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.
Percentage of population living on less than $1.25 per day.
^ At least 80% of humanity lives on less than $10 a day.
  • Poverty Facts and Stats — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What percentage of Egypt's population lives in poverty?
  • WikiAnswers - What percentage of the world lives under poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Of the 1.3 trillion people living on less than $3 a day, 85% lived in Asia.
  • Globalization and the Fight Against Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

UN estimates 2000-2007.
.The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate standard of living in a given country.In practice, like the definition of poverty, the official or common understanding of the poverty line is significantly higher in developed countries than in developing countries.^ Live “a dollar above” the Poverty Line .
  • Live “a dollar above” the Poverty Line at Trying to follow 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC tryingtofollow.com [Source type: General]

^ Country's poverty line misleading.
  • Country's poverty line misleading, expert says - China News - SINA English 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC english.sina.com [Source type: News]
  • China's poverty line misleading, expert says_English_Xinhua 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC news.xinhuanet.com [Source type: News]

^ As all standards of living change, our definition of poverty also changes.
  • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.The common international poverty line has been roughly $1 a day, or more precisely $1.08 at 1993 purchasing-power parity (PPP).^ It famously draws the poverty line at "a dollar a day", or more precisely $1.08 at 1993 purchasing-power parity (PPP).
  • On the Poverty Line | Newsroom | NextBillion.net | Development through Enterprise 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nextbillion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolute poverty lines are more common in developing country literature.
  • PERCENT OF POPULATION LIVING BELOW POVERTY LINE 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The common international poverty line has been roughly $1 a day, or more precisely $1.08 at 1993 purchasing-power parity (PPP).

[2] .World Bank has done extensive work in this field.^ World Bank has done extensive work in this field.

^ The World Bank - Working for a world free of poverty .

^ The World Bank is continuing to work in a number of countries to strengthen in-country capacity to assess what works and what does not.
  • Understanding   Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.Determining the poverty line is usually done by finding the total cost of all the essential resources that an average human adult consumes in one year.^ Lower total CBN poverty line .
  • 6. Estimating poverty lines: Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This cost was the poverty line.
  • Below Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.upvan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Table 2 shows the poverty line in different years as determined by the NBS. .
  • Recent trends in poverty in PRC 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.adbi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This approach is needs-based in that an assessment is made of the minimum expenditure needed to maintain a tolerable life.^ This approach is a needs-based assessment.
  • Poverty line - CopperWiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This approach is needs-based in that an assessment is made of the minimum expenditure needed to maintain a tolerable life.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poverty threshold 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.povertythreshold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on these analogies the Economists emphasized upon stipulating the minimum needs that make up the basic standard of livi ng.
  • Below Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.upvan.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This was the original basis of the poverty line in the United States, whose calculation was simplified to be based solely on the cost of food and is updated each year.^ DANZINGER: Right now we have a poverty line based on food.
  • A new way to measure the poverty line | Marketplace From American Public Media 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC marketplace.publicradio.org [Source type: General]

^ Poverty line—basis .
  • Poverty in the City 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC krypton.mnsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Food poverty using regional food poverty lines .
  • 6. Estimating poverty lines: Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In developing countries, the most expensive of these resources is typically the cost of housing.^ In developing countries, the most expensive of these resources is typically the rent required to live in an apartment.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poverty threshold 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.povertythreshold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In developing countries, house rent is the most expensive of the resources and has a strong influence on poverty threshold.
  • Poverty line - CopperWiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When most people picture poverty there are usually images of people living in third world conditions, in developing or war torn countries.

.Economists thus pay particular attention to the real estate market and housing prices because of their strong influence on the poverty threshold.^ The largest of these resources is typically the rent required to live in an apartment, so historically, economists have paid particular attention to the real estate market and housing prices as a strong poverty line effector.
  • Poverty Line Income Resources Level Government Value Relative 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Economists thus pay particular attention to the real estate market and housing prices because of their strong influence on the poverty threshold.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poverty threshold 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.povertythreshold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolute poverty thresholds consider people to be living in poverty if their income is not enough to cover the costs of a given basket of goods in a particular year, updated annually for inflation.

.Individual factors are often used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc.^ Other factors are often thrown in to handle various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc.
  • Poverty Line Income Resources Level Government Value Relative 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Individual factors are often used to account for various circumstances, such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc.

^ Individual factors such as whether one is a parent, elderly, a child, married, etc.
  • Poverty line - CopperWiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The poverty threshold may be adjusted each year.^ ADJUSTING POVERTY THRESHOLDS (159-202) .
  • Measuring Poverty: A New Approach 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolute poverty thresholds consider people to be living in poverty if their income is not enough to cover the costs of a given basket of goods in a particular year, updated annually for inflation.

^ The official poverty threshold is adjusted for inflation using the consumer price index.

.The poverty threshold is useful as an economic tool with which to measure such people and consider socioeconomic reforms such as welfare and unemployment insurance to reduce poverty.^ The poverty line is useful as an economic tool by which to measure such people and consider socioeconomic reforms such as welfare and unemployment insurance to reduce poverty.
  • Poverty Line Income Resources Level Government Value Relative 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Problems with using a poverty threshold .
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poverty threshold is useful as an economic tool with which to measure such people and consider socioeconomic reforms such as welfare and unemployment insurance to reduce poverty.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poverty threshold 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.povertythreshold.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

Defining poverty thresholds

Poverty thresholds can be defined in different ways:
.
  • Based on social security and welfare benefits.^ In theory at least, the minimum wage, the level of pensions and other social security benefit are determined on the basis of it.
    • Russia: life on the poverty line | openDemocracy 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

    ^ Lalonde and others argue that by extending the CCTB to all in need-regardless of whether a family lives on welfare or a minimum wage job--Canadian society benefits by having a more secure and socially stable youth.
    • Child Poverty in Canada >> PoliticsWatch.com - Canada's Political Portal 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.politicswatch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The BPL figures are important because many of the government’s social welfare and poverty alleviation programmes are based on it; their success or otherwise can be gauged depending on the numbers.
    • InfoChange India News & Features development news India - New poverty line formula shows increase in number of rural poor 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC infochangeindia.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .If a government guarantees to make income up to some particular level, then it may be presumed that that level is the poverty threshold.^ What is the poverty income level for the United States?
    • What is the poverty income level for the United States? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC ask.yahoo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ What makes poverty in America unlovely to me is not only a low level of income.
    • Live “a dollar above” the Poverty Line at Trying to follow 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC tryingtofollow.com [Source type: General]

    ^ If a government guarantees to make income up to some particular level then it may be presumed that that level is the poverty threshold.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This is a problematic definition, because a government may reduce or increase the guaranteed income, thus reducing or increasing the incidence of poverty according to this definition, without changing the ability of individuals to buy food or pay for housing.
  • A relative income line, related to some fraction of typical incomes.^ What are some possible effects of the government underestimating the poverty line?
    • Calculating The Poverty Line | Teaching Tolerance 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.tolerance.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This is a problematic definition, because an uncharitable government may reduce the guaranteed income, thus reducing the incidence of poverty so defined while increasing the incidence of actual poverty.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The term A on the right-hand side of (6.4) is positive: an increase in incomes increases the relative poverty line and thus tends to increase poverty.
    • 6. Estimating poverty lines: Centro Internacional de Investigaciones para el Desarrollo 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.idrc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .This excludes the wealthiest individuals from the calculation.^ This excludes the wealthiest individuals from the calculation.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .For example, the OECD and the European Union uses 60% of national median equivalised household income.
  • A relative figure fixed in time and adjusted only for inflation--thus avoiding the possibility that if income inequality increases, then poverty may otherwise also increase.^ The European Union uses a LIM set at 60% of median income to calculate an at-risk-of-poverty rate.
    • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thus the largest increase in poverty has come from female headed households.
    • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A relative figure fixed in time and only adjusted for inflation - thus avoiding the possibility that if income inequality increases, then poverty may otherwise also increase.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .When the World Bank calculates its "$1 a day" statistics, it uses this approach.
  • A basket of goods deemed necessary to live at the socially accepted minimum, such as the U.S. government uses.^ When the World Bank calculates its "$1 a day" statistics, it uses a poverty threshold.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ World Banks $2 a day line for poverty.
    • A Dollar a Day :: What is Poverty? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ To accomplish that, the Manila-based Asian Development Bank (ADB) proposed scrapping the $1-per-day poverty measure popularized by the World Bank in 1990 as an estimate of the per-person cost of procuring the 2,100 calories a day deemed necessary for human health.
    • Defining New Poverty Lines for Asia - Newsweek.com 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.newsweek.com [Source type: News]

    This is commonly called a basic needs index, and varies according to the price of food, clothing, or other items in the "basket".

Absolute poverty

Women washing clothes in a ditch alongside a main road in Mumbai, India.
.A measure of absolute poverty quantifies the number of people below a poverty threshold.^ They wanted a number to measure the number of people living in extreme poverty.
  • WikiAnswers - What is international poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ These are people below poverty line.
  • Free Mobile Phone for Families Below Poverty Line? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.pluggd.in [Source type: General]

^ Poverty could be measured relatively or absolutely.
  • Poverty Level Statistics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For the measure to be absolute, the line must be the same in different countries, cultures, and technological levels.^ For the measure to be absolute, the line must be the same in different countries.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Michael Blastland has an excellent piece on the difference between absolute and relative poverty in this article on the BBC news website Very clear on medians, means and where to draw the line when measuring official levels of relative poverty.
  • poverty+line - entries tagged poverty+line from the Economics blog 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.tutor2u.net [Source type: News]

^ Statistics Canada maintains a basket of goods and services for different parts of the country and measures what percentage of a population cannot afford those basic necessities.
  • What 'poverty line?' | Tom Brodbeck | Columnists | News | Winnipeg Sun 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.winnipegsun.com [Source type: General]

.Such an absolute measure should look only at the individual's power to consume and it should be independent of any changes in income distribution.^ Such an absolute measure should look only at the individual's power to consume and it should be independent of any changes in income distribution.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rate of growth, and Changes in income distribution.
  • Poverty Around The World — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Change the way income is measured by adding non-cash benefits such as food stamps and by subtracting taxes, work expenses (including child care), child support, and out-of-pocket medical expenses.
  • Official government poverty line shows signs of old age -- Part 1 -- A Portrait of Poverty in Oregon 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC extension.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such a measure is possible only when all consumed goods and services are counted and when PPP-exchange rates are used (see purchasing power parity).^ Such a measure is only possible when all consumed goods and services are counted and when PPP-exchange rates are used (see purchasing power parity ).
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When comparing poverty across countries, the purchasing power parity exchange rates are used.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PPP exchange rates are used.
  • Poverty line in the United States - Factbites 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

.The intuition behind an absolute measure is that mere survival takes essentially the same amount of resources across the world and that everybody should be subject to the same standards if meaningful comparisons of policies and progress are to be made.^ In order to measure progress in reducing poverty, poverty has to be measured in reference to an absolute standard.
  • Poverty Level Statistics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The intuition behind an absolute measure is that mere survival takes the same amount of goods across the world and that everybody should be subject to the same standards if meaningful comparisons of policies and progress are to be made.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolute poverty Absolute poverty measures take into account a certain income amount or consumption amount per year, based on the estimated value of a ‘basket of goods’ (food, shelter, water, etc.
  • Poverty line - CopperWiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Notice that if everyone's real income in an economy increases, and the income distribution does not change, absolute poverty will decline.^ Notice that if everyone's real income in an economy increases, but the income distribution stays the same, relative poverty will also stay the same.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice that if everyone's real income in an economy increases, and the income distribution does not change, absolute poverty will decline.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The rate of growth, and Changes in income distribution.
  • Poverty Around The World — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measuring poverty by an absolute threshold has the advantage of applying the same standard across different locations and time periods, making comparisons easier.^ In order to measure progress in reducing poverty, poverty has to be measured in reference to an absolute standard.
  • Poverty Level Statistics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why do we need an absolute measure of poverty?
  • Where to draw the line on child poverty - Andrew Coyne - Macleans.ca 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www2.macleans.ca [Source type: General]

^ Poverty could be measured relatively or absolutely.
  • Poverty Level Statistics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, it suffers from the disadvantage that any absolute poverty threshold is to some extent arbitrary; the amount of wealth required for survival is not the same in all places and time periods.^ Absolute poverty thresholds consider people to be living in poverty if their income is not enough to cover the costs of a given basket of goods in a particular year, updated annually for inflation.

^ Percentage of all workers who were in jobs for which year-round full-time work would not pay enough to keep a family of four above the poverty threshold Poor children have little chance at the American Dream .

^ The poverty threshold should represent a budget for food, clothing, and shelter (including utilities) and a small additional amount to allow for other needs … .
  • Measuring Poverty: A New Approach 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nap.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, a person living in far northern Scandinavia requires a source of heat during colder months, while a person living on a tropical island does not.^ According to the common definition of poverty, when a person finds it difficult to meet the minimum requirement of acceptable living standards, he or she is considered poor.
  • Poverty in India. 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.economywatch.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The existing poverty line, which was created in 2005, is VND200,000 per person per month in the countryside and VND260,000 for those living in urban areas.

^ The sample does not include residents of the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, persons living on Indian reserves and residents of institutions.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This type of measure is often contrasted with measures of relative poverty (see below), which classify individuals or families as "poor" not by comparing them to a fixed cutoff point, but by comparing them to others in the population under study.^ This type of measure is often contrasted with measures of relative poverty (see below), which classify individuals or families as "poor" not by comparing them to a fixed cutoff point, but by comparing them to others in the population under study.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Total families below poverty level .
  • Orleans Parish: Income&Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.gnocdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When measured, poverty may be absolute or relative poverty .
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term absolute poverty is also sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty.^ (The term absolute poverty is also sometimes used as a synonym for extreme poverty .
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, the terms incidence of poverty or risk of poverty are used instead of the poverty rate.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poverty guidelines are sometimes loosely referred to as the "federal poverty level" or "poverty line," but these terms are ambiguous, and should be avoided in situations (e.g., legislative or administrative) where precision is important.
  • What are Poverty Thresholds and Poverty Guidelines? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.irp.wisc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Absolute poverty is the absence of enough resources (such as money) to secure basic life necessities.^ She wanted to find the level of income for families of different sizes such that the family was voluntarily purchasing enough food to meet the basic nutrition requirement of the family.
  • Poverty Level Statistics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.sjsu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some analysts also prefer to factor in "value of life" resource costs, such as entertainment, in societies where merely surviving is considered a little below the true poverty line.
  • Poverty Line Income Resources Level Government Value Relative 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.economicexpert.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Absolute poverty thresholds consider people to be living in poverty if their income is not enough to cover the costs of a given basket of goods in a particular year, updated annually for inflation.

.According to a UN declaration that resulted from the World Summit on Social Development in Copenhagen in 1995, absolute poverty is "a condition characterised by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.^ At the UN's World Summit on Social Development, the ‘Copenhagen Declaration’ described poverty as “…a condition characterized by severe deprivation of basic human needs, including food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and information.” When people are unable to eat, go to school, or have access to health care, then they can be considered to be in poverty, regardless of their income.
  • Kalamazoo Loaves and Fishes. Kalamazoo, Michigan. Update On Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.kzoolf.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Preparatory Committee's progress report and social development)(World Summit for Social Development) (UN Chronicle) .
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0908762.html 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clothing, housing, education and health facilities etc., are also essential elements of basic needs.

.It depends not only on income but also on access to services."^ This is only an estimated number since PPP varies greatly depending on the value of currency and cost of goods and services in a country.
  • WikiAnswers - What is international poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ Efforts need to be directed not only towards increasing the income level but also in providing the poor with basic social services and infrastructure.
  • Poverty line - CopperWiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.copperwiki.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3 ]
David Gordon's paper, "Indicators of Poverty & Hunger", for the United Nations, further defines absolute poverty as the absence of any two of the following eight basic needs:[3 ]
.
  • Food: Body Mass Index must be above 16.
  • Safe drinking water: Water must not come from solely rivers and ponds, and must be available nearby (less than 15 minutes walk each way).
  • Sanitation facilities: Toilets or latrines must be accessible in or near the home.
  • Health: Treatment must be received for serious illnesses and pregnancy.
  • Shelter: Homes must have fewer than four people living in each room.^ Of the 1.3 trillion people living on less than $3 a day, 85% lived in Asia.
    • Globalization and the Fight Against Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.urban.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The United States, for example, has a higher average living standard than most European countries, but it is also a lot less equal in terms of income distribution.
    • Defining poverty - On Line Opinion - 8/8/2005 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.onlineopinion.com.au [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ For example, a standard of living or level of income which is higher than what is needed to satisfy basic needs (like water , food , clothing , shelter , and basic health care ), but which is still significantly lower than that of the majority of the population under consideration.
    • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Floors must not be made of dirt, mud, or clay.
  • Education: Everyone must attend school or otherwise learn to read.
  • Information: Everyone must have access to newspapers, radios, televisions, computers, or telephones at home.
  • Access to services: This item is undefined by Gordon, but normally is used to indicate the complete panoply of education, health, legal, social, and financial (credit) services.
.For example, a person who lives in a home with a mud floor is considered severely deprived of shelter.^ The rate of poverty risk represents the percentage of persons who live in households in which the net income is below the poverty risk line.
  • HDR - Measurement Sub-Network Forums - QUERY: Malaysia - Defining a New Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC hdrstatsnet.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this total falls under the poverty line, all family members are considered to be living in poverty, regardless of how much each person earns.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, Tate---who also suffers from arthritis, heart problems, and seizures---has spent several years living on the streets.
  • Poverty Articles, Debate, Research, and Viewpoints 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC socialissues.wiseto.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A person who never attended school and cannot read is considered severely deprived of education.^ Often in educational research, the percent of students who are eligible for the federal school lunch program is used as an indirect measure of the level of poverty in a school or school district.
  • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I've known only one person who will never make it.
  • The Blurry Poverty Line - Blogcritics Politics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blogcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The report importantly notes that “As high as this number seems, surveys show that it underestimates the actual number of children who, though enrolled, are not attending school.
  • Poverty Facts and Stats — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A person who has no newspaper, radio, television, or telephone is considered severely deprived of information. .All people who meet any two of these conditions — for example, they live in homes with mud floors and cannot read — are considered to be living in absolute poverty.^ I do have a problem with all the people who CHOOSE to live on welfare all their lives .
  • Herald and News: Klamath Falls, Oregon > Archives > Top Story > Below the poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.heraldandnews.com [Source type: General]

^ They wanted a number to measure the number of people living in extreme poverty.
  • WikiAnswers - What is international poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

^ They were already living in poverty.

Relative poverty

.A measure of relative poverty defines "poverty" as being below some relative poverty threshold.^ Defining poverty thresholds .
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 4: LIS relative poverty measures .
  • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also: Relative deprivation A measure of relative poverty defines "poverty" as being below some relative poverty threshold.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, the statement that "households with an accumulated income less than 50% of the median income are living in poverty" uses a relative measure to define poverty.^ It combines relative income poverty with relative deprivation.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An example is when poverty is defined as households who earn less than 25% of the median income is a measure of relative poverty.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poverty may also be defined in relative terms.
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this system, if everyone's real income in an economy increases, but the income distribution stays the same, then the rate of relative poverty will also stay the same.^ The rate of growth, and Changes in income distribution.
  • Poverty Around The World — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poverty headcount rate at $1/day income .
  • Recent trends in poverty in PRC 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.adbi.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Notice that if everyone's real income in an economy increases, but the income distribution stays the same, relative poverty will also stay the same.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Relative poverty measurements can sometimes produce odd results.^ When measured, poverty may be absolute or relative poverty .
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Figure 4: LIS relative poverty measures .
  • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The updated comparison between "poverty" lines and "poverty" rates for the family of four in 1993 demonstrates again the degree of exaggeration that results when high, relative lines are used.
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Update and Commentary 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, if the median household in a wealthy neighborhood earns US$1 million each year, then a family that earns US$100,000 would be considered poor on the relative poverty scale, even though such a family could meet all of its basic needs and much more.^ We need to help all of our poor.
  • Daily Kos: UPDATEx3: Panic in Detroit: 35,000 line up for federal poverty help, conservatives laugh 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So the poverty level for a family of four would be US$19,350.
  • Population below poverty line statistics - countries compared - NationMaster 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nationmaster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Budget Standard Approach : a poverty line is calculated based on the cost of a specific basket of goods and services that are considered by experts, to represent a basic living standard.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the other end of the scale, if the median household in a very poor neighborhood earned only 50% of what it needs to buy food, then a person who earned the median income would not be considered poor on a relative poverty scale, even though the person is clearly poor on an absolute poverty scale.^ Median household income: $36,748.
  • Report: Nearly 1 in 5 Cleveland County residents live below poverty line | report, cleveland, residents - Local News - The Star Online : The Newspaper of Cleveland County 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.shelbystar.com [Source type: News]

^ It combines relative income poverty with relative deprivation.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This is also known as relative poverty , income poverty or risk of poverty .
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Measures of relative poverty are almost the same as measuring income inequality: If a society gets a more equal income distribution, relative poverty will fall.^ It combines relative income poverty with relative deprivation.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Inequality, on the other hand, is a relative measurement of the distribution of resources.
  • Mapleleafweb.com: Features - Poverty in Canada - What is Poverty? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.mapleleafweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The more unequal the distribution of income, the higher the incidence of poverty.
  • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Following this, some argue that the term relative poverty is itself misleading and that income inequality should be used instead.^ It combines relative income poverty with relative deprivation.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sometimes, the terms incidence of poverty or risk of poverty are used instead of the poverty rate.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poverty may also be defined in relative terms.
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They point out that if society changed in a way that hurt high earners more than low ones, then relative poverty would decrease, but every citizen of the society would be worse off.^ The benefits were intended to decrease poverty, and they would if they were counted as income.
  • Calculating Poverty in U.S. Fuels Debate 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: News]

^ They are more offended by inequality than poverty.
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Chapter 1 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They point out that if society changed in a way that hurt high earners more than low ones, then 'relative poverty' would decrease but every citizen of the society would be worse off.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Likewise in the reverse direction: it is possible to reduce absolute poverty while increasing relative poverty.^ When measured, poverty may be absolute or relative poverty .
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How entrepreneurship reduces relative poverty .
  • IEA Blog » relative poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blog.iea.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the late 1980s and the late 1990s, the two OECD-countries where relative poverty rates increased most (on a percentage basis) were the Netherlands and Ireland.
  • IEA Blog » relative poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blog.iea.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The term relative poverty can also be used in a different sense to mean "moderate poverty" –- for example, a standard of living or level of income that is high enough to satisfy basic needs (like water, food, clothing, shelter, and basic health care), but still significantly lower than that of the majority of the population under consideration.^ The income required to satisfy basic needs is related to a society's concept of a minimum standard of living.
  • Official government poverty line shows signs of old age -- Part 1 -- A Portrait of Poverty in Oregon 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC extension.oregonstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Is living in poverty in Moscow any different than London?
  • Livin’ on the Russian Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC seansrussiablog.org [Source type: General]

^ The poverty rate is the share of the specified population living under an officially determined level of income.

Basic needs

.Some measurements combine certain aspects of absolute and relative measures.^ When measured, poverty may be absolute or relative poverty .
  • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ United Nations Poverty Index : combines measures such as life expectancy, literacy, long-term unemployment and relative income.
  • Combat Poverty - Measuring Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.combatpoverty.ie [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In other words, LICO is a relative measure, disguised as an absolute measure.
  • Where to draw the line on child poverty - Andrew Coyne - Macleans.ca 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www2.macleans.ca [Source type: General]

.For example, the Fraser Institute publishes a basic needs poverty measure for Canada.^ Chris Sarlo and the Fraser Institute have published four different estimates of “income poverty” using the Basic Needs Measure.
  • The Poverty Project: Ideas 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC poverty.thespec.com [Source type: General]

^ A good example is the poverty line, the nation's official measure of need.
  • A Poverty Line That's Out of Date and Out of Favor - New York Times 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Why do we need an absolute measure of poverty?
  • Where to draw the line on child poverty - Andrew Coyne - Macleans.ca 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www2.macleans.ca [Source type: General]

.According to the Fraser Institute, "the basic-needs approach is partly absolute (the list [of necessities] is limited to items required for long-term physical well-being) and partly relative, reflecting the standards that apply in the individual's own society at the present time."^ What is necessary to satisfy basic needs varies across time and societies.
  • Understanding   Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC faculty.mdc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their long term physical health is being jeopardized.
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Chapter 1 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Poverty has costs to society as well as the individual.
  • Poverty in the UK: a summary of facts and figures | Child Poverty Action Group 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.cpag.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4] .The Fraser Institute's list of necessities for living creditably in Canada includes not only food, shelter, clothing, and health care, but also personal care, furniture, transportation, communication, laundry, and home insurance.^ Food, clothing and footwear, shelter, transportation, and other goods and services such as expenditures on personal care, basic telephone service, school supplies and modest levels of reading material, recreation and entertainment.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Download the Working Hard, Earning Less (in PDF format) factbook from the National Priorities Project for a calculation of a “livable wage” budget for different family sizes in Louisiana based on the costs of basic food, housing, transportation, day care, health care, clothing, telephone and taxes.
  • Orleans Parish: Income&Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.gnocdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While in their typical form these attempts were confined to determining the kind and the quantity of the food required for living, recently they are extended to include other necessities like clothing.
  • ΦΤΩΧΕΙΑ 3 - POVERTY 3 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.docstoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is criticized for not including any entertainment items like cable television, daily newspapers, and tickets to movies or sporting events.^ He spends about $1,500 on entertainment and another $1,000 on a variety of smaller items such as telephone, gifts, alcohol, books and newspapers.
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Chapter 1 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Finally, she spends about $1700 on other items including clothing, personal care, laundry, travel, phone and entertainment.
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Chapter 1 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The overwhelming majority of poor families are well-housed, have adequate food, and enjoy a wide range of modern amenities, including air conditioning and cable television.
  • Understanding Poverty in America 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.heritage.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4][5]

National poverty lines

CIA World Factbook based map showing the percentage of population by country living below that country's official poverty line.
.National estimates are based on population-weighted subgroup estimates from household surveys.^ Second, population-based data derived from some form of national household survey.
  • PERCENT OF POPULATION LIVING BELOW POVERTY LINE 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.
  • Country Profile and Demographics: World Population living Below the Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC siakhenn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Census Bureau based its earlier estimate on income level -- households falling below a certain level are considered to be living in poverty.
  • 1 in 6 Americans live below poverty line. - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Definitions of the poverty line may vary considerably among nations.^ Definitions of poverty vary considerably among nations.
  • Country Profile and Demographics: World Population living Below the Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC siakhenn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The all-India average rural poverty line is set at a monthly expenditure of Rs 446.68 a month; the national urban poverty line at Rs 578.8 a month.
  • Every third Indian under poverty line, says report 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC southasia.oneworld.net [Source type: News]

^ National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.
  • Country Profile and Demographics: World Population living Below the Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC siakhenn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, rich nations generally employ more generous standards of poverty than poor nations.^ More generally, rural areas exhibit more poverty than urban areas.
  • Poverty Around The World — Global Issues 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.globalissues.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The issue of poverty estimation seems to be getting more complicated as a government-sponsored panel has now said that about 38 per cent Indians are poor 10 percentage points higher than a previous estimate.
  • Poverty line fluctuates with conflicting data 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.indianexpress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In San Francisco, for example, the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development estimates the annual fair-market rent for a two-bedroom apartment at $16,344 - representing more than 90 percent of the national poverty budget for a family of four.
  • Falling Below the Poverty Line (PPIC Commentary) 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ppic.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus, the numbers are not comparable among countries.^ The ICP collected prices for an internationally comparable basket of goods and services in a large number of countries.
  • 17. Poverty and inequality: Statistical Yearbook for Asia and the Pacific 2007 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.unescap.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2008, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under 65 was US$11,201; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was US$21,834.[6]
.In the UK, "more than five million people – over a fifth (23 per cent) of all employees – were paid less than £6.67 an hour in April 2006. This is based on a low pay rate of 60 per cent of full-time median earnings, equivalent to a little over £12,000 a year for a 35-hour working week.^ Both parents work full-time.
  • Social Work Poverty Line Project 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.unk.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That is making $9.60 per hour working the 2080 hrs a year.
  • People Below Poverty Line Aren’t All Poor | OpenMarket.org 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.openmarket.org [Source type: News]

^ People who work 50 hours a week or more have little spare energy for anything more challenging than a TV. .

In April 2006, a 35 hour week would have earned someone £9,191 a year - before tax or National Insurance" [7][8]
India's official poverty level, on the other hand, is split according to rural vs. urban thresholds. For urban dwellers, the poverty line is defined as living on less than 538.60 rupees (approximately USD $12) per month, whereas for rural dwellers, it is defined as living on less than 356.35 rupees per month (approximately USD $7.50).[9 ] .By this measure, only 27.5% of Indians live in poverty, whereas by the World Bank standard of $1.25 per day, 42% of Indians live in poverty - this is the third highest rate in South Asia after Bangladesh and Bhutan.^ Poverty: The state of living on less than $2 a day, according to the World Bank.
  • A Dollar a Day :: Glossary 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the World Bank calculates its "$1 a day" statistics, it uses a poverty threshold.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The poverty rate in Iraq is ONLY 25%?
  • Nearly 25% of Iraqis live below poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.infowars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Criticisms

.Using a poverty threshold is problematic because having an income marginally above it is not substantially different from having an income marginally below it: the negative effects of poverty tend to be continuous rather than discrete, and the same low income affects different people in different ways.^ In practice, different countries often use different poverty thresholds.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Using a poverty threshold is problematic because having an income marginally above it is not substantially different from having an income marginally below it: the negative effects of poverty tend to be continuous rather than discrete , and the same low income affects different people in different ways.
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both have approximately the same poverty threshold.
  • Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ers.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.To overcome this problem, poverty indices are sometimes used instead; see income inequality metrics.^ Sometimes, the terms incidence of poverty or risk of poverty are used instead of the poverty rate.
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To overcome this poverty indexes are sometimes used instead; see income inequality metrics .
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Problems with using a poverty threshold .
  • Poverty threshold at AllExperts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A poverty threshold relies on a quantitative, or purely numbers-based, measure of income.^ United States by complementing the official income-based measures of poverty .
  • Poverty line in the United States - Factbites 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Poverty rates are based on family incomes .
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ National estimates of the percentage of the population falling below the poverty line are based on surveys of sub-groups, with the results weighted by the number of people in each group.
  • Country Profile and Demographics: World Population living Below the Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC siakhenn.tripod.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If other human development-indicators like health and education are used, they must be quantified, which is not a simple (if even achievable) task.^ This approach attracts criticism for ignoring other important dimensions of poverty such as limited access to education, health, water and housing.
  • Poverty Definition, a OneWorld briefing 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC uk.oneworld.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is generally acknowledged that if women are more educated, they are more likely to contribute to the broader productivity of society while enhancing child and maternal health and welfare.
  • PERCENT OF POPULATION LIVING BELOW POVERTY LINE 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Its association with other socioeconomic characteristics, including education and income, which also makes it a good universal indicator of human development.
  • PERCENT OF POPULATION LIVING BELOW POVERTY LINE 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Overstating poverty

.In-kind gifts, whether from public or private sources, are not counted when calculating a poverty threshold.^ In other words, this family should be living at a level at which you feel that they need no assistance, either private or public, of any kind.
  • Social Work Poverty Line Project 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.unk.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Accordingly, the costs of the economy food plan for families of different sizes and compositions were multiplied by three to calculate the poverty thresholds.
  • West Coast Poverty Center :: Research > Overview 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wcpc.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It was established in 1992 as a way of calculating a poverty threshold (desperate poverty, I'd say).
  • Russia: life on the poverty line | openDemocracy 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

.For example, if a parent pays the rent on an apartment for an adult daughter directly to the apartment owner, instead of giving the money to the daughter to pay the rent, then that money does not count as income to the daughter.^ But it still less than a living-wage, meaning a wage that allows a person to pay the expenses and rent on a one-bedroom apartment.

^ If money income falls below the poverty line, people are counted as poor.
  • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 15 of the 42 states, poor single-parent families of three pay income tax.
  • Econ-Atrocity / Econ-Utopia » Blog Archive » Report from CBPP on taxing below-poverty-line families 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.fguide.org [Source type: Original source]

.If a church or non-profit organization gives food to an elderly person, the value of the food is not counted as income to the elderly person.^ The current calculations don’t count non-cash government aid, such as Medicaid or food stamps, as income.
  • Orleans Parish: Income&Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.gnocdc.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some countries the poverty measures are based on the number of persons with incomes below a poverty threshold, but in the poorest nations (where subsistence agriculture and non-cash economies predominate) the indicators are typically based on estimates of consumption -- the value of the goods and services consumed by persons, derived from survey responses to questions about food consumption.
  • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A 1955 Agriculture Department food consumption survey had shown that families of three or more persons spent about one-third of their after-tax income on food.
  • West Coast Poverty Center :: Research > Overview 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC wcpc.washington.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Rea Hederman, a senior policy analyst in the Center for Data Analysis at the Heritage Foundation, said
.The official poverty measure counts only monetary income.^ United States by complementing the official income-based measures of poverty .
  • Poverty line in the United States - Factbites 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.factbites.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Asset poverty is a measure of whether a household can support itself using savings or other available assets for 12 weeks at a poverty-level income.
  • What is Asset Poverty? 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.bread.org [Source type: News]

^ Not only are they left unsupported, often in extremely difficult circumstances, but they are not even counted in official government statistics.
  • Call to help 'grandparent carers' living below the poverty line - Times Online 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.timesonline.co.uk [Source type: News]

.It considers antipoverty programs such as food stamps, housing assistance, the Earned Income Tax Credit, Medicaid and school lunches, among others, "in-kind benefits" -- and hence not income.^ Also, in-kind government benefits that assist low-income families – food stamps, Medicaid, and housing and child care assistance – are not taken into account.
  • NCCP | Measuring Poverty in the United States 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.nccp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Income includes cash income (pretax income and cash welfare assistance), but excludes in-kind welfare assistance, such as food stamps and Medicaid.
  • Rural Poverty at a Glance 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ers.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Expanding the earned-income-tax credit .
  • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

So, despite everything these programs do to relieve poverty, they aren't counted as income when Washington measures the poverty rate.[10]
.Studies measuring the difference between income before and after taxes and government transfers, however, have found that without these programs poverty would be roughly 30% to 40% higher than the official poverty line indicates, despite many of their benefits not being counted as income.^ Another way to examine the relative well-being of the poor is to measure their average income shortfall (or the average difference between income and the poverty line).
  • Nonmetro Poverty: Assessing the Effect of the 1990s 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ers.usda.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Are these poverty lines credible?
  • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Chapter 1 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In-kind transfers (payments-in-kind) are not counted in official poverty estimates.
  • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

[11][12]

Understating poverty

.The U.S. poverty threshold in particular has been criticized for understating poverty, by using an outdated "basket of goods" to set the standard.^ We can use Global Poverty as a good example.
  • Riding for Education | Another Look at Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC r4e.org [Source type: News]

^ Absolute poverty thresholds consider people to be living in poverty if their income is not enough to cover the costs of a given basket of goods in a particular year, updated annually for inflation.

^ And we’ve got the basis for a good absolute yardstick in the “basic needs” index pioneered by professor Christopher Sarlo for the Fraser Institute, and in the Market Basket Measure provincial welfare departments use to set social assistance rates.
  • Where to draw the line on child poverty - Andrew Coyne - Macleans.ca 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www2.macleans.ca [Source type: General]

.While cost of these goods is adjusted for inflation every year, the basket of goods itself remains the same.^ Many of these very same issues remain important today.
  • Poverty in America: CHAPTER TWO 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ucpress.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Poverty in America, John Iceland, Book - Barnes & Noble 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The contents of this basket are reviewed once every five years, and the cost is recalculated once a quarter.
  • Russia: life on the poverty line | openDemocracy 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.opendemocracy.net [Source type: General]

^ For his part, sociologist Artemio Lpez of Equis Research said that in the year to March 2008, the cost of the basic basket of consumer goods increased by 30 percent.
  • ARGENTINA: Food Inflation Hits People Close to Poverty Line - IPS ipsnews.net 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC ipsnews.net [Source type: News]

.It excludes the cost of items that were rare among poor Americans in the 1950s, but which are now common, such as a telephone, a car and a microwave oven.^ Douglas Besharov, resident scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, says, ``There are social costs of being poor, though it is not clear where the cause and effect is.
  • Congressman Earl Blumenauer - The Hidden Cost of Living Below the Poverty Line (AP) 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blumenauer.house.gov [Source type: News]

^ That's simply not the American way and the real impacts to the economy of such a situation is well known and even worse for America's poor.
  • The Blurry Poverty Line - Blogcritics Politics 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blogcritics.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now, advocates for the poor say other businesses are extending loans in exchange for car titles.
  • Congressman Earl Blumenauer - The Hidden Cost of Living Below the Poverty Line (AP) 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blumenauer.house.gov [Source type: News]

.Mollie Orshansky, who devised the original goods basket and methodology to measure poverty, used by the U.S. government, in 1963-65, suggested an updated list in 2000. She found that the point where a person is excluded from the nation's prevailing consumption patterns, is roughly 170% of the official poverty threshold.^ HPI: The Human Poverty Index is a measure of human poverty used by the United Nations.
  • A Dollar a Day :: Glossary 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Why did Mollie Orshansky develop a yardstick for measuring poverty?
  • Mollie Orshansky: Inventor of the Poverty Line : NPR 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Poverty measure used in the bulletins .
  • Poverty Profile 2007 - National Council of Welfare 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.ncwcnbes.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Furthermore, in developed countries, such as the U.S., poverty tends to be cyclical.^ Glewwe, Paul and J. V der Gaag (1988) Confronting Poverty in Developing Countries, LSMS, WP # 48, World Bank, Washington D.C. .

^ The World Bank tends to see poverty and as something to be addressed by economic development; the United Nations stresses that addressing poverty and inequality will have the side benefit of promoting economic development.
  • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But other aspects of the poverty profile (such as assessments of the regional or sectoral poverty profiles) tend to be more robust as a measurement choice.
  • PERCENT OF POPULATION LIVING BELOW POVERTY LINE 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Thus, the poverty line indicates only how many people are poor at any one point in time.^ The PATs measure the percentage of extreme poverty of a group of people at one point in time.
  • Poverty Assessment Tools 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.povertytools.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Poverty Line How many such faces are there?
  • Main News: Poverty in America 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.cenewsblog.com [Source type: General]

^ How many people are going to die?
  • Daily Kos: UPDATEx3: Panic in Detroit: 35,000 line up for federal poverty help, conservatives laugh 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.dailykos.com [Source type: Original source]

.It does not report the number of people who will experience poverty during their lifetimes.^ I think politics DOES play a role in poverty – such as in aid that’s meant for the people never GETTING to the people.
  • Why We Can’t End Poverty » Christian Blog on Child Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC blog.compassion.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Philadelphia fared better than the state as a whole in terms of increases in the number of people in poverty, although Philadelphia remains one of five counties with the highest poverty rates in the state.
  • Food-stamp use, poverty up in the region | Philadelphia Inquirer | 09/29/2009 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: News]

^ The estimated number of people in poverty increased by 1.1 million to 39.1 million in 2008, survey figures show.
  • Food-stamp use, poverty up in the region | Philadelphia Inquirer | 09/29/2009 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: News]

.In the U.S. for example, roughly 12%-13% fall below the poverty line in any given year, but roughly 40% will experience poverty at some point over a ten-year timespan.^ Americans live below poverty line.
  • 1 in 6 Americans live below poverty line. - Xbox 360 & Xbox Forums 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC forum.teamxbox.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Text Size Below the poverty line .
  • Herald and News: Klamath Falls, Oregon > Archives > Top Story > Below the poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.heraldandnews.com [Source type: General]

^ Below the poverty line .
  • UNICEF Philippines - Real lives - Below the poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.unicef.org [Source type: News]

[14]

See also

References

  1. ^ {Halving Global Poverty-Timothy Besley and Robin Burgess Journal of Economic Perspectives Volume 17,Number 3-Summer 2003-Page 5}
  2. ^ a b "Rethinking the Poverty Line". http://www.nextbillion.net/newsroom/2008/05/27/rethinking-the-poverty-line.  
  3. ^ a b "Indicators of Poverty and Hunger". http://www.un.org/esa/socdev/unyin/documents/ydiDavidGordon_poverty.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-14.  
  4. ^ a b Poverty in Canada: 2006 Update, Fraser Institute, November 2006, URL accessed 14 February 2008
  5. ^ "Defining and Re-Defining Poverty: A CCSD Perspective", October 2001, Canadian Council On Social Development
  6. ^ "Poverty Thresholds 2008". http://www.census.gov/hhes/www/poverty/threshld/thresh08.html. Retrieved 2009-03-24.  
  7. ^ Working out of Poverty: A study of the low paid and the working poor by Graeme Cooke and Kayte Lawton
  8. ^ IPPR Article: "Government must rescue ‘forgotten million children’ in poverty"
  9. ^ "POVERTY ESTIMATES FOR 2004-05". http://planningcommission.gov.in/news/prmar07.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-19.  
  10. ^ "Poor poverty yardsticks", Rea S. Hederman, Jr., September 8, 2006, The Heritage Foundation
  11. ^ Kenworthy, L. (1999). Do social-welfare policies reduce poverty? A cross-national assessment. Social Forces, 77(3), 1119-1139.
  12. ^ Bradley, D., Huber, E., Moller, S., Nielson, F. & Stephens, J. D. (2003). Determinants of relative poverty in advanced capitalist democracies. American Sociological Review, 68(3), 22-51.
  13. ^ Schwartz, J. E. (2005). Freedom reclaimed: Rediscovering the American vision. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.
  14. ^ Zweig, Michael (2004) What's Class Got to do With It, American Society in the Twenty-first Century. ILR Press. ISBN 978-0801488993

External links

.
  • Alan Gillie, "The Origin of the Poverty Line", Economic History Review, XLIX/4 (1996), 726
  • History of the U.S. Poverty Line by Tom Gentle, Oregon State University.
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services Poverty Guidelines, Research, and Measurement
  • 2007 United States Department of Health and Human Services Poverty Guidelines
  • Debraj Ray 1998, Development Economics, Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-01706-9.
  • World Summit for Social Development Agreements, United Nations
  • The "elimination" of poverty , Takis Fotopoulos, The International Journal of Inclusive Democracy, vol.4, no.1, (January 2008).
  • Fisher, Gordon (2005-12-16).^ We will examine poverty in the United States and then turn to the issue of income distribution.
    • http://sorrel.humboldt.edu/~economic/econ104/poverty/ 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC sorrel.humboldt.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The Development of the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.S. Poverty Measure," US Census Bureau - Poverty Measurement Working Papers http://www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/povmeas/papers/orshansky.html (viewed 6/1/05).
    • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ MEASURING POVERTY A thin Indian line The first step towards eradicating poverty is to understand just how many of us are poor, and what that means.
    • India Together: A thin Indian poverty line - 17 March 2006 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • India Together: Poverty and related issues - news reports, articles, opinions and analysis - Homepage 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC indiatogether.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Relative or Absolute —New Light on the Behavior of Poverty Lines Over Time".^ The updated comparison between "poverty" lines and "poverty" rates for the family of four in 1993 demonstrates again the degree of exaggeration that results when high, relative lines are used.
    • The Fraser Institute: Publications: Books: Poverty in Canada (2nd Edition): Update and Commentary 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC oldfraser.lexi.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In 2004, the median pre-tax household income was $44,684; a poverty line based on relative deprivation would have been $22,342.

    ^ Para contactar con Poverty Line Old Time Band .
    • Poverty Line Old Time Band en Música MySpace – Transmisión gratuita de MP3s, Fotos & Videos Musicales 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Department of Health and Human Services.^ U.S. Department of Health & Human Services - 200 Independence Avenue, S.W. - Washington, D.C. 20201 .
    • Prior HHS Poverty Guidelines and Federal Register References 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC aspe.os.dhhs.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Federal poverty guidelines are published annually by the Department of Health and Human Services.
    • Herald and News: Klamath Falls, Oregon > Archives > Top Story > Below the poverty line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.heraldandnews.com [Source type: General]

    ^ US Department of Human Services -FAQ Poverty Guidelines and Poverty ↑ Global Inequality Fades as the Global Economy Grows 2007 Index of Economic Freedom.
    • Poverty - Psychology Wiki 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://aspe.hhs.gov/POVERTY/papers/relabs.htm.^ "The Development of the Orshansky Poverty Thresholds and Their Subsequent History as the Official U.S. Poverty Measure," US Census Bureau - Poverty Measurement Working Papers http://www.census.gov/hhes/poverty/povmeas/papers/orshansky.html (viewed 6/1/05).
    • Poverty 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC lilt.ilstu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Q Squared” Conference on Experiences of Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Poverty Appraisal (May 2004) Complete collection of papers presented available at - http://www.utoronto.ca/mcis/q2/agenda.htm .
    • HDR - Measurement Sub-Network Forums - QUERY: Malaysia - Defining a New Poverty Line 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC hdrstatsnet.undp.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ HHS Poverty Guidelines: http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/09poverty.shtml.
    • Income Eligibility -- Separate CHIP Prog - Kaiser State Health Facts 2 February 2010 16:48 UTC www.statehealthfacts.kff.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Retrieved 2008 -01-16
    .  

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