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Portuguese Brazilian
Luso-Brasileiro
PortugalBrazil
DpedroI-brasil-full.jpgMachado assis.jpgKelly Key 2.jpg

Daniela Mercury by Fábio Cerati cropped.jpgCarmen Miranda in The Gang's All Here trailer cropped.jpgMariliapera28122006.jpg Pedro I of Brazil  · Machado de Assis[1]  · Kelly Key[2] Daniela Mercury[3] Carmen Miranda  · Marília Pêra[4]  ·

Total population
No available figures. The vast majority of Brazilians have some Portuguese ancestry.
Regions with significant populations
All Brazil
Languages

Portuguese

Religion

Predominantly Roman Catholic

Related ethnic groups

White Brazilian, Pardo, Afro-Brazilian Portuguese people

Portuguese-Brazilian (Portuguese: luso-brasileiro) is a Portuguese born citizen with Brazilian citizenship or a Brazilian born citizen of Portuguese ancestry or citizenship.

Brazil has long been a melting pot for a wide range of cultures. From colonial times Portuguese Brazilians have favoured assimilation for other peoples, and intermarriage was more acceptable in Brazil than in most other European colonies. Portuguese are the main European ethnic group in Brazil, and most Brazilians can trace their ancestry to an ethnic Portuguese or a mixed-race Portuguese. Portuguese Brazilians first appeared in the colonial period, in the 16th century, as settlers and colonists, though most arrived in the early 20th century, as immigrants. Brazil is the only Portuguese-speaking nation in the Americas, and the largest in the world.

Contents

Immigration to Brazil

The first Portuguese settlers celebrating the first Mass in Brazil among the Indigenous.
Existing since 1553, the Biquinha of Anchieta was one of the main water sources of the population of the city of São Vicente, State of São Paulo, through the centuries.
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First Portuguese (1500-1700)

Some of the earliest colonists for whom we have written records are João Ramalho and Caramuru. At the time the Portuguese Crown was focused on securing its highly lucrative Portuguese Empire in Asia, and so did little to protect the newly discovered lands in the Americas from foreign interlopers. As a result, many pirates, mainly French, began dealing in pau brasil with the Amerindians. This situation worried Portugal, which in the 1530s started to colonize Brazil, principally for defensive reasons. The towns of Cananéia (1531), São Vicente (1532) and Iguape (1538) date from that period.

By the mid-16th century, Portuguese colonists were already settling in significant numbers, mainly along the coastal regions of Brazil. Numerous cities were established, including Salvador (1549), São Paulo (1554) and Rio de Janeiro (1565). While some Portuguese settlers came willingly, many were degredados. Nevertheless, these deported convicts were not thieves and murderers, as is often believed, but rather tended to be people guilty of committing "crimes" against religion or morality. Thus, they were primarily New Christians, individuals accused of witchcraft or sorcery, reprobate priests, blasphemers, homosexuals and adulturers. In other words, these exiles were condemned for "criminal" behavior that would not be considered illegal by modern standards.

During the 17th century, most Portuguese settlers in Brazil were relatively wealthy people who moved to the northeastern part of the country to establish the first sugar plantations. Some were Sephardi Jews who had been expelled from Portugal by the Inquisition. The city of Recife, in particular, had a thriving Jewish community, which founded the first synagogue in the Americas, i.e. the Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue. Some Portuguese-Gypsies also immigrated to Brazil during this period.

Most of these Portuguese were men. The number of Portuguese women in Brazil during the colonial period was low. For that reason, many Portuguese men had relationships with Amerindian women and, later, with female African slaves, which then resulted in racial miscegenation.[5][6][7][8]

Growing Portuguese immigrants (1700-1850)

In the 18th century, immigration to Brazil from Portugal increased dramatically. Many gold and diamond mines were discovered in the region of Minas Gerais, which then led to the arrival of not only Portuguese, but also of native-born Brazilians. Regarding the former, most were peasants from the Minho region in Northern Portugal. In the beginning, Portugal stimulated the immigration of minhotos to Brazil. After some time, however, the number of departures was so great that the Portuguese Crown had to establish barriers to further immigration. Most of these Portuguese involved in the goldrush ended up settling in Minas Gerais and in the Center-West region of Brazil, where they founded dozens of cities such as Ouro Preto, Congonhas, Mariana, São João del Rei, Tiradentes, Goiás, etc.

Ouro Preto, Minas Gerais an 18th century colonial city and UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Between 1748 and 1756, approximately 6,000 settlers from the Azores Islands arrived in the Southern Region of Brazil. The majority, composed of small farmers and fishermen, settled along the litoral of Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul states. Florianópolis and Porto Alegre were founded by Azoreans, who accounted for over half of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina's population in the late 18th century. Unlike previous trends, in the south entire Portuguese families came to seek a better life for themselves, not just men. In passing, a small settlement of Macanese people from Macau also occurred. During this period, the number of Portuguese women in Brazil increased, which resulted in a larger white population. This was especially true in Southern Brazil.

A significant immigration of very rich Portuguese to Brazil, as well as aristocrats, traders, merchants and royals occurred in 1808, when João VI of Portugal, his wife, the Queen and their son ( the future Emperor of Brazil), fleeing from Napoleon, relocated to Brazil with 15,000 members of the royal family, nobles and government and established themselves in Rio de Janeiro. They returned to Portugal in 1821, and in 1822 Brazil became independent. Thousands of ordinary Portuguese settlers left for Brazil after independence.

Waves of Portuguese immigrants (1850-1960)

Portuguese teenagers waiting for a ship to immigrate to Brazil: early 20th century.

After independence from Portugal in 1822, Portuguese emigration to Brazil continued and, instead of a decrease, the Portuguese-Brazilian population actually increased significantly. In 1850, the traffic of African slaves to Brazil was forbidden, and the Brazilian Government worked towards attracting European immigration to Brazil in order to obtain workers for the coffee plantations that were spreading enormously in the region. Consequently, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of thousands of Portuguese migrated to Brazil. Most of them were peasants from the rural areas of Portugal. The majority settled in urban centers, mainly in São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro, working mainly as small traders or shopkeepers.

They and their descendants were quick to organize themselves and establish mutual aid societies (such as the Casas de Portugal), hospitals (e.g. Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, Beneficência Portuguesa de Porto Alegre, Hospital Português de Salvador, Real Hospital Português do Recife, etc.), libraries (e.g. Real Gabinete Português de Leitura in Rio de Janeiro and in Salvador), newspapers (e.g. Jornal Mundo Lusíada), magazines (e.g. Revista Atlântico) and even major sports clubs with football teams, including the Club de Regatas Vasco da Gama and Associação Atlética Portuguesa in Rio de Janeiro, the Associação Portuguesa de Desportos in São Paulo, the Associação Atlética Portuguesa Santista in Santos, the Associação Portuguesa Londrinense in Londrina, and the Tuna Luso Brasileira in Belém.

Low Portuguese immigration (1960-present)

Church in João Pessoa, Portuguese influence.

In the 1930s, the Brazilian President Getúlio Vargas created a law that established difficulties to the settlement of immigrants in Brazil. This law made Portuguese immigration decline.

However, between 1940 and 1960 (when António de Oliveira Salazar ruled as the head of the Estado Novo regime), thousands of Portuguese citizens, even from their African possessions (such as Portuguese Angola, Portuguese Mozambique, Cape Verde), and from their Asian possessions, (such as Macau and Timor Leste), still immigrated to Brazil. Due to the independence of that Portuguese overseas provinces after the 1974 democratic military coup at Lisbon known as the Carnation Revolution, a new wave of Portuguese settlers arrived in Brazil until the late 1970s as refugees.[9]

Economic reasons, among others of social, religious and political nature, are the main cause for the large Portuguese diaspora in Brazil, the country received the majority of Portuguese immigrants in the world.[10]

After Portugal's recovery from the effects of the 1974 military coup, and in the 1980s and 1990s with the growth of the Portuguese economy and a deeper European Integration, very few Portuguese immigrants settled in Brazil.[11] In the 1990s and 2000s, the Portuguese diaspora was living mainly in the European Union, followed by Canada, U.S.A. Venezuela and South Africa. However, in recent years, some hundreds of Portuguese are relocating to Brazil, working and living in Brazil.[12][13]

Portuguese immigration in numbers

Portuguese immigration to Brazil from the beginning of colonization, in 1500, until present day in 1990
Source: Brazilian Institute for Geography and Statistics[14]
 
Decade
Nationality 1500-1700 1701-1760 1808-1817 1827-1829 1837-1841 1856-1857 1881-1900 1901-1930 1931-1950 1951-1960 1961-1967 1981-1991
Portuguese 100,000 600,000 24,000 2,004 629 16,108 316,204 754,147 148,699 235,635 54,767 4,605

Characteristics of the immigrants

Prior to Independence (1822), the typical Portuguese immigrant in Brazil was a single man. As an example, in the records of the community of Inhaúma, in the countryside of the state of Rio de Janeiro, from 1807 to 1841, the Portuguese born population composed approximately 15% of the population, of whom 90% were males. Inhaúma was not a single case: this trend occurred since the beginning of colonization. As of 1872, the Consul general of Rio de Janeiro reported: (...)49,610 (Portuguese) arrivals in the past ten years by sailing ships, major, male, 35,740 and, female, 4,280; of these, 13,240 married and 22,500 unmarried; minor, 9,590, as a family, 920(...)

Although these data were not complete, because they did not include who arrived as passengers of small ships or illegally, we clearly see that the Portuguese female quota was only 1/8 of total immigrants. In Bahia, as of 1872, the situation was even clearer: in a total of 1,498 Portuguese, only 64 were women (about 4.2%). The difference between the number of Portuguese men and women in Brazil can be found in the genetic structure of the population. The most important genetic resource about Brazilians found that, on the paternal side, 98% of the White Brazilian Y Chromosome comes from a European male ancestor, only 2% from an African ancestor and a complete absence of Amerindian contributions. On the maternal side, 39% have a European Mitochondrial DNA, 33% Amerindian and 28% African female ancestry. Even though this analysis only shows a small fraction of a person's ancestry (the Y Chromosome comes from a single male ancestor and the mtDNA from a single female ancestor, while the contributions of the many other ancestors is not specified) it confirms that the early European settlers, particularly the Portuguese, came alone to Brazil and mixed with the indigenous and African women.[15] Geneticist Sérgio Pena asserted:

The Portuguese need to look at Brazil to know themselves. We are the keepers of the Portuguese masculinity (...) Brazil is tremendously similar to Portugal; there are no significant differences between the Portuguese and Brazilian Y chromosomes.[16]
Portuguese immigrant in Rio de Janeiro.

The disparity between the number of men and women among the Portuguese immigrants in Brazil really started to change in the early 20th century, when the largest numbers of Portuguese immigrated to Brazil.[17] In the records of the Port of Santos, between 1908 and 1936, Portuguese female immigrants accounted for 32.1% of the Portuguese who entered Brazil, compared to less than 10% prior to 1872. This figure was similar to the entries of women of other nationalities, such as Italians (35.3% of women), Spaniards (40.6%) and Japanese (43.8%) and higher than the figures found among Turks (26.7%) and Austrians (27.3%).[18 ] Before the 19th century, the vast majority of the Portuguese immigrants in Brazil were single men, while starting in the early 20th century many arrived as entire families, with a considerable number of Portuguese women. However, the majority still immigrated alone to Brazil (53%). Only the Turks (62.5%) arrived as "alone immigrant" in a higher percentage than the Portuguese. In comparison, only 5.1% of the Japanese immigrants arrived alone to Brazil. The Japanese keep a strong familiar connection when they immigrated to Brazil, with the largest numbers of family members, comprising 5.3 people, followed by Spaniards, with similar figures. The families of Italian origin included lower number of members, at 4.1. The Portuguese, among all immigrants, had the smallest number of people when they immigrated as families: 3.6. About 23% of the Portuguese who disembarked at the Port of Santos were under 12 years old. This figure shows that, for the first time in Brazil's History, large numbers of Portuguese families were settling Brazil.[18 ]

The Portuguese were also one of the poorest immigrants who went to Brazil during the early 20th century: 57.5% of them were illiterate. Only the Spaniards had a higher percentage of illiteracy: 72%. In comparison, only 13.2% of the German immigrants to Brazil were illiterate.[18 ]

Intermarriage with other ethnic groups

Colonizers

Many authors tried to explain why the Portuguese people easily mixed themselves with people of darker complexions in their colonies. According to Gilberto Freyre's theory, Portugal itself was an area of transition between Africa and Europe, and coexistence with Moors from North Africa and slaves from Sub-Saharan Africa was already part of the Portuguese culture even before their arrival in Brazil. This led to a plasticity of the Portuguese people and, when they faced the lack of White women in Brazil, the race-mixing was not a problem for them. This theory may or may not be feasible.[19] According to Darcy Ribeiro, there was a clear difference between the Anglo-Saxon colonizers of North America and the Iberian colonizers of Latin America. The Anglo saw the Indians as a "detail" that should be eliminated or that should live away from them. The Iberians, on the other hand, saw the Indians as the necessary labor force for their enrichment, and intensely mixed with them, producing a new human element. The Anglo arrived in families, with White wives that prevented the miscegenation with dark skinned women. The Iberians arrived alone, without women, and the Amerindian and African women became their sexual partners. Still influenced by the Reconquista over the Muslim Moors, the Iberian colonization had priestly functions guided by the Pope, aimed at converting the natives to the Catholic faith, through a brutal process of forced assimilation. The Portuguese colonizers had the evangelistic mentality. They thought to be the responsible for the expansion of Catholicism in the world. In their conception, they were a superior people, who had the obligation to convert the natives to their faith, forcing them to acquire their habits and way of life. According to Ribeiro, their purpose was to impose to Indians and Africans their culture, as if it was a natural domain of "good people" over the "bad people", the "wise" over the "ignorant". In the Anglo areas, on the other hand, the colonizers did not bother to communicate their culture to the natives and slaves. Then, there was a clear difference between the assimilationist mentality of the Portuguese settlers, compared to the cultural apartheid found in North America.[20]

For many socio-cultural-historical reasons the Portuguese settlers were more likely to mix with other peoples in their colonies than other European people. In Brazil, the intense mix of Portuguese with the native Indians and with Black slaves from Africa formed the bulk of the Brazilian population. Portuguese ancestry is widespred in Brazil because of this integration, forming different types of mixed people: Mulatto or banda-forra (white and black), Caboclo or Mameluco (white and Amerindian), salta-atrás (Mameluco and Black), terceirão (white and mulatto). Largely acculturated and speaking Portuguese, these mixed people helped the Portuguese colonizers to impose their culture in Brazil.[20]

Later immigrants

Marriages of Portuguese immigrants in Rio de Janeiro (1907-1916)

[21]

Nationalities of the grooms and brides Number of marriages
Portuguese man and Portuguese woman 6,964
Portuguese man and Brazilian woman 6,176
Portuguese man and Spanish woman 357
Portuguese man and Italian woman 156
Portuguese man and another foreign woman 100
Total of marriages 13,753

Surprisingly, the more "recent" Portuguese immigrants in Brazil showed an opposite trend to their compatriots who colonized the country centuries ago. Resources about the Portuguese immigrants to Brazil in the early 20th century revealed that they had the lowest levels of intermarriage with Brazilians among all European immigrants. The male Portuguese immigrants married mainly Portuguese female immigrants. Of the 22,030 Portuguese men and women who married in Rio de Janeiro from 1907 to 1916, 51% of men married Portuguese women. In comparision to other immigrants, 50% of the Italian men married Italian women, and only 47% of Spanish men married women from their country. Endogamy was even higher among the female Portuguese immigrants: 84% of Portuguese women in Rio married Portuguese men, compared to 64% of Italian and 52% of Spanish women who married men from their own countries. The high level of endogomy found among the more recent Portuguese immigrants in Brazil is surprising because of many reasons. In the early 20th century, most of the Portuguese immigrants in Rio were men (a proportion of 320 men to 100 women, compared to the proportion of 266 men to 100 women among all European immigrants). The Portuguese men had fewer female compatriots with whom they could marry than the other foreign men. Despite this, more Portuguese men were marrying compatriots than the other immigrants. Despite the cultural and linguistic similarity between Brazilians and Portuguese, the high rates of endogamy of Portuguese immigrants may be explained due to the prejudice that Brazilians had in relation to Portuguese immigrants, who were usually very poor people. Due to the poverty, many of the criminals in Rio de Janeiro were Portuguese immigrants: of the men convicted of crimes in this city during the four years from 1915 to 1918, 32% were Portuguese (when Portuguese immigrants made up only 15% of the male population of Rio de Janeiro in 1920). 47% of counterfeiters, 43% of arsonists and 23% of convicted murderers were Portuguese. Exactly half of the 220 individuals convicted of manslaughter were Portuguese and 54% of the 1,024 individuals who were serving sentences in prison for assault were also from Portugal. Over time, endogamy was less frequent among Portuguese immigrants, even though they remained as the European group that less married Brazilians in resources from Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. Only the Japanese immigrants had higher levels of endogomy in Brazil.[22]

Portuguese-Brazilian identity

Portuguese Brazilians in Salvador, Bahia celebrating Saint Gonçalo, in 1718.

Brazil was colonized by Portugal, and both countries share many cultural aspects: the language, the main religion and many traditions. After independence, the elite of Brazil, even though they were of Portuguese descent, tried to diminish the Portuguese culture in the new country, and establish a Brazilian culture, different from that of Portugal. Portuguese immigration to Brazil has occurred since the 16th century. Since then, the Portuguese mixed a lot with other ethnic groups of Brazil, first with the Amerindians later with Africans.

From the 19th century, their Portuguese-Brazilian descendants mixed with other European immigrants in Brazil, such as Italians and Germans.

The more recent immigrant groups of Portuguese in Brazil keep a close relation with Portugal and the Portuguese culture mainly through the Casa de Portugal.[23] Several events also take place to keep a cultural interchange between Portuguese and Brazilian students,[24] and between the Portuguese community in Brazil and Portugal. There are many Portuguese associations "Associações Portuguesas" in Brazil. Other institutions preserve the cultural heritage of the Portuguese community like the "Real Gabinete"[25] and the Liceu Literário.[26]

Today, news online like "Mundo Lusíada"[27] keeps the Portuguese immigrants informed about the many cultural events of the Portuguese community in Brazil. A recent analysis suggests that the more recent Portuguese immigrants (from 1900 onwards) had "low rates of intermarriage with native Brazilians and other immigrants".[28]

Identity Merge

Many Portuguese who had a significant importance in the Brazilian culture are known in Brazil as being Brazilians. This way, much of the Portuguese people influence and contribution has been systematically erased from the Brazilian culture. Tomás Antônio Gonzaga, Padre António Vieira, Carmen Miranda are some of the Portuguese who are presented as Brazilians. The Brazilian culture is in large part derived from the Portuguese culture and for the similarities between both cultures and the relatively easy integration of immigrants in Brazil, makes it nearly impossible for some to keep a separate Portuguese identity.

Portuguese in the world

Portuguese in the world.

The Portuguese in contemporary Brazil

Portuguese people are the largest immigrant community in Brazil. In the 2000 census, there were 213,203 Portuguese immigrants in Brazil.[29]

In recent years, some Portuguese pensioners have been moving to Brazil, mainly to the northeast, attracted by the tropical weather and the beaches.[30]

Brazilians in contemporary Portugal

The biggest immigrant community in Portugal is the Brazilian one, with 77,000 legal and an estimated 30,000 illegal residents.[31]

How many Brazilians have Portuguese ancestry?

A Portuguese-Brazilian family in 1950s

Most Brazilians have some degree of Portuguese ancestry: some may trace their ancestry to 16th century settlers, while others have recent Portuguese origin, dating back to the mid-20th century. Due to the intensive race mixing, Brazilians of different races may have Portuguese ancestry: Whites, Blacks, Amerindians and mixed-race people.[32]

There are no official figures about how many Brazilians have Portuguese roots. This is mainly because the immigration to Brazil from Portugal is very old, making it almost impossible to find correct numbers. Even with Portuguese heritage, many Portuguese-Brazilians identify themselves as being simply Brazilians, since Portuguese culture was a dominant cultural influence in the formation of Brazil (like many Americans which though of British ancestry will never describe themselves as of British extraction, but only as "Americans").

In 1872, there were 3.7 million Whites in Brazil (the vast majority of them of Portuguese ancestry), 4.1 million mixed-race people (mostly of Portuguese-Amerindian-African ancestry) and 1.9 million Blacks. These numbers give the percentage of 80% of people with total or partial Portuguese ancestry in Brazil in the 1870s.[33] At that time, Portuguese were the only Europeans to settle Brazil in large numbers, since other groups only started arriving in large numbers after 1875 (mainly Italians).

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a new large wave of immigrants from Portugal arrived. From 1881 to 1991, over 1.5 million Portuguese immigrated to Brazil. In 1906, for example, there were 133,393 Portuguese-born people living in Rio de Janeiro, comprising 16% of the city's population. Rio is, still today, considered the largest "Portuguese city" outside of Portugal itself.[34][35]

Genetic studies also confirm the strong Portuguese racial influence in Brazilians. According to a study, at least half of the Brazilian population's Y Chromosome comes from Portugal. Black Brazilians have an average of 48% non-African genes, most of them may come from Portuguese ancestors.[32][36]

Some notable Portuguese-Brazilians

Portuguese-Brazilian flag.

Most notable Brazilians are at least partially of Portuguese descent. However, for the sake of brevity, the following list only mentions a few well-known individuals who were either born in Portugal or who have close Portuguese ancestry, i.e. 1st or 2nd generation.

Historic colonial Portuguese figures of Brazil

The following Portuguese people were either born in Brazil when it belonged to the Portuguese empire, thus Portuguese, or in Kingdom of Portugal. At this time to be a Brazilian was to be a Portuguese born in Brazil.

Historic Brazilian figures

Portuguese passport used by Portuguese immigrant in 1927.

Although still born under the Portuguese empire,with the independence of Brazil they acquired the Brazilian nationality:

Business

  • Abílio dos Santos Diniz (chairman and former owner of Grupo Pão de Açúcar; Portuguese parents);
  • Albino Sousa Cruz (founder of Souza Cruz; Portuguese-born);
  • Antônio Alberto Saraiva (businessman and founder of Habib's; Portuguese-born);
  • Antônio Ermírio de Moraes (businessman, chairman of Grupo Votorantim; Portuguese grandfather);
  • Dimas de Melo Pimenta (founder of DIMEP; Portuguese-born);
  • Fernando Augusto Saraiva (geologist chairman and former owner of (GEA) Ambiental SS Ltda; Portuguese father);
  • Irineu Evangelista de Sousa (Barão de Mauá) (industrialist; Azorean-Portuguese grandparents)
  • Joaquim Inácio da Fonseca Saraiva (founder of Livraria Saraiva bookstore chain; Portuguese-born);
  • José Francisco Correia (Conde de Agrolongo) (industrialist and philanthropist; Portuguese-born);
  • Luís Dumont Vilares (businessman, founder of Indústrias Villares, manufacturer of Atlas elevators; Portuguese-born);
  • Manoel Saraiva (businessman, co-founder of (MTE) Metalúrgica Termo Elétrica; Portuguese-born)
  • Maria da Conceição Tavares (economist; Portuguese-born);
  • Valentim dos Santos Diniz (businessman, founder of Grupo Pão de Açúcar; Portuguese-born).

Literature

Olinda, metropolitan region of Recife, in the State of Pernambuco, founded by Portuguese.

Music

Paço Imperial, 18th century palace that served as seat for the colonial government, King John IV of Portugal and the two Emperors of Brazil, is located in Rio de Janeiro, State of Rio de Janeiro.
  • Andre da Silva Gomes (colonial composer; Portuguese-born);
  • Arthur Napoleão dos Santos (composer and pianist);
  • Carmen Miranda (singer and Hollywood actress; Portuguese-born);
  • César Guerra-Peixe (composer and conductor; Portuguese father);
  • Daniela Mercury (singer; Portuguese father);
  • Dóris Monteiro (singer; Portuguese parents);
  • Fernanda Abreu (singer and songwriter; Portuguese father);
  • Francisco de Morais Alves (singer; Portuguese parents);
  • Aníbal Augusto Sardinha (Garoto) (acoustic guitarist and composer; Portuguese parents);
  • Joanna (singer and songwriter; Portuguese father);
  • João Ricardo Carneiro Teixeira Pinto (principal composer of Secos & Molhados; Portuguese-born);
  • Marcos Portugal (colonial composer; Portuguese-born);
  • Nelson Gonçalves (singer; Portuguese parents);
  • Nilton Bastos (sambista; Portuguese father);
  • Roberto Leal (singer; Portuguese-born).

Sciences

Entertainment

Portuguese Hospital in the city of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul.
  • Amácio Mazzaropi (actor and film-maker; Portuguese mother);
  • Antunes Filho (theater director de teatro; Portuguese parents);
  • Bibi Ferreira (actress; Portuguese maternal grandmother);
  • Elza Gomes (actress; Portuguese-born);
  • Eugênia Câmara (actress; Portuguese-born);
  • Fabiana Oliveira (actress; Portuguese father);
  • Fernanda Montenegro (Oscar-nominated actress; Portuguese grandparents);
  • Lília Cabral (atriz, Portuguese mother);
  • Maria Adelaide Amaral (playwright; Portuguese-born);
  • Marília Pêra (actress; Portuguese father);
  • Procópio Ferreira (actor; Portuguese parents);
  • Ruth Escobar (actress and businesswoman; Portuguese-born);
  • Ruy Guerra (director; Portuguese-born);
  • Thiago Lacerda (actor; Portuguese grandparents);
  • Anderson Deco (Portuguese footballer; unknown).

Fine Arts

  • Antônio Francisco Lisboa (Aleijadinho) (colonial sculptor and architect; Portuguese father);
  • Agostinho da Piedade (first sculptor in Brazil; Portuguese-born);
  • Artur Barrio (sculptor and artist; Portuguese-born);
  • Christiano Júnior (photographer; Portuguese-born);
  • Joaquim Insley Pacheco (photographer; Portuguese-born);
  • Joaquim Tenreiro (plastic artist and furniture designer, Portuguese-born);
  • Manoel da Costa Ataíde (colonial painter; Portuguese parents);
  • Mestre Valentim (colonial sculptor; Portuguese father);
  • Ricardo Severo (architect who introduced the neocolonial style; Portuguese-born);
  • Victor Meirelles (painter; Azorean-Portuguese parents).

Government and politics

References

  1. ^ Who was Machado de Assis
  2. ^ Kelly Key Ask Men
  3. ^ Daniela mercury Estudio Billboard
  4. ^ Marília Pêra Istoé
  5. ^ Social Problems in Global Perspective
  6. ^ The Phylogeography of Brazilian Y-Chromosome Lineages
  7. ^ Os Genes de Cabral
  8. ^ [http://analisesocial.ics.ul.pt/documentos/1223553017C9jFA0ze9Vo91NT0.pdf A mulher no contexto da imigração portuguesa no Brasil]
  9. ^ Portuguese Immigration (History)
  10. ^ Result of Portuguese Immigration (IBGE)
  11. ^ Portuguese Economy in the 1980s
  12. ^ Marriage beteween Portuguese and Brazilian
  13. ^ Portuguese people in Brazil
  14. ^ http://www.ibge.gov.br/ibgeteen/povoamento/portugueses.html
  15. ^ Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians
  16. ^ Os Genes de Cabral | accessdate=January 23 | accessyear=2008}}
  17. ^ Portugueses IBGE
  18. ^ a b c Imigração portuguesa
  19. ^ Edward Eric Telles (2004). "Racial Classification". Race in Another America: the significance of skin color in Brazil. Princeton University Press. pp. 81–84. ISBN 0691118663.  
  20. ^ a b RIBEIRO, Darcy. O Povo Brasileiro, Companhia de Bolso, fourth reprint, 2008 (2008)
  21. ^ [http://analisesocial.ics.ul.pt/documentos/1223290545Z8cUY2rh7Lu99TE5.pdf A integração social e económica dos imigrantes portugueses no Brasil nos finais do século xix e no século xx]
  22. ^ [http://analisesocial.ics.ul.pt/documentos/1223290545Z8cUY2rh7Lu99TE5.pdf A integração social e económica dos imigrantes portugueses no Brasil nos finais do século xix e no século xx]
  23. ^ Casa de Portugal
  24. ^ Universia Brasil
  25. ^ Real Gabinete
  26. ^ Liceu Literário
  27. ^ "Mundo Lusíada"
  28. ^ Klein HS (1989). "[The social and economic integration of Portuguese immigrants in Brazil at the end of the nineteenth century and in the twentieth century]" (in Portuguese). Rev Bras Estud Popul 6 (2): 17–37. PMID 12342854.  
  29. ^ Migration Information Source - Shaping Brazil: The Role of International Migration
  30. ^ Câmara Portuguesa de Comércio no Brasil
  31. ^ Imprensa portuguesa liga imigrantes brasileiros à criminalidade, diz estudo
  32. ^ a b Parra FC, Amado RC, Lambertucci JR, Rocha J, Antunes CM, Pena SD (January 2003). "Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100 (1): 177–82. doi:10.1073/pnas.0126614100. PMID 12509516.  
  33. ^ Evolução da população brasileira segundo a cor
  34. ^ Brasil 500 anos
  35. ^ Observatorio da Imprensa - Materias - 02/04/2003
  36. ^ Os Genes de Cabral

See also

References

External links


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