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Post-rock
Stylistic origins Alternative rock, krautrock, ambient music, electronica, minimalism, shoegazing, progressive rock
Cultural origins Late 1980s to early 1990s in United Kingdom, Canada and United States
Typical instruments Guitar, bass, drums, violin and cello. Other instruments occasionally used include vocals, woodwind instruments, glockenspiels, or keyboards.
Mainstream popularity Limited, steadily increasing since 2000.
Fusion genres
Post-metal
Regional scenes
Montreal, Iceland, Chicago, Louisville, and Glasgow.

Post-rock is a term of rock music characterized by the use of musical instruments commonly associated with rock music, but using rhythms, harmonies, melodies, timbre, and chord progressions that are not usually found in rock tradition. It is the use of "rock instrumentation" for non-rock purposes. Practitioners of the genre's style typically produce instrumental music.[1][2][3]

As with many musical genres, the term is arguably inadequate as a concise descriptor: for example, Don Caballero and Tortoise were among the more prominent bands of the 1990s described as post-rock, but the two bands' music has very little in common besides the fact that they are both instrumental and centered on guitars and drums. As such, the term has been the subject of backlash from listeners and artists alike.[4]

Although firmly rooted in the indie or underground scene of the 1980s and '90s, post-rock's style often bears little resemblance musically to that of indie rock.[2][3]

Contents

Post-rock

Origin of the term

The term "post-rock" is believed to have been coined by critic Simon Reynolds in his review of Bark Psychosis' album Hex, published in the March 1994 issue of Mojo magazine.[5] Reynolds expanded upon the idea later in the May 1994 issue of The Wire.[1][6]

He used the term to describe music "using rock instrumentation for non-rock purposes, using guitars as facilitators of timbre and textures rather than riffs and power chords". He further expounded on the term,

Perhaps the really provocative area for future development lies... in cyborg rock; not the wholehearted embrace of Techno's methodology, but some kind of interface between real time, hands-on playing and the use of digital effects and enhancement.

Reynolds, in a July 2005 entry in his blog, claimed he had used the term "post-rock" before using it in Mojo, previously using it in music newspaper Melody Maker.[7] He also said he later found the term to not be of his own creation, saying in his blog, "although I genuinely believed I was coining the term, I discovered many years later it had been floating around for over a decade." The term was used by American journalist James Wolcott in a 1975 article about musician Todd Rundgren, although with a different meaning.[8] It was also used in the Rolling Stone Album Guide to name a style roughly corresponding to "avant-rock" or "out-rock".[7]

Another pre-1994 example of the term in use can be found in an April 1992 review of 90's noise-pop band The Earthmen by Steven Walker in Melbourne music publication Juke, where he describes a "post-rock noisefest".[9]

Historical development

Early precedents

Post-rock appears to take a heavy influence from late 1960s U.S. group The Velvet Underground and their "dronology" — "a term that loosely describes fifty percent of today's post rock activity".[10]

The "Krautrock" of the 1960s and '70s would also exert a strong influence on post-rock, particularly via the "motorik", or characteristic rhythm of much Krautrock.

British group Public Image Ltd (PiL) were also pioneers, described by the NME[11] as "arguably the first post-rock group". Their second album Metal Box (1979) almost completely abandoned traditional rock and roll structures in favor of dense, repetitive dub- and krautrock-inspired soundscapes and John Lydon's cryptic, stream-of-consciousness lyrics. The year before Metal Box was released, PiL bassist Jah Wobble declared, "rock is obsolete".[12] Flowers of Romance (1981), their third album, was an even more radical departure, emphasizing rattling percussion and abstract tape music.

The shoegazing movement of the late 1980s and early '90s was also a predecessor of post rock, with bands like My Bloody Valentine devoting as much, or more, attention to unorthodox and layered guitar textures than to traditional sequential guitar melodies.

1990s post-rock

Bands from the early 1990s, such as Slint, or earlier, such as Talk Talk, were later recognized as influential on post-rock.[2] Slint's Spiderland[2] and Talk Talk's Laughing Stock[13] are credited as giving birth to post-rock.[3]

Post-rock group Mogwai performs at a 2007 concert.

Originally used to describe the music of such bands as Stereolab,[14] Laika,[15] Disco Inferno,[16] Moonshake,[17] Seefeel,[2] Bark Psychosis, and Pram,[1] post-rock grew to be frequently used for a variety of jazz and krautrock influenced, largely instrumental, and electronica-tinged music made after 1994.[2][3]

Post-rock group Do Make Say Think performs at a May 2007 concert.

Groups such as Cul de Sac, Tortoise, Labradford, Bowery Electric and Stars of the Lid are cited as founders of a distinctly American post-rock movement.[18] The second Tortoise LP Millions Now Living Will Never Die, made the band a post-rock icon.[2][19] Many bands (e.g., Do Make Say Think) began to record music inspired by the "Tortoise-sound".[20]

In the late 1990s, Chicago was the home base for a variety of post-rock associated performers. Both John McEntire of Tortoise and Jim O'Rourke of Brise-Glace and Gastr del Sol were important producers for many of the groups.[21]

One of the most eminent post-rock locales is Montreal, where Godspeed You! Black Emperor and similar groups, including A Silver Mt. Zion, Do Make Say Think, and Fly Pan Am record on Constellation, a notable post-rock record label.[22] These groups are generally characterized by an aesthetic rooted in, among other genres, musique concrète, chamber music, and free jazz.[23]

Godspeed You! Black Emperor and Scottish group Mogwai were among some of the influential post-rock groups to continue their music career or end before the turn of the 21st century.[3][24]

2000s post-rock

In the early 2000s, the term had started to fall out of favour.[25] It became increasingly controversial as more critics outwardly condemned its use.[3] Some of the bands for whom the term was most frequently assigned, including Cul de Sac,[26][27] Tortoise,[25] and Mogwai,[4] rejected the label. The wide range of styles covered by the term, they and others have claimed, rob it of its usefulness.[28]

Today, despite criticism of the term, post-rock has maintained its prominence. Sigur Rós, with the release of Ágætis byrjun in 1999, has become among the most well known post-rock bands of the 2000s. In part this has been due to the use of many of their tracks, particularly from the best selling Takk album, in TV soundtracks and film trailers, including the BBC's Blue Planet. Their popularity can at least somewhat be attributed to a move towards a more rock oriented sound with simpler song structures, shorter songs, and increasing utilization of pop hooks.[29] Explosions in the Sky, Do Make Say Think, Pelican, and Mono are some of the more popular post-rock bands of the 2000s.[30] With a few exceptions, most notably Sigur Rós and Mogwai (album Mr.Beast in particular), the post-rock of the 21st century has generally eliminated vocals from its repertoire.

Though it has been argued that post-rock as a movement has become obsolete,[31] post-rock bands are still emerging; 65daysofstatic, Beware of Safety, Caspian, Efterklang, From Monument to Masses, Gifts From Enola, God Is An Astronaut, If These Trees Could Talk, Maserati, port-royal, Red Sparowes, Saxon Shore, Signal Hill, The American Dollar, The Evpatoria Report, This Will Destroy You, Yndi Halda and other such bands still maintain the fundamental principles of the genre.[citation needed]

Musical characteristics

Post-rock group Sigur Rós performs at a 2005 concert in Reykjavík.

The post-rock sound incorporates characteristics from a variety of musical genres, including ambient, jazz, electronica, and experimental.[3] The traditional method of power chords is replaced with timbre and texture for guitar-play while the song and voice is abandoned by its ambience. The rebellious overtones of rock as we remember it is no longer the theme for post-rock groups. In fact, utilizing dub reggae, hip hop, and rave, post-rock manages to create an androgynous and softer means of subversion. The clubs were also a response to the emergence of a new post-rock vibe where musicians escaped musical genre labels and traded ideas.[10] Early post-rock groups also often exhibited strong influence from the krautrock of the '70s, particularly borrowing elements of "motorik", the characteristic krautrock rhythm.[3][23][32][33]

Post-rock compositions often make use of repetition of musical motifs and subtle changes with an extremely wide range of dynamics. In some respects, this is similar to the music of Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and Brian Eno, pioneers of minimalism.[23] Typically, post-rock pieces are lengthy and instrumental, containing repetitive build-ups of timbre, dynamics and texture.[1]

Vocals are often omitted from post-rock; however, this does not necessarily mean they are absent entirely. When vocals are included, the use is typically non-traditional: some post-rock bands employ vocals as purely instrumental efforts and incidental to the sound, rather than a more traditional use where "clean", easily-interpretable vocals are important for poetic and lyrical meaning.[3] When present, post-rock vocals are often soft or droning and are typically infrequent or present in irregular intervals. Sigur Rós, a band known for their distinctive vocals, fabricated a language that critics call "Hopelandic" (Vonlenska in icelandic, a term even used by the band), which has been described by the band as "a form of gibberish vocals that fits to the music and acts as another instrument."[34]

However, in lieu of typical rock structures in the vein of "verse-chorus-verse", post-rock groups generally make greater use of soundscapes. As Simon Reynolds states in his "Post-Rock" from Audio Culture, "A band's journey through rock to post-rock usually involves a trajectory from narrative lyrics to stream-of-consciousness to voice-as-texture to purely instrumental music".[35] Reynolds' conclusion defines the sporadic progression from rock, with its field of sound and lyrics to post-rock, where samples are stretched and looped.

Some bands, such as Rachel's and Clogs, combine post-rock with classical music, while others such as Godspeed You! Black Emperor and Fly Pan Am are so far removed from popular music in their sparseness of arrangement and use of repetition, that they are frequently compared to minimalism.[3]

Wider experimentation and blending of other genres have recently taken hold in the post-rock scene. Cult of Luna, Isis, Russian Circles and Pelican have fused metal with post-rock styles. The resulting sound has been termed post-metal. More recently, Sludge metal has grown and evolved to include (and in some cases fuse completely with) some elements of post-rock. This second wave of sludge metal has been pioneered by bands such as Giant Squid and Battle of Mice. This new sound is often seen on the label of Neurot Recordings.[36] Similarly, bands such as Altar of Plagues and Agalloch blend type of fusion beteween post-rock and black metal, incorporating elements of the former while primarily using the latter.[37] In some cases, this sort of experimentation and blending has gone beyond the fusion of post-rock with a single genre, as in the case of post-metal, in favor of an even wider embrace of disparate musical influences.

Recent efforts by bands like Beirut, Ratatat, and From Monument to Masses liberally mine from a broad range of musical ideas, including synthpop, eastern European, electronic music, folk, hip hop, indie rock, disco, Afro-Caribbean music, psychedelic rock, classic rock, and math rock.[citation needed] Sometimes this influence can be seen in the chosen instrumentation, as with Ratatat's extensive use of synthesizers and sequencers. At other times it can be seen in a band's overall approach to music making, as with From Monument To Masses incorporating hip hop and dub music production techniques including sampling, loops, and even turntable scratching.[38]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d Reynolds, Simon (May 1994). "S. T.". The Wire. http://web.archive.org/web/20011202075606/http://www.thewire.co.uk/out/1297_4.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-08. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g Abebe, Nitsuh (2005-07-11). "The Lost Generation" (PDF). Pitchfork Media. http://samizdat.cc/shelf/documents/2005/07.11-lostGeneration/lostGeneration.pdf. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Post-Rock/Experimental". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2682. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  4. ^ a b Redfern, Mark (2001). "A Conversation with Mogwai's Dominic Aitchison". Under the Radar. http://www.undertheradarmag.com/Issue%201/Interviews/Mogwai/mogwai.html. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  5. ^ Reynolds, Simon (March 1994). "Bark Psychosis: Hex". Mojo. http://www.rocksbackpages.com/article.html?ArticleID=5803. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  6. ^ "The Wire 20". The Wire. November 2002. http://web.archive.org/web/20040817143035/http://www.thewire.co.uk/about/history.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  7. ^ a b Reynolds, Simon (2005-07-14). "S. T.". blissblog. http://blissout.blogspot.com/2005_07_01_blissout_archive.html#112140209965630241. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  8. ^ Wolcott, James (July 1975). "Todd Rundgren - Street Punk in Self-Imposed Exile". Creem. http://toddstuff.home.comcast.net/articles/TR-creem-exile.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  9. ^ Walker, Steven (April 1992). "S. T.". Juke. http://www.suburbia.com.au/~snf/records/summersh/staceys.html. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  10. ^ a b Reynolds, Simon (2007). Cox, Cristoph and Daniel Warner. ed. Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music. Continuum International. pp. 359. ISBN 0826416152. 
  11. ^ "NME Reviews: Plastic Box". NME. 1999-01-11. http://www.nme.com/reviews/public-image-ltd/641. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  12. ^ Reynolds, Simon (November 2007). "Heavy Metal". Frieze Magazine. http://www.frieze.com/issue/article/heavy_metal/. Retrieved 2008-01-15. 
  13. ^ Jackson, Chris (2006-05-15). "Talk Talk — It's My Life review". Sputnik Music. http://www.sputnikmusic.com/album.php?reviewid=6911. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  14. ^ Ashlock, Jesse (2001-08-27). "Stereolab biography". Epitonic. http://www.epitonic.com/index.jsp?refer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.epitonic.com%2Fartists%2Fstereolab.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  15. ^ Levy, Doug (2000-09-24). "Laika Kick Off U.S. Tour In Seattle". VH1.com. http://www.vh1.com/artists/news/1124379/20000924/laika.jhtml. Retrieved 2008-07-08. 
  16. ^ Acceturo, Jeanne (2001-08-10). "Disco Inferno biography". Epitonic. http://www.epitonic.com/index.jsp?refer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.epitonic.com%2Fartists%2Fdiscoinferno.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  17. ^ Wilmoth, Charlie (2004-01-26). "Dusted Reviews review of Minamo — Beautiful". Dusted Magazine. http://www.dustedmagazine.com/reviews/1232. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  18. ^ Reynolds, Simon (November 1995), "Back to the Future", The Wire 141: 26–30 
  19. ^ Buchan, Phillip (2004-04-13). "Tortoise — It's All Around You". Splendid Magazine. http://www.splendidezine.com/review.html?reviewid=1081734856339505. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  20. ^ "Do Make Say Think — And Yet review". Textura. February 2003. http://www.textura.org/archives/d/domakeandyetreview.htm. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  21. ^ Scaruffi, Piero (2005). "The History of Rock: The Nineties". http://www.scaruffi.com/history/cpt521.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  22. ^ Weinberger, Ian (2002-11-19). "Post-rock: a movement of the 90s still kickin'". the McGill Tribune. http://media.www.mcgilltribune.com/media/storage/paper234/news/2002/11/19/AE/Post-Rock.A.Movement.Of.The.90s.Still.Kickin-326959.shtml. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  23. ^ a b c Henderson, Keith (June 2001). "What Exactly Comes After Post-rock?". Aural Innovations. http://www.aural-innovations.com/issues/issue16/postrok1.html. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  24. ^ "Constellation Interview". Deep Fry Bonanza. 2005-05-05. http://deepfrybonanza.com/artnoise/?page_id=62. 
  25. ^ a b Hutlock, Todd (2006-09-01). "Review of Tortoise's A Lazarus Taxon". Stylus Magazine. http://www.stylusmagazine.com/reviews/tortoise/a-lazarus-taxon.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  26. ^ "Cul de Sac Interview". http://people.bu.edu/nsmith/interview.htm. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  27. ^ Lang, Dave (1998-03). "Interview with Cul de Sac's Glenn Jones". Perfect Sound Forever. http://www.furious.com/PERFECT/culdesac.html. Retrieved 2006-11-29. 
  28. ^ Richardson, Derk (2005-05-12). "Hear & Now". San Francisco Gate. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/gate/archive/2005/05/12/derk.DTL. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  29. ^ Allmusic review: Sigur Rós - Með suð í eyrum við spilum endalaust
  30. ^ Babbili, Laura (2007-03-15). "Bang On: Explosions in the Sky". Gigwise. http://www.gigwise.com/contents.asp?contentid=29326&p=2. Retrieved 2007-03-09. 
  31. ^ Keefe, Michael. "What is Post-Rock? A Genre Profile". About.com. http://altmusic.about.com/od/genresstyles/p/post_rock.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-03. 
  32. ^ Hacker, Scot (July 1996). "The Post-Rock Phenomenon". Utne Reader. http://www.birdhouse.org/words/scot/post_rock.html. Retrieved 2007-03-29. 
  33. ^ Tweney, Chris (May 1997). "What You Need to Know About Electronica". The Net Net. http://www.thenetnet.com/reviews/newelec.html. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  34. ^ "Sigur Ros frequently asked questions". Eighteen Seconds Before Sunrise. http://www.sigur-ros.co.uk/band/faq.php#07. Retrieved 2006-11-28. 
  35. ^ Reynolds, Simon (2004), Cox, Christoph; Warner, Daniel, eds., Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music, New York: Continuum, ISBN 978-0826416155 
  36. ^ Caramanica, Jon (2005-09-20). "The Alchemy of Art-World Heavy Metal". International Herald Tribune. http://www.iht.com/articles/2005/09/19/features/heavy.php. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 
  37. ^ http://decibelmagazine.com/Content.aspx?ncid=295657
  38. ^ "The Silent Ballet - From Monument To Masses Interview". The Silent Ballet. http://www.thesilentballet.com/dnn/Home/tabid/36/ctl/Details/mid/367/ItemID/2234/Default.aspx. Retrieved 2009-03-19. 







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