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A typical Portuguese name is composed of one or two given names, and two family names. The last surname is the father's family surname; the first surname is the mother's family surname. Note that this order is the reverse of Spanish surnames. Usually, only the last surname is used in formal greetings or in scientific papers indexing, but in a list of persons, the first given name, not the surname, is used for alphasorting. A married woman may add her husband's last surname to the end of her own name or even replace her surname with her husband's last surname, but this is not mandatory. The same may happen with men, though this is extremely rare. It is not uncommon for people to have up to four surnames (two from each parent).

Contents

Pattern

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General

The Portuguese naming system is quite flexible. In theory, the law just establishes the need for a child to have one given name and one last name from one of the parents, although having only one last name is nowadays extremely uncommon.

In fact, in ancient times it was common practice that daughters would receive the mother's family name and sons would take their father's - for example, from Vasco da Gama's marriage with Catarina de Ataíde were born, accordingly, six sons who bore the surname da Gama and one daughter who took the surname de Ataíde. Even these days, among older population, it is still not unusual to find siblings with fully different combinations of surnames among them.

To add to the "basic pattern", a second given name, or other father or mother surnames are optional for the parents to choose, up to the limit of two given names, and four surnames (both limits are sometimes not respected, especially among families of the former aristocracy). So, at birth, a child can be given one or two given names and up to four surnames. Children usually receive surnames from both their parents and grandparents. Usually, the mother's surname(s) precedes the father's, but the opposite is possible too.

Complete names are formed as it is generally practiced in Western Europe, i.e., by first names, followed optionally by one or more middle names, followed by the mother's family surname, followed by the father's family surname. Examples:

  1. José Silva: the simplest configuration, with a given name and one family surname, either from the father or the mother. This simple configuration is rather rare, nowadays.
  2. José Eduardo Silva: José Eduardo are the given names and Silva the one family name (however, note that Eduardo may be a valid family name: there is no way of knowing just by looking at the name). Again, not very common nowadays - this could happen in the case that both the child's parents have the same (final) family name.
  3. José Eduardo Tavares Silva: in this case a second family name has been added -in theory the first surname (Tavares) would come from the mother and the second one (Silva) from the father (it could be reversed). Another possibility would be that Tavares Silva is a composite family name, this is relatively common in Portuguese surnames, i.e., both names are carried down to all descendants; again there is no way of knowing this. Hyphenated names are rare in Portuguese (i.e., Tavares-Silva, a convention which would dispel the confusion: sometimes this is artificially forced by authors, politicians, etc., who want to be correctly cited in other countries.)
  4. José Eduardo Santos Tavares Melo Silva: the most complete combination of names possible. In this case, the person could have two surnames coming from each parent or one coming from one parent and three from the other (the latter not being so common, it is impossible to tell for sure just by looking at the name).
  5. If the complete name repeats the name of a relative, e.g., father, grandfather or uncle, it may be suffixed by: Júnior (abbreviated Jr.), Filho (meaning son), Neto (grandson) or Sobrinho (nephew), always written with initial upper case and without a separating comma. Note that this practice is sparse in Portugal, but not at all in Brazil. Although rare, one can find even people with the Sobrinho Neto (nephew grandson) suffixes. Bisneto (great-grandson) is rare but can also be found. This convention is much less common for names of females, but in Brazil the suffixes Filha (daughter) and Neta (granddaughter) are used. Roman numerals, such as II, III, etc. for son, grandson, great-grandson are not used since the practice is not allowed by the law in Brazil and Portugal.[1]
  6. Prepositions that can be used in Portuguese surnames are da, das, do, dos and de, such as in Luís de Sousa, Maria da Conceição, Osvaldo dos Santos, Luísa das Neves, etc. and mean "from" or "of". Da, dos, etc. are contractions of the preposition de and a definite article (o, as, etc.), therefore meaning "from the" or "of the". The current convention in Portuguese is that they be written in lower case. Differently from Italian surnames, these conjunctives are usually not part of a composite name (i.e., "Sousa" is not different from "de Sousa", and both are ordered under 'S' in a list). Therefore, it is not correct to refer to Luís Inácio Lula da Silva as Mr. Da Silva, but rather Mr. Silva. The conjunction "e" (and) is also common, e.g. "Maria Costa e Silva". In this case the person would be either "Ms Silva" or "Ms Costa e Silva".

For example, if José Santos Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo had a daughter, her name could simply be Joana Melo Almeida (given name + mother's last name + father's last name). However, they could very well give her two given names, for example Joana Madalena and combine their surnames in various ways, such has Joana Madalena Melo Almeida, Joana Madalena Abreu Melo Almeida (two surnames from the mother, one from the father), Joana Madalena Abreu Santos Almeida (one name from the mother, two from the father) or even Joana Madalena Abreu Melo Santos Almeida (two names from each parent). It would also be possible to use surnames that are not part of either parent's legal name, but which the parents would be entitled to use (e.g., a surname from a grandparent or a great-grandparent that has not been transmitted to the father or the mother). This child would probably become known by her final surname, in this case Joana Almeida.

However, her parents could decide to change the order of surnames and name her Joana Almeida Melo and so on. In this case she would probably become known by Joana Melo.

Note that it's quite common for a person to go by one of their surnames which is not the "last" one, especially if the other surname(s) are very common. For example, Aníbal Cavaco Silva is commonly called "Cavaco" and Ayrton Senna da Silva chose to be known just as Ayrton Senna since Silva is a very common surname.

It should also be noted that some Portuguese family names are made of two words (most often not hyphenated), but are not composite names, as they were not the result of combining two family names on past past generations and, in fact, constitute a single logical unit. These include toponyms (e.g. Castelo Branco), religious references (e.g. Espírito Santo, Santa Rita) or other expressions (e.g. Corte Real, Mil-Homens). In this case both words must be cited (e.g. writer Camilo Castelo Branco is never referred to as Camilo Branco, and in alphabetical order goes under 'C').

"Middle names" (that is, second given names and surnames that are not the "last one", usually considered the most important) can be abbreviated, as well as suffixes, but usually not the first name and the surname (a notable exception was writer Ruben A., whose complete name was Ruben Andresen Leitão). Example: José E. C. Lima (Jr.). This differs from rules in Spanish names, which use the mother's family name at the end. Example: Norberto García C.

Brazilian specific patterns

Naming patterns of the children of immigrants

In Brazil, recent immigrants - especially Italians, Germans and Japanese - lean to name their sons with only the father family surname. Although there is no legal restriction to this practice, the pattern in succeeding generations change to the traditional Portuguese pattern due to assimilation.

Nowadays one can find people who use two Italian surnames (like "Guglielmo Bianchini") or two Japanese surnames (like "Sugahara Uemura") which is unusual in Italy or nonexistent in Japan. Of course, two surnames of distant lands immigrants are usual (like "Sato Rahal", a Japanese and an Arab surname together).

The Spanish pattern is to use both the father's and mother's family surnames, but in a reverse order comparing to Portuguese pattern. Almost all of the first Spanish-Brazilian born generation were named with the order of the family surnames complying with the Portuguese pattern.

Immigrant's naming pattern around São Paulo State

A specific pattern developed among the descendants of 20th-century immigrants: they use only their father's surname and two given names, the first is a Portuguese given name and the second one is a given name from their father's original country.

This pattern is most used among Japanese and Syrian-Lebanese immigrants sons and grandsons. So one can find names like "Paulo Salim Maluf" where Paulo is a Portuguese given name, Salim is an Arabian given name, and Maluf is his father's surname; or "Maria Heiko Sugahara" where Maria is a Portuguese given name, Heiko a Japanese given name and Sugahara is her father's surname. This practice allows the person to be recognized as "Paulo Maluf" or "Maria Sugahara" (in the large Brazilian society) or as "Salim Maluf" or "Heiko Sugahara" (in the immigrants' social community).

This pattern became almost a general rule in São Paulo and other southern states. Miscegenation slowed down this use; but it is commonly used when both father and mother belong to the same ethnicity. Younger generations tend to use both the father and the mother family name, thus giving four names to their sons (like "Paulo Salim Lutfalla Maluf" or "Maria Heiko Sugahara Uemura").

Names of married women

The custom of a woman changing her name upon marriage is not a Portuguese-Brazilian tradition. It spread in the late 19th century in the upper classes, under French influence, and after the 40s, it became socially almost obligatory. Not doing so was seen as evidence of concubinage, particularly until the 1970s. Nowadays, it has all but disappeared.

In Portugal, a woman may adopt her husband's surname(s), but nevertheless she always keeps her birth names. For example, when Maria Abreu Melo marries José Santos Almeida, she could choose to become Maria Abreu Melo Almeida or Maria Abreu Melo Santos Almeida. A man may adopt his wife's surname as well, although this is quite unusual.

In Brazil, a woman may adopt her husband's surname(s) and choose to keep or exclude her birth names. For example, when Maria Abreu Melo marries José Santos Almeida, she could choose to become Maria Abreu Melo Almeida, Maria Abreu Melo Santos Almeida, Maria Santos Almeida, Maria Almeida, etc. Usually, in these cases, a woman kept part of her birth name and use part of his husband surname, to avoid having long names. So, the most used combination from the above example should be Maria Melo Almeida.

The mandatory adoption of the new name led to unusual combinations, like in the (not uncommon) case of both spouses having the same surname, when the woman surname was kept. Another confusing situation was, for example when a woman named Ana Lima Silva married a man named João Lima, her name could legally become Ana Lima Silva Lima.

Nowadays, fewer women adopt, even officially, their husbands' names, and among those who do so officially, it is quite common not to use it either in their professional or informal life.

In Portugal, since 1977, and in Brazil, since the 1970s, a woman has the option of whether or not to change her name after marriage. In Portugal, since 1977, and in Brazil, since 2002, a husband can also adopt his wife's surname. In Portugal, when this happens, usually both spouses change their name after marriage (for example, José Santos Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo could become José Santos Melo Almeida and Maria Abreu Melo Almeida or even "José Santos Almeida Melo" and "Maria Abreu Melo Almeida"). In Brazil, there is not yet a perceived pattern.

This custom has been fading since the 1970s and nowadays it is rarely found[citation needed], due to the cumbersome need to update registries, documents, etc, after the name change and back again in the event of divorce.

Number of names

It is not uncommon, in Portugal, that a married woman has two given names and six surnames, two from her mother's family, two from her father's family and the last two coming from her husband. In addition, some of these names may be made of more than one word, so that a full feminine name can have more than 12 words. For instance, the name "Maria do Carmo Mão de Ferro e Cunha de Almeida Santa Rita Santos Abreu" would not be surprising in a married woman. Mão de Ferro (iron hand) and Santa Rita (after Saint Rita of Cascia) count only as one surname each. In this case, Santos Abreu would probably have come from this woman's husband.

In Portugal, the custom of giving a child four last names is getting popular, since this way a child can have each of their grandparents' last name. In Portugal and Brasil some people view this as a sign of snobbery, since it used to be the noble families who had a large number of surnames (for instance, the 4th Duke of Lafões (1797-1851), whose full name was Caetano Segismundo de Bragança e Ligne de Sousa Tavares Mascarenhas da Silva). For the sake of simplicity, most Portuguese people have two surnames.

In Portugal, having only one surname is rare, and it usually happens when both the parents have the same last name, to avoid repetitive combinations such as António Santos e Santos. In Brazil, having only one surname is common in areas with large communities of non-Portuguese immigrants.

The spelling of names

Traditionally, most Portuguese names have one standard spelling that is used in an almost universal fashion. Names are perceived as words, and are thus subject the customary grammar and orthographical rules of the Portuguese language. The spelling of many names has evolved through times and with orthography reforms, and archaic forms of names are considered misspellings and have little use in Portugal.

In Portugal – Given names have a standard spelling that is considered the norm (even for non-contemporary figures). Misspelt and archaic forms are considered incorrect (e.g., Isabel and not Izabel; Luís and not Luiz). Names containing foreign letters - k, y, w - are not allowed, either (Cátia and not Katia; . However, older people who were registered with archaic forms have continued to use them (examples include Manoel de Oliveira – the modern spelling would be Manuel). Regarding surnames, there is no legal restrictions, and as such many people continue to use archaic spellings of family names, as in Athayde (modern form Ataíde), Telles (modern form Teles). This is usually done in the upper classes, with the purpose of making the surname look more unusual or dignified.

In Brazil – There are no laws concerning names, and as such many archaic spellings and cognat forms of the same names coexist (Teresa [the only right form by the current orthography], Thereza, Tereza). Names of international inspiration are common and diacritics are also omitted at times. The parents can make up any type of name, and the economic lower classes usually use suffixes to give foreign allure to their offspring names, such as "-son" for boys and "-elly" for girls (Deividson, Joeldson, Maiksson, Nadrielly, Andrielly, Marcelly, Nathyelly etc.). This phenomenon can be easily seen on Brazilian soccer players' names. [2].

The name 'Maria'

The given name Maria (like English Mary, from Hebrew Miryam, via Latin Maria) is extremely common as a feminine given name and even combined with masculine names. It was so widely used that nowadays it is considered tacky in Brazil, and it is rare to find women and men under forty years of age using it combined or alone. In Portugal it has always been common and in recent years, with a new wave of traditional given names, it has had an increase in popularity.

Traditionally Maria is more common as the first part of a double first name combination; these may be formed by several different elements.

Religious predicates (often honouring one of the Virgin Mary's denominations):

  • A virtue or a nature element (many of which have lost religious associations nowadays): Maria do Céu (Heaven or Sky), Maria da Luz (Light), Maria do Mar (Sea), Maria da Graça (Grace).
  • The name of a Saint: Maria de São José (after Saint Joseph).

Other types of combinations:

  • Another independent given name: Maria Madalena, Maria Teresa, Maria Antónia, Maria Carolina.
  • A masculine given name: Maria João, Maria José, Maria Manuel, Maria Luís. (Actually these are feminine names. With a feminine and masculine combined name the first name defines the "real" gender. Maria João is a feminine name even if the girl in question is referred to only as "João" for short. Combined male names include João Maria, José/Zé Maria, Manuel Maria or Luís Maria.)

The popular combination Maria Ana evolved to a single name, Mariana, influenced by the French Marianne.[citation needed] Other international aglutinations of Maria combinations have been introduced in more recent times. These include Marisa (from Spanish María Isabel) or Marlene (from German Maria Magdalene)[citation needed]

As Maria is widely used, women are most likely to be addressed by just the second element of their name: Conceição (Conception), Dores (Sorrows), Céu (sky/heaven), Luz (light), Lurdes (Lourdes), Fátima, Salete, Aparecida (appeared one), Madalena, Antónia, Teresa, etc. A woman named Maria de Jesus would be called "Jesus", even though the second name is masculine.

A similar thing happens with the name Ana (English Anne or Hannah), also very common in double-name combinations especially in the younger generations. A woman called Ana Paula would be usually called 'Paula', Ana Carolina would be 'Carolina' and so on.

A similar procedure occurs with masculine names, but using a reverse order. It is not unusual to find masculine names like João Maria, José Maria, Manuel Maria, etc. In this case, Maria would always be the second given name, in honour of Virgin Mary, and the first name would be a masculine name. This custom is fashionable among the Portuguese nobility and the upper classes, but is considered tacky in Brazil.

The particle 'de' in Portuguese names

The particles de or da, do, dos, das (= de + article a, o, os, as) are not considered part of the surname, and should not be alphabetized in name lists. João da Silva is Mr Silva, not Mr da Silva. António de Castro is alphabetized as Castro, António de. The Angolan president José Eduardo dos Santos is to be addressed as President Santos, not President Dos Santos.

Collation

When producing alphabetised lists of Portuguese names, generally the full name is used as the key. This occurs mainly in schools or official documents, and it is done mainly because many people prefer to use multiple surname combinations in their daily life, or do not use last surname at all - so it is difficult to order people by the surnames they use. A typical alphabetised list:

  • António Borges Santos
  • António Silva Abreu Melo
  • Leonor Soares Henriques Pais
  • Sofia Matilde Almeida Pais

However, in areas such as a telephone directory or bibliography, the practice of using the (last) surname as the key is preferred. The conjunctives and affixes preceding or following it, such as "da" and "Filho", should not be used. When a full composite surname is known, it is alphabetised according to the first name, even if it is not separated by a hyphen. When it is not known, the last name should be used (because of this many errors are committed in the alphabetisation of Portuguese surnames, such as in a telephone directory). For example:

  • Chagas Filho, Carlos
  • Siqueira Campos, Luis Pereira
  • Sousa, Luís de

Note, however, that these rules may change if the Portuguese name has been absorbed into a different culture, like in Anglo-Saxon countries. In the United States, for example, where many Portuguese immigrants established themselves since the 18th century around New Jersey and New Hampshire, alphabetising rules use "da" and "de" as part of the surname (the famous Portuguese-American author John Dos Passos, who is referred to as having the surname Dos Passos, is a good example).

Hypocoristics

Portuguese nicknames are usually formed by inserting the diminutive infix -inh or -it before the final vowel in the name. For instance, Teresa becomes Teresinha (meaning "little Teresa") or Carlos becomes Carlinhos ("little Carlos"). In some cases a nickname is formed by adding zinho(a) or -zito(a) - to the actual name. For example, João becomes Joãozinho ("little João") or Sofia becomes Sofiazinha ("little Sofia").

Augmentative suffixes may be used as well, with Marcos becoming Marcão, for example.

Other practices include the repetition of a syllable (Nonô from Leonor , Zezé from José), a simple shortening of the name (Fred from Frederico, Bea or Bia from Beatriz), the contraction of the name (Manel from Manuel) or of a fraction of it (Beto from Alberto or Roberto, Mila from Emília or Camila). A mix of shortening and adding a suffix may happen (Leco from Leonardo). Sometimes, a foreign language nickname is used for the corresponding Portuguese name ("Rick" for Ricardo, "Maggie" from Margarida). Most given names have one or more standard diminutives.

Some typical Portuguese hypocoristics (the ones marked with * are almost exclusively Brazilian):

  • Afonso = Afonsinho
  • Alexandra = Alê*, Xana (not in Brazil, where the word is a slang term for vulva), Alex, Xanda
  • Alexandre = Alex, Xande, Xandinho
  • Alice = Alicinha, Cinha, Lice, Lili
  • Amélia = Amelinha, Melita, Mel
  • Ana = Aninha, Anita, Anoca, Nita, Ninha, Nana
  • Antônio / António = Tó, Tonho*, Tonhão*, Tom*, Toni, Toninho, Tonico
  • Bárbara = Bá, Babi, Binha*
  • Camila = Camilinha, Mila, Miloca, Mi
  • Carlos = Carlinhos, Carlitos, Cacá, Litos
  • Carlota = Lota
  • Carolina = Carolininha, Carol
  • Cecília = Cilinha, Cila, Cissa, Ceci
  • Cristina = Cris, Cristininha, Tina
  • Daniel = Dani, Dan*
  • Daniela = Dani, Danizinha
  • Diogo = Dioguinho, Dioguito, Di, Didi, Diguinho, Digo
  • Eduardo = Edu, Dudu, Duda, Du
  • Elisabete = Bete, Elisa, Bé, Betinha
  • Emília = Emilinha, Mila, Milinha
  • Fábio/Fabiano = Fafá*, Biano*, Bibi*, Fabí*, Bi*, Fá*
  • Fernando = Fernandinho, Nando, Fê*
  • Fernanda = Nanda, Nandinha, Fê*
  • Filipa = Filipinha, Lipa, Pipa, Fê*
  • Felipe = Felipinho, Lipe, Pipo, Fê*
  • Filomena = Mena, Lumena, Filó*
  • Francisca = Francisquinha, Chica, Chiquinha, Quica/Kika
  • Francisco = Francisquinho, Chico, Chiquinho, Chiquito, Quico/Kiko, Cisco
  • Gabriel = Gabi, Biel*
  • Gabriela = Gabi, Bibi*
  • Gonçalo = Gonçalinho, Gonça, Gongas
  • Guilherme = Gui, Guigui, Guiga
  • Gustavo = Guto, Guga, Gugu
  • Helena = Lena, Leninha, Leni
  • Henrique = Rique*, Riquinho*, Ique, Quique, Quico
  • Inês = Inesinha, Nê, Nenê, Nessa
  • Isabel, Isabela = Isabelinha, Belinha, Isa, Béia, Bebel*, Bebela, Bel
  • Jaime = Jaiminho, Jaimito
  • Joana = Joaninha, Ju, Juju, Jana, Janocas
  • João = Joãozinho, Janjão, Jão, Juca, Joca, Janocas
  • Joaquim = Quim, Joca, Jaquim, Quinzinho, Quincas
  • Jorge = Jorginho, Jó, Joca
  • José = Zé, Zézé, Zeca, Zezinho
  • Júlia = Ju, Julinha, Juju, Jujuba*
  • Juliana = Jú, Juju, Juli
  • Laura = Laurinha, Lalá
  • Leonardo = Léo, Leozinho, Leco*
  • Leonor = Nonô, Léo
  • Lígia = Lili, Lica*
  • Liliana = Lili, Lilas, Liana*
  • Lorena* = Lora, Ló, Loló
  • Luís = Lu, Luisinho, Lula*, Lulu*
  • Lúcia = Lucinha, Luci, Lu
  • Madalena = Lena, Madá, Mady
  • Manuel = Manelinho, Manelocas, Manel, Mané, Maneco, Nelo, Nelito, Nelinho
  • Manuela = Manela, Manu, Nelinha, Manocas
  • Marcos = Caco*, Marcão, Marquinhos, Marquito
  • Margarida = Margaridinha, Guida, Guidinha, Maggie
  • Maria = Mariazinha, Micas, Mia, Mimi, Mary
  • Mariana = Marianinha, Mari, Má*
  • Mário = Marinho
  • Marta = Martinha
  • Miguel = Miguelinho, Miguelito, Micas, Mike
  • Nicolau = Nico, Lalau*
  • Octávio/Otávio = Távio
  • Patrícia = Páti, Pat, Ticha, Tiça
  • Paula = Paulinha
  • Paulo = Paulinho
  • Pedro = Pedrinho, Pedrito, Peu*, Pepê
  • Rafael = Rafa, Rafinha, Fael*
  • Renata = Rê*, Renatinha
  • Ricardo = Ricardinho, Rico, Rick
  • Rita = Ritinha, Ri
  • Roberto = Betinho, Berto, Beto, Tinho*
  • Rodolfo = Rô*, Rodas
  • Rosa = Rosinha
  • Rui = Ruizinho
  • Sebastião = Sebastiãozinho, Tião, Babá*
  • Sofia = Sofi, Sô*
  • Susana = Susaninha, Su, Suse
  • Teresa = Teresinha, Té, Teté/Tetê
  • Tiago = Tiaguinho, Ti, Guinho*
  • Tomé = Tomezinho
  • Vera = Verinha, Veroca, Verushka
  • Victor/Vítor = Vitinho
  • Vitória = Vivi, Vicky

Other hypochoristics are associated with common two name combinations:

  • Cajó (Carlos Jorge)
  • Joca/Juca (João Carlos)
  • Malu (Maria Luísa, Maria de Lurdes)
  • Maricota (Maria da Conceição)
  • Mazé, Mizé (Maria José)
  • Zeca (José Carlos)
  • Mitó (Maria Antónia)
  • Tozé (António José)
  • Zezé (Maria José)

Note that a hypocoristics can receive the suffix -inho (meaning little) giving a more intense feeling of protection or intimacy, such as Chiquinho (from Chico, the hypocoristics for Francisco - Francis), Xandinho (from Xando, for Alexandre - Alexander), Zequinha (form Zeca, for José = Joseph).

Origin of Portuguese surnames

One single name or a name followed by a patronym was the most common way that the native pre-Roman people named themselves. The names could be Celtic (Mantaus), Lusitanian (Casae), Iberian (Sunua) or Conii (Alainus). The names were clearly ethnic and some typical of a tribe or region. A slow adoption of the Roman onomastic occurred after the end of the first century a.c. with the adoption of a Roman name or of the tria nomina:praenomen (given name), nomen (gentile) and cognomen.[3][4]

Most of Portuguese surnames have a patronymical, locative or religious origin.

Surnames originating from patronymics

Patronymics are names derived from the father's given name that, many centuries ago, began to be used as surnames. They are the most common surnames in the lands where Portuguese is spoken and also in many other languages.

In Portuguese, patronymics are surnames like Henriques, Rodrigues, Lopes, Nunes, Mendes, Fernandes, Gonçalves, Esteves and Álvares, where the ending -es- means (son of). The meaning is the same of the -ez suffix used in Spanish patronymics.

Some surnames originated in this way do not end in es; instead they end in iz, like Muniz (son of Monio) and Ruiz, (son of Ruy), or ins, like Martins (son of Martim).

Although most Portuguese surnames ending in -es are former patronymics, some family names with -es- endings are not patronymics, but toponymics, such as Tavares, Pires, Cortês and Chaves.

In the beginning of the surname formation, the ending -es- was not used. So, Joana daughter of Fernando could be called Joana Fernando, as like as André João meant André son of João[citation needed]. One can find today in Portugal and Brazil people who still use surnames that for other people are just given names, although were passed from parents to sons for generations and do not have the ending -es-, such like Valentim, Alexandre, Fernando, Afonso (note the family name de Melo Afonso) and Antonio (note de Melo Antonio). Names like Dinis, Duarte, Garcia and Godinho were originally given names, but today they are used in Brazil almost exclusively as surnames, although Duarte and Dinis are still common given names in Portugal.

Matronymics (surnames derived from female given names) are almost never used in Portuguese, but surnames such as "Catarino" (from Catarina) and "Mariano" (meaning related to Maria) could be originated from the name of a real mother or from a spiritual mother, the Virgin Mary[citation needed].

Some former patronymics are not easily recognized for two main reasons. Firstly, sometimes the given name that originated the patronymic became archaic, such as Lopo (that originated Lopes), Mendo or Mem (Mendes), Vasco (Vasques), Soeiro (Soares), Munio (Muniz), Sancho (son of Sanches). Secondly, sometimes the given names or the related patronymic changed through centuries - although always some resemblance can still be noted - such as Antunes (son of Antão or Antonio), Peres (son of Pero, archaic form of Pedro), Alves (from Alvares, son of Álvaro), and Eanes (from mediaeval Iohannes, son of João).

Locative surnames

A large number of surnames are locative, being supposed to describe the geographical origin of a person, like the name of a village, town, city, land, river. Such are surnames like Almeida, Andrada or Andrade, Barcelos, Barros, Bastos, Castelo Branco, Cintra (from Sintra), Coimbra, Faria, Gouveia, Guimarães, Lima (the name of a river, not meaning lime), Lisboa (Lisbon), Pacheco (from village of Pacheca), Porto (Oporto), Portugal, Serpa, etc. A surname like Leão (lion) may mean that an ancestor came from the old Spanish kingdom of Leon (today Northwestern Spain) or the French city of Lyon[citation needed].

Not all villages and towns that originated surnames exist, kept the same name or are inhabited today.

Some names specify an ancestral location of the family's house within the village: Fonte (by the fountain), Azenha (by the water-mill), Eira (by the threshing-floor), Tanque (by the community cistern), Fundo (on the lower part of the village), Cimo/Cima (on the upper part of the village), Cabo (on the far end of the village)[citation needed], Cabral (near the field where the goats graze). In some cases the family name may not be a locative, but an indication of ownership.

Some geological or geographical words were also used to name people like Pedroso (stony or full of peddles land), Rocha (rock), Souza/Sousa (from Latin saxa, a place with seixos, i.e. peddles, or the name of a Portuguese river), Vale (valley, dale), Ribeiro (little river, creek, brook), Siqueira or Sequeira (a non-irrigated land), Castro (castle or ruins of ancient buildings), Dantas (from d'Antas, a place with antas, i.e. prehistoric stone monuments or dolmens), Costa (coast of the sea), Pedreira (quarry), Barreira (clay quarry). The name Ferreira is a locative surname first used by people who lived in the many towns and villages named Ferreira, i.e. a place where one can find iron (ferro) ore.

Names of trees or plantations are also locative surnames supposed originally to identify an ancestor who lived near or inside a plantation, an orchard or a place with a characteristic kind of vegetation. Such are names like Silva (a kind of berry bushes, also meaning woods), Silveira (a place covered with silvas), Matos (woods, forest), Campos (grass fields, prairie), Teixeira (a place covered with teixos, a kind of tree), Queirós (a kind of grass), Cardoso (a place covered with cardos, i.e. with cardoons or thistles), Correia (a place covered with corriolas or correas, a kind of plant), Macedo (an apple tree garden), Azevedo (a forest of azevinho, i.e. a holly wood).

Tree names are very common locative surnames - Oliveira (olive tree), Carvalho (oak tree), Salgueiro (willow), Pinheiro (pine tree), Pereira (pear tree), Moreira (from amoreira, i.e. mullberry tree), Macieira (apple tree), Figueira (fig tree). These are not old Jewish-Portuguese surnames as explained here in the proper section below, although this popular myth is often repeated.

Religious surnames

Surnames with religious meanings are common. It is possible that some of these originated from an ancestor who converted to Catholicism and intended or needed to demonstrate his new faith. Another possible source of religious names were orphans who were abandoned in the churches and raised in Catholic orphanages by priests and nuns, usually baptized with a name related to the date near when they were found or baptized. Even another possible source is when previous religious given names (expressing a special devotion by the parents or the god-parents, or the child's birth date) were adopted as family names.

Religious names includes de Jesus (of Jesus), dos Reis (of the kings, from the day of the Epiphany of the Lord, the Day of the Wise Kings), Ramos (branches, from Palm Sunday, the Sunday before Easter), Pascoal (of Easter), da Assunção (of the Assumption of the Virgin Maryn), do Nascimento (of the Nativity of the Virgin Mary or the Nativity of Jesus - Christmas), da Visitação (of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary), da Anunciação (of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary), da Conceição (of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary), Trindade (from Trinity Sunday), do Espírito Santo (of the Holy Ghost, from the Feast of the Holy Ghost), das Chagas (of wounds, from the Feast of the Five Wounds of Christ), Graça (grace, from Our Lady of Grace), Patrocínio (patronage, from Our Lady of Patronage), Paz (peace, from Our Lady Mediatrix of Peace), Luz (light, from Our Lady of the Divine Light), Neves (snows, from Our Lady of the Snows), Penha (cliff, bluff, from Our Lady of the Bluff of France, that in Spanish is called Nuestra Señora de Peñafrancia), das Dores (of sorrows, from Our Lady of Sorrows), Bonfim (good end, from Our Lord of Good Death), das Virgens (of the virgins martyrs), dos Anjos (of angels, from the Archangels Michael, Raphael, and Gabriel day), São João (Saint John), Santana (Saint Ann), Santos (from 'Todos os Santos', i.e. from All Hallows or All Saints day) and Cruz (Cross, the most common surname among the Belmonte Jews).

An orphan with unknown parents or a converted (Jew, African slave or Native Brazilian) could be baptized with the name of a saint like João Baptista (from Saint John Baptist), João Evangelista (from Saint John the Evangelist), João de Deus (from Saint John of God), Antônio de Pádua (from Saint Anthony of Padova), João Nepomuceno (from Saint John of Nepomuk), Francisco de Assis (from Saint Francis of Assisi), Francisco de Paula (from Saint Francis of Paola), Francisco de Salles (from Saint Francis de Salles), Inácio de Loiola (from Saint Ignatius of Loyola), Tomás Aquino (from Saint Thomas Aquinas), José de Calanzans (from Saint Joseph of Calasanz) or José de Cupertino (from Saint Joseph of Cupertino). After that, they usually passed only the second given name (Batista, Evangelista, de Deus, Pádua, Nepomuceno, Assis, de Paula, Sales, Loiola, Aquino, Calanzans or Cupertino) to his sons as a surname.

Note that a surname like Xavier can be originated from someone baptized after Saint Francis Xavier or from the old Portuguese family Xavier.

Descriptive surnames

Some surnames are possible descriptions of a peculiar characteristic of an ancestor, originating from nicknames.

Such are names like Peixoto ("little fish", applied to a nobleman who used a fish to trick his enemies during a siege[citation needed]), Peixe (fish, i.e. swimmer, or also fisherman or fishmonger[citation needed]), Veloso (wooly, i.e. hairy), Ramalho (full of tree branches, bushy, i.e. with a thick beard[citation needed]), Barroso (clay covered, i.e. with pimples[citation needed]), Lobo (wolf, i.e. fierce, savage[citation needed]), Lobato (little wolf, wolf cub), Raposo (fox, i.e. smart[citation needed]), Pinto (chick, i.e. gentle and kind[citation needed]), Tourinho (little bull, i.e. stout, strong[citation needed]), Vergueiro (that bends, i.e, weak), Medrado (grown-up, i.e. tall), Tinoco (short, small), Porciúncula (small part, small piece), Magro (thin), Magriço (skinny), Gago (stutterer, stammerer), Galhardo (gallant, chivalrous), Terrível (terrible), Penteado (hairdressing, the nickname of a branch of the German originated Werneck family whose members used to wear wigs), Romero (from romeiro, pilgrim, i.e. someone who had made a religious voyage to Rome, Santiago de Compostela or Jerusalem).

Profession and occupation surnames

Portuguese surnames originated from professions or occupations are very few, such as Serrador (sawman), Pastorinho (little shepherd), Monteiro (hunter of the hills or woods guard), Caldeira (cauldron, i.e. cauldron maker), Cubas (wooden barrels, i.e, barrel maker or cooper), Peixe (fish, for a fisherman or a fishmonger).

A common mistake is to suppose that the Portuguese surname Ferreira meant blacksmith (ferreiro in Portuguese) since there is a similar surname in many languages (English Smith, German Schmidt, Arab Bittar, etc). But Ferreira is the name of a river and of many villages and towns in Portugal, as explained before.

Foreign-origin surnames

Some Portuguese names originated from foreigners who came to live in Portugal or Brazil many centuries ago. They are so ancient that, despite the known foreign origin, they're every bit a part of Portuguese and Brazilian culture.

Most of these names are Spanish, such as Toledo (a city in Spain), Ávila or Dávila (a city in Spain) and Padilha. Other common "foreign" surnames are Bettencourt or Bittencourt (from Béthencourt , French), Goulart, Goulard or Gullar (French, original meaning is glutton), Fontenele or Fontenelle (French, from fountain), Rubim (from Robin, French), Alencastro, Lencastre (from Lancaster, English), Drummond (Scottish), Werneck, Vernek or Berneque (southern German, the name of the Bavarian city Werneck), Wanderley (from van der Ley, Flemish), Dutra (from De Ultra, a Latin name meaning "from beyond" assumed by the Flemish family Van Hurtere), Brum (from Bruyn, Flemish), Bulcão (from Bulcamp, Flemish), Dulmo (from van Olm, Flemish)[5], Acioli (Italian), Doria (Italian), Cavalcanti (Italian), Mota or Motta (Italian), Netto or Neto (Italian, not to be confused with the name suffix Neto - grandson - that is used in Portuguese to distinguish a grandson and grandfather who bear the same names).

The question of Portuguese Jewish surnames

People usually say that the Jews living in Portugal up to 1497, when they had to choose between forced conversion or expulsion, substituted their surnames with the names of trees that do not bear edible fruits, such as Carvalho (oak tree) and Junqueira (reed, bulrush, junk). Others say that they usually chose tree names such as Pereira (pear tree) or Oliveira (olive tree), in this case trees that bear edible fruits. However, these names were already used by Christians during the Middle Ages.

Another family name usually pointed out as denoting Jewish ancestry is Espírito Santo (Holy Spirit or Holy Ghost). The rationale is that Jews would adopt as family name an (apparently) Christian concept as a deception: in fact they were choosing the most incorporeal Trinity person, that is, the one that offended less their (secret) Jewish faith. This theory is not totally unfunded, as there are proofs that the cult around the Holy Spirit flourished after 1496, specially among New Christians; however, this doesn't rule out that Espírito Santo was also adopted by faithful Christians, following the rationale of other religious surnames.

The Portuguese Jews up living in Portugal up to 1497 bore given names that could distinguish them from the Christian population. Most of these names are Portuguese versions of older semitic (Arabian, Hebrew, Aramaic) names like Abenazo, Aboab, Abravanel, Albarrux, Azenha, Benafull, Benafaçom, Benazo, Caçez, Cachado, Çaçom/Saçom, Carraf, Carilho, Cide/Cid, Çoleima, Faquim, Faracho, Faravom, Fayham/Fayam, Focem, Çacam/Sacam, Famiz, Gadim, Gedelha, Labymda, Latam/Latão, Loquem, Lozora, Maalom, Maçon, Maconde, Mocatel, Mollaão, Montam, Motaal, Rondim, Rosall, Samaia/Çamaya, Sanamel, Saraya, Tarraz, Tavy/Tovy, Toby, Varmar, Zaaboca, Zabocas, Zaquim, Zaquem, Zarco. Some were locative names like Catelaão/Catalão (Catalan), Castelão/Castelhão (Castilian), Crescente (crescent, from Turkey), Medina (Medinah), Romano (Roman), Romão, Romeiro, Tolledam/Toledano (from Toledo), Vallency (Valencia) and Vascos (Basque); some were patronymics from Biblical names like Abraão (Abraham), Lázaro (Lazar), Barnabé, Benjamim, Gabril (Gabriel), Muça (Moses) and Natam (Nathan); some are profession names such as Caldeirão (cauldron), Martelo (hammer), Pexeiro (fishmonger), Chaveirol (locksmith) and Prateiro (silversmith); some are nicknames such as Calvo (bald), Dourado (golden, like the German Goldfarb), Ruivo (red-headed), Crespo (curly), Querido (beloved) and Parente (family relative). A few names are not distinct from old Portuguese surnames like Camarinha, Castro, Crespim[6].

Some scholars proved that the converted Portuguese Jews usually chose a patronymic as their new surname and, when the conversion was not forced, they used to choose to bear the surname of their godfather[6].

Despite that, the Jewish-Portuguese community that flourished in the Netherlands and Hamburg, Germany, after their expulsion from Portugal used surnames that were usual among the old Christian Portuguese people such as Camargo, Costa, Fonseca, Dias, and Pinto. Maybe, most of them had parents or grandparents that were forced to conversion in Portugal and after emigration to the Netherlands they embraced openly their Jewish faith, but kept using the surnames of their godfathers.

Some of the most famous descendants of Portuguese Jews who lived outside Portugal are the philosopher Baruch Spinoza (in Portuguese Bento de Espinosa) and the classical economist David Ricardo. Other famous members of the Portuguese Synagogue of Amsterdam bore names such as Uriel da Costa (or Uriel Acosta', Isaac Aboab da Fonseca, Isaac de Pinto and Menasseh ben Israel (whose original surname was Soeiro).

The Belmonte Jews (crypto-Jews from the Belmonte region in Portugal) also bear surnames that cannot be used to distinguish them from the older Catholic Portuguese families.

One can take for sure that using tree names as surnames was not a common practice among converted or non-converted Portuguese Jews, before or after their expulsion in 1497.

Most common names in Portugal and Brazil

According to newspaper Público,[7] the most common given names in Portugal, for 105,000 children born in 2008, were:

Males Females
João (3189) Maria (4497)
Rodrigo (3074) Beatriz (2897)
Martim (2443) Ana (2897)
Diogo (2128) Leonor (2374)
Tiago (2088) Mariana (2374)
Tomás (2043) Matilde (2131)

According to the Cartórios Associados Website the most common given names in Brazil during the last 2 years (Jan/2008 - Nov/2009), were:

Name Incidents
1. Maria 1621
2. Ana 1274
3. João 1057
4. Gabriel 590
5. Pedro 548
6. Lucas 506
7. Mateus 427
8. Guilherme 344
9. Júlia 337
10. Luís 333
11. Vítor 266
12. Gustavo 262
13. Yasmin 262
14. Kauã 249
15. Víctor 243
16. Rafael 230
17. Vinícius 230
18. Artur 228
19. Miguel 226
20. David 221
21. Vitória 218
22. Filipe/Felipe 215
23. Carlos 209
24. Samuel 202
25. Letícia 198
26. Beatriz 192
27. Mariana 189
28. Daniel 183
29. Nicolas 183
30. José 181

Brazilian names

Brazilian surnames

Portuguese surnames in Brazil

Due to the fact that some Portuguese families did not send immigrants or that some immigrants did not have descendants in their new country, Portuguese surnames in Brazil show a lesser variation than in Portugal. There are surnames in Portugal that one cannot find in Brazil.

Portuguese from the lower classes who had no surname and immigrated to Brazil during the golden rush of the XVII century, usually adopt as surname the name of the city, town or village where they came from ( Almeida, Braga, Barros, Faria, Guimarães, Junqueira, Lisboa - Lisbon -, Serpa)[citation needed].

Giving Portuguese surnames to Afro-Brazilians and Native Brazilians

Until abolition of slavery, slaves did not have a surname, only a given name[citation needed]. They were even forbidden to use their distinct African or Native Brazilian names and were christened with a Portuguese given name. While slavery persisted, slaves needed to have distinct names only within the plantation (fazenda or engenho) to which they belonged.

It was a common practice to name free slaves after their former owners, so all their descendants have the Portuguese surnames of their former owner[citation needed].

Indigenous people who were not slaves also chose to use their godparents' surnames as their own[citation needed].

Religious names are also more common among people with African or Native Brazilian ancestors than among people with only European ancestors. A slave who had just a given name like Francisco de Assis (from Saint Francis of Assisi) could use the partial name de Assis as a surname, since the connective -de- gives the appearance of surname.

The practice of naming Afro-Brazilians with religious surnames was proved even by some indirect approaches. Medical researchers demonstrated that there's is a statistical correlation between a religious name and genetic diseases related to African ancestry such as the sickle-cell disease. Due to miscegenation, the correlation exists even among white people that have a religious surname[citation needed].

It was also common to name indigenous people and freed slaves with surnames which were already very common such as Silva or Costa. That is why[citation needed] Silva is the most common surname in Brazil.

Surnames originated from Native Brazilian words

In the years following Brazil's independence, some old Brazilians families changed their surnames to surnames derived from Tupian languages as a patriotic way to emphasize the new Fatherland. Some of these names are still spelled with Portuguese old orthography, but some are spelled according the new rules. These names, following the old orthography, include:

Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal.

Brazilian locative surnames

Some of Brazilian surnames, like some old Portuguese surnames, are locative surnames, that denote the original place where the ancestor who first used it, was born or lived. Like surnames originated from words, this practice started with the patriotic mood of the years following Brazil's Independence.

These are surnames like Brasil, (Brazil), Brasiliense (Brazilian), Brasileiro (also Brazilian), América, Americano (American), Bahiense (from Bahia city, today called Salvador), Cearense (from Ceará State) and ' Maranhão (from Maranhão State)

Some of these are toponyms derived from Tupian languages such as:

Due to immigration, nowadays one can find these surnames even in Portugal.

Non-Portuguese surnames in Brazil

Despite the lesser variation in Portuguese surnames, immigration from other countries (Italy, Germany, Spain, Poland, Ukraine, Syria, Lebanon, Japan, etc) increased the diversity of surnames in Brazil.

Some foreign surnames were misspelled after many generations and today cannot be recognized in their original country (the French-Swiss family name Magnan changed to Manhães after some decades). Some misspelled foreign surnames are hardly recognized by speakers of the original language such as Collor (from German Koeller), Chamareli (from Italian Sciammarelli) and Branquini (from Italian Bianchini). Sometimes, different rules of romanization were applied to Japanese and Arabian names (like Nacamura and Nakamura, Yamaguchi and Iamaguti, Sabag and Sappak, Bukhalil and Bucalil).

Thus there are extensively adapted or misspelled foreign surnames used by Brazilian descendants of non-Portuguese immigrants. Due to emigration, nowadays one can find these misspelled surnames even in their original country.

Immigrants' surnames

Although not so widely used as in the United States, immigrants used to change their surname to show assimilation or to avoid social discrimination in Brazil.

This practice was most used during World War II by Italian immigrants because Italy was an enemy country for a few years[citation needed]. As Italians are Catholics and were easily assimilated in the larger Brazilian society, the practice is not perceived and almost forgot after a single generation.

The new Portuguese surname was generally chosen based on the original meaning of the foreign surname (Olivetto, Olivetti or Oliva sometimes changed to Oliveira). Sometimes the new surname had only a phonetical resemblance with the foreign one (the Italian surmanes Livieiro and Salviani sometimes were changed to Oliveira and Silva[citation needed].

One can find a few translated names among the old Brazilian Jewish families, e.g., Monteverde (Greenberg), Bento (from Baruch, meaning blessed in Hebrew), Luz (from Licht, a short form of Lichtenstein), Lobo Filho (Wolfsohn), Diamante (Diamant) and Dourado (can be a translation from Ashkenazi Jewish surname Goldfarb or an ancient Portuguese-Jewish surname)[citation needed].

Respectful treatment using hypocoristics

In Brazil, until the first-half of the 20th century, very important people could be called in a very respectful - but not formal - way using a social or military title and a childish hypocoristics of their given name, such as "Coronel Tonico" (something like Colonel Tony), "Comendador Paulinho" (Commender Lil' Paul), "Dona Chica" (Lady Lil' Frances"), Sinhá Mariquinha (Mrs. Lil' Mary, sinhá is a popular pronunciation of senhora, i.e. Mrs.). Although an American president could be called Bill (Clinton) or Jimmy (Carter) by the press, this practice was used in Brazil as a much more respectful treatment and never in a formal way.

Some sociologists have suggested that members of the Brazilian upper classes were often raised by slave women who called them using a hypocoristics, and that childish name continued to be used, but in a respectful way, when they grew up.

Today, this practice is not so widespread, but one can find people informally, but respectfully, called "Seu Zé" (Mr Joe, Seu is a short Mister) or "Dona Ritinha" (Lady Lil' Rita).

Adding given names to surnames

In Brazil, descendants of famous people sometimes use a surname composed of both the given name and the surname of their ancestor, like Ruy Barbosa, Vital Brasil, Miguel Pereira and Lafayette Rodrigues families[citation needed]. Such practice allows them to be easily recognized by other people as descendants of their famous ancestor. Such a pattern is rare.

Given names

Given names of foreign origin

In Portugal, newborn children can only be named from a list of given names permitted by Civil Law.[8]. Names are required to be spelt according to the rules of Portuguese orthography and to be a part of Portuguese-language onomastic (traditionally names in Portugal were based on the calendar of saints). Thus in Portugal the given names show little variation, as traditional names are favoured over "modern" ones. Examples of popular Portuguese names are António, João, José, Francisco, Pedro or Manuel (for men) and Maria, Ana, Isabel, Teresa or Joana (for women). In recent decades there has been a popularity rise for ancient historical names such as Gonçalo, Bernardo, Vasco, Afonso, Leonor, Catarina or Beatriz. If one of the Parents is not Portuguese or has double citizenship, foreign names are allowed, as long as the parents present a document proving the requested name is allowed in their country of origin. In the past, immigrant children who were born abroad were required to adopt a Portuguese name in order to become Portuguese citizens - an example is tennis player Michelle de Brito, whose legal name is Micaela. This practise no longer applies.

In Brazil, there is no legal restriction on naming a newborn child, unless the given name has a meaning that can humiliate or embarrass those who bear it.

Brazilians living far from the big cities or lower-class people are prone to create new given names, joining together the given names of the parents or classical given names, changing the spelling of foreign names or even using foreign suffixes that - they may believe - give a sophisticated or modern sound to the new name (see Mauren - from Maureen - , Deivid - from David, Robison).

Foreign surnames are also widely used as given names such as Wagner, Mozart, Donizetti, Lamartine, Danton, Anderson, Emerson, Edison, FranklinNelson, Wilson, Washington, Jefferson, Jensen, Kennedy, Lenin, Newton, Nobel, and Rosenberg. Originally these names showed the political, artistic or scientific admiration of the parents who first used them to name their sons.

Given names originating from Native Brazilian names

During the realm of the second Emperor, Dom Pedro II, the Native Brazilian was used as the symbol of the Empire. At this time, Brazilian people started to use Native Brazilian names as given names. Some are among the most popular until nowadays.

These are names like Araci, Caubi, Guaraci, Iara, Iberê, Ioná, Jaci, Janaína, Jandira, Juçara, Juraci, Jurema, Maiara, Moacir, Moema, Ubiratã, Ceci, Iracema, Peri and Ubirajara (the last four taken from José de Alencar's works).

Recently, Brazilians have started to use other given names of Native Brazilian origin like Rudá (love), Cauã and Cauê (sun), although these are now very rare and their use connotes the hippie culture.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ On the other side, the Sobrinho (nephew) can also be an actual and very old surname and so is transmitted through generations. Also do not confuse the Netto surname with the Neto (grandson) suffix; the first is an old surname of Italian origin very common in Brazil, sometimes spelled with just one "t".
  2. ^ A vingança de José sobre Taílson
  3. ^ Ferreira, Ana Paula Ramos ; Epigrafia funerária romana da Beira Interior: inovação ou continuidade?;II Parte - Catalogo epigráfico [1]
  4. ^ Principais nomes, patronímicos, derivados e apelidos usados pelos povos da Lusitânia e nações aliadas
  5. ^ CLAEYS, André. "Vlamingen op de Azoren in de 15de eeuw"; pp. 2. Brugge 2007.
  6. ^ a b Subsídios para o estudo genealógico dos judeus e cristãos-novos e a sua relação com as famílias portuguesas
  7. ^ Público of July 5, 2009, p. 6
  8. ^ See a List of Portuguese Given Names in the Portuguese language Wikipedia

External links


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