Edward, Pedro and Henry, afterwards celebrated as Prince Henry the Navigator - desired to win knighthood by service against the Moors, the historic enemies of their country and creed. In 1415 a Portuguese fleet, commanded by the king and the three princes, set sail for Ceuta. English men-at-arms were sent by Henry V. to take part in the expedition, which proved successful. The town was captured and garrisoned, and thus the first Portuguese outpost was established on the mainland of Africa.
3. The Period of Discoveries: 1415-1499. - Before describing in outline the course of the discoveries which were soon to render Portugal the foremost colonizing power in Europe it is necessary to indicate the main causes which contributed to that result. As the south-westernmost of the free peoples of Europe, the Portuguese were the natural inheritors of that work of exploration which had been carried on during the middle ages, chiefly by the Arabs. They began where the Arabs left off, by penetrating far into the Atlantic. The long littoral of their country, with its fine harbours and rivers flowing westward to the ocean, had been the training-ground of a race of adventurous seamen. It was impossible, moreover, to expand or reach new markets except by sea: the interposition of Castile and Aragon, so often hostile, completely prevented any intercourse by land between Portugal and other European countries. Consequently the Portuguese merchants sent their goods by sea to England, Flanders, or the Hanse towns. The whole history of the nation had also inspired a desire for fresh conquests among its leaders. Portugal had won and now held its independence by the sword. The long struggle to expel the Moors, with the influence of foreign Crusaders and the military orders, had given a religious sanction to the desire for martial fame. Nowhere was the ancient crusading spirit so active a political force. To make war upon Islam seemed to the Portuguese their natural destiny and their duty as Christians.
It was the genius of Prince Henry the Navigator (q.v.) that co-ordinated and utilized all these tendencies towards expansion. Prince Henry placed at the disposal of his captains the vast resources of the Order of Christ, the best information and the most accurate instruments and maps which could be obtained. He sought to effect a junction with the half-fabulous Christian Empire of " Prester John " by way of the " Western Nile," i.e. the Senegal, and, in alliance with that potentate, to crush the Turks and liberate Palestine. The conception of an ocean route to India appears to have originated after his death. On land he again defeated the Moors, who attempted to re-take Ceuta in 1418; but in an expedition to Tangier, undertaken in 1436 by King Edward (1433-1438), the Portuguese army was defeated, and could only escape destruction by surrendering as a hostage Prince Ferdinand, the king's youngest brother. Ferdinand, known as " the Constant," from the fortitude with which he endured captivity, died unransomed in 1 443. By sea Prince Henry's captains continued their exploration of Africa and the Atlantic. In 1433 Cape Bojador was doubled; in 1 434 the first consignment of slaves was brought to Lisbon; and slave trading soon became one of the most profitable branches of Portuguese commerce. The Senegal was reached in 1445, Cape Verde was passed in the same year, and in 1446 Alvaro Fernandes pushed on almost as far as Sierra Leone. This was probably the farthest point reached before the Navigator died (1460). Meanwhile colonization progressed in the Azores and Madeira, where sugar and wine were produced; above all, the gold brought home from Guinea stimulated the commercial energy of the Portuguese. It had become clear that, apart from their religious and scientific aspects, these voyages of discovery were highly profitable. Under Alphonso V., surnamed the African (1443-1481), the Gulf of Guinea was explored as far as Cape St Catherine, and three expeditions (1458, 1461, 1471) were sent to Morocco; in 1471 Arzila (Asila) and Tangier were captured from the Moors. Under John II. (1481-1495) the fortress of Sao Jorge da Mina, the modern Elmina, was founded for the protection of the Guinea trade in 1481-1482; Diogo Cam, or Cao, discovered the Congo in 1482 and reached Cape Cross in 1486; Bartholomeu Diaz doubled the Cape of Good Hope in 1488, thus proving that the Indian Ocean was accessible by sea. After 1492 the discovery of the West Indies by Columbus rendered desirable a delimitation of the Spanish and Portuguese spheres of exploration. This was accomplished by the treaty of Tordesillas (June 7, 1 494) which modified the delimitation authorized by Pope Alexander VI. in two bulls issued on the 4th of May, 1493. The treaty gave to Portugal all lands which might be discovered east of a straight line drawn from the Arctic Pole to the Antarctic, at a distance of 370 leagues west of Cape Verde. Spain received the lands discovered west of this line. As, however, the known means of measuring longitude were so inexact that the line of demarcation could not in practice be determined (see J. de Andrade Corvo in Journal das Sciencias Mathematicas, xxxi. 147-176, Lisbon, 1881), the treaty was subject to very diverse interpretations. On its provisions were based both the Portuguese claim to Brazil and the Spanish claim to the Moluccas (see Malay Archipelago: History). The treaty was chiefly valuable to the Portuguese as a recognition of the prestige they had acquired. That prestige was enormously enhanced when, in 1497-1499, Vasco da Gama completed the voyage to India.
While the Crown was thus acquiring new possessions, its authority in Portugal was temporarily overshadowed by the growth of aristocratic privilege. At the cortes of Evora (1433) King Edward had obtained the enactment of a law' declaring that the estates granted by John I. to his adherents could only be inherited by the direct male descendants of the grantees, and failing such descendants, should revert to the Crown. After the death of Edward further attempts to curb the power of the nobles were made by his brother, D. Pedro, duke of Coimbra, who acted as regent during the minority of Alphonso V. (1438-1447). The head of the aristocratic opposition was the duke of Braganza, who contrived to secure the sympathy of the king and the dismissal of the regent. The quarrel led to civil war, and in May 1449 D. Pedro was defeated and killed. Thenceforward the grants made by John I. were renewed, and extended on so lavish a scale that the Braganza estates alone comprised about a third of the whole kingdom. An unwise foreign policy simultaneously injured the royal prestige, for Alphonso married his own niece, Joanna, daughter of Henry IV. of Castile, and claimed that kingdom in her name. At the battle of Toro, in 1476, he was defeated by Ferdinand and Isabella, and in 1478 he was compelled to sign the treaty of Alcantara, by which Joanna was relegated to a convent. His successor, John II. (1481-1495) reverted to the policy of matrimonial alliances with Castile and. friendship with England. Finding, as he said, that the liberality of former kings had left the Crown " no estates except the high roads of Portugal," he determined to crush the feudal nobility and seize its territories. A cortes held at Evora (1481) empowered judges nominated by the Crown to administer justice in all feudal domains. The nobles resisted this infringement of their rights; but their leader, Ferdinand, duke of Braganza, was beheaded for high treason in 1483; in 1484 the king stabbed to death his own brother-in-law, Ferdinand, duke of Vizeu; and 80 other members of the aristocracy were afterwards executed. Thus John " the Perfect," as he was called, assured the supremacy of the Crown. He was succeeded in 1495 by Emanuel (Manoel) I., who was named " the Great " or " the Fortunate," because in his reign the sea route to India was discovered and a Portuguese Empire founded.
4. The Portuguese Empire: 1499-1580. - In 1500 King Emanuel assumed the title " Lord of the conquest, navigation and commerce of India, Ethiopia, Arabia and Persia," which was confirmed by Pope Alexander VI. in 1502. It was now upon schemes of conquest that the energy of the nation was to be concentrated, although the motives which called forth that energy were unchanged. " We come to seek Christians and spices," said the first of Vasco da Gama's sailors who landed in India: and the combination of missionary ardour with commercial enterprise which had led to the exploration of the Atlantic led also to the establishment of a Portuguese Empire. This expansion of national interests proceeded rapidly in almost every quarter of the known world. In the North Atlantic Gaspar and Miguel Corte-Real penetrated as far as Greenland (their " Labrador ") in 1500-1501; but these voyages were politically and commercially unimportant. Equally barren was the intermittent fighting in Morocco, which was regarded as a crusade against the Moors. In the South Atlantic, however, the African coast was further explored, new settlements were founded, and a remarkable development of Portuguese-African civilization took place in the kingdom of Kongo (see Angola).
1 Known as the lei mental, because it was supposed to fulfil the intention which John I. had in mind when the grants were made.
Pedro Alvares Cabral, sailing to India, but steering far westward to avoid the winds and currents of the Guinea coast, reached Brazil Woo) and claimed it for his sovereign. Joao da Nova discovered Ascension (1501) and St Helena (1502);(1502); Tristao da Cunha was the first to sight the archipelago still known by his name (1506). In East Africa the small Mahommedan states along the coast - Sofala, Mozambique, Kilwa, Brava, Mombasa, Malindi - either were destroyed or became subjects or allies of Portugal. Pedro de Covilham had reached Abyssinia as early as 1490; in 1520 a Portuguese embassy arrived at the court of " Prester John," and in 1541 a military force was sent to aid him in repelling a Mahommedan invasion. In the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea, one of Cabral's ships discovered Madagascar (150r), which was partly explored by Tristao da Cunha (1507); Mauritius was discovered in 1507, Socotra occupied in 1506, and in the same year D. Louren90 d'Almeida visited Ceylon. In the Red Sea Massawa was the most northerly point frequented by the Portuguese until 1541, when a fleet under Estevao da Gama penetrated as far as Suez. Hormuz, in the Persian Gulf, was seized by Alphonso d'Albuquerque (1515), who also entered into diplomatic relations with Persia. On the Asiatic mainland the first trading-stations were established by Cabral at Cochin and Calicut (1501); more important, however, were the conquest of Goa (1510) and Malacca (1511) by Albuquerque, and the acquisition of Diu (1535) by Martini Affonso de Sousa. East of Malacca, Albuquerque sent Duarte Fernandes as envoy to Siam (1511), and despatched to the Moluccas two expeditions (1512, 1514), which founded the Portuguese dominion in the Malay Archipelago (q.v.). Fernao Pires de Andrade visited Canton in 1517 and opened up trade with China, where in 1557 the Portuguese were permitted to occupy Macao. Japan, accidentally discovered by three Portuguese traders in 1542, soon attracted large numbers of merchants and missionaries (see Japan, § viii.). In 1522 one of the ships of Ferdinand Magellan - a Portuguese sailor, though in the Spanish service - completed the first voyage round the world.
Up to 1505 the Portuguese voyages to the East were little more than trading ventures or plundering raids, although a few " factories " for the exchange of goods were and Alba= founded in Malabar. In theory, the objects of querque King Emanuel's policy were the establishment of friendly commercial relations with the Hindus (who were at first mistaken for Christians " not yet confirmed in the faith," as the king wrote to Alexander VI.) and the prosecution of a crusade against Islam. But Hindu and Mahommedan interests were found to be so closely interwoven that this policy became impracticable, and it was superseded when D. Francisco d'Almeida (q.v.) went to India as first Portuguese viceroy in 1505. Almeida sought to subordinate all else to sea power and commerce, to concentrate the whole naval and military force of the kingdom on the maintenance of maritime ascendancy; to annex no territory, to avoid risking troops ashore, and to leave the defence of such factories as might be necessary to friendly native powers, which would receive in return the support of the Portuguese fleet. Almeida's statesmanship was to a great extent sound. The Portuguese could never penetrate far inland; throughout the 16th century their settlements were confined to the coasts of Asia, Africa or America, and the area they were able effectively to occupy was far less than the area of their empire in the 10th century. A Chinese critic, quoted by Faria y Sousa, said of them that they were like fishes, " remove them from the water and they straightway die." It is thus absurd to speak of a " Portuguese conquest of India "; in a land campaign they would have been outnumbered and destroyed by the armies of any one of the greater Indian states. But their artillery and superior maritime science made them almost invulnerable at sea, and their principal military achievements consisted in the capture or defence of positions accessible from the sea, e.g. the defence of Cochin by Duarte Pacheco Pereira in 1504, the defence of Diu (q v.) in 1538 and 1546.
Alphonso d'Albuquerque (q.v.), who succeeded Almeida in 1509, found it necessary to modify the policy formulated by his predecessor. Command of the sea could not be maintained - least of all in the monsoon months - while the Portuguese fleets were based on Lisbon, which could only be reached after a six months' voyage; and experience had proved that almost every Portuguese factory required a fortress for its defence when the fleets were absent. Portugal, like every great maritime trading community from Carthage to Venice, discovered that the ideal of " sea power and commerce " led directly to empire. In 1510 Albuquerque seized Goa, primarily as a naval base,. and in so doing recognized the fact that his country was cornmitted to a policy of territorial aggrandisement. Other seaports and islands were conquered or colonized in rapid succession, and by 1540 Portugal had acquired a line of scattered maritime possessions extending along the coasts of Brazil, East and West Africa, Malabar, Ceylon, Persia, Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. The most important settlements in the East were Goa, Malacca and Hormuz.
To a superficial observer the prosperity of Portugal might. well seem to have culminated during this period of expansion.. Vast profits were derived from the import trade in the innumerable products of the tropics, of which Portugal was the sole purveyor in Europe. This influx of wealth furnished the economic basis for a sudden development of literary and artistic activity, inspired by contrast with the new world of the tropics.. The 16th century was the golden age of Portuguese literature;. humanists, such as Damiao de Goes, and scientists, such as the astronomer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), played conspicuous parts in the great intellectual movements of the time; a distinctive school of painters arose, chief among them being the so-called " Grao Vasco " (Vasco Fernandes of Vizeu); in architecture the name of King Emanuel was given to a new and composite style (the Manoeline or Manoellian), in which decorative forms from India and Africa were harmonized with Gothic and Renaissance designs; palaces, fortresses, cathedrals, monasteries, were built on a scale never before attempted in Portugal; and even in the minor arts and handicrafts - in goldsmith's work, for example, or in pottery - the influence of the East made itself felt. Oriental splendour and Renaissance culture combined to render social life in Lisbon hardly less. brilliant than in Rome or Venice.
In order to understand the apparently sudden collapse of Portuguese power in1578-1580it is necessary to examine certain facts and tendencies which from the first rendered a catastrophe inevitable. Chief among these were the extent of the empire and its organization, the financial and commercial policy of its rulers, the hostility, often wantonly provoked,. of the chief Oriental states, the depopulation of Portugal and the slave trade, the expulsion of the Jews, the growth of ecclesiastical influence in secular affairs, and the decadence of the monarchy.
It is necessary to exclude Brazil from any survey of the Portuguese imperial system, because the colonization of Brazil (q.v.) was effected on distinctive lines. Otherwise the whole empire was governed on a more or less uniform Organiza- system, although it included communities of the most tion. diverse nature - protectorates such as Hormuz and Ternate in the Moluccas, colonies such as Goa and Madeira, captaincies under military rule such as Malacca, tributary states Rich as Kilwa, fortified factories as at Colombo and Cochin. West of the Cape the settlements in Africa and the Atlantic were governed, as a rule, by officials directly nominated by the king. East of the Cape the royal power was delegated to a viceroy or governor - the distinction was purely titular - whose legislative and executive authority was almost unlimited during his term of office. The viceroyalty was created in 1505, and from 1511 the Indian capital was Goa. Between 1505 and 1580 only four holders of the office - Almeida (1505-1509), Albuquerque (1509-1515), D. Vasco da Gama (1524) and D. Joao de Castro (1545-1548) - were men of marked ability and high character. All officials, including the viceroy and naval and military officers, were usually appointed for no more than three years. Although few large salaries were paid, the perquisites attached to official positions were enormous; at the beginning of the 17th century, for example, the captain of Malacca received not quite boo yearly as his pay, but his annual profits from other sources were estimated at 20,000. Even judges were expected to live on their perquisites, in the shape of bribes. The competition for appointments was naturally very keen; Couto mentions the case of one grantee who received the reversion of a post to which 30 applicants had a prior claim.' Such reversions could be sold, bequeathed, or included in the dowries of married women; the right of trading with China might be part of the endowment of a school; a monastery or a hospital might purchase the command of a fortress. In 1538 the viceroy, D. Garcia de Noronha, publicly sold by auction every vacant appointment in Portuguese India - an example followed in 1614 by the king. Hardly less disastrous than the system by which officials were chosen and paid was the influence exercised by the Church. Simao Botelho, an able revenue officer, was denied absolution in 1543 because he had reorganized the Malacca customs-house without previously consulting the Dominicans in that city. In 1560 a supposed tooth of Buddha was brought to Goa; the raja of Pegu offered ioo,000 for the relic, and as Portuguese India was virtually bankrupt the government wished to accept the offer; but the archbishop intervened and the relic was destroyed.
The empire in the East was rarely solvent. Almeida and Albuquerque had hoped to meet the expense of administration mainly out of the fees extorted for safe-conducts at sea and trading-licences, with the tribute wrung from native states and the revenue from Crown lands in India. But the growth of expenditure - chiefly of an unremunerative kind, such as the cost of war and missions - soon rendered these resources inadequate; and after 1515 the empire became ever more dependent on the spoils of hostile states and on subsidies from the royal treasury in Lisbon. Systematic debasement of the coinage was practised both in India, where the monetary system was extremely complex, 2 and in Portugal; and owing to the bullionist policy adopted by Portuguese financiers little permanent benefit accrued to the mother country from its immense trade. Seeking for commercial profit, not in the exchange of commodities, but solely in the acquisition of actual gold and silver, and realizing that the home market could not absorb a tithe of the merchandise imported, the Lisbon capitalists sent their ships to discharge in Antwerp (where a Portuguese staple was established in 1503), or in some other port near the central markets of Europe. The raw materials purchased by Flemish, German or English traders were used in the establishment of productive industries, while Portugal received a vast influx of bullion, most of which was squandered on war, luxuries or the Church.
In theory the most lucrative branches of commerce, such as the pepper trade, were monopolies vested in the Crown; the chartered companies and associations of merchant Policy. adventurers, which afterwards became the pioneers of British and Dutch colonial development, had no counterpart in Portuguese history, except in the few cases in which trading concessions were granted to military or monastic orders. But the Crown frequently farmed out its monopolies to individual merchants, or granted trading-licences by way of pension or reward. These were often of great value; e.g. in 1612 the right of sending a merchant ship to China was valued at £25,000. Great loss was necessarily inflicted on native traders by the monopolist system, which pressed most hardly on the Mahommedans, who had been the chief carriers in Indian waters. Two great powers, Egypt and Turkey, challenged the naval and commercial supremacy of the Portuguese, but an Egyptian armada was destroyed by Almeida in 1509, and though Ottoman fleets were on several occasions (as in 1517 and 1521) despatched from Suez or Basra, they failed to achieve any success, and the Portuguese were able to close the two principal trade routes 1 Decadas, XII. i. so.
2 See R. S. Whiteway, Rise of the Portuguese Power, &c. (London, 1898), pp. 67-72.
between India and Europe. One of these trade routes passed up the Persian Gulf to Basra, and thence overland to Tripoli, for Mediterranean ports, and to Trebizond, for Constantinople. The other passed up the Red Sea to Suez, and thence to Alexandria, for Venice, Genoa and Ragusa. But by occupying Hormuz the Portuguese gained command of the Gulf route; and though they thrice failed to capture Aden (1513, 1517 5547), and so entirely to close the Red Sea, they almost destroyed the traffic between India and Suez by occupying Socotra and sending fleets to cruise in the Strait of Bab el-Mandeb. In Malacca they possessed the connecting link between the traderoutes of the Far and Middle East, and thus they controlled the three sea-gates of the Indian Ocean and Arabian Sea - the Straits of Hormuz, Bab el-Mandeb and Malacca - and diverted the maritime trade with Europe to the Cape route.
During the critical period in which their empire was being established (c. 1505-1550) the Portuguese were fortunate in escaping conflict with any Oriental power of the first rank except Egypt and Turkey; for the Bahmani sultanate of the Deccan had been already disintegrated before 1498, and the Mughals and Mahrattas were still far off. A coalition of the minor Mahommedan states was prevented by the great Hindu kingdom of Vijayanagar, which comprised the southern half of the Indian Peninsula. Vijayanagar gave the militant Mahommedanism of Northern India no, opportunity for a combined attack on the Portuguese settlements. After 1565, when the power of Vijayanagar was broken at the battle of Talikot, a Mussulman coalition was at last formed, and the Portuguese were confronted by a line of hostile states stretching from Gujarat to Achin; but by this time they were strong enough to hold their own. It is characteristic of their native policy that they had not only refrained from aiding Vijayanagar in 1565, but had even been willing to despoil their Hindu allies. In 1543 Martim Affonso de Sousa, governor of India, organized an expedition to sack the Hindu temples at Conjeveram in Vijayanagar itself, and similar incidents are common in Indo-Portuguese history. Albuquerque was almost the only Portuguese statesman who strove to deal justly with both Hindus and Mahommedans, to respect native customs, and to establish friendly relations with the great powers of the East. Apart from the rigorous restrictions imposed by his successors upon trade, the sympathies of the natives were estranged by the harshness and venality of Portuguese administration, by such barbarities as the wholesale mutilation of non-combatants in war-time, and by religious persecution. After the arrival of the Franciscan missionaries, in 1517, Goa gradually became the headquarters of an immense proselytizing organization, which by 1561 had extended to East Africa, China, Japan and the Malay Archipelago (see GoA: Ecclesiastical History). Wherever the Portuguese were supreme they endeavoured to obtain converts by force. The widespread resentment thus aroused was a frequent cause of insurrection, and between 1515 and 1580 not a single year passed without war between the Portuguese and at least one African or Asiatic people.
Centuries of fighting against the Moors and Castilians had already left Portugal thinly populated.; large tracts of land were uncultivated, especially in Alemtejo, and wolves were still common throughout the kingdom. It was lel on.
impossible, from the first, to garrison the empire with trained men. As early as 1505 one of Almeida's ships contained a crew of rustics unable to distinguish between port and starboard; soon afterwards it became necessary to recruit convicts and slaves, and in 1538 a royal pardon was granted to all prisoners who would serve in India, except criminals under sentence for treason and canonical offences. Linschoten estimates that of all those who went to the East not one in ten returned. The heaviest losses were due to war, shipwreck and tropical diseases, but large numbers of the underpaid or unpaid soldiers deserted to the armies of native states. It is impossible to give more than approximately accurate statistics of the resultant depopulation of Portugal; but it seems probable that the inhabitants of the kingdom decreased from about 1,800,000 or 2,000,000 in 1500 to The Slave thus discredited; the peasants sold their farms and p emigrated or flocked to the towns; and small holdings were merged into vast estates, unscientifically cultivated by slaves and comparable with the latifundia which caused so many agrarian evils during the last two centuries of the Roman republic. The decadence of agriculture partly explains the prevalence of famine at a time when Portuguese maritime commerce was most prosperous. The Portuguese intermarried freely with their slaves, and this infusion of alien blood profoundly modified the character and physique of the nation. It may be said without exaggeration that the Portuguese of the " age of discoveries " and the Portuguese of the 17th and later centuries were two different races. Albuquerque, foreseeing the dangers that would arise from a shortage of population in his colonies, had encouraged his soldiers to marry captive Brahman and Mahommedan women, and to settle in India as farmers, shopkeepers or artisans. Under his rule the experiment was fairly successful, but the married colonists afterwards became a privileged caste, subsisting upon the labour of their slaves, and often disloyal to their rulers. Intermarriage led to the adoption, even by the rich, and especially by women (see GoA), of Asiatic dress, manners and modes of thought. Thus in the East, as in Europe, slavery reacted upon every class of the Portuguese.
The banishment, or forcible conversion, of the Jews deprived Portugal of its middle class and of its most scientific traders and financiers. Though the Jews had always been of compelled to reside in separate quarters called the Jews. Juderias, or Jewries, they had been protected by the earlier Portuguese kings. Before 1223 their courts had received autonomy in civil and criminal jurisdiction; their chief rabbi was appointed by the king and entitled to use the royal arms on his seal. Alphonso V. even permitted his Jewish subjects to live outside the Juderias, relieved them from the obligation to wear a distinctive costume (enforced in 1325), and nominated a Jew, Isaac Abrabanel, as his minister of finance. In culture the Portuguese Jews surpassed their rulers. Many of them were well versed in Aristotelian and Arabic philosophy, in astronomy, mathematics, and especially in medicine. Three Hebrew printing-presses were established between 1487 and 1495; both John II. and Emanuel I. employed Jewish physicians; it was a Jew - Abraham Zacuto ben Samuel - who supplied Vasco da Gama with nautical instruments; and Jews were employed in the overland journeys by which the Portuguese court first endeavoured to obtain information on Far Eastern affairs. The Jews paid taxes on practically every business transaction, besides a special poll-tax of 30 dinheiros in memory of the 30 pieces of silver paid to Judas Iscariot; and for this reason they were protected by the Crown. For centuries they were also tolerated by the commons; but the other orders - ecclesiastics and nobles - resented their religious exclusiveness or envied their wealth, and gradually fostered the growth of popular prejudice against them. In 1449 the Lisbon Juderias were stormed and sacked, and between 1450 and 1481 the cortes four times petitioned the Crown to enforce the anti-Jewish provisions of the canon law. John II. gave asylum to 90,000 Jewish refugees from Castile, in return for a heavy poll-tax and on condition that they should leave the country within eight months, in ships furnished by himself. These ships were not provided in time, and the Jews who were thus unable to depart were enslaved, 1 In the north, which had been relatively immune from wars agriculture was more prosperous and the peasants more tenacious of their land; hence the continuance of peasant proprietorship and the rarity of African types between the Douro and the Minho.
while their children were deported to the island of St Thomas, and there left to survive as best they might. In 1496 Emanuel I. desired to wed Isabella, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella, but found that he was first required to purify his kingdom of the Jews, who were accordingly commanded to leave Portugal before the end of October 1497. But in order to avoid the economic dangers threatened by such an exodus, every Jew and Jewess between the ages of 4 and 24 was seized and forcibly baptized (19th March): " Christians " were not required to emigrate. In October 20,000 adults were treated in the same way. These " New Christians " or " Maranos," as they were called, were forbidden to leave the country between 1498 and 1507. In April 1506 most of those who resided in Lisbon were massacred during a riot, but throughout the rest of Emanuel's reign they were immune from violence, and were again permitted to emigrate - an opportunity of which the majority took advantage. Large numbers settled in Holland, where their commercial talent afterwards greatly assisted the Dutch in their rivalry with the Portuguese.
The Reformation never reached Portugal, but even here the critical tendencies which elsewhere preceded Reform, were already at work. Their origin is to be sought not so much in the Revival of Learning as in the fact that the Portuguese had learned, on their voyages of discovery, to see and think for themselves. The true scientific spirit may be traced throughout the Roteiros of D. Joao de Castro (q.v.) and the Colloquios of Garcia de Ortamen who deserted books for experiment and manifested a new interest in the physical world. But orthodox churchmen feared that even in Portugal this appeal from authority to experience would lead to an attack upon religious doctrines previously regarded as beyond criticism. To check this dangerous movement of ideas, they demanded the introduction of the Inquisition into Portugal. The agents of the " New Christians " in Rome long contrived, by lavish bribery and with the support of many enlightened Portuguese, to delay the preliminary negotiations; but in 1536 the Holy Office was established in Lisbon, where the first auto-da fe was held in 1540, and in 1560 its operations were extended to India. It seems probable that the influence of the tribunal upon Portuguese life and thought has been exaggerated. Autos-da fe were rare events; their victims were not as a rule serious thinkers, but persons accused of sorcery or Judaizing, nor were they more numerous than the victims of the English laws relating to witchcraft and heresy. But the worst vices of the Inquisition were the widespread system of delation it encouraged by paying informers out of the property of the condemned, and its action as a trading and landholding association. Quite as serious, in their effects upon national life, were the severe censorship to which all printed matter was liable before publication and the control of education by the Jesuits. Poetry and imaginative literature usually escaped censure; but histories were mutilated and all original scientific and philosophical work was banned. Portuguese education centred in the national university of Coimbra, which had long shown itself ready to assimilate new ideas; between 1537 and 1547 John III. persuaded many eminent foreign teachers - among them the Scottish humanist George Buchanan and the French mathematician Elie Vinet - to lecture in its schools. But the discipline of the university needed reform, and the task was entrusted to the Jesuits. By 1555 they had secured control over Coimbra - a control which lasted for two centuries and extended to the whole educational system of the country. The effects of this change upon the national character were serious and permanent. Portugal sank back into the middle ages. The old initiative and self-reliance of the nation, already shaken by years of disaster, were now completely undermined, and the people submitted without show of resistance to a theocracy disguised as absolute monarchy.
Emanuel I. had been a fearless despot, such as Portugal needed if its scattered dependencies were to remain subject to the central government. During his reign (1495-1521) the Church was never permitted to encroach upon the royal about 1,080,000 in 1586. The process of decay was hastened by frequent outbreaks of plague, sometimes followed by famine; a contemporary manuscript estimates that no fewer than 500 persons died daily in Lisbon alone during July, August and September 1569, and in some other years the joint effects of plague and famine were little less disastrous.
While the country was being drained of its best citizens, hordes of slaves were imported to fill the vacancies, especially into the southern provinces.' Manual labour was prerogative. He even sent ambassadors to Rome to protest against ecclesiastical corruption, as well as to checkmate the Venetian diplomatists who threatened Europe with Ottoman of fhe vengeance if the Portuguese commercial monopoly were not relaxed. The Oriental magnificence of these embassies, notably that of 1514, and the fact that a king of Portugal dared openly to criticize the morals of the Vatican, temporarily enhanced the prestige of the monarchy. But Emanuel I. was the last great king of the Aviz dynasty. He had pursued the traditional policy of intermarriage with the royal families of Castile and Aragon, hoping to weld together the Spanish and Portuguese dominions into a single world-wide Sebastianism " became a religion; its' votaries were numbered by thousands, and four impostors arose in succession, each claiming to be the rei encuberto, or " hidden king," whose advent was so ardently desired (see Sebastian).
There was no surviving prince of the Aviz dynasty except the aged, feeble and almost insane Cardinal Prince Henry, who, as a younger son of Emanuel I., now became king. Henry died on the 31st of January 1580, and the throne was thus left vacant. There were five principal claimants - Philip II. of Spain; Philibert, duke of Savoy; Antonio, prior of Crato; Catherine, duchess of Braganza; and Ranuccio, duke of Parma - whose relationship to Emanuel I. is shown in the following table: - Emanuel.
I I I 1 I John III., Isabel, Beatrice, Louis, Ferdinand, Alphonso, b. 150z, d. 1557, b. 1503, d. 1539, b. 150 4, d. 1538, b. 1506, d. 1545, b. 1507, d. 1534, b. 1509, d. 1540, m. Catherine of Austria. m. Charles V. m. Charles III. of duke of Beja. duke of Guarda. cardinal and Savoy. Iy. archbishop of Philiberl Emmanuel, Antonio, duke of Savoy. prior of Crato. (illegitimate).
empire ruled by the house of Aviz. His ambition narrowly missed fulfilment, for Prince Miguel, his eldest son, was recognized (1498) as heir to the Spanish thrones. But Miguel died in infancy, and his inheritance passed to the Habsburgs. Frequent intermarriage, often so far within the prohibited degress as to require a papal dispensation, may possibly explain the weakened vitality of the Portuguese royal family, which was now subject to epilepsy, insanity and premature decay. The decadence of the monarchy as a national institution was reflected in the decadence of the cortes, which was rarely summoned between 1521 and 1580. John III. (1521-1557) was a ruler of fair ability, who became in his later years wholly subservient to his ecclesiastical advisers. He was succeeded by his grandson Sebastian (1557-1578), aged three years. Until the king came of age (1568), his grandmother, Queen Catherine, a fanatical daughter of Isabella the Catholic, and his great-uncle, Prince Henry, cardinal and inquisitor-general, governed as joint regents. Both were dominated by their Jesuit confessors, and a Jesuit, D. Luiz Gongalves da Camara, became the tutor and, after 1568, the principal adviser of Sebastian.
The king was a strong-willed and weak-minded ascetic, who entrusted his empire to the Jesuits, refused to marry, although the dynasty was threatened with extinction, and Disaster spent years in preparing for a crusade against the Al Kasr. Moors. The wisest act of John III. had been his withdrawal of all the Portuguese garrisons in Morocco except those at Ceuta, Arzila and Tangier. Sebastian reversed this policy. His first expedition to Africa (1474) was a mere reconnaissance, but four y ears later a favourable opportunity for invasion arrived. A dethroned sultan of Morocco, named Mulai Ahmad (Mahommed XI.), offered to acknowledge Portuguese suzerainty if he were restored to the throne by Portuguese arms, and Sebastian eagerly accepted these terms. The flower of his army was in Asia and his treasury was empty; but he contrived to extort funds from the " New Christians," and collected a force of some 18,000 men, chiefly untrained lads, wornout veterans, and foreign free-lances. At Arzila, where he landed, he was joined by Mulai Ahmad, who could only muster Soo soldiers. Thence Sebastian sought to proceed overland to the seaport of El Araish, despite the advice of his ally and of others who knew the country. After a long desert march under an August sun, he took up an indefensible position in a valley near Al Kasr al Kebir (q.v.). On the morrow (Aug. 1878) they were surrounded by the superior forces of Abd el Malek, the reigning sultan, and after a brave resistance Sebastian was killed and his army almost annihilated. So overwhelming was the disaster that the Portuguese people refused to believe the truth. It was rumoured that Sebastian still lived, and would sooner or later return and restore the past greatness of his country.
Tentative and hardly serious claims were also put forward by Pope Gregory XIII., as ex officio heir-general to a cardinal, and by Catherine de' Medici, as a descendant of Alphonso III. and Matilda of Boulogne.
5. The " Sixty Years' Captivity ": 1581-1640. - The university of Coimbra declared in favour of Catherine, duchess of Braganza, but the prior of Crato was the only rival who offered any serious resistance to Philip II. D. Antonio proclaimed himself king and occupied Lisbon. The advocates of union with Spain, however, were numerous, influential, and ably led by their spokesmen in the cortes, Christovao de Moura and Antonio Pinheiro, bishop of Leiria. The duke of Braganza was won over to their side, chiefly by the promise that he should be king of Brazil if Philip II. became king of Portugal - a promise never fulfilled. Above all, the Church, including the Society of Jesus, naturally favoured the Habsburg claimant, who represented its two foremost champions, Spain and Austria. In 1581 a Spanish army, led by the duke of Alva, entered Portugal and easily defeated the levies of D. Antsonio at Alcantara. The prior escaped to Paris and appealed to France and England for assistance. In 1582 a French fleet attempted to seize the Azores in his interest, but was defeated. In 1589 an English fleet was sent to aid the prior in a projected invasion of Portugal, but owing to a quarrel between its commanders, Sir Francis Drake and Sir John Norris, the expedition was abandoned. D. Antonio returned to Paris, where he died in 1594.
Meanwhile the victory of Alcantara left Philip II. supreme in Portugal, where he was soon afterwards crowned king. His constitutional position was defined at the Cortes of Thomar (1581). Portugal was not to be regarded as a conquered or annexed province, but as a separate kingdom, joined to Spain solely by a personal union similar to the union between Castile and Aragon under Ferdinand and Isabella. At Thomar Philip II. promised to maintain the rights and liberties conceded by his predecessors on the Portuguese throne, to summon the Cortes at frequent intervals, and to create a Portuguese privy council which should accompany the king everywhere and be consulted on all matters affecting Portuguese interests. Brazil and the settlements in Africa and Asia were still to belong to Portugal, not to Spain, and neither in Portugal nor in its colonies was any alien to be given lands, public office, or jurisdiction. On these terms the political union of the Iberian Peninsula was accomplished. It was the final stage in a process of accretion dating back to the beginnings of the Christian reconquest in the 8th century. Asturias had been united with Leon, Leon with Castile, Castile with Aragon. All these precedents seemed to indicate that Spain and Portugal would ultimately form one state; and despite the strong nationalism which their separate language and Lisbon.
b. 1537, d. 1554, m. Joanna of Spain.
Sebastian, 1554, d. 1578.
Philip 11. of
Henry, Edward, b. 1512, d. 1580, b. 1515, d. 1545, cardinal and duke of GuimarSes, king. m. Isabel of Braganza.
I 11 Catherine, Maria, m. duke of Braganza. m. duke of Parma. 1 Ranuccio, duke of Parma.
history had inspired among the Portuguese, the union of 1581 might have endured if the terms of the Thomar compact had been observed. But few of the promises made in 1581 were kept by the three Spanish kings who ruled over Portugal - Philip II. (1581-1598), Philip III. (1598-1621) and Philip IV. (1621-1640). 1 The cortes was only once summoned (1619), and the government of Portugal was entrusted by Philip III. chiefly to Francis duke of Lerma, by Philip IV. chiefly to Olivares (q.v.). The kingdom and its dependencies were also involved in the naval disasters which overtook Spain. Faro in Algarve was sacked in 1595 by the English, who ravaged the Azores in 1596; and in many parts of the world English, French and Dutch combined to harass Portuguese trade and seize Portuguese possessions. (See especially Brazil; India; Malay Archi Pelago.) Union with Spain had exposed Portugal to the hostility of the strongest naval powers of western Europe, and had deprived it of the power to conclude an independent peace.
Insurrections in Lisbon (1634) and Evora (1637) bore witness to the general discontent, but until 1640 the Spanish ascendancy The was never seriously endangered. In 1640 war with France and a revolution in Catalonia had taxed the of 1640. military resources of Spain to the utmost. The royal authority in Portugal was delegated to Margaret of Savoy, duchess of Mantua, whose train of Spanish and Italian courtiers aroused the jealousy of the Portuguese nobles, while the harsh rule of her secretary of state, Miguel de Vasconcellos de Brito, provoked the resentment of all classes. Even the Jesuits, whose influence in Portugal had steadily increased since 1555, were now prepared to act in the interests of Cardinal Richelieu, and therefore against Philip IV. A leader was found in John, 8th duke of Braganza, who as a grandson of the duchess Catherine was descended from Emanuel I. The duke, however, was naturally indolent, and it was with difficulty that his ambitious and energetic Castilian wife, D. Luiza de Guzman, obtained his assent to the proposed revolution. He refused to take any active part in it; but D. Luiza and her confidential adviser, Joao Pinto Ribeiro, recruited a powerful band of conspirators among the disaffected nobles. Their plans were carefully elaborated, and on the 1st of December 1640 various strategic points were seized, the few partisans of Spain who attempted resistance were overpowered, and a provisional government was formed under D. Rodrigo da Cunha, archbishop of Lisbon, who was appointed lieutenantgeneral of Portugal.
6. The Restoration: 1640-1755. - On the 13th of December 1640 the duke of Braganza was crowned as John IV., and on the 19th of January 1641 the cortes formally accepted him as king. The whole country had already declared in his favour and expelled the Spanish garrisons, an example followed by all the Portuguese dependencies. Thus the " Sixty Years' Captivity " came to an end and the throne passed to the house of Braganza. But the Portuguese were well aware that they could hardly maintain their independence without foreign assistance, and ambassadors were at once sent to Great Britain, the Netherlands and France. The struggle between the Crown and the parliament prevented Charles I. from offering aid, but he immediately recognized John IV. as king. Richelieu and the states-general of the Netherlands despatched fleets to the Tagus; but commercial rivalry in Brazil and the East led soon afterwards to a colonial war with the Dutch, and Portugal was left without any ally except France.
The Portuguese armies were at first successful. D. Matheus d'Albuquerque defeated the Spaniards under the baron of Molingen at Montijo (May 26, 1644), and throughout the reign of John IV. (1640-1656) they suffered no serious reverse. But great anxiety was caused by a plot to restore Spanish rule, in which the duke of Caminha and the archbishop of Braga were implicated; and especially by the action of Mazarin, who had assumed control of French foreign policy in 1642. At the congress of Munster (1643) he refused to make the independence of Portugal a condition of 1 Philip I., II. and III. of Portugal.
peace between France and Spain; and in a letter dated the 4th of October 1647 he even offered the Portuguese Crown to the duke of Longueville - an offer which illustrates the weakness of John IV. and the dependence of Portugal upon France.
John IV. was succeeded by his second son, Alphonso VI. (1656-1683), who was then aged thirteen. During the king's minority the queen-mother, D. Luiza, acted as regent. She prosecuted the war with vigour, and on the 14th of January 1659 a Portuguese army commanded by D. Antonio Luiz de Menezes, count of Cantanhede, defeated the. Spaniards under D. Luiz de Haro at Elvas. In March 1659, however, the war between France and Spain was ended by the treaty of the Pyrenees; and D. Luiz de Haro, acting as the Spanish plenipotentiary, obtained the inclusion in the treaty of a secret article by which France undertook to give no further aid to Portugal. Neither Louis XIV. nor Mazarin desired the aggrandisement of Spain at the expense of their own ally; they therefore evaded the secret article by sending Marshal Schomberg to reorganize the Portuguese army (1660), and by helping forward a marriage between Charles II. of England and Catherine of Braganza, the sister of Alphonso VI. This project had been already mooted by D. Luiza, who had foreseen the restoration of the Stuart monarchy, and had in 1650 welcomed the exiled princes Rupert and Maurice at the court of John IV. The dowry to be paid by Portugal was fixed at £500,000 and the cession to Great Britain of Bombay and Tangier. In May 1663 the marriage was celebrated, and thus Great Britain took the place of France as the active ally of Portugal.
Meanwhile, on the 20th of June 1662, the regency had been terminated by a palace revolution. Alphonso VI. declared himself of age and seized the royal authority; D. Luiza retired to a convent. The king was feeble and vicious, but had wit enough to leave the Melhor conduct of affairs to stronger hands. D. Luiz de Sousa e Vasconcellos, count of Castello Melhor, directed the policy of the nation while Schomberg took charge of its defence. The army, reinforced by British troops under the earl of Inchiquin and by French and German volunteers or mercenaries, was led in the field by Portuguese generals, who successfully carried out the plans of Schomberg. On the 8th of June 1663 the count of Villa Flor utterly defeated D. John of Austria, and retook Evora, which had been captured by the invaders; on the 7th of July 1664 Pedro de Magalhaes defeated the duke of Osuna at Ciudad Rodrigo; on the 17th of June 1665 the marquess of Marialva destroyed a Spanish army led by the marquess of Carracena at the battle of Montes Claros, and Christovao de Brito Pereira followed up this victory with another at Villa Vigosa. The Spaniards failed to gain any compensating advantage, and on the 13th of February 1668 peace was concluded at Lisbon, Spain at last consenting to recognize the independence of the Portuguese kingdom.
The signature of the treaty of Lisbon had been preceded by another palace revolution. Castello Melhor, hoping to secure further French support for his country, had arranged a marriage between Alphonso VI. and Marie Fran901se Elisabeth, daughter of Charles Amadeus of Nemours, and grand-daughter of Henry IV. of France. The marriage, celebrated in 1666, caused the downfall both of Castello Melhor and of the king. Queen Marie detested Alphonso and fell in love with his brother D. Pedro; and after four months of a hated union she left the palace and applied to the chapter of Lisbon cathedral to annul her marriage on the ground of non-consummation. D. Pedro imprisoned the king and assumed the regency; on the 1st of January 1668 his authority was recognized by the cortes; on the 24th of March the annulment of the queen's marriage was pronounced and confirmed by the pope; on the 2nd of April she married the regent. Castello Melhor was permitted to escape to France, while Alphonso VI. was banished to Terceira in the Azores. A conspiracy to restore him to the throne was discovered in 1674, and he was removed to Cintra, where he died in 1683.
Pedro II., who had acted as regent for fifteen years, now became king. His reign (1683-1706) is a period of supreme importance in the economic and constitutional history of Portugal. The goldfields of Minas Geraes in Brazil, discovered about 1693, brought a vast revenue in royalties to the Crown, which was thus enabled to govern without summoning the cortes to vote supply. In 1697 the cortes met for the last time before the era of constitutional government. Even more important was the change effected when the Whig ministry of Great Britain sent John Methuen to Lisbon to negotiate a commercial agreement. The Methuen Treaty, signed on the 2 7th of December 1703, detached Portugal from the French alliance, and made her for more than 50 years a commercial and political satellite of Great Britain. Its most far-reaching provisions were those which admitted Portuguese wines to the British market at a lower rate of duty than was imposed upon French and German wines, in return for a corresponding preference to English textiles. The demand for " Port " and " Madeira" was thus artificially stimulated to such an extent that almost the whole productive energy of Portugal was concentrated upon the wine and cork trades. Other industries, including agriculture, were neglected, and even food-stuffs were imported from Great Britain. The disastrous economic results of the treaty were temporarily concealed by the influx of gold from Brazil, the check upon emigration from the wine-growing northern provinces, and the military advantages of alliance with Great Britain. Nor was the virtual abolition of the cortes seriously felt at first, owing to the excellent internal administration of Pedro II. and his minister the duke of Cadaval.
Pedro II. had at first wished to remain neutral in the impending struggle between Philip V. and the archduke Charles, rival claimants for the throne of Spain. But Queen Marie had died in 1683, and in 1687 Cadaval had daughter of the elector-palatine. Louis XIV. of France, who had hoped through the influence of Queen Marie to secure Portuguese support for his own grandson Philip V., realized that this second marriage might thwart his policy, and strove to redress the balance by creating a strong party at the court of Lisbon. He so far succeeded that in 1700 Pedro II. recognized Philip V. as king of Spain and in 1701 protected a French fleet in the Tagus against the British. It was this incident that caused the despatch of the Methuen mission and the renewal of the Anglo-Portuguese alliance in 1703. On the 7th of March 1704 a British fleet under Sir George Rooke reached Lisbon, convoying the archduke Charles and io,000 British troops, who were joined by a Portuguese army under D. Joao de Sousa, marquess das Minas, and at once invaded Spain. (For the campaigns of 1704-13, see Spanish Succession, War Of The.) In 1705 Pedro II. was compelled by failing health to appoint a regent, and chose his sister, Catherine of Braganza, queen-dowager of England. On the death of the king (Dec. 9, 1706) Cadaval arranged a marriage between his successor John V. (1706-1750) and the archduchess Marianna, sister of the archduke Charles, thus binding Portugal more closely to the AngloAustrian cause. The strain of the war was acutely felt in Portugal, especially in 1711, when the French admiral DuguayTrouin sacked Rio de Janeiro and cut off the Brazilian treasureships. At last, on the 6th of February 1715, nearly two years after the treaty of Utrecht, peace between Spain and Portugal was concluded at Madrid.
Never was the Portuguese Crown richer than in the years 1715-1755; rarely had the kingdom prospered less. The commercial and financial evils rife under the last kings of the Aviz dynasty were now repeated. More gold had been discovered in Matto Grosso, diamonds in Minas Geraes. As in the 16th century immense quantities of bullion were imported by the treasury, and were lavished upon war, luxury and the Church, while agriculture and manufactures continued to decline, and the countryside was depopulated by emigration to Brazil. John V. was a spendthrift and a bigot. He gave and lent enormous sums to successive popes, and at the bidding of Clement XI. he joined a " crusade " against the Turks in which his ships helped to win a naval action off Cape Matapan (1717). For these services he received the title of Fidelissimus, " Most Faithful "; " Majesty " had already been adopted by John IV. instead of the medieval " Highness," and the new style was intended to place the king of Portugal on an equality with his Most Christian Majesty of France and his Most Catholic Majesty of Spain. John V. was also empowered to create a multitude of new ecclesiastical dignities, and the archbishop of Lisbon was granted the rank and style of Patriarch ex officio. To the patriarchate was appended a Sacred College of 24 prelates, who were privileged to officiate in the scarlet robes of cardinals, while the patriarch wore the vestments of a second pope. Though regiments were disbanded, fleets put out of commission and fortresses dismantled to save the cost of their upkeep, the Crown paid nearly 10o,000 yearly for the maintenance of this new hierarchy, and squandered untold wealth on the erection of churches and monasteries. In the church of Sao Roque in Lisbon, the decoration of a single chapel measuring 17 ft. by 12 ft. cost 225,00o; the expenditure on the convent-palace of Mafra (q.v.) exceeded £4,000,000.
John V. was succeeded by his son Joseph (1 75 0 - 1 777). Five years afterwards Portugal was overtaken by the tremendous disaster of the Lisbon earthquake (see Lisbon), which, as Oliveira Martins justly observes, was " more than a cataclysm of nature; it was a moral revolution." It brought the Restoration period to an end (1755). Throughout that period the monarchy had occupied a precarious position, dependent until' 1668 for its very existence, and after 1668 for its stability, on foreign support. Its policy had been moulded to suit France or Great Britain, while its internal administration had normally been directed by the Church. The cortes had grown obsolete; the feudal aristocracy were become courtiers. Once more, as in 1580, Portugal was governed by ecclesiastics in the name of an absolute monarch; once more, as in 1580, the chief strength of the ecclesiastical party was the Society of Jesus, which still controlled the conscience and mind of the nation and of its nominal rulers, through the confessional and the schools.
7. The Reform of the Monarchy: 1755-1826. - The unity of Portuguese history is hard to perceive in the years which witnessed the rise and fall of the Pombaline regime, the reign of the mad queen Maria, the Peninsular War and the subsequent chaos of revolutionary intrigue. At first sight it seems absurd to characterize this period of despotism ending in war, ruin and anarchy as a period of reform. Nevertheless, it is possible to trace through the apparent chaos an uninterrupted movement from absolutism to representative institutions. Pombal liberated the monarchy from clerical domination, and thus unwittingly opened the door to those " French principles," or democratic ideas, which spread rapidly after his downfall in 1 777 . The destruction of an obsolete political system, begun by Pombal, was completed by the Peninsular War; while French invaders and British governors together quickened among the Portuguese a new consciousness of their nationality, and a new desire for political rights, which rendered inevitable the change to constitutional monarchy.
Two days after the accession of King Joseph, Sebastiao Jose de Carvalho e Mello, better known as the marquess of Pombal (q.v.), was appointed secretary of state for foreign affairs and war. In a few months he gained an ascendancy ti ? over the king's mind which lasted until the end of the reign, and was strengthened by the courage and wisdom shown by Pombal at the time of the great earthquake. His policy was to strengthen the monarchy and to use it for the furtherance of a comprehensive scheme of reform. Beginning with finance and commerce, he reversed the bullionist policy of his predecessors and reorganized the entire system of taxation. He sought to undo the worst consequences of the Methuen treaty by the creation of national industries, establishing a gunpowder factory and a sugar refinery in 1751, a silk industry in 1752, wool, paper and glass factories after 1759. Colonial development was fostered, and the commercial dependence of Portugal upon induced the king to marry Maria Sophia de Neuberg, Great Britain was reduced, by the formation of chartered companies, the first of which (1753) was given control of the Algarve sardine and tunny fisheries. The Oldembourg Company (1754) received a monopoly of trade with the Portuguese colonies in the East; extensive monopolist rights were also conceded to the Path and Maranhao Company (1755) and the Pernambuco and Parahyba Company (1759). In Lisbon a chamber of commerce (Junta do commercio) was organized in 1756 to replace an older association of merchants, the ilIeza dos homens de negocio, which had attacked the Path Company; and in the same year the Alto Douro Company was formed to control the port-wine trade and to break the monopoly enjoyed by a syndicate of British wine merchants. This company met with strong opposition, culminating in a rising at Oporto (February 1757), which was savagely suppressed.
Both his commercial policy and his desire to strengthen the Crown brought Pombal into conflict with the Church and the aristocracy. In 1751 he had made all sentences passed by the Inquisition subject to revision by the Crown. The liberation of all slaves in Para and Maranhao except negroes (1755), and the creation of the Path Company, were prejudicial to the interests of the Jesuits, whose administrative authority over the Indians of Brazil was also curtailed. Various charges were brought against the Society by Pombal, and in September 1759, after five years of heated controversy (see JEsuITs), he published a decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese dominions. His power at court had previously been strengthened by the so-called Tavora plot. The marquess and marchioness of Tavora and their two sons, with the duke of Aveiro, the count of Atouguia and other noblemen, were accused of complicity in an attempt upon the life of King Joseph (September 1758). Pombal appointed a special tribunal to judge the case; many of the accused, including those already mentioned, were found guilty and executed; and an attempt was made to implicate the Jesuits. Pombal's enemies declared that he himself had organized the attack upon the king, in such a manner as to throw suspicion upon his political opponents and to gain credit for himself. This accusation was not proved, but the history of the Tavora plot remains extremely obscure. The expulsion of the Jesuits involved Portugal in a dispute with Pope Clement XIII.; in June 1760 the papal nuncio was ordered to leave Lisbon, and diplomatic relations with the Vatican were only resumed after the condemnation of the Jesuits by Clement XIV., in July 1773.
His victory over the Jesuits left Pombal free to develop his plans fox reform. He devoted himself especially to education and defence. A school of commerce was founded in 1759; in 1760 the censorship of books was transferred from an ecclesiastical to a lay tribunal; in 1761 the former Jesuit college in Lisbon was converted into a college for the sons of noblemen; in 1768 a royal printing-press was established; in 1772 Pombal provided for a complete system of primary and secondary education, entailing the foundation of 837 schools. He founded a college of art in Mafra; he became visitor of Coimbra University, recast its statutes and introduced the teaching of natural science. Funds for these reforms were to a great extent provided out of the sequestrated property of the Jesuits; Pombal also effected great economies in internal administration. He abolished the distinction between Old and New Christians, and made all Portuguese subjects eligible to any office in the state. Farreaching reforms were at the same time carried out in the army, navy and mercantile marine. In 1760 Admiral Boscawen had violated Portuguese neutrality by burning four French ships off Lagos; Pombal protested and the British government apologized, but not before the military weakness of Portugal had been demonstrated. Two years later, when the Family Compact involved Portugal in a war with Spain, Pombal called in Count William of Lippe-Biickeburg to reorganize the army, which was reinforced by a British contingent under Brigadier-General John Burgoyne, and was increased from 5000 to 50,000 men. The Spaniards were at first successful, and captured Braganza and Almeida; but they were subsequently defeated at Villa Velha and Valencia de Alcantara, and the Portuguese fully held their own up to the signature of peace at Fontainebleau, in February 1763. Towards the close of the reign, a long-standing controversy with Spain as to the frontier between Brazil and the Spanish colonies threatened a renewal of the war; but in this crisis Pombal was deprived of power by the death of King Joseph (Feb. 20, 1 777) and the accession of his daughter Maria I.
The queen was married to her uncle, who became king consort as Pedro III. Pombal's dismissal, brought about by the influence of the queen-mother Mariana Victoria, Maria L, did not involve an immediate reversal of his policy. Pedro III. The controversy with Spain was amicably settled by the treaty of San Ildefonso (1777); and further industrial and educational reforms were inaugurated, chief among them being the foundation, in 1780, of the Royal Academy of Sciences. Queen Maria, who had previously shown signs of religious mania, became wholly insane after 1788, owing to the deaths of Pedro III. (May 1786), of the crown prince D. Joseph, and of her confessor, the inquisitor-general D. Ignacio de San Caetano. Her second son, D. John, assumed the conduct of affairs in 1792, although he did not take the title of regent until 1799. Meanwhile a two-fold reaction - on one side clericalist, on the other democratic - had set in against the reforms of Pombal. D. John told William Beckford in 1786 that " the kingdom belonged to the monks," and his consort Carlota Joaquina, daughter of Charles IV. of Spain, exercised a powerful influence in favour of the Church. But new ideas had been introduced with the new system of education, and the inevitable revolt against absolutism had resulted in the formation of a Radical party, which sympathized with the Revolution in France and carried on an active propaganda through the numerous masonic lodges which were in fact political clubs. D. John became alarmed, and the intendant of police in Lisbon, D. Diogo Ignacio de Pina Manique, organized an elaborate system of espionage which led to the imprisonment or exile of many harmless enthusiasts.
From similar motives, a treaty of alliance with Spain was signed at Aranjuez in March 1 793; 5000 Portuguese troops were sent to assist in a Spanish invasion of France; a Portuguese squadron joined the British Mediterranean with Spain, fleet. But in July 1795 Spain concluded a peace with the French republic from which Portugal, as Great the ally of Great Britain, was deliberately excluded. In 1796 Spain declared war upon Great Britain, and in 1793 1806. 1 797 a secret convention for the partition of Portugal was signed by the French ambassador in Madrid, General Perignon, and by the Spanish minister Godoy. D. John appealed for help to Great Britain, which sent him 6000 men, under Sir Charles Stuart, and a subsidy of £ 200,000. Though Spain, through the influence of D. John's father-in-law Charles IV., still remained neutral, a state of war between Portugal and France existed until 1799. D. John then reopened negotiations with Napoleon, and Lucien Bonaparte was sent to dictate terms in Madrid. But D. John dared not consent to close the harbours of Portugal against British ships. England was the chief market for Portuguese wine and grain; and the long Portuguese littoral was at the mercy of the British navy. Compelled to choose between fighting on land and fighting at sea, D. John rejected the demands of Lucien Bonaparte, and on the 10th of February 1801 declared war upon Spain. His territories were at once invaded by a FrancoSpanish army, and on the 6th of June 180r he was forced to conclude the peace of Badajoz, by which he ceded the frontier fortress of Olivenza to Spain, and undertook to pay 20,000,000 francs to Napoleon and to exclude British ships from Portuguese ports. Napoleon was dissatisfied with these terms, and although he ultimately ratified the treaty, he sent General Lannes to Lisbon as his ambassador, instructing him to humiliate the Portuguese and if possible to goad them into a renewal of the war. The same policy was continued by General Junot, who succeeded Lannes in 1804. Junot required D. John to declare war upon Great Britain, but this demand was not immediately pressed owing to the preoccupation of Napoleon with greater affairs, and in October 1805 Junot left Portugal.
By his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806 Napoleon required all continental states to close their ports to British ships. As Portugal again refused to obey, another secret Franco- The Spanish treaty was signed at Fontainebleau on the 27th of October 1807, providing for the partition War. of Portugal. Entre-Minho-e-Douro was to be given to Louis II. of Etruria in exchange for his Italian kingdom; Algarve and Alemtejo were to form a separate principality for Godoy; the remaining provinces were to be garrisoned by French troops until a general peace should be concluded. To give effect to these terms, General Junot hastened westward across Spain, at the head of 30,000 French soldiers and a large body of Spanish auxiliaries. So rapid were his movements that there was no time to organize effective resistance. On the 2 9 th of November D. John, acting on the advice of Sir Sidney Smith, British naval commander in the Tagus, appointed a council of regency and sailed for Brazil, convoyed by Sir Sidney Smith's squadron. For a detailed account of the subsequent military operations, see Peninsular War.
Junot, who was everywhere well received by the Portuguese democrats, entered Lisbon at the end of November 1807. He assumed command of the Portuguese army, divided by the kingdom into military governments, and, on the 1st of February 1808 announced that the Braganza 1807- dynasty had forfeited its right to the throne. He him August self hoped to succeed D. John, and sought to conciliate the Portuguese by reducing the requisition demanded by Napoleon from 40,000,000 francs to 20,000,000. But the action of the French troops in occupying the fortresses of northern Spain provoked in May 1808 a general rising in that country, which soon spread to Portugal. The Spanish garrison in Oporto expelled the French governor and declared for the Braganzas, compelling Junot to march towards the north. He left Lisbon under the control of a regency, headed by the bishop of Oporto, who applied to Great Britain for help, promoted an insurrection against the French, and organized juntas (committees) of government in the larger towns. On the 1st of August 1808 Sir Arthur Wellesley, with 9000 British troops, landed at Figueira da Foz. He defeated a French division at Rolica (" Roleia ") on the 17th, and on the 21st won a victory over Junot at Vimeiro ("Vimiera"). Fearing an attack by Portuguese auxiliaries and the arrival of British reinforcements under Sir John Moore, Junot signed the convention of Cintra by which, on the 30th of August 1808, he agreed to evacuate Portugal (see Wellington). The regency appointed by D. John was now reconstituted and in October Sir John Moore assumed command of all the allied troops in Portugal. From Lisbon Moore marched north-eastward with about 3 2,000 men to assist the Spanish armies against Napoleon; his subsequent retreat to join Sir David Baird in Galicia, in January 1809, diverted the pursuing army under Napoleon to the north-west, and temporarily saved Portugal from attack.
In February Major-General William Carr Beresford was given command of the Portuguese army. Organized and disciplined by British officers, the native troops played by Soult, a gallant part in the subsequent campaigns. In March 1809 the second invasion of Portugal began; Soult crossed the Galician frontier and captured Oporto, while an auxiliary force under General Lapisse advanced from Salamanca. On the 22nd of April, however, Wellesley, who had been recalled after the convention of Cintra, landed in Lisbon. On the 12th of May he forced the passage of the Douro, subsequently retaking Oporto and pursuing Soult into Spain. Valuable assistance had been rendered by the Portuguese generals Antonio da Silveira and Manoel de Brito Mousinho - the first a leader, the second an organizer.
After the battle of Wagram (July 6, 1809) the French armies in the Peninsula received large reinforcements, and by Marshal Massena, with 120,000 men, was ordered to operate against Portugal. He crossed the frontier in June 181 o and besieged Almeida, which capitu- Apr 11811. lated on the 27th of August. Wellesley, who had now become Viscount Wellington, opposed his march south wards, and won a victory at Bussaco on the 27th of September; but Massena subsequently turned the position of the allied army on the Serra de Bussaco, and caused Wellington to fall back upon the fortified lines which he had already constructed at Torres Vedras. Here he stood upon the defensive until the invaders should be defeated by starvation. The Portuguese troops cut Massena's communications; the peasants, under instructions from Wellington, had already laid waste their own farms, destroyed the roads and bridges by which Massena might retreat, and burned their boats on the Tagus. On the 5th of March 1811, after a winter of terrible sufferings, Massena's retreat began; he was harassed by the allied troops all the way to Sabugal, where the last rearguard action in Portugal took place on the 3rd of April. The invaders retired with a loss of nearly 30,000 men; Almeida was retaken on the 6th; and the remainder of the war was fought out on Spanish and French soil. The Portuguese troops remained under Wellington's command until 1814, and distinguished themselves in many actions, notably at Salamanca and on the Nivelle.
At the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) Portugal was represented by three plenipotentiaries, who were instructed to press for the retrocession of Olivenza and to oppose the restoration of French Guiana, which the Brazilians had conquered in 1809. Neither object was attained; and this failure, which was attributed to the lack of British support, hastened the reaction against British influence which had already begun. Since 1808 Portugal had theoretically been governed by the regency representing D. John. But as the regency was corrupt and unable to co-operate with Wellington and Beresford, the British government had demanded that Sir Charles Stuart (son of the Sir Charles Stuart mentioned above) should be appointed one of its members. The real control of affairs soon afterwards passed into the strong hands of Stuart and Beresford; and while the war lasted the Portuguese acquiesced in what was in fact an autocracy exercised by foreigners. In 1815, however, they desired to resume their independence. A further cause of dissatisfaction was the mutual jealousy of Portugal and Brazil. The colony claimed as high a political status as the mother-country, and by a decree dated the 16th of January 1815 it was raised to the rank of a separate kingdom. Thenceforward, until 1822, the Portuguese sovereignty was styled the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves. The importance of this change became apparent when Queen Maria I. died (March 1816) and D. John succeeded to the united thrones as John VI. The king refused to leave Brazil, partly owing to the intrigues of Carlota Joaquina, who hoped to become queen of an independent Brazilian kingdom. Thus Portugal, which had been almost ruined by the war, was now humiliated by the failure of her diplomacy at Vienna and by her continued dependence upon Great Britain and Brazil. The resultant discontent found expression in the cry of " Portugal for the Portuguese " and in the demand for a constitution.
In 1817 a military revolt (pronunciamento) in Lisbon was crushed by Beresford, and the leader, General Gomes Freire de Andrade, was executed; but on the 16th of August 1820, after Beresford had sailed to Brazil to secure the return of John VI., a second rising took place in Oporto. It soon spread southward. A new council of regency was established in Lisbon, the British officers were expelled from the army; Beresford, on his return from Brazil, was not permitted to land; a constituent assembly was summoned. This body suppressed the Inquisition and drew up a highly democratic constitution, by which all citizens were declared equal before the law and eligible to any office; all class privileges were abolished, the liberty of the Press was guaranteed, and the government of the country was vested in a single chamber, subject only to the suspensive veto of the Crown. So extreme a change was disliked by most of the powers and by many Portuguese, especially those of the clerical party. Great Britain insisted on the return of John VI., who entrusted the government of Brazil to his elder son D. Pedro and landed in Portugal on the 3rd of July 1821. In 1822, on the advice of D. Pedro, he swore to obey the constitution (thenceforward known as the " constitution of 1822 "). But his younger son, D. Miguel, and the queen, Carlota Joaquina, refused to take the oath; and in December 1822 sentence of banishment was pronounced against them, though not enforced. They had many supporters at home and abroad. French troops had invaded Spain in the interests of Ferdinand VII. (1823), and the French government was prepared to countenance the absolutist party in Portugal in order to check British influence there. Another military revolt broke out in Traz-os-Montes on the 3rd of February 1823, its leader being the count of Amarante, who was opposed to the constitution. D. Miguel appealed to the army to " restore liberty to their king," and the army, incensed by the loss of Brazil (1822), gave him almost unanimous support. At this juncture John VI., vainly seeking for a compromise, abrogated the constitution of 1822, but appointed as his minister D. Pedro de Sousa Holstein, count (afterwards duke) of Palmella and leader of the " English " or constitutional party. These half-measures did not satisfy D. Miguel, whose soldiers seized the royal palace in Lisbon on the 30th of April 1824. Palmella was arrested, and John VI. forced to take refuge on the British flagship in the Tagus. But the united action of the foreign ministers restored the king and reinstated Palmella; the insurrection was crushed; D. Miguel submitted and went into exile (June 1824).
In Brazil also a revolution had taken place. The Brazilians demanded complete independence, and D. Pedro sided with them. The Portuguese garrison of Rio de Janeiro was overpowered; on the 7th of September 1822 D. Pedro declared the country independent, and on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor. He took no notice of the constituent assembly in Lisbon, which on the 19th of September had ordered him to return to Portugal on pain of forfeiting his right to inherit the Portuguese Crown. By the end of 1823 all Portuguese resistance to the new regime in Brazil had been overcome.
John VI. died on the 10th of March 1826, leaving (by will) his daughter D. Isabel Maria as regent for Pedro I. of Brazil, who now became Pedro IV. of Portugal. A crisis was evidently imminent, for Portugal would not tolerate an absentee sovereign who was far more Brazilian than Portuguese. The unsatisfied ambition of Carlota Joaquina and the hostility between absolutists and constitutionalists might at any moment precipitate a civil war. To conciliate the Portuguese, Pedro IV. drew up a charter (known as the " charter of 1826 ") which provided for moderate parliamentary government on the British model. To conciliate the Brazilians, he undertook (by. decree dated May 2nd 1826) to surrender the Portuguese Crown to his daughter D. Maria da Gloria (then aged seven); but this abdication was made contingent upon her marriage with her uncle D. Miguel, who was first required to swear fidelity to the charter.
8. Constitutional Government. - The charter of 1826 forms the basis of the present Portuguese constitution and the startingpoint of modern Portuguese history. That history comprises four periods: (a) From 1826 to 1834 the clerical and absolutist parties led by D. Miguel united every reactionary element throughout the kingdom in a last unsuccessful stand against constitutional government; (b) From 1834 to 1853 the main problem for Portuguese statesmen was whether the constitution, now accepted as inevitable, should embody the radical ideas of 1822 or the moderate ideas of 1826; (c) From 1853 to 1889 there was a period of transition marked by the rise of three new parties - Progressive, Regenerator, Republican; (d) From 1889 to 1908 the Progressives and Regenerators monopolized the control of public affairs, but the strength of Republicanism was not to be gauged by its representation in the cortes. At the beginning of the 10th century the question whether the monarchy should be replaced by a republic had become a living political issue, which was decided by the revolution of October 5, 1910.
The charter was brought to Lisbon by Sir Charles Stuart in July 1826. The absolutists had hoped that D. Pedro would abdicate unconditionally in favour of D. Miguel, and the council of regency at first refused to publish the charter. They were forced to do so (July 12) by a pronunciamento issued by D. Joao Carlos de Saldanha de Oliveira e Daun, count The of Saldanha and commander of the army in Oporto. Saldanha, a prominent constitutionalist, threatened to march on Lisbon if the regency did not swear obedience to the charter by the 31st of July. Amid wild enthusiasm the charter was proclaimed on that day, and on the 3rd of August Saldanha became head of a Liberal ministry. An absolutist counter-revolution at once broke out in the north. It was organized by the marquess of Chaves, and supported openly by the Church and the Miguelite majority of the army; secret assistance was also given by Spain. As civil war appeared imminent, Canning despatched 5000 British troops under Sir William Clinton to restore order, and to disband the troops under Chaves. By March 1827 Clinton and Saidanha had secured the acceptance of the charter throughout Portugal.
In October 1826 D. Miguel also swore to obey the charter and was betrothed to his niece D. Maria da Gloria (Maria II.). Pedro IV. appointed him regent in July 1827 and in February 1828 he landed in Lisbon, where he was received with cries of " Viva D. Miguel I., rei absoluto! " In March he dissolved the parliament which had met in accordance with the charter. In April the Tory ministry under Wellington withdrew Clinton's division, which was the mainstay of the charter. In May D. Miguel summoned a cortes of the ancient type, which offered him the Crown; and on the 7th of July 1828 he took the oath as king. Saldanha, Palmella, the count of Villa Flor (afterwards duke of Terceira), and the other constitutionalist leaders were driven into exile, while scores of their adherents were executed and thousands imprisoned. Austria and Spain supported D. Miguel, who was able to dispose of the vast wealth of Carlota Joaquina; Great Britain and France remained neutral. Only the emperor D. Pedro and a handful of exiles upheld the cause of Maria II., who returned to Brazil in 1829.
The Azores, although the majority of their inhabitants favoured absolutism, now became a centre of resistance to D. Miguel. In 1828 the garrison of Angra declared The for Maria II., endured a siege lasting four months, and finally took refuge in the island of Terceira, Wars. where it was reinforced by volunteers from Brazil and constitutionalist refugees from England and France. In March 1829 Palmella established a regency on the island, on behalf of Maria II.; and D. Miguel's fleet was defeated in Praia Bay on the 12th of August. Fortune played into the hands of Palmella, Saldanha, Villa Flor and their followers in Terceira. In 1830 a Whig ministry came into office in Great Britain; the " July revolution " placed Louis Philippe on the throne of France; Carlota Joaquina, the power behind D. Miguel's throne, died on the 7th of January. The fanaticism of the clerical and absolutist parties in Portugal (collectively termed apostolicos) was enhanced by recrudescence of Sebastianism. Men saw in the brutal boor D. Miguel (q.v.) a personification of the hero-king Sebastian, whose second advent had been expected for two and a half centuries. In the orgy of persecution, outrages were committed on British and French subjects; and a French squadron retaliated by seizing D. Miguel's fleet in the Tagus (July 1831). In Brazil, D. Pedro abdicated (April 1831); he determined to return to Europe and conduct in person a campaign for the restoration of Maria II. He was received with enthusiasm by Louis Philippe. In Great Britain Palmella raised a loan of 2,000,000 and purchased a small fleet, of which Captain Sartorius, a retired British naval officer, was appointed admiral. In February 1832 the " Liberators," as they were styled, sailed from Belleisle to the Azores, with D. Pedro aboard the flagship. In July they reached Portugal and occupied Oporto, but the expected constitutionalist rising did not take place. The country was almost unanimous in its loyalty to D. Miguel, who had 80,000 troops against the 650o (including 500 French and 300 British) of D. Pedro. But the Miguelites had no navy, and no competent general. They besieged D. Pedro in Oporto from July 1832 to July 1833, when the duke of Terceira and Captain Charles Napier, who had succeeded Sartorius, effected a daring and successful diversion which resulted in the capture of Lisbon (July 24, 1833). Maria II. arrived from France in September. The war went in her favour, largely owing to the brilliant generalship of Saldanha and the financial straits to which D. Miguel was reduced. In April 1834 a Quadruple Alliance was concluded between France, Spain, Great Britain and the government of Maria II. The allied army defeated the Miguelites at Asseiceira on the 16th of May, and D. Miguel surrendered at Evora-Monte on the 24th. By the convention of Evora-Monte he was condemned to perpetual banishment from the Peninsula. On the 24th of September D. Pedro died. During the few months in which he acted as regent for his daughter, he had transformed Portugal from a semi-feudal into a modern state. Tithes, many hereditary privileges and all monopolies were abolished; every convent was closed and its property nationalized; the Jesuits, who had returned after the death of Pombal, were again expelled; the charter of 1826 was restored.
Maria II. was fifteen years old at her accession. She was twice married - in December 1834 to Augustus, duke of Leuchtenberg, who died four months afterwards; and in April 1836 to Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg, who received the title of king consort in September 1837. Both the queen and the king consort were strangers to Portugal, and could exercise little control over the turbulent factions whose intrigues and pronunciamentos made orderly government impossible. There were three political parties: the Miguelites, who were still strong enough to cause trouble; the Chartists, who advocated the principles of 1826; the Septembrists, who advocated those of 1822 and took their name from the successful coup d'etat of the 9th -T ith of September 1836. By this coup d'etat the constitution of 1822 was substituted for the charter of 1826; and a Septembrist ministry under the Viscount Sft da Bandeira replaced the Chartist ministry under Saldanha, Terceira and Palmella. A counterrevolution, planned in the royal palace at Belem and hence known as the Belemzada, was frustrated in November 1836; and in 1837 a Chartist insurrection was crushed after severe fighting. This was known as the " War of. the Marshals, " from the rank of the two Chartist leaders, Saldanha and Terceira. In 1839 a moderate ministry took office, with Antonio Bermudo da Costa Cabral as its real, though not its ostensible, head. A pronunciamento by Costa Cabral led to the restoration of the charter on the Toth of February 1842, and a Cabral government was formed under the nominal leadership of Terceira. Costa Cabral, who became count of Thomar in 1845, ruled despotically, despite many insurrections, until May 1846, when a coalition of Miguelites, Septembrists and Chartist malcontents drove him into exile. On this occasion the rebellion - known as the " War of Maria da Fonte " - proved formidable. Oporto was field by a revolutionary junta, and Saldanha, who had become prime minister, persuaded the Quadruple Alliance to intervene. In June 1847 the Oporto junta surrendered, under promise of an amnesty, to a combined British and Spanish force, and the convention of Gramido (July 24, 1847) ended the war. Saldanha was rewarded with a dukedom, and retained office until June 1849. The dictatorial rule of his successor - the returned exile, Thomar - provoked another successful rising on the 7th of April 1851. Thomar again fled from the country; Saldanha again became prime minister, but at the head of a moderate coalition. He remained in power during five years of unbroken peace (1851-1856), and carried many useful reforms. The most important of these was the so-called Additional Act of the 5th of July 1852, which amended the charter of 1826 by providing for the direct election of deputies, the decentralization of the executive, the creation of representative municipal councils, and the abolition of capital punishment for political offences. Maria II. died on the T3th of November 18J3, and was succeeded by her eldest son D. Pedro, during whose ministry the king consort D. Ferdinand acted as regent.
Under the brothers Pedro V. (1853-1861) and Luiz (1861-1889) Portugal obtained a respite from civil strife. Both monarchs delegated the conduct of affairs to their ministers, who constructed new railways, reformed the educational system, and gradually improved the economic ro v. condition of the kingdom and its colonies. Pedro V.
came of age and assumed the government on the 16th of November 1855, in 1857 he married Princess Stephanie of Hohenzollern. The only political disturbance which marred the peace of his reign arose out of the seizure of the "Charles et Georges," a French slave-trader which was captured off Mozambique. Napoleon III. sent a fleet to the Tagus and demanded an indemnity, which Portugal was compelled to pay. In1860-1861cholera ravaged the whole kingdom, and especially the capital. The king died of this disease on the nth of November 1861, and two of his brothers, D. Ferdinand and D. John, died shortly afterwards. D. Luiz was absent at the time, and his father D. Ferdinand again became regent until his return, soon after which (1862) the new king married Maria Pia, daughter of Victor Emanuel II. of Italy. In 1869 slavery was abolished in every Portuguese colony. In 1870 the duke of Saldanha, the last survivor of the turbulent statesmen of Queen Maria's reign, threatened an appeal to arms if the king would not dismiss his minister, the duke of Louie, an advanced Radical and freemason, whose influence, dating from the reign of Pedro V., was viewed with disfavour by Saldanha, as well as by more conservative politicians. The king yielded; and Saldanha himself became prime minister, retaining office until 1874, when, at the age of 80, he was sent as ambassador to London. He had been by far the most influential man in Portugal, and his death in 1876 was followed by a regrouping of political parties.
The party of the Regenerators (Regeneradores), formed in 1852 out of a coalition of Septembrists and Chartists, had already been disintegrated. Its more radical elepolitical ments, known at first as the Historic Left, -were in parties. 1877 reorganized as the Progressives (Progressistas). Its more conservative elements carried on the tradition and retained the name of the original Regenerators. Besides these two monarchist parties - the Regenerators or Conservative right and the Progressives or Constitutional left - a strong Republican party was formed in 1881. There were also the Miguelites, active but impotent intriguers; and the advocates of Iberian union, who became prominent in 1867, 1869, 1874, and especially in July 1872, when many wellknown politicians were implicated in a fantastic conspiracy for the establishment of an Iberian republic. Portuguese nationalism was too strong for these advocates of union with Spain, whose propaganda was discredited as soon as any national interest was seriously endangered. This was the case in 1872, when Great Britain claimed the southern part of Delagoa Bay. The claim was submitted to the arbitration of M. Thiers, the French president, whose successor, Marshal Macmahon, delivered an award in favour of Portugal on the 19th of April 1875 (see Delagoa Bay).
King Luiz died on the i 9th of October 1889, and was succeeded by his son D. Carlos (q.v.). Colonial affairs had for some time received close attention. In 1885 Portugal recog- Colonial nized the Congo Free State, and admitted its Affairs: sovereignty over the north bank of the Lower Congo, although, in an unratified treaty of 1884, Great Britain had recognized both banks of the river as Portuguese territory. In 1886 Germany, France and Portugal defined by treaty the limits of their adjacent spheres of influence, and on the 26th of March 1887 Macao, hitherto leased to Portugal, was formally ceded by the Chinese government. In 1889 a resolution unanimously adopted by both chambers invited the ministry, of which Jose de Castro was president and Barros Gomes foreign minister, to press forward the territorial claims of Portugal in East and Central Africa. Shortly after the accession of King Carlos this active policy led to a dispute with Great Britain (see Africa, § 5). A Portuguese force under Major Serpa Pinto had invaded the II., - Shire highlands in order to forestall their annexation by the British, and the British government demanded satisfaction. Public opinion rendered compliance difficult until a British squadron was despatched to the mouth of the Tagus, and the British minister presented an ultimatum (Jan. r, 1890), requiring the withdrawal of all Portuguese forces from the Shire. Barros Gomes was then able to yield under protest; but disturbances at once broke out in Lisbon and Oporto, and the ministry resigned. A coalition government took office on the 14th of January, with Serpa Pimentel as prime minister and J. HintzeRibeiro as foreign minister. The king, in a letter to Queen Victoria, declined for the time being to receive the Order of the Garter, which had just been offered him, and on the 6th of February the government addressed a circular letter to the powers, proposing to submit the issues in dispute to a European conference. Meanwhile a Republican rising was suppressed in Lisbon, and many suspected officers were degraded. On the 10th of August an Anglo-Portuguese agreement was negotiated in London, but the cortes refused to ratify it. The ministry therefore resigned, and on the 14th of October Abreu e Sousa fomed a new cabinet, which arranged with Great Britain a modus vivendi for six months, pending the conclusion of another agreement. The British government was ready to make concessions, but more than one collision took place between Portuguese troops in Manica and the forces of the British South Africa Company. The defeat of the Portuguese was the chief cause of a serious military rising in Oporto, which broke out on the 30th of January 1891. The suppression of this rising so far enhanced the prestige of the cabinet that the cortes forthwith approved the convention with Great Britain; and the definitive treaty, by which Portugal abandoned all claim to a trans-African dominion, was ratified by the cortes on the 28th of May. Relations with Great Britain, however, remained far from cordial until the celebration of the fourth centenary of Vasco da Gama's voyage to India, afforded the opportunity for a rapprochement in 1898.
The extravagant management of the railways guaranteed by the state had entailed such heavy deficits that the payment of Financial the coupon of the railway state loan, due on the Crisis of 2nd of January 1892 had to be suspended. Thus 1892. arose a serious financial crisis, involving three changes of ministry. In May the Portuguese government committed a formal act of bankruptcy by issuing a decree reducing the amount then due to foreign bondholders by two-thirds. The bondholders' committees, supported by some of the powers concerned, protested against this illegal action. A compromise was at last arranged by Hintze-Ribeiro, who assumed office in February 1893 as head of a Progressive government. His cabinet promised only slightly better terms to the foreign bondholders, but it relieved the financial tension in some degree; and by coming to an agreement with Germany in East Africa and with Great Britain in South Africa as to the delimitation of frontiers, he minimized the risks of conflict with either country.
Portugal observed neutrality on the outbreak of the AngloBoer War, but the permission it conceded to the British consul at Lourenco Marques to search for contraband of war among goods imported there, and the free passage accorded to an armed force under General Carrington from Beira through Portuguese territory to Rhodesia, were vehemently attacked in the Press and at public meetings. The award of the Swiss arbitrators in the matter of the Delagoa Bay railway was given in 1900 (see Lourenco Marques). Portugal was condemned to pay 15,314,000 francs compensation; and this sum (less than was expected) was immediately raised by loan from the Portuguese Tobacco Company.
A law of the 8th of August 1901 regulated the conditions of election to the lower house, thus ending a long series of parliamentary reforms. The most important of these had provided for the gradual extinction of the right of hereditary peers to sit in the upper house (July 24, 1885), had reduced the number of deputies and fixed the qualifications required for the exercise of the franchise (March 28, 1895); and had abolished the elective branch in the upper house (Sept. 25, 1895). These changes left untouched the most serious evil in Portuguese constt- public life. The two great parties, Progressives and tutional Regenerators, were largely composed of professional Changes, politicians whose votes were determined by their 1885-1901. private interests. Skilful manipulation of the electoral returns enabled these two parties to hold office in fairly regular rotation; hence arose the popular nickname of rotativos, applied to Progressives and Regenerators alike. The same methods enabled them to obstruct the election of Republican and Independent candidates.
Under such a system of government it was natural that economic issues should still dominate Portuguese politics at the beginning of the 10th century. Year by year Republican- the budget showed a deficit, and the indebtedness ism and of the state increased. A large proportion of the the Army. expenditure was unproductive, corruption was rife in the public services, and the poverty of the overtaxed peasant and artisan classes gave rise to sporadic outbreaks of violence. In 1902 the students at Coimbra and Oporto organized an agitation against the proposed conversion of the gold debt; and anti-clerical riots, followed by a strike, rendered necessary the proclamation of martial law in Aveiro. In January 1903 an insurrection of peasants armed with scythes took place at Fundao; the imposition of a new market tax provoked riots at Coimbra in March; a serious strike of weavers took place at Oporto in June. In the same year the general distress was intensified by the failure of the Rural and Mortgage Bank of Brazil. In these circumstances Republicanism rapidly gained ground. Its real strength was masked by the system which enabled any ministry in power to control the election of candidates to the cortes. In April 1806, for example, only one Republican deputy was returned, although it was notorious that the Republican party could command a majority in many constituencies. Though the army as a whole was monarchist, certain regiments had become imbued with revolutionary ideals, which were fortified by the unwise employment of soldiers and sailors for the suppression of industrial disputes. During the weavers' strike the cruiser " Rainha D. Amelia " was converted into a temporary prison, and at Fundao, Aveiro and elsewhere troops had been ordered to fire on men with whom they sympathized. In November 1902, while King Carlos was in England, a military rising was organized in Oporto, but never took place. On the 23rd of April 1903 a body of cavalry and artillery mutinied in Lisbon and proclaimed a republic; but they were overpowered and ultimately transported to Mozambique. Such incidents, unimportant in themselves, were symptoms of a dangerous state of public opinion, which was debarred from expression in the cortes.
The constitution empowered the sovereign to veto any bill, to dissolve or prorogue the cortes, and to govern by means of ministerial decrees. The use of these extraordinary The Dic- powers would be a breach of constitutional practice, tatorship, but not of law. King Carlos had already been 1906-1908. criticized for alleged excessive interferences in politics. An experiment in government by decree had been made in May - October 1894; it was repeated in September 1905, when the king consented to prorogue the cortes until January 1906 in order to postpone discussion of the terms upon which the tobacco monopoly was to be allocated. A general election, in February 1906, was followed by three changes of ministry, the last of which, on the 19th of May, inaugurated the regime known in Portugal as the dictadura or dictatorship. JoaoFranco, the new prime minister, was conspicuous among Portuguese politicians for his integrity, energy and courage; he intended to reform the national finances and administration - by constitutional means, if possible. The cortes, opened on the 6th of June 1906, was dissolved on the 14th; another election took place, preceded by an official announcement that on this occasion all votes would be fairly counted; and the Franquistas or " New Regenerators " obtained a majority. When the cortes met, on the 29th of September, the opposition accused King Carlos of complicity in grave financial scandals. It was admitted that he had borrowed largely from the treasury, on the security of his civil list, and the Republican deputies accused him of endeavouring to assign the tobacco monopoly to one of his own foreign creditors, in settlement of the debt. Franco organized a coalition in defence of the Crown, but in January 1907 business in the cortes was brought to a standstill and many sittings ended in uproar. The attacks on the king were repeated at the trial of the poet Guerra Junqueiro, who was indicted for lese-majeste. All parties believed that the ministry would fall, and the rotativos prepared once more to divide the spoils of office, when, on the 2nd of May 1907, Joao Franco reconstructed his cabinet, secured the dissolution of the cortes and announced that certain bills still under discussion would receive the force of law. His partisans in the press hailed the advent of a second Pombal, and their enthusiasm was shared by many enlightened Portuguese, who had previously held aloof from politics but now rallied to the support of an honest dictator. Backed by these forces, as well as by the king and the army, Franco effected some useful reforms. But his opponents included not only the Republicans, the professional politicians and those officials who feared inquiry, but also the magistracy, the district and municipal councils, and the large body of citizens who still believed in parliamentary government. The existing debt owed by D. Carlos to the nation was assessed at f 154,000. This sum was ostensibly paid by the transference to the treasury of the royal yacht " Amelia " and certain palaces; but the cost and upkeep of the " Amelia " had been paid with public money, while the palaces had long been maintained as state property. These transactions, though perhaps necessary to save the credit of the sovereign at the least possible cost, infuriated the opposition. Newspapers and politicians openly advocated rebellion; Franco had recourse to coercion. Seditious journals were suppressed; gaols and fortresses were crowded with prisoners; the upper house, which was hostile to the dictator, was deprived of its judicial powers and reconstituted on a less democratic basis (as in 1826); the district and municipal councils were dissolved and replaced by administrative commissions nominated by the Crown (Jan. I, 1908).
The ministerial press from time to time announced the discovery of sensational plots against the king and the dictator. It is, however, uncertain whether the assassination of King Carlos and the crown prince (see Carlos I.), Carlos. on the 1st of February 1908, was part of a widely organized conspiracy; or whether it was the act of an isolated band of fanatics, unconnected with any political party. The republican press applauded the murder; the professional politicians benefited by it. But the regicide Buiga and his associates probably acted on their own initiative. The immediate results were the accession of Prince Manoel or Manuel (Emanuel II.) to the throne and the resignation of Franco, who sailed for Genoa. A coalition ministry, representing all the monarchist parties, was formed under the presidency of Admiral Ferreira do Amaral. The administrative commissions appointed by Franco were dissolved; the civil list was reduced; the upper house was reconstituted. A general election took place; in April the cortes met and the balance of power between Progressives and Regenerators was restored. On the 6th of May 1908 D. Manoel swore to uphold the constitution and was acclaimed king by the cortes. His uncle D. Affonso (b. 1865) took a similar oath as crown prince on the 22nd of March 1910.
The failure of the dictatorship and the inability of the monarchists to agree upon any common policy had discredited the existing regime, and at the general election of August 1910 the Republican candidates in Lisbon 1910. and Oporto were returned by large majorities. On the 3rd of October the murder of a distinguished Republican physician, Dr Miguel Bombarda, precipitated the revolution which had been organized to take place in Lisbon ten days later. The Republican soldiers in Lisbon, aided by armed civilians and by the warships in the Tagus, attacked the loyal garrison and municipal guards, shelled the Necessidades Palace, and after severe street-fighting (Oct. 4th-6th) became masters of the capital. The king escaped to Ericeira, and thence, with the other members of the royal family, to Gibraltar. Soon afterwards they travelled undisturbed to England, where the king was received by the duke of Orleans. Throughout Portugal the proclamation of a republic was either welcomed or accepted without further resistance. A provisional government was formed under the presidency of Dr Theophilo Braga (b. 1843), a native of the Azores, who had since 1865 been prominent among Portuguese men of letters (see Literature, below). The new government undertook to carry out part of the Republican programme before summoning a constituent assembly to remodel the constitution. Among its most important acts were the expulsion of the religious congregations which had returned after 1834, the nationalization of their property, and the abolition, by decree, of the council of state, the upper house and all hereditary titles or privileges. The Republican programme also included the separation of Church and State, and the concession of local autonomy (on federal lines, if possible) to the provinces and colonies of Portugal.
Bibliography. - I. Sources. - There are separate articles on the Portuguese 15thand 16th-century chroniclers, G. E. de Azurara, J. de Barros, D. de Goes, F. Lopes, J. Osorio da Fonseca, R. de Pina, G. de Resende and L. de Sousa, and on the 19th-century historians, A. Herculano and J. P. Oliveira Martins. The most important collections of documents are Colleccdo dos livros ineditos, &c., ed. J. F. Correa da Serra (I i vols., Lisbon, 1790-1804); Quadro elementar das relac es politicas e diplomatical de Portugal, ed. first by the Viscount de Santarem (1856-1861) and afterwards, under the title of Corpo diplomatico portuguez, by L. A. Rebello da Silva (vols. i.-iv.), J. J. da Silva Mendes Leal (v.-ix.) and J. C. de Freitas Moniz (x., &c.). The Colleccdo de tratados, &c. (30 vols., Lisbon, 1856-1879), was ed. successively by Viscount J. F. Borges de Castro and J. Judice Biker; it was continued by the Royal Academy as the Nova colleccdo de tratados (2 vols., Lisbon, 1890-1891). See also Portugaliae monumenta historica, ed. A. Herculano and J. J. da Silva Mendes Leal (12 parts, Lisbon, 1856-1897); Diogo Barbosa Machado, Bibliotheca lusitana (4 vols., Lisbon, 1741-1759); Innocencio da Silva and (after vol. x.) P. W. de Brito Aranha, Diccionario bibliographico portuguez (Lisbon, 1858, &c.). Periodicals containing valuable historical matter are the Archivo historico portuguez (Lisbon, 1903, &c.), the Boletim of the Lisbon Geographical Society (1873, &c.), and Portugalia (Oporto, 1898, &c.).
2. General Histories. - The Historia de Portugal, by J. P. Oliveira Martins (2 vols., 4th ed., Lisbon, 1901), is a series of brilliant impressionist studies. There is a popular illustrated Historia de Portugal, by A. Ennes, M. Pinheiro Chagas and others, in 37 parts (Lisbon, 1877-1883). See also H. Morse Stephens, Portugal, 4th ed., with additional chapter on the reign of D. Carlos, by Martin Hume (London, 1908); E. MacMurdo, History of Portugal (2 vols., London, 1888-1889); H. Schaefer, Geschichte von Portugal (5 vols., 2nd ed., Hamburg, 1874).
3. Special Periods. - A. Herculano's classic Historia de Portugal (4 vols., Lisbon, 1846-1853) covers the period up to 1279. H. da Gama Barros, Historia da administracao publica em Portugal nos seculos XII. a X V. (2 vols., Lisbon, 1895-1896) is a scientific study of the highest value. For the periods1415-1460and 1750-1777, see the authorities quoted under Henry The Navigator, and Pombal. A critical bibliography for the period1460-1580is given by K. G. Jayne, in Vasco da Gama, &c. (London, 1910). For later history, see L. A. Rebello da Silva, Historia de Portugal nos seculos XVII. e XVIII. (5 vols., Lisbon, 1860-1871); J. M. Latino Coelho, Historia de Portugal desde os fins do XVIII. seculo ate 1814 (3 vols., Lisbon, 1874-1891); the authorities cited under Peninsular War; S. J. da Luz Soriano, Historia da guerraem Portugal (19 vols., Lisbon, 1866-1890); J. P. Oliveira Martins, Portugal contemporaneo (1826-1868), (2 vols., 4th ed., Lisbon, 1906); J. L. Freire de Carvalho, Memorias ... para ... a usurpacao de D. Miguel (4 vols., Lisbon, 1841-1849); Sir C. Napier, An Account of the War .... between D. Pedro and D. Miguel (2 vols., London, 1835); W. Bollaert, The Wars of Succession of Portugal and Spain, from 1821 to 1840 (2 vols., London, 1870). (K. G. J.) Literature The Portuguese language can be most conveniently described in relation to the other languages of the Peninsula (see Spain: Language). Portuguese literature is distinguished by the wealth and variety of its lyric poetry, by its primacy in bucolic verse and prose, by the number of its epics and historical books, by the relative slightness of the epistolary element, and by the almost complete absence of the memoir. Rich as its romanceiro is, its volume is far less than the Spanish, but the cancioneiros remain to prove that the early love songs of the whole Peninsula were written in Portuguese, while the primitive prose redaction of Amadis, the prototype of all romances of chivalry, was almost certainly made in Portugal, and a native of the same country produced in the Diana of Montemor (Montemayor) the masterpiece of the pastoral novel. The Lusiads may be called at once the most successful epic cast in the classical mould, and the most national of poems, and the great historical monuments and books of travel of the 16th and 17th centuries are worthy of a nation of explorers who carried the banner of the Quinas to the ends of the earth. On the other hand Portugal gave birth to no considerable dramatist from the time of Gil Vicente, in the 16th century, until that of Garrett in the 19th, and it has failed to develop a national drama.
Its geographical position and history have rendered Portugal very dependent for intellectual stimulus and literary culture on foreign countries, and writers on Portuguese literature are wont to divide their subjects into periods corresponding to the literary currents from abroad which have modified its evolution. To summarize, the first literary activity of Portugal was derived from Provence, and Provencal taste ruled for more than a century; the poets of the 15th century imitated the Castilians, and the 16th saw the triumph of Italian or classical influence. Spain again imposed its literary standards and models in the 17th century, France in the 18th, while the Romantic movement reached Portugal by way of England and France; and those countries, and in less degree Germany, have done much to shape the literature of the 10th century. Yet as regards the Peninsula, the literatures of Portugal and Castile act and react on one another and if the latter gave much, she also received much, for nearly every Portuguese author of renown from 1450 until the 18th century, except Antonio Ferreira, wrote in Spanish, and some, like Jorge de Montemor and Manoel de Mello, produced masterpieces in that language and are numbered .as Spanish classics. Again, in no country was the victory of the Italian Renaissance and the classical revival so complete, so enduring.
But notwithstanding all its dependence on classical and foreign authors, Portuguese literature has a distinct individuality which appears in the romanceiro, in the songs named cantares de amigo of the cancioneiros, in the Chronicles of Fernao Lopes, in the Historia tragico-maritima, in the plays of Gil Vicente, in the bucolic verse and prose of the early 16th century, in the Letters of Marianna Alcoforado and, above all, in The Lusiads. Early Period. - Though no literary documents belonging to the first century of Portuguese history have survived, there is, evidence that an indigenous popular poetry both Poetry sacred and profane existed, and while Provencal influences moulded the manifestations of poetical talent for nearly two hundred years, they did not originate them. The close relations that prevailed between the reigning houses of Portugal, Provence and Aragon, cemented by intermarriages, introduced a knowledge of the gay science, but it reached Portugal by many other ways - by the crusaders who came to help in fighting the Moors, by the foreign prelates who occupied Peninsular sees, by the monastic and military orders who founded establishments in Portugal, by the visits of individual singers to court and baronial houses, but chiefly perhaps by the pilgrims who streamed from every country along the Frankish way to the far-famed shrine of Santiago de Compostela. Already by the end of the 12th century the lyric poetry of the troubadours had found cultivators in Portugal, and a few compositions which have come down to us bear a date slightly anterior to the year 1200. One of the earliest singers was D. Gil Sanches, an illegitimate son of Sancho I., and we possess a cantar de amigo in Galician-Portuguese, the first literary vehicle of the whole Peninsula, which appears to be the work of Sancho himself, and addressed to his concubine, A. Ribeirinha. The preAlphonsine period to which these men belong runs from 1200 to 1245 and produced little of moment, but in 1248 the accession of King Alphonso III., who had lived thirteen years in France, inaugurated a time of active and rich production which is illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Ajuda, the oldest collection of Peninsular verse. The apogee of palace poetry dates from 1275 to 1280, when young King Diniz displayed his exceptional talents in a circle formed by the best troubadours of his father Alphonso III. and the veterans of his grandfather Alphonso II., whose song-book, Cantigas de S. Maria, contains the choicest religious verse of the age. Diniz, who had been educated by Amyeric of Cahors, proved himself the most fecund poetking of his day, though the pleiad of fidalgos forming his court, and the jograes who flocked there from all parts, were fewer in number, less productive, and lacked the originality, vigour and brilliance of the singers who versified round Alphonso III.
The principal names of the Dionysian period (1284-1325) which is illustrated in the Cancioneiro da Vaticana are the king himself and his bastards D. Alphonso Sanches and D. Pedro, count of Barcellos. Of the two last, the former sings of love well and sincerely, while the latter is represented by love songs replete with false sentiment and by some rather gross songs of maldizer, a form which, if it rarely contains much poetical feeling or literary value, throws considerable light on the society of the time.
The verses of Diniz, essentially a love poet, are conventional in tone and form, but he can write pretty ballads and pastorals when he allows himself to be natural. The Portuguese troubadours belonged to all social classes, and even included a few priests, and though love was their favourite topic they used every kind of verse, and in satire they hold the palm. In other respects they are inferior to their Provencal masters. Speaking generally, the cancioneiros form monotonous reading owing to their poverty of ideas and conventionality of metrical forms and expression, but here and there men of talent who were poets by profession and better acquainted with Provencal literature endeavoured to lend their work variety by the use of difficult processes like the lexaprem and by introducing new forms like the pastorela and the descort. It is curious to note that no heroic songs are met with in the cancioneiros; they are all with one exception purely lyrical in form and tone. The death of King Diniz proved a severe blow to troubadour verse, and the reign of his successor Alphonso IV. witnessed a profound decadence of court poetry, while there is not a single poem by a Portuguese author in the last half of the 14th century, and only the names of a few authors have survived, among them the Galicians Vasco Pires de Camoens, an ancestor of Luiz de Camoens, and the typical lover Macias. The romanceiro, comprising romances of adventures, war and chivalry, together with religious and sea. songs, forms a rich collection of ballad poetry which continued in process of elaboration throughout the whole of the middle ages,. but unfortunately the oldest specimens have perished and scarcely any of those existing bear a date anterior to the 15th century..
Epic poetry in Portugal developed much later than lyric, but the signal victory of the united Christian hosts over the Moors at the battle of the Salado in 1340 gave occasion to an epic by Alphonso Giraldes of which some fragments remain.
The first frankly literary prose documents appear in the 14th century, and consist of chronicles, lives of saints and genealogical treatises. The more important are the Chronica Early Prose,. breve do archivo national, the Chronicas de S. Cruz de Coimbra, the Chronica da conquista do Algarve and the Livros dos Linhagens, aristocratic registers, portions of which,, like the story of King Arthur, have considerable literary interest.. All the above may be found in the Portugaliae monumenta historica, scriptores, while the Life of St Elizabeth of Portugal is included in the Monarchia lusitana; Romania has printed the following hagiographical texts belonging to the same century - the Vida de Eufrosina, the Vida de Maria Egypcia and the Vida de Sancto Amaro; the Vida de Santo Eloy has appeared in the Instituto and the Vida dos Santos Barlaao e Josafate has been issued by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences.
Romances of chivalry belonging to the various cycles must have penetrated into Portugal at an early date, and the Nobiliario of the Conde D. Pedro contains the genealogy of Arthur and the adventures of Lear and Merlin. There exists a mid14th-century Historia do Santo Graal, and an unprinted Josep' ab Aramadia, while, though the MS. is lost, we have abundant evidence of the existence of a primitive Portuguese prose redaction of Amadis de Gaula anterior to the present Spanish text. Furthermore, the Livro de Esopo published by Dr Leite de Vasconcellos also belongs to the period, and there are other works in MS.

The 15th Century

In the reign of John I. the court became an important literary centre, the king himself composed a Livro de Montaria, so far unedited, and his sons are rightly described as Camoens as " inclyta geracdo, altos I of antes." King Edward (Duarte) collected a precious library composed of the ancient classics, some translated by his order, as well as medieval poems and histories, and he wrote a moral treatise Leal comselheiro, and hints on horsemanship, or Livro da ensinanra de bem cavalgar toda sella. His brother D. Pedro also wrote a moral treatise Da virtuosa Bemfeitoria, and caused 'Vegetius's' militari and Cicero's De ofciis to be turned into Portuguese. This travelled prince brought back from Venice a MS. of Marco Polo, the gift of the Senate, and is still remembered by the people through the story Livro das viagens do Infante D. Pedro o qual andou ds sete partidas do mundo, reprinted almost yearly, of which he is the hero. All the monarchs of the 15th century were highly educated men and patrons of letters; indeed, even that typical medieval knight Alphonso V. confesses, in his correspondence with Azurara, that the sword avails nothing without the pen. The age is noted for its chronicles, beginning with the anonymous life of the Portuguese Cid, the Holy Constable Nuno Alvares Pereira, told in charming infantile prose, the translated Chronica da fundirao do moesteyro de Sam Vicente, and the Vida Fernao Lopes (q.v.), the father of Portuguese history and author of chronicles of King Pedro, King Ferdinand and King John I., has been called by Southey the best chronicler of any age or nation. Gomes Eannes de Azurara completed Lopes's chronicle of King John by describing the capture of Ceuta, and wrote a chronicle of D. Pedro de Menezes, governor of the town down to 1437, and a chronicle of D. Duarte de Menezes, captain of Alcacer, but his capital work is the chronicle of the conquest of Guinea (see Azurara).
Though not a great chronicler or an artist like Lopes, Ruy de Pina is free from the rhetorical defects of Azurara, and his chronicles of King Edward and King Alphonso V. are characterized by unusual frankness, and meritorious both as history and literature. All these three writers combined the posts of keeper of the archives and royal chronicler, and were, in fact, the king's men, though Lopes at least seems rather the historian of a people than the oracle of a monarch. Garcia de Resende appropriated Pina's chronicle of King John II., and after adding a wealth of anecdote and gossip and casting the glamour of poetry over a somewhat dry record, he reissued it under his own name. The taste for romances of chivalry continued throughout the 5th century, but of all that were produced the only one that has come down to us is the Estorea do Imperador Vespasiano, an introduction to the Graal Cycle, based on the apocryphal gospel of Nicodemus.
The Constable D. Pedro of Portugal, son of the prince of that name already referred to, has left some verses marked by. elevation of thought and deep feeling, the Satyra de felice e infelice villa, and the death of his sister inspired his Tragedia de la rei g a Isabel; but he is best remembered by his Coplas del contempto del mundo in the Cancioneiro Geral. Though he actually drafted the first in his native tongue, all these poems are in Castilian, and D. Pedro is one of the first representatives of those Spanish influences which set aside the Provençal manner and in its place adopted a taste for allegory and a reverence for classical antiquity, both imported from Italy. It was to the constable that the marquis de Santillana addressed his historic letter dealing with the origins of Peninsular verse. The court poetry of the reigns of King Alphonso V. and King John II., so far as it survives, is contained in the lyrical collection known 'as the Cancioneiro Geral, compiled by Garcia de Resende and printed in 1516. Nearly three hundred authors are there represented by pieces in Portuguese and Castilian, and they include D. Joao Manuel, D. Joao de Menezes, Joao Rodrigues de SA e Menezes, Diogo Brandao, Duarte de Brito and Fernao da. Silveira. The literary progenitors of the cancioneiro were the Spanish poets Juan de Mena, Jorge Manrique, Garci-Sanchez de Badajos and Rodriguez del Padron, and its main subjects. are love, satire and epigram. The epic achievements of the Portuguese in that century, the discoveries and the wars in Africa, hardly find an echo, even in the verses of those who had taken part in them. Instead, an atmosphere of artificiality surrounds these productions, and the verses that reveal genuine poetical feeling are very few. They include a lament of Garcia de Resende on the death of Ignez de Castro which probably inspired the inimitable stanzas dedicated to the same subject in The Lusiads, the Fingimento de Amores by Diogo Brandao, the Coplas of D. Pedro already referred to, and a number of minor pieces. However, some names appeared in the Cancioneiro Gerale which were to be among the foremost in Portuguese literature, e.g. Bernardim Ribeiro, Christovam Falcao, Gil Vicente, and SA de Miranda, who represent the transition between the Spanish school of the i 5th and the Italian school of the 16th century, the members of which are called Os Quinhentistas. Ribeiro and Falcao, the introducers of the bucolic style, put new life into the old forms, and by their eclogues in redondilhas, breathing the deepest and most genuine feeling in verses of perfect harmony, they gave models which subsequent writers worked by but could never equal.

The Drama

The history of the modern drama begins with religious plays, followed at a later period by moralities, and thence, by an easy transition, by the farce. This transition from the presentment of traditional types to the modern play can be traced in the works of Gil Vicente, the father of the Portuguese theatre. His first efforts belonged to the religious drama, and some of the more notable had edification for their object, e.g. the Barca do Inferno, but even in this class he soon introduces. the comic element by way of relief, and in course of time he arrives at pure comedy and develops the study of character. For a detailed description and criticism of his work, see Vicente.
In the various towns where he stayed and produced his plays, writers for the stage sprang up, and these formed the Eschola. Velha or school of Gil Vicente. To name the best known, Evora, the city of culture, produced Affonso Alvarez, author of religious pieces, Antonio Ribeiro, nicknamed "the Chiado," an unfrocked friar with a strong satirical vein who wrote farces in the Bazochian style,. and his brother Jeronimo Ribeiro. In Santarem appeared Antonio Prestes, a magistrate who drew from his judicial experience but evinced more knowledge of folk-lore than dramatic talent, while Camoens himself was so far influenced by Gil Vicente, whose plays he had perhaps seen performed in Lisbon, that in spite of his Coimbra training he never exchanged the old forms for those of the classical comedy. His Amphitryons is a free imitation of the Latin, yet thoroughly national in spirit and cast in the popular redondilha; the dialogue is spirited, the situations comic. King Seleucus derives from Plutarch and has a prose prologue of real interest for the history of the stage, while Filodemo is a clever tragi-comedy in verse with prose dialogues interspersed. Another poet of the same school is Balthazar Dias, the blind poet, whose simple religious autos are still performed in the villages, and are continually reprinted, the best liked being the Auto of St Alexis, and the Auto of St Catherine. He is purely medieval in subject and spirit, his lyrics are perfect in form and expression, his diction thoroughly popular. One of the last dramatists of the 16th century belonging to the old school was Simao Machado, who wrote the Comedy of Diu and the Enchantments of Alfea, two long plays almost entirely in Spanish, and full of digressions only made tolerable by the beauty of their lyrics.
Except Camoens, all these men, though disciples of Gil Vicente, are decidedly inferior to him in dramatic invention, fecundity and power of expression, and they were generally of humble social position. Moreover the favour of the court was withdrawn on the death of Gil Vicente, and this meant much, for there existed no educated middle class to support a national theatre. At the same time the old dramatists had to face the opposition of the classical school, which appealed to the cultured, and the hostility of the Inquisition, which early declared war on the popular plays on account of their grossness, and afterwards through the index prohibited altogether even the religious autos, as it had condemned the Italian comedies. The way was thus clear for the Jesuits, who, with their Latin tragi-comedies or dramatized allegories written to commemorate saints or for scholastic festivals, succeeded for a time in supplanting both the popular pieces of the old school and the plays modelled on the masterpieces of Greece and Rome. The old dramatists came to write for the lower classes only, and though the school lingered on, its productions were performed solely by travelling companies at country fairs. Though we know that much has perished, the four Indexes of the 16th century give some idea of the rich repertory of the popular theatre, and of the efforts necessary to destroy it; moreover, the Spanish Index of 1559, by forbidding autos of Gil Vicente and other Portuguese authors, is interesting evidence of the extent to which they were appreciated in the neighbouring country.

The Renaissance

The movement commonly called the Renaissance reached Portugal both indirectly through Spain and directly from Italy, with which last country it maintained close literary relations throughout the 15th century. King Alphonso V. had been the pupil of Matthew of Pisa and summoned Justus Balduinus to his court to write the national history in Latin, while later King John II. corresponded with Politian, and early in his reign the first printing-press got to work. In the next century many famous humanists took up their abode in Portugal. Nicholas Cleynarts taught the Infant Henry, afterwards cardinal and king, and lectured on the classics at Braga and Evora, Vasaeus directed a school of Latin at Braga, and George Buchanan accompanied other foreign professors to Coimbra when King John III. reformed the university. Many distinguished Portuguese teachers returned from abroad to assist the king at the same time, among them Ayres Barbosa from Salamanca, Andre de Gouveia of the Parisian college of St Barbe, whom Montaigne dubbed " the greatest principal of France," Achilles Estago and Diogo de Teive.
At home Portugal produced Andre de Resende, author of the Historia da antiguidade da cidade de Evora and De antiquitatibus Lusitaniae, and Francisco de Hollanda, painter, architect, and author of, inter alia, the Quatro dialogos da pintura antiga. Moreover, women took a share in the intellectual movement of the time, and the sisters Luisa and Angela Sigea, Joanna Vaz and Paula Vicente, daughter of Gil Vicente, constituted an informal female academy under the presidency of the Infanta D. Maria, daughter of King Manoel. Luisa Sigea was both an orientalist and a Latin poetess, while Publia Hortensia de Castro, after a course of humanities, philosophy and theology, defended theses at Evora in her eighteenth year.
The Italian school was founded by SA de Miranda (q.v.), a man of noble character who, on his return in 1526 from a six years' stay in Italy, where he had foregathered with the leading writers of the day, initiated a reform of Portuguese literature which amounted to a revolu- tistas. tion. He introduced and practised the forms of the sonnet, canzon, ode, epistle in oitava rim y and in tercets, and the epigram, and raised the whole tone of poetry. At the same time he gave fresh life to the national redondilha metre (medida velha) by his Cartas or Satiras which with his Eclogues, some in Portuguese, others in Castilian, are his most successful compositions. His chief disciple, Antonio Ferreira (q.v.), a convinced classicist, went further, and dropping the use of Castilian, wrote sonnets much superior in form and style, though they lack the rustic atmosphere of those of his master, while his odes and epistles are too obviously reminiscent of Horace. D. Manoel de Portugal, Pero de Andrade Caminha, Diogo Bernardes, Frei Agostinho da Cruz and Andre Falcao de Resende continued the erudite school, which, after considerable opposition, definitely triumphed in the person of Luiz de Camoens. The Lima of Bernardes contains some beautiful eclogues as well as cartas in the bucolic style, while the odes, sonnets, and eclogues of Frei Agostinho are full of mystic charm. Camoens (q.v.) is, as Schlegel remarked, an entire literature in himself, and some critics rate him even higher as a lyric than as an epic poet. He unites and fuses the best elements of the Italian and the popular muse, using the forms of the one to express the spirit and traditions of the other, and when he employs the medida velha, it becomes in his hands a vehicle for thought, whereas before it had usually served merely to express emotions.
His Lusiads, cast in the Virgilian mould, celebrates the combination of faith and patriotism which led to the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese, and though the Epic voyage of Vasco da Gama occasioned its composition and formed the skeleton round which it grew, its true subject is the peito illustre lusitano. Immediately on its appearance The Lusiads took rank as the national poem par excellence, and its success moved many writers to follow in the same path; of these the most successful was Jeronymo Corte Real (q.v.). All these poems, like the Elegiada of Luis Pereira Brandao on the disaster of Al Kasr, the Primeiro cerco de Diu of the chronicler Francisco de Andrade, and even the AfTonso Africano of Quevedo, for all its futile allegory, contain striking episodes and vigorous and well-coloured descriptive passages, but they cannot compare with The Lusiads in artistic value.
The return of SA de Miranda from Italy operated to transform the drama as well as lyric poetry. He found the stage occupied mainly by religious plays in which there appeared no trace of the Greek or Roman theatre, and, admiring what he had seen in Italy, he and his followers protested against the name auto, restored that of comedy, and substituted prose for verse. They generally chose the plays of Terence as models, yet their life is conventional and their types are not Portuguese but Roman-Italian. The revived classical comedy was thus so bound down by respect for authority as to have little chance of development, while its language consisted of a latinized prose from which the emotions were almost absent. Though it secured the favour of the humanists and the nobility, and banished the old popular plays from both court and university soon after Gil Vicente's death, its victory was shortlived. Jorge Ferreira de Vasconcellos, who produced in the Eufrosina the first prose play, really belongs to the Spanish school, yet, though he wrote under the influence of the Celestina, which had a great vogue in Portugal, and of Roman models, his types, language and general characteristics are deeply national. However, even if they had stage qualities, the very length of this and his other plays, the Ulisipo and the Aulegraphia, would prevent their performance, but in fact they are novels in dialogue containing a treasury of popular lore and wise and witty sayings with a moral object. So decisive was the success of Jorge Ferreira's new invention, notwithstanding its anonymity, that it decided SA de Miranda to attempt the prose comedy. He modelled himself on the Roman theatre as reflected by the plays of Ariosto, and he avowedly wrote the Estrangeiros to combat the school of Gil Vicente, while in it, as in Os Vilhalpandos, the action takes place in Italy. Antonio Ferreira, the chief dramatist of the classical school, knew both Greek and Latin as well as Miranda, but far surpassed him in style. He attempted both comedy and tragedy, and his success in the latter branch is due to the fact that he was not content to seek inspiration from Seneca, as were most of the tragedians of the 16th century, but went straight to the fountain heads, Sophocles and Euripides. His Bristo is but a youthful essay, but his second piece, 0 Cioso, is almost a comedy of character, though both are Italian even in the names of the personages. Ferreira's real claim to distinction, however, rests on Ignez de Castro (see Ferreira).
The principal form taken by prose writing in the 16th century was historical, and a pleiad of distinguished writers arose to narrate the discoveries and conquests in Asia, Africa and the ocean. Many of them saw the achievements they relate and were inspired by patriotism to record them, so that their writings lack that serene atmosphere of critical appreciation which is looked for if history is to take its place as a science. In the four decades of his Asia, Joao de Barros, the Livy Century of his country, tells in simple vigorous language the "deeds achieved by the Portuguese in the dis History. covery and conquest of the seas and lands of the Orient." His first decade undoubtedly influenced Camoens, and together the two men fixed the Portuguese written tongue, the one by his prose, the other by his verse. The decades, which were continued by Diogo do Couto, a more critical writer and a clear and correct stylist, must be considered the noblest historical monument of the century (see Barros). Couto is also responsible for some acute observations on the causes of Portuguese decadence in the East, entitled Soldado practico. The word encyclopaedist fits Damiao de Goes, a diplomatist, traveller, humanist and bosom friend of Erasmus. One of the most critical spirits of the age, his chronicle of King Manoel, the Fortunate Monarch, which he introduced by one of Prince John, afterwards King John II., is worthy of the subject and the reign in which Portugal attained the apogee of its greatness. Goes (q.v.) wrote a number of other historical and descriptive works in Portuguese and Latin, some of which were printed during his residence in the Low Countries and contributed to his deserved fame. After twenty years of investigation at Goa, Fernao Lopes de Castanheda issued his Historia do descobrimento e conquista da India pelos Portuguezes (Lisbon, 15521 554 and 1561), a book that ranks besides those of Barros and Couto. Antonio Galvao, who, after governing the Moluccas with rare success and integrity, had been offered the native throne of Ternate, went home in 1540, and died a pauper in a hospital, his famous treatise only appearing posthumously. The Tratado dos diversos. .. caminhos por onde a pimenta e especiaria veyo da India ... e assim de todos os descubrimentos ... que sao feitos em a era de 1560 has been universally recognized as of unique historical value. Like the preceding writers, Gaspar Correia or Correa lived long years in India and embodied his intimate knowledge of its manners and customs in the picturesque prose of the Lendas da India, which embraces the events of the years 1497 to 1550. Among other historical works dealing with the East are the Commentarios de Affonso d'Albuquerque, an account of the life of the great captain and administrator, by his natural son, and the Tratado das cousas da China e de Ormuz, by Frei Gaspar da Cruz.
Coming back to strictly Portuguese history, we have the uncritical Chronica de D. Joe - to III. by Francisco de Andrade, and the Chronica de D. Sebastiao by Frei Bernardo da Cruz, who was with the king at Al Kasr al Kebir, while Miguel Leitao de Andrade, who was taken prisoner in that battle, related his experiences and preserved many popular traditions and customs in his Miscellanea. Bishop Osorio (q.v.), a scholar of European reputation, wrote chiefly in Latin, and his capital work, a chronicle of King Manoel, is in that tongue.
The books of travel of this century are unusually important because their authors were often the first Europeans to visit or at least to study the countries they refer to. They include, to quote, the more noteworthy, the Descobrimento de Frolida, the Itinerario of Antonio Tenreiro, the Verdadeira informacao das terras do Preste Joao by Francisco Alvares,'and the Ethiopia oriental by Frei Joao dos Santos, both dealing with Abyssinia, the Itinerario da terra santa by Frei Pantaleao de Aveiro, and that much-translated classic, the Historia da vida do padre Francisco Xavier by Padre Joao de Lucena. Fernao Cardim in his Narrativa epistoler records a journey through Brazil, and Pedro Teixeira relates his experiences in Persia. But the work that holds the palm in its class is the Peregrinagao which Fernao Mendes Pinto, the famous adventurer, composed in his old age for his children's reading. While Mendes Pinto and his book are typically Portuguese of that age, the Historia tragicomaritima, sometimes designated the prose epic of saudade, is equally characteristic of the race of seamen which produced it. This collection of twelve stories of notable wrecks which befell Portuguese ships between 1552 and 1604 contains that of the galleon " St John " on the Natal coast, an event which inspired Corte-Rears epic poem as well as some poignant stanzas in The Lusiads, and the tales form a model of simple spontaneous popular writing.
The romance took many forms, and in two of them at least works appeared which exercised very considerable influence abroad. The Menina e moga of Bernardim Ribeiro, a tender pastoral story inspired by saudade for his lady-love, probably moved Montemor or Montemayor (q.v.) to write his Diana, and may some fifty years later have suggested the Lusitania transformada to Fernao Alvares do Oriente, who, however, like Ribeiro, owes some debt to Sannazaro's Arcadia. To name the Palmeirim d'Inglaterra of Moraes (q.v.) is to mention a famous book from which, we are told, Burke quoted in the House of Commons, while Cervantes had long previously declared that it ought to be guarded as carefully as the works of Homer. Like most successful romances of chivalry, it had a numerous progeny, but its sequels, D. Duardos by Diogo Fernandes, and D. Clarisel de Bretanha by Gongalves Lobato, are quite inferior. The historian Barros tried his youthful pen in a romance of chivalry, the Chronica do Imperador Clarimundo, while in another branch, and a popular one in Portugal, the Arthurian cycle, the dramatist Ferreira de Vasconcellos wrote Sagramor or Memorial das proesas da segunda Tavola Redonda. A book of quite a different order is the Co.ntos de proveito e exemplo by Fernandes Trancoso, containing a series of twenty-nine tales derived from tradition or imitated from Boccaccio and others, which enjoyed deserved favour for more than a century.
Samuel Usque, a Lisbon Jew, deserves a place to himself for his Consolagam as tribulagoes de Israel, where he exposes the persecutions endured by his countrymen in every age down to his time; the book takes the dialogue form, and its diction is elegant and pure. The important part taken by Portuguese prelates and theologians at the Council of Trent stimulated religious writing, most of it in Latin, but Frei Bartholomeu dos Martyres, archbishop of Braga, wrote a Cathecismo da doutrina Christa, Frei Luiz de Granada a Compendio de Doutrina Christa and Sermoes, all in Portuguese, and other notable pulpit orators include Diogo de Paiva de Andrade, Padre Luiz Alvares, Dom Antonio Pinheiro and Frei Miguel dos Santos, who preached at the obsequies of King Sebastian.
Among the moralists of the time three at least deserve the title of masters of prose style, Heitor Pinto for his Imagens da vida Christa, Bishop Arraez for his Dialogos, and Frei Thome de Jesus for his noble devotional treatise Trabalhos de Jesus, while the maxims of Joanna da Gama, entitled Ditos da Freira, though lacking depth, form a curious psychological document. The ranks of scientists include the cosmographer Pedro Nunes (Nonius), a famous mathematician, and the botanist Garcia da Orta, whose Colloquios dos simples e drogas was the first book to be printed in the East (1563), while the form of Aristotelian scholastic philosophy known as Philosophia conimbricensis had a succession of learned exponents. As, however, their vehicle was Latin, a mere mention must suffice, and for the same reason only the title of a notable book by Francisco Sanches can be given, the De nobili et prima universali scientia quod nihil scitur. In 1536 Fernao de Oliveira published the first Portuguese grammar, and three years later the historian Barros brought out his Cartinha Para aprender a ler, and in 1540 his Grammatica. Magalhaes Gandavo printed some rules on orthography in 1574. Nunes de Ledo also produced a treatise on orthography in 1576 and a work on the origins of the language in 1605, and Jeronymo Cardoso gave his countrymen a Latin and Portuguese dictionary.

The 17th Century

The gigantic efforts put forth in every department of activity during the 16th century led to the inevitable reaction. Energy was worn out, patriotic 'os' Seiscen-- ardour declined into blind nationalist vanity, and rhetoric conquered style. From a literary as from Lyric a political point of view the 17th century found Poetry. Portugal in a lamentable state of decadence which dated from the preceding age. In 1536 the Inquisition began its work, while between 1552 and 1555 the control of higher education passed into the hands of the Jesuits. Following the Inquisition and the Jesuits came two other obstacles to the cultivation of letters, the censorship of books and the Indexes, and, as if these plagues were not enough, the Spanish domination followed. Next the taint of Gongorism appeared, and the extent to which it affected the literature of Portugal may be seen in the five volumes of the Fenix renascida, where the very titles of the poems suffice to show the futilities which occupied the attention of some of the best talents. The prevailing European fashion of literary academies was not long in reaching Portugal, and 1647 saw the foundation of the Academia dos Generosos which included in its ranks the men most illustrious by learning and social position, and in 1663 the Academia dos Singulares came into being; but with all their pedantry, extravagances and bad taste, it must be confessed that these and similar corporations tended to promote the pursuit of good literature. In bucolics there arose a worthy disciple of Ribeiro in Francisco Rodrigues Lobo, author of the lengthy pastoral romances Corte na aldea and Primavera, the songs in which, with his eclogues, earned him the name of the Portuguese Theocritus. The foremost literary figure of the time was the encyclopaedic Francisco Manoel de Mello (q.v.), who, though himself a Spanish classic, .strove hard and successfully to free himself from subservience to Spanish forms and style. Most of the remaining lyricists of the period were steeped in Gongorism or, writing in Spanish, have no place here. It suffices to mention Soror Violente do Ceo, an exalted mystic called " the tenth muse," Bernarda Ferreira de Lacerda, author of the Soledades de Bussaco, the Laura do Anfrizo of Manoel Tagarro, the Sylvia de Lizardo of Frei Bernardo de Brito, and the poems of Frei Agostinho das Chagas, who, however, is better represented by his Cartas espirituaes. Satirical verse had two notable cultivators in D. Thomas de Noronha and Antonio Serrao de Castro, the first a natural and facile writer, the second the author of Os Ratos da Inquisicao, a facetious poem composed during his incarceration in the dungeons of the Inquisition, while Diogo de Sousa Camacho showed abundant wit at the expense of the slaves of Gongorism and Marinism.
The. gallery of epic poets is a large one, but most of their productions are little more than rhymed chronicles and have almost passed into oblivion. The Ulyssea of Gabriel Pereira de Castro describes the foundation of Lisbon by Ulysses, but, notwithstanding its plagiarism of The Lusiads and faults of taste, these ten cantos contain some masterly descriptive passages, and the ottava rima shows a harmony and flexibility to which even Camoens rarely attained; but this praise cannot be extended to the tiresome Ulyssipo of Sousa de Macedo. The Malaca conquistada of Francisco de SA de Menezes, having Alphonso d'Albuquerque for its hero, is prosaic in form, if correct in design. Rodriguez Lobo's twenty cantos in honour of the Holy Constable do him no credit, but the Viriato tragico by that travelled soldier Garcia de Mascarenhas has some vigorous descriptions, and critics reckon it the best epic of the second class.
In point of style the historians of the period are laboured and rhetorical; they were mostly credulous friars who wrote in isto,y. their cells, and no longer, as in the 16th century, t? travellers and men of action who described what they had seen.
Frei Bernardo de Brito began his ponderous Monarchia Lusitana with the creation of man and ended it where he should have begun, with the coming of Count Henry to the Peninsula. His contribution is a mass of legends destitute of foundation or critical sense, but both here and in the Chronica de Cister he writes a good prose. Of the four continuers of Brito's work, three are no better than their master, but Frei Antonio Brandao, who dealt with the period from King Alphonso Henriques to King John II., proved himself a man of high intelligence and a learned, conscientious historian.
Frei Luiz de Sousa, a typical monastic chronicler, although he had begun life as a soldier, worked up the materials collected by others, and after much labor limae produced the panegyrical Vida de D. Frei Bartholemeu dos martyres, the Historia de S. Domingos, and the Annaes d'el rei D. Joao III. His style is lucid and vivid, but he lacks the critical sense, and the speeches he puts into the mouths of his characters are imaginary. Manoel de Faria y Sousa (q.v.), a voluminous writer on Portuguese history and the arch-commentator of Camoens, wrote, by an irony of fate, in Spanish, and Mello's classic account of the Catalonian War is also in that language, while, by a still greater irony, Jacinto Freire de Andrade thought to picture and exalt the Cato-like viceroy of India by his grandiloquent Vida de D. Joao de Castro. Other historical books of the period are the valuable Discursos of Severim de Faria, the Portugal restaurado of D. Luis de 1Vlenezes, conde de Ericeira, the ecclesiastical histories of Archbishop Rodrigo da Cunha, the Agiologio lusitano of Jorge Cardoso and the Chronica da Companhia de Jesus by, Padre Balthazar Telles. The last also wrote an Historia da Ethiopia, and, though the travel literature of this century compares badly with that of the preceding, mention may be made of the Itinerario da India por terra ate' a ilha de Chipre of Frei Gaspar de S. Bernardino, and the Relacdo do novo caminho atraves da Arabia e Syria of Padre Manoel Godinho.
In the 17th century the religious orders and especially the Jesuits absorbed even more of the activities and counted for more in the public affairs of Portugal than in the preceding age. The pulpit discharged some of the functions of the modern press, and men who combined the gifts of oratory and writing filled it and distinguished themselves, their order and their country. The Jesuit Antonio Vieira, missionary, diplomat and voluminous writer, repeated the triumphs he had gained in Bahia and Lisbon in Rome, which proclaimed him the prince of Catholic orators. His 200 sermons are a mine of learning and experience, and they stand out from all others by their imaginative power, originality of view, variety of treatment and audacity of expression. His letters are in a simple conversational style, but they lack the popular locutions, humour and individuality of those of Mello. Vieira was a man of action, while the oratorian Manoel Bernardes lived as a recluse, hence his sermons and devotional works, especially Luz e Calor and the Nova Floresta, breathe a calm and sweetness alien to the other, while they are even richer treasures of pure Portuguese. Perhaps the truest and most feeling human documents of the century are the five epistles written by Marianna Alcoforado (q.v.) known to history as the Letters of a Portuguese Nun. Padre Ferreira de Almeida's translation of the Bible has considerable linguistic importance, and philological studies had an able exponent in Amaro de Roboredo.
The popular theatre lived on in the Comedias de Cordel, mostly anonymous and never printed its existence would hardly be known were it not for the pieces which were placed on the Index. The popular autos that have survived are mainly religious, and show the abuse of metaphor and the conceits which derive from Gongora. All through this century Portuguese dramatists, who aspired to be heard, wrote, like Jacintho Cordeiro and Mattos Fragoso, in Castilian, though a brilliant exception appeared in the person of Francisco Manoel de Mello (q.v.), whose witty Auto do fidalgo aprendiz in redondilhas is eminently national in language, subject and treatment. Until the Restoration of 1640 the stage remained spellbound by the Spaniards, and when a court once more came to Lisbon it preferred Italian opera, French plays, and zarzuelas to dramatic performances in the vernacular, with the result that both Portuguese authors and actors of repute disappeared.

The 18th .Century

The first part of the 18th century differs little from the preceding age except that both affectation and bad taste tended to increase; but gradually signs appeared of a literary revolution, which preceded the political and developed into the Romantic movement. Men of liberal ideas went abroad, chiefly to France, to escape the stupid tyranny that ruled in Church and state, and to their exhortation and example are largely due the reforms which were by degrees inaugurated in every branch of letters. Their names were among others Alexandre de Gusmao, the Cavalheiro de Oliveira, Ribeiro Sanches, Correa da Serra, Brotero and Nascimento. They had a forerunner in Luiz Antonio Verney, who poured sarcasm on the prevailing methods of education, and exposed to good effect the extraordinary literary and scientific decadence of Portugal in an epoch-making work, the Verdadeiro methodo de estudar. From time to time literary societies, variously called academies or arcadias, arose to co-operate in the work of reform. In 1720 King John V., an imitator of Louis XIV., established the academy of history. The fifteen volumes of its Memorias, published from 1721 to 1756, show the excellent work done by its members, among whom were Caetano de Sousa, author of the colossal Historia da Casa Real portugueza, Barbosa Machado, compiler of the invaluable Bibliotheca Lusitana, and Soares da Silva, chronicler of the reign of King John I.
The Royal Academy of Sciences founded in 1780 by the 2nd duke of Lafoes, uncle of Queen Maria I., still exists, though its Royal output and influence are small. Its chief contribuLions to knowledge were the Diccionario da lingua portugueza, still unfinished, and the Memorias (1788-1795), and it included in its ranks nearly all the learned men of the last part of the 18th century. Among them were the ecclesiastical historian Frei Manoel do Cenaculo, bishop of Beja, the polygraph Ribeiro dos Santos, Caetano do Amaral, a patient investigator of the origins of Portugal, Joao Pedro Riberio, the founder of modern historical studies, D. Francisco Alexandre Lobo, bishop of Vizeu, whose essays on Camoens and other authors show sound critical sense and a correct style, Cardinal Saraiva, an expert on ancient and modern history and the voyages of his countrymen, and Frei Fortunato de S. Boaventura, a historical and literary critic.
In 1756 Cruz e Silva, with the aid of friends, established the Arcadia Ulysiponense, " to form a school of good sayings and good examples in eloquence and poetry." The most considered poets of the day joined the Arcadia and Lyric individually wrote much excellent verse, but they Latin authors were the models they chose, and Gargao, the most prominent Arcadian, composed the Cantata de Dido, a gem of ancient art, as well as some charming sonnets to friends and elegant odes and epistles. The bucolic verse of Quita, a hairdresser, has a tenderness and simplicity which challenge comparison with Bernardim Ribeiro, and the Marilia of Gonzaga contains a celebrated collection of bucolic-erotic verse. Their conventionality sets the lyrics of Cruz e Silva on a lower plane, but in the Hyssope he improves on the Lutrin of Boileau. After a chequered existence, internal dissensions caused the dissolution of the Arcadia in 1774. It had only gained a partial success cause the despotic rule of Pombal, like the Inquisition before im, hindered freedom of fancy and discussion, and drove the Arcadians to waste themselves on flattering the powerful. In 1790 a New Arcadia came into being. Its two most distinguished members were the rival poets Bocage and Agostinho de Macedo. The only other poet of the New Arcadia who ranks high is Curvo Semedo; but the Dissidents, a name bestowed on those who stood outside the Arcadias, included two distinguished men now to be cited, the second of whom became the herald of a poetical revolution. No Portuguese satirist possessed such a complete equipment for his office as Nicolao Tolentino, and though a dependent position depressed his muse, he painted the customs and follies of the time with almost photographic accuracy, and distributed his attacks or begged for favours in sparkling verse. The task of purifying and enriching the language and restoring the cult of the Quinhentistas was perseveringly carried out by Francisco Manoel de Nascimento (q.v.) in numerous compositions in prose and verse, both original and translated. Shortly before his death in Paris he became a convert to the Romantic movement, and he prepared the way for its definite triumph in the person of Almeida Garrett, who belonged to the Filintistas, or followers of Nascimento, in opposition to the Elmanistas, or disciples of Bocage.
Early in the 18th century the spirit of revolt against despotism led to an attempt at the restoration of the drama by authors sprung from the people, who wrote for spectators . as coarse as they were ignorant of letters. Its centres were the theatres of the Bairro Alto and Mouraria, and the numerous pieces staged there belong to low comedy. The Operas portuguezas of Antonio Jose da Silva, produced between 1733 and 1741, owe their name to the fact that arias, minuets and modinhas were interspersed with the prose dialogue, and if neither the plots, style, nor language are remarkable, they have a real comic force and a certain originality. Silva is the legitimate representative in the 18th century of the popular theatre inaugurated by Gil Vicente, and though born in Brazil, whence he brought the modinha, he is essentially a national writer. Like Silva's operas, the comedies of Nicolao Luiz contain a faithful picture of contemporary society and enjoyed considerable popularity. Luiz divided his attention between heroic comedies and comedies de capa y espada, but of the fifty-one ascribed to him, all in verse, only one bears his name, the rest appeared anonymously. His method was to choose some Spanish or Italian play, cut out the parts he disliked, and substitute scenes with dialogues in his own way, but he has neither ideals, taste nor education; and, except in Os Maridos Peraltas, his characters are lifeless and their conventional passions are expressed in inflated language. Notwithstanding their demerits, however, his comedies held the stage from 1760 until the end of the century.
Meanwhile the Arcadia also took up the task of raising the tone of the stage, but though the ancients and the classic writers of the 16th century were its ideals, it drew immediate inspiration from the contemporary French theatre. All its efforts failed, however, because its members lacked dramatic talents and, being out of touch with the people, could not create a national drama.
Gargao (q.v.) led the way with the Theatro Novo, a bright little comedy in blank verse, and followed it up with another, Assemblea ou partida; but he did not persevere. Figueiredo felt he had a mission to restore the drama, and wrote thirteen volumes of plays in prose and verse, but, though he chose national subjects, and could invent plots and draw characters, he could not make them live. Finally, the bucolic poet Quita produced the tragedies Segunda Castro, Hermione and two others, but these imitations from the French, for all the taste they show, were stillborn, and in the absence of court patronage, which was exclusively bestowed on the Lisbon opera, then the best equipped in Europe, Portugal remained without a drama of its own.
Sacred eloquence is represented by Fr. Alexandre Palhares, a student of Vieira, whose outspoken attack on vice in high places in a sermon preached before Queen Maria led to his exile from court. The art of letter-writing had cultivators in Abbade Costa, Ribeiro Sanches, physician of Catherine II. of Russia, Alexandre de Gusmao, and the celebrated Cavalheiro de Oliveira, also author of Memorias politicas e literarias, published at the Hague, whither he had fled to escape the Inquisition. Philological studies were pursued with ardour and many valuable publications have to be recorded, among them Bluteau's Vocabulario Portuguez, the Reflexoes sobre a lingoa portugueza and an Arte poetica by Francisco Jose Freire, the Exercicios and Espirito da lingoa e eloquencia of Pereira de Figueiredo, translator of the Vulgate, and Viterbo's Elucidario, a dictionary of old terms and phrases which has not been superseded. Finally the best literary critic and one of the most correct prose writers of the period is Francisco Dias Gomes. The 19th Century and After. - The I 9th century witnessed a general revival of letters, beginning with the Romantic movement, of which the chief exponents were Garrett (q.v.) and Herculano (q.v.), both of whom had to leave Portugal on account of their political liberalism, and it was inaugurated in the xxii. 6 all lacked creative power. The principal Greek and field of poetry. Garrett read the masterpieces of contemporary foreign literature during his exiles in England and France, and, imbued with the national spirit, he produced in 1825 the poem Camoes, wherein he broke with the estab- M o vement: lished rules of composition in verse and destroyed Poetry. the authority of the Arcadian rhymers. His poetry like that of his fellow emigre, the austere Herculano, is eminently sincere and natural, but while his short lyrics are personal in subject and his longer poems historical, the verse of Herculano is generally subjective and the motives religious or patriotic. The movement not only lost much of its virility and genuineness, but became ultra-Romantic with A. F. de Castilho (q.v.), whose most conspicuous followers were Joao de Lemos and the poets of the collection entitled 0 Trovador; Soares de Passos, a singer for the sad; the melodious Thomas Ribeiro, who drew his inspiration from Zorilla and voiced the opposition to a political union with Spain in the patriotic poem D. Jayme. Mendes Leal, a king in the heroic style, Gomes de Amorim and Bulhão Pato, belong more or less to the same school. On the other hand Jose Sim p es Dias broke with the Romantic tradition in which he had been educated, and successfully sought inspiration from popular sources, as his Peninsulares proves.
In 1865 there arose a serious and lengthy strife in the Portuguese Parnassus, which came to be known as the Coimbra The question, from its origin in the university city. Its immediate cause was the preface which Castilho contributed to the poem Mogidade of Pinheiro Chagas, and it proclaimed the alliance of poetry with philosophy. The younger men of letters regarded Castilho as the self-elected pontiff of a mutual-praise school, who, ignorant of the literary movement abroad, claimed to direct them in the old paths, and would not tolerate criticism. The revolt against his primacy took the form of a fierce war of pamphlets, and led ultimately to the dethronement of the blind bard. The leaders in the movement were Anthero de Quental and Dr Theophilo Braga, the first a student of German philosophy and poetry, the second a disciple of Comte and author of an epic of humanity, Visao dos tempos, whose immense work in the spheres of poetry, criticism and literary history, marred by contradictions, but abounding in life, cannot be judged at present. In the issue literature gained considerably, and especially poetry, which entered on a period of active and rich production, still unchecked, in the persons of Joao de Deus and the Coimbrans and their disciples. The Campo de fibres contains some of the most splendid short poems ever written in Portuguese, and an Italian critic has ventured to call Joao de Deus, to whom God and women were twin sources of inspiration, the greatest love poet of the 19th century. Simplicity, spontaneity and harmony distinguished his earlier verses, which are also his best, and their author belongs to no school but stands alone. A preponderance of reflection and foreign influences distinguish the poets now to be mentioned. Anthero de Quental, the chief of the Coimbrans, enshrined his metaphysical neo-Buddhistic ideas overshadowed by extreme pessimism, and marked the stages of his mental evolution, in a sequence of finely-wrought sonnets. These place him in the sacred circle near to Heine and Leopardi, and, though strongly individualistic, it is curious to note in them the influence of Germanism on the mind of a southerner and a descendant of the Catholic navigators of the 16th century. Odes modernas, written in youth, show " Santo Anthero," as his friends called him, in revolutionary, freethinking and combative mood, and are ordinary enough, but the prose of his essays, e.g. Considerations on the Philosophy of Portuguese Literary History, has that peculiar refinement, clearness and conciseness which stamped the later work of this sensitive thinker. A subtle irony pervades the Rimas of Joao Penha, who links the Coimbrans with Guerra Junqueiro and the younger poets. Partly philosophical, partly position, A Morte de D. Joao; in Patria he evoked in a series of dramatic scenes and lashed with satire the kings of the Braganza dynasty, and in Os Simples he interprets in sonorous stanzas the life of country-folk by the light of his powerful imagination and pantheistic tendencies. The Claridades de Sul of Gomes Leal, a militant anti-Christian, at times recall Baudelaire, and flashes of genius run through AntiChristo, which is alive with the instinct of revolt. The So of the invalidish Antonio Nobre is intensely Portuguese in subjects, atmosphere and rhythmic sweetness, and had a deep influence. Cesario Verde sought to interpret universal nature and human sorrow, and the Parnassian Gongalves Crespo may be termed a deeper, richer Coppee. His Miniaturas and Nocturnos have been re-edited by his widow, D. Maria Amalia Vaz de Carvalho, a highly gifted critic and essayist whose personality and cercle call to mind the 18th-century poetess, the Marqueza. de Alorna. The French symbolists found an enthusiastic adept in Eugenio de Castro. Antonio Feijo and Jose de Sousa Monteiro have written verse remarkable by its form, while perhaps the most considered of the later poets are Antonio Correa de Oliveira and Lopes Vieira. Many other genuine bards might be mentioned, because the Portuguese race can boast of an unceasing flow of lyric poetry.
Garrett took in hand the reform of the stage, moved by a desire to exile the translations on which the playhouses had long subsisted. He chose his subjects from the national history, and began with the Auto de Gil Vicente, in which he resuscitated the founder of the theatre, and followed this up with other prose plays, among which the Alfageme de Santarem takes the palm; finally he crowned his labours by Frei Luiz de Sousa, a tragedy of fatality and pathos and one 'of the really notable pieces of the century. The historical bent thus given to the drama was continued by the versatile Mendes Leal, by Gomes da Amorim and by Pinheiro Chagas, who all however succumbed more or less to the atmosphere and machinery of ultra-Romanticism, while the plays of Antonio Ennes deal with questions of the day in a spirit of combative liberalism. In the social drama, Ernesto Biester, and in comedy Fernando Caldeira, also no mean lyric poet, are two of the principal names, and the latter's pieces, A Mantilha da Renda and A Madrugada, have a delicacy and vivacity which justifies their success. The comedies of Gervasio Lobato are marked by an easy dialogue and a sparkling wit, and some of the most popular of them were written in collaboration with D. Joao de Camara, the leading dramatist of the day, one of whose pieces, Os Velhos, has been translated and staged abroad. To Henrique Lopes de Men - donga, scholar, critic and poet, we owe some strong historical plays as well as the piece written with Lobato, which made a big hit. The playwrights also include Julio Dantas, and Dr Marcellino Mesquita, author of Leonor Telles and other historical dramas, as well as of a powerful piece, Den' supremo. Herculano led the way in the historical romance by his Lendas e narrativas and 0 Monasticon, two somewhat laboured productions, whose progenitor was Walter Scott; they still find readers for their impeccable style. Their most popular successors have been A Mocidade de D. Joao V. and A ultimo corrida de touros reaes em Salvaterra by Rebello da Silva, and Urn Anno na Corte by the statesman, Andrade Corvo, the first and the last superior books. The novel shares with poetry the predominant place in the modern literature of Portugal, and Camillo Castello Branco, Gomes Coelho and Eqa de Queiroz are names which would stand very high in any country. The first, a wonderful impressionist though not perhaps a great novelist, describes to perfection the domestic and social life of Portugal in the early part of the 10th century. His remarkable works include Arnor de Perdirao, Amor de Salvarao, Retrato de Ricardina, and the series entitled Novellas do Minho; moreover some of his essays in history and literary criticism, such as Bohemia do Espirito, rank only next to his romances. Gomes Coelho, better known as Julio Diniz, records his experiences of English society in Oporto in A Familia ingleza, and for his romantic idealism he has been dubbed British; Portuguese critics have accused him of imitating Dickens.
naturalistic, Junqueiro began with the ironical com His stories, particularly As Pupillas do Snr. Reitor, depict country life and scenery with loving sympathy, and hold the reader by the charm of the characters, but Diniz is a rather subjective monotonous writer who lacks the power to analyse, and he is no psychologist. Ega de Queiroz (q.v.) founded the Naturalist school in Portugal by a powerful book written in 1871, but only published in 1875, under the title The Crime of Father Amara; and two of his great romances, Cousin Basil '' and Os Maias, were written during his occupancy of consular posts in England. The Relic conveys the impressions of a journey in Palestine and in parts suggests his indebtedness to Flaubert, but its mysticism is entirely new and individual; while the versatility of his talent further appears in The Correspondence of Fradique Mendes, where acute observation is combined with brilliant satire or rich humour. The later portion of The City and the Mountains, for the truth and beauty of its descriptive passages, is highly praised, and many pages are already quoted as classic examples of Portuguese prose. Among other novelists are Oliveira Marreca, Pinheiro Chagas, Arnaldo Gama, Luis de Magalhaes and Teixeira de Queiroz, the last of whom is almost as distinctly national a writer as Castello Branco himself.
Years of persevering toil in archives and editions of old chronicles prepared Herculano for his magnum opus, the Historia de Portugal. The Historia da Origem e Estabeletlstory. cimento da Inquisicdo em Portugal followed and confirmed the position of its author as the leading modern historian of the Peninsula, and he further initiated and edited the important series Portugaliae Monumenta historica. The Visconde de Santarem, and Judice Biker in geography and diplomatics, produced standard works; Luz Soriano compiled painstaking histories of the reign of King Joseph and of the Peninsular War; Silvestre Ribeiro printed a learned account of the scientific, literary and artistic establishments of Portugal, and Lieut.-Colonel Christovam Ayres was the author of a history of the Portuguese army. Rebello da Silva and the voluminous and brilliant publicists, Latino Coelho and Pinheiro Chagas, wrote at second hand and rank higher as stylists than as historians. Gama Barros and Costa Lobo followed closely in the footsteps of Herculano, the first by a Historia da Administragao publica em Portugal nos Seculos XII. a XV., positively packed with learning, the second by a Historia da Sociedade em Portugal no Seculo XV. Though he had no time for original research, Oliveira Martins (q.v.) possessed psychological imagination, a rare capacity for general ideas and the gift of picturesque narration; and in his philosophic Historia de Portugal, his sensational Portugal contemporaneo, Os Filhos de D. Joao and Vida de Nun' Alvarez, he painted an admirable series of portraits and, following his master Michelet, made the past live again. Furthermore the interesting volumes of his Bibliotheca das Sciencias Sociaes show extensive knowledge, freshness of views and critical independence and they have greatly contributed to the education of his countrymen.
Ramalho Ortigao, the art critic, will be remembered principally for the Far pas, a series of satirical and humorous sketches of Portuguese society which he wrote in collabora- Criticism. L ion with Queiroz. Julio Cesar Machado and Fialho de Almeida made their mark by many humorous publications, and, in the domain of pure literary criticism, mention must be made of Antonio Pedro Lopes de Mendonga, Rebello da Silva, Dr Joaquim de Vasconcellos, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Silva Pinto, the favourite disciple of Castello Branco, and of Luciano Cordeiro, founder of the Lisbon Geographical Society, whose able monograph, Soror Marianna, vindicated the authenticity of the Letters of a Portuguese Nun and showed Marianna Alcoforado to be their authoress. Excellent critical work was also done by Moniz Barreto, whose early death was a serious loss to letters.
. In scientific literature hardly a single department lacks a name of repute even outside Portugal. The press has accompanied the general progress, and ever since Herculano founded and wrote in the Panorama, the leading writers have almost without exception made both name and livelihood by writing for the papers, but as pure journalists none has excelled Antonio Rodriguez Sampaio, Antonio Augusto Teixeira de Vasconcellosand Emygdio Navarro.
The leading Portuguese orators of the 19th century, with the exception of Malhao, were not churchmen, as in the past, but politicians. The early days of parliamentary rule produced Manoel Fernandes Thomas and Manoel oratory. Borges Carneiro, but the most brilliant period was that of the first twenty-five years of constitutional government after 1834, and the historic names are those of Garrett, Manoel da Silva Passos, and the great tribune and apostle of liberty, Jose Estevao Coelho de Magalhaes. The ill-fated Vieira de Castro excited the greatest admiration by his impassioned speeches in the Chamber of Deputies during the 'sixties; the nearest modern counterpart to these distinguished men is the orator Antonio Candido Ribeiro da Costa.
Bibliography. - The corner-stones are the Bibliotheca Lusitana of Barbosa Machado and the Diccionario bibliographico portuguez, by Innocencio da Silva, with Brito Aranha's supplement; while the Bibliotheca Hispana Nova of Nicolao Antonio (1783-1788) may also be referred to. Subsidiary to these are the Manual bibliographico portuguez of Dr Pinto de Mattos, the admirable Catalogo razonado de los Autores portugueses que escribieron en Castellano, compiled by Garcia Peres (1890), and such publications as Figaniere's Catalogo dos Manuscriptos portugueses no Museu Britannico (1853). The only full general history of the literature comes from the prolific pen of Dr Theophilo Braga (second and revised edition in 32 vols.). The volumes positively bulge with information and contain much acute criticism, but their value is diminished by frequent and needless digressions and by the fantastic theorizings of their author, a militant Positivist. Of one-volume books on the same subject, Dr Braga's Curso da Historia da Litteratura portugueza and his Theoria da Historia da Litteratura portugueza (3rd ed., 1881) may be recommended, though the plainer Historia da Litteratura portugueza, by Dr Mendes dos Remedios (3rd ed., 1908) has the considerable advantage for foreign students of including a large number of selected passages from the authors named. See also the Chrestomathia archaica of J. J. Nunes (1905). Among foreign studies the palm must be given to the " Geschichte der portugiesischen Litteratur " by the eminent scholar, Mme lIichatlis de Vasconcellos, in the Grundriss der rom. Philologie of Grober (1893-1894). Among general critical studies are Costa e Silva's Ensaio biographico-critico and the masterly work of Menendez y Pelayo, Historia de las ideas estaticas Espana. Coming to special periods, the student may consult, for the cancioneiros, Mme Michaelis de Vasconcellos, op. cit., and her great edition of the Cancioneiro da Ajuda (1904); also H. R. Lang, Das Liederbuch der Konigs Denis von Portugal (1894). Lopes de Mendonga treats of the literature of the 16th and 17th centuries in articles in the Annaes das sciencias e letras; and the Memorias de litteratura portugueza printed by the Lisbon Academy of Sciences (1792-1814) contain essays on the drama and the Arcadia, but the 19th century has naturally received most attention. For that period, see Lopes de Mendonga, Memoiras da litteratura contemporanea (1855); Romero Ortiz, La Literatura portugueza en el siglo XIX. (1869), containing much undigested information; and Maxime Formont, Le Mouvement poetique contemporain en Portugal, an able sketch; but the soundest review is due to Moniz Barreto, whose " Litteratura portugueza contemporanea " came out in the Revista de Portugal for July 1889. Students of the modern novel in Portugal should refer to the essays of J. Pereira de Sampaio (" Bruno ") A Geracao Nova (1886).
Portugal still lacks a collection equivalent to Rivadeneyra's Biblioteca de autores espanoles, contenting itself with the Parnasso lusitano (6 vols., 1826) and a Corpus illustrium poetarum lusitanorum qui latine scripserunt (1745-1748), and though much has been accomplished to make the classics more available, even yet no correct, not to say critical, texts of many notable writers exist. The Cancioneiro de Ajuda by Mme Vasconcellos, is the perfection of editing, and there are diplomatic editions of other cancioneiros, e.g. Il Canzoniere portoghese della Bibliotheca Vaticana, by E. Monaci (1875), of which Dr Braga hurriedly prepared a critical edition; Il Canzoniere portoghese Colocci-Brancuti by E. Molteni (1880), and the Cancioneiro Geral (1846). The Romanceiro portuguez of V. E. Hardung is incomplete. (E. PR.)


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also portugál



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Alternative spellings


From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.


  • (UK) IPA: /ˈpɔː(ɹ).tʃə.gəl/, /ˈpɔː(r\).tjə.gəl/; SAMPA: /"pO:(r\).tS@.g@l/, /"pO:(r\).tj@.g@l/
  • (US) IPA: /ˈpɔɹ.tʃə.gəl/, SAMPA: /"pOr\.tS@.g:l/
  •  Audio (US)help, file

Proper noun

  1. A country in Europe, on the Iberian Peninsula. Member state of the European Union. Official name: Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa).

Derived terms


See also


Proper noun

  1. Portugal



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!

Proper noun

Portugal m.
  1. Portugal




From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.


  • (Eastern Catalan) IPA: [puɾtuɣáɫ]
  • (Western Catalan) IPA: [poɾtuɣáɫ]

Proper noun

Portugal m. 
  1. Portugal

Derived terms

See also

  • Lusitània (“Lusitania”)



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!

Proper noun

Portugal m.
  1. Portugal



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.


Proper noun

  1. Portugal

Derived terms


Proper noun

Portugal m.
  1. Portugal

Related terms



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.


  • IPA: [ˈpɔɐ̯tuɡal]

Proper noun

  1. Portugal

Derived terms



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!

Proper noun

  1. Portugal

Derived terms



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.


  • Brazil: IPA: /poχ.tu.ˈgaw/, /poɾ.tu.ˈgaw/, SAMPA: /poX.tu."gaw/, /po4.tu."gaw/

Proper noun

Portugal m.
  1. Portugal

Derived terms



From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!

Proper noun

Portugal m. (Cyrillic spelling Португал)
  1. Portugal




From Latin Portus Cale, former name of what is now the city of Oporto.
Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with IPA or SAMPA then please add some!

Proper noun

Portugal m.
  1. Portugal

Derived terms

  • portugalés
  • portugalujo
  • portugués
  • portuguesada
  • portuguesismo


Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

República Portuguesa
Flag of Portugal Coat of Arms of Portugal
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: {{{national_motto}}}
Anthem: "A Portuguesa"
Location of Portugal
Capital Lisbon5
38°46′ N 9°11′ W
Largest city capital
Official languages Portuguese1
Parliamentary republic
 • Total
 • Water (%)
{{{area}}} km² (110th)
 • [[As of {{{population_estimate_year}}}|{{{population_estimate_year}}}]] est.
 • [[As of {{{population_census_year}}}|{{{population_census_year}}}]] census
 • Density
{{{population_estimate}}} ({{{population_estimate_rank}}})
{{{population_density}}}/km² ({{{population_density_rank}}})
 • Total
 • Per capita
[[As of {{{GDP_PPP_year}}}|{{{GDP_PPP_year}}}]] estimate
{{{GDP_PPP}}} ({{{GDP_PPP_rank}}})
$23,464 (2007) (34th)
Currency Euro ()² (EUR)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
Internet TLD .pt4
Calling code +351
.Portugal, officially the Portuguese RepublicCite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag on the Iberian Peninsula.^ The official language of Portugal is Portuguese.
  • 206 Tours Pilgrimages & Spiritual Journeys: What to Know Before You Go... Destination Information 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

^ Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa; pron.
  • PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

^ Portugal - Portugal Portugal , officially Portuguese Republic, republic (2005 est.
  • Portugal: History, Geography, Government, and Culture — 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Being the westernmost country of mainland Europe, Portugal is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south and by Spain to the north and east.^ It is bound by Spain to the north and east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the south and west.
  • Portugal - Atlapedia Online 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At east and north it borders on Spain and at west and south it borders on the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Travel Portugal Guide - 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portugal was long among the poorest countries in Europe.
  • Portugal - Emigration 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.^ Along with the mainland of Portugal, Madeira and Azores, which are archipelagos in the Atlantic Ocean, are also a part of the territory.
  • Portugal Web Directory-Iozoo-Search Engine-Portuguese Websites-Links 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira are also part of Portugal.
  • Portugal Furniture Rental: Rent Furniture in Portugal with CORT 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]
  • PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

^ Administratively, the Atlantic islands of the Azores and Madeira are part of Portugal.
  • Portugal -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Reference]

.The land within the borders of today's Portuguese Republic has been constantly settled since prehistoric times.^ Since ancient times, the Portuguese have been world travelers, bringing back influences from India, Brazil, China, Japan and Africa.

^ According to ancient historic records, the lands which comprise Portugal today have been settled by various peoples throughout the course of recorded history.
  • Portugal Web Directory-Iozoo-Search Engine-Portuguese Websites-Links 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In prehistoric times, records indicate that Celtic and Lusitanian societies inhabited the lands.
  • Portugal Web Directory-Iozoo-Search Engine-Portuguese Websites-Links 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some of the earliest civilizations include Celtic societies, followed by incorporation into the Roman Republic dominions in the 2nd century BC, and subsequently into Germanic Kingdoms, such as the Suebi and the Visigoths, from the 5th to the 8th century.^ Portugal became part of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century bc.
  • Portugal - MSN Encarta 25 September 2009 8:40 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The region is visited by Phoenicians and Carthaginians , settled by Celts , incorporated in the Roman empire (as Lusitania in 138 BC), settled again by Visigoths and conquered by Muslims.
  • History of PORTUGAL 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The territory which forms the modern Portuguese Republic has witnessed a constant flow of civilizations during the past 3,100 years, since the earlier pre-Roman Iberian and Celtic inhabitants, to the Roman, Germanic, and Moorish peoples who made an imprint on the country’s culture, history, language, and ethnic composition.
  • PORTUGUESE REPUBLIC 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

.The Moors occupied most of the Iberian Peninsula from the early 8th century when they first arrived and conquered the Christian Kingdoms of Germanic background.^ It was here that Portugal's first king, Dom Afonso Henriques, was born in the beginning of the 12th century, having then extended the kingdom to the south, in what was considered as one of the most heroic feats of the Christian Reconquest.
  • Oporto and Northern Portugal - Tourism Information 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

^ With the Crusaders eventually reclaiming most of the territories occupied by the Moors, by the 13 th century, most Moors had been pushed south of the Iberian Peninsula and Portugal was able to reassert itself as a Christian country to this day with ethnic Moors remaining in its southern provinces.
  • Portugal Diary | Portugal Blog 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ask most people what their first image is of a holiday in Portugal and they will reply relaxing in a holiday villa and enjoying the beaches and cliffs along the southern coastline of the Algarve.
  • Villas and apartments for rent in Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

.After the starting of the Reconquista, in the early 1100s Portugal appeared as a kingdom independent of its Christian neighbours, Castile and Leon.^ Portugal gradually became independent of Leon.

^ The county and kingdom of Portugal to 1383 - - The kingdom and the Reconquista .
  • Portugal -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Reference]

^ Flag of Portugal Background: An independent kingdom since 1143, Portugal established its continental frontiers in 1297 and is one of the oldest nations in Europe.
  • Portugal - Portuguese Republic - Country Profile - República Portuguesa - Travel and Tourism Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: News]

.In little over a century Portugal had nearly established its modern-day borders by conquering territory from the Muslim Moors.^ In the 15th century, Portugal’s intrepid maritime explorers led by Vasco da Gama discovered new territories, leading to the accumulation of an overseas empire.
  • European Countries - Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Granada remained under Muslim rule for more than seven centuries until 1492, when it became the last Spanish city to be conquered by the Christians.
  • Spain & Portugal - Discount Travel Vacation Packages By Friendly Planet 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

^ Situated on the extreme South of Portugal, this part of the territory was the last to be conquered from the Moors by the Portuguese king in 1292.
  • Portugal Hotels, Pousadas, Manor Houses, Self-catering Villas & Apartments - Reservations 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: General]

.During the 15th and 16th centuries, with its global empire which included possessions in Africa, Asia and South America, Portugal was one of the world's major economic, political, and cultural powers.^ During the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal was a major economic, political, and cultural power, its empire stretching from Brazil to the Indies.
  • Portugal Car Hire Hotels Flights Special Offer Last Minute 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Portuguese Empire extended across the world, to Asia, Africa, and America.
  • Portugal Facts, information, pictures | articles about Portugal 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Portugal News - Breaking World Portugal News - The New York Times 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the 15th and 16th century portugal was a global maritime power.
  • Portugal - Wikiversity 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Original source]

.In the 19th century, armed conflict with French and Spanish invading forces at mainland, and the loss of its largest territorial possession abroad, Brazil, which declared independence unilaterally, disrupted political stability and potential economic growth.^ This immigration stemmed from social reshuffling in the wake of the Portuguese political retreat rather potential pull factors (e.g., economic growth or progressive political changes) in Portugal itself.
  • Migration Information Source - Portugal Seeks Balance of Emigration, Immigration 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after the Napoleonic Wars of the early 1800s, Portugal’s territorial empire started to decline with the declaration of independence of many South American and African states starting with Brazil.
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^ The continuing armed conflicts with guerrillas in the African territories, requiring about 40% of Portugal's annual budget to be devoted to military spending, drained the country's resources.
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.After the Carnation Revolution's coup d'état in 1974, its regimen was deposed in Lisbon and the country lost its last overseas provinces in Africa.^ Portugal since 1974 - - The Revolution of the Carnations .
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^ The country’s dictatorship was overthrown in the April 25, 1974, Revolution of the Carnations.
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^ The burden of the many colonial overseas wars and the lack of political and civil freedoms led to the end of the regime after the Carnation Revolution in April 25 of 1974, an effectively bloodless left-wing military coup, that promised to install a new democratic regime.
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.Portugal is a developed country,[1] It is a member of the European Union (since 1986) and the United Nations (since 1955); as well as a founding member of OECD, NATO, CPLP (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa — Community of Portuguese Language Countries), and the European Union's Eurozone.^ Portugal is member-country of the European Union since 1986.
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^ Portugal was admitted to the European Economic Community (now European Union) on Jan.
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^ The official language of Portugal is Portuguese.
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Main article: History of Portugal
Main language areas in Iberia circa 200 BC, before the process of Roman conquest.
.The early history of Portugal, whose name probably derives from the Roman name Portus Cale, is shared with the rest of the Iberian peninsula.^ The name Portugal is derived from Portus Cale, a former Roman settlement at the mouth of the Douro River.
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^ Portugal lies south and west of Spain , with which it shares the Iberian Peninsula.
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^ LOCATION & GEOGRAPHY: Portugal is located in South West Europe occupying the western littoral of the Iberian Peninsula.
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.The region was settled by Pre-Celts and Celts, giving origin to peoples like the Lusitanians, visited by Phoenicians and Carthaginians, incorporated in the Roman Republic dominions (as Lusitania in 138 BC), settled again by Suevi, Buri, and Visigoths, and conquered by Moors.^ There are the pre-Roman civilization of the Lusitanians, Celts, and Gallaeci tribes that have had contacts with the Carthaginian and Phoenician traders.
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^ By 585 the Visigoths had conquered the Suevi.

^ Most Portuguese are Roman Catholic and have descended from Romans, Moors, Visigoths and even the Arabs.
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.In 868, during the Reconquista (by which Christians reconquered the Iberian peninsula from the Muslim and Moorish domination), the First County of Portugal was formed.^ The county and kingdom of Portugal to 1383 - - The kingdom and the Reconquista .
  • Portugal -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Reference]

^ With the Crusaders eventually reclaiming most of the territories occupied by the Moors, by the 13 th century, most Moors had been pushed south of the Iberian Peninsula and Portugal was able to reassert itself as a Christian country to this day with ethnic Moors remaining in its southern provinces.
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^ Compared to Spain (which also shares the Iberian Peninsula), Portugal is tiny - at approximately 92,000 square kilometres it is just a sixth the size of its larger neighbour.
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.A victory over the Muslims at Ourique in 1139 is traditionally taken as the occasion when Portugal is transformed from a county into an independent kingdom.^ The county and kingdom of Portugal to 1383 - - The kingdom and the Reconquista .
  • Portugal -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC [Source type: Reference]

^ Flag of Portugal Background: An independent kingdom since 1143, Portugal established its continental frontiers in 1297 and is one of the oldest nations in Europe.
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^ In the Late Middle-Ages, declining as the political centre of the Kingdom of Portugal, Coimbra began to evolve into a major cultural centre with the foundation of the University of Coimbra in 1290.

.Portugal traces its national origin to June 24 1128 with the Battle of São Mamede.^ Portugal traces its emergence as a nation to 24 June 1128, with the Battle of São Mamede by Afonso I. On 5 October 1143 Portugal was formally recognized.
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.At the Battle of São Mamede, Afonso Henriques, Count of Portugal, defeated his mother, Countess Teresa, and her lover, Fernão Peres de Trava, in battle - thereby establishing himself as sole leader.^ Portugal traces its emergence as a nation to 24 June 1128, with the Battle of São Mamede by Afonso I. On 5 October 1143 Portugal was formally recognized.
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^ The Portuguese, largely due to the efforts of Nun'Álvares Pereira , defeated the Castilians in the battle of Aljubarrota (1385) and established John I , a bastard son of Peter, as king.
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^ The first King of Portugal was Afonso Henriques who declared himself the ruler of Portugal after the battle of Ourique on the 25th July 1139.
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