Prairie dog: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Prairie Dog
Fossil range: Late Pliocene to Recent
Black-tailed Prairie Dog
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Marmotini
Genus: Cynomys
Rafinesque, 1817
Species

Cynomys gunnisoni
Cynomys leucurus
Cynomys ludovicianus
Cynomys mexicanus
Cynomys parvidens

Prairie dogs (Cynomys) are burrowing rodents (not actually dogs) native to the grasslands of North America. There are five different species of prairie dogs: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison, Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. They are a type of ground squirrel. On average, these stout-bodied rodents will grow to be between 30–40 centimetres (12–16 in) long, including the short tail and weigh between 0.5–1.5 kilograms (1–3 lb). They are found in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. In Mexico, prairie dogs are primarily found in the northern states which are the southern end of the great plains: northeastern Sonora, north and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas; in the U.S., they range primarily west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They will eat all sorts of vegetables and fruits.

Contents

Etymology

Prairie dog closeup

Prairie dogs are named for their habitat and warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark. According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the name is attested from at least 1774.[1] The 1804 journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition note that in September 1804, they "discovered a Village of an animal the French Call the Prairie Dog."[2] Its genus, Cynomys, derives from the Greek for dog mouse.

Prairie dogs raise their heads from their burrows in response to disturbances

In companies that use large numbers of cubicles in a common space, employees sometimes use the term prairie dogging to refer to the action of several people simultaneously looking over the walls of their cubicles in response to a noise or other distraction. This action is thought to resemble the startled response of a group of prairie dogs.[3]

Biology and behavior

Prairie dogs showing affection
Fighting prairie dogs

Highly social, prairie dogs live in large colonies or "towns" – collections of prairie dog families that can span hundreds of acres. Families usually consist of 1 male and 2 to 4 females living in a strict social hierarchy.[4] Prairie dog pups reach sexual maturity at about 3 years of age, and after their third winter the dominant male in a given family will drive them away, forcing them to establish their own families on the edges of the colony. The dominant male will defend the family's borders against rival prairie dogs, and disputes are resolved by fighting. Prairie dogs are also aggressive against predators such as badgers and snakes. Prairie dogs are social animals, however, and often make social visits with each other, and greet each other with a sort of kiss.[5] Prairie dogs employ a complex form of communication that involves barks and rhythmic chirps.[6]

Prairie dog tunnel systems help channel rainwater into the water table to prevent runoff and erosion, and can also serve to change the composition of the soil in a region by reversing soil compaction that can be a result of cattle grazing. The tunnels usually have several chambers. Tunnels can descend vertically as much as 5 metres (16 ft), and can extend laterally as much as 30 metres (98 ft). Prairie dogs line their burrows with grass to insulate them, and the earth excavated from the burrow is piled up in mounds around the burrow's entrance. The prairie dogs use these carefully maintained mounds as observation posts.[5]

The prairie dog is well adapted to predators. Using its dichromatic color vision, it can detect predators from a far distance and then alert other prairie dogs to the danger with a special, high-pitched call. Con Slobodchikoff and others assert that prairie dogs use a sophisticated system of vocal communication to describe specific predators.[4][7] Prairie dogs also trim the vegetation around their colonies, perhaps to remove any cover for predators.[8] Their burrows generally contain several routes of escape.[4]

The prairie dog is chiefly herbivorous, though it eats some insects. It feeds primarily on grasses and, in the fall, broadleaf forbs. Prairie dogs have 1-6 pups (babies) yearly, which are born blind and furless and need about 30 days of close nurturing from their mother.

Sometimes two prairie dogs touch teeth with each other. Researchers think they do this as a way of recognizing each other.[9]

Conservation status

A Black-tailed Prairie Dog forages above ground for grasses and leaves

Ecologists consider this rodent to be a keystone species. They are an important prey species, being the primary diet in prairie species such as the Black-footed Ferret, Swift Fox, Golden Eagle, American Badger, and Ferruginous Hawk. Other species, such as the Mountain Plover and the Burrowing Owl, also rely on prairie dog burrows for nesting areas. Even grazing species such as Plains Bison, Pronghorn, and Mule deer have shown a proclivity for grazing on the same land used by prairie dogs.[10]

Nevertheless, prairie dogs are often identified as pests and exterminated from agricultural properties because they are capable of damaging crops, as they clear the immediate area around their burrows of most vegetation.[11]

A prairie dog and his hole

As a result, prairie dog habitat has been impacted by direct removal by ranchers and farmers as well as the more obvious encroachment of urban development which has greatly reduced their populations. The removal of prairie dogs "causes undesirable spread of brush" the costs of which to livestock range may outweigh the benefits of removal.[12] The largest remaining community comprises Black-tailed Prairie Dogs.[citation needed] In spite of human encroachment, prairie dogs have adapted, continuing to dig burrows in open areas of western cities.[citation needed]

One common concern which led to the widespread extermination of prairie dog colonies was that their digging activities could injure horses[13] by fracturing their limbs. However, according to writer Fred Durso, Jr. of E Magazine, "after years of asking ranchers this question, we have found not one example."[14] Another concern is their susceptibility to bubonic plague.[15]

In 2010, Professor Con Slobodchikoff, a biologist from Northern Arizona University, has discovered that the prairie dogs can chat with advanced 'language', their distinct squeaky bark, which contains a great deal of information that can describe colours, size, directions of travel, speed and even different types of predator.[16]

In captivity

Prairie dogs are gaining popularity as zoo animals

Until 2003, primarily black-tailed prairie dogs were collected from the wild for the exotic pet trade in Canada, the United States, Japan, and Europe. They were removed from their underground burrows each spring, as young pups, with a large vacuum device.[17] They are difficult to breed in captivity,[18] but it has been done on several occasions. Removing them from the wild was a far more common method of supplying the market demand.

They can be difficult pets to care for, requiring regular attention and a very specific diet of grasses and hay. Each year they go into a period called rut that can last for several months, in which their personalities can drastically change, often becoming defensive or even aggressive. Despite their needs, prairie dogs are very social animals and come to almost seem like they treat humans as members of their colony, answering barks and chirps, and even coming when called by name.[citation needed]

In mid-2003, due to cross-contamination at a Madison, Wisconsin-area pet swap from an unquarantined Gambian pouched rat imported from Ghana, several prairie dogs in captivity acquired monkeypox, and subsequently a few humans were also infected. This led the CDC to institute an outright ban on the sale, trade, and transport of prairie dogs within the United States.[19] The disease was never introduced to any wild populations. The European Union also banned importation of prairie dogs in response.[20] While largely seen by exotic pet owners and vendors as unfair, the monkeypox scare was not the only zoonosis incident associated with prairie dogs.[citation needed]

Prairie dogs are also very susceptible to bubonic plague, and many wild colonies have been wiped out by it.[21][22][23][24] Also, in 2002 a large group of prairie dogs in captivity in Texas were found to have contracted tularemia.[25] The prairie dog ban is frequently cited by the CDC as a successful response to the threat of zoonosis.[citation needed]

Prairie dogs that were in captivity at the time of the ban in 2003 were allowed to be kept under a grandfather clause, but were not to be bought, traded, or sold and transport was only permitted to and from a veterinarian under quarantined procedures.[citation needed]

On September 8, 2008, the FDA and CDC rescinded the ban making it once again legal to capture, sell, and transport prairie dogs effective immediately. Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 174 Although the federal ban has been lifted, several States still have their own ban on prairie dogs in place.[citation needed]

Classification and first identification

The Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) was first described by Lewis and Clark in 1804 during the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[2] Lewis described it in more detail in 1806, calling it the "barking squirrel."[26]

Additional images

References

  1. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary, prairie.
  2. ^ a b "Journals of the Lewis and Clark expedition, "7th September Friday 1804. a verry Cold morning"". Libtextcenter.unl.edu. http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/examples/servlet/transform/tamino/Library/lewisandclarkjournals?&_xmlsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/files/xml/1804-09-07.xml&_xslsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/LCstyles.xsl. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  3. ^ Deck, Annie. Revolt of the Cube-Berts. Business First of Buffalo. 14 Jan. 2000.
  4. ^ a b c "Cognition and communication in prairie dogs," The Cognitive Animal, 257-264, MIT Press.
  5. ^ a b Mondadori, Arnoldo Ed. Great Book of the Animal Kingdom. Arch Cape Press, NY 1988 p271
  6. ^ Walker, Matt. Burrowing US prairie dogs use complex language. BBC Earth News. 2 Feb. 2010.
  7. ^ "Scientist: Prairie Dogs Have Own Language". http://www.rednova.com/news/display/?id=108412. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  8. ^ Nebraska Game and Park Commission: the Prairie Dog.
  9. ^ The Vanishing Prairie Dog, National Geographic, April 1998
  10. ^ Prairie Dog Coalition - Associated Species
  11. ^ Slobodchikoff, C. N., Judith Kiriazis, C. Fischer, and E. Creef (1991). "Semantic information distinguishing individual predators in the alarm calls of Gunnison's prairie dogs", Animal Behaviour, 42, 713-719.
  12. ^ "Mammals of Texas: Black-tailed Prairie Dog". http://www.nsrl.ttu.edu/tmot1/cynoludo.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  13. ^ "The Diary of Virginia D. (Jones-Harlan) Barr b. 1866". Kansasheritage.org. 1940-05-22. http://www.kansasheritage.org/kssights/home/diary.htm. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  14. ^ Open Season on “Varmints” For Saving Endangered Prairie Dogs, It’s the Eleventh Hour.
  15. ^ "Prairie Dogs - Desert USA". DesertUSA. http://www.desertusa.com/dec96/du_pdogs.html. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  16. ^ "Prairie dogs chat with advanced 'language'". The Daily Telegraph. 2010-01-23. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/earth/wildlife/7060019/Prairie-dogs-chat-with-advanced-language.html. Retrieved 2010-01-26. 
  17. ^ "CNN: What's that giant sucking sound on prairie?". http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&source=web&ct=res&cd=3&ved=0CBMQFjAC&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.cnn.com%2FEARTH%2F9612%2F16%2Fsucking.dogs%2F&ei=yEzQSo2VBIS8NtX5qJUD&usg=AFQjCNG5OsPFjQd7OZ4HfQCTsV9V0GtD7A&sig2=7ntBYO3d988h9kzS4h1Fcw. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  18. ^ Pilny, A.. Prairie dog care and husbandry in Veterinary Clinics of North America: Exotic Animal Practice, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 269-282. 
  19. ^ "CDC: Questions & Answers About Monkey Pox". http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/monkeypox/qa.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  20. ^ "Born Free: EU bans rodent imports following monkeypox outbreak". http://www.bornfree.org.uk/zoocheck/zcnews34.htm. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  21. ^ "Plague and Black-Tailed Prairie Dogs". http://www.fws.gov/mountain-prairie/species/mammals/btprairiedog/plague.htm. 
  22. ^ "Biologist Studies Plague and Prairie Dogs". http://campusapps.fullerton.edu/news/research/2004/stapp.html. 
  23. ^ "Endangered, Rescued, Now in Trouble Again". http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/18/science/18ferr.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. 
  24. ^ Hoogland, John L. (1995). The Black-Tailed Prairie Dog: Social Life of a Burrowing Mammal. University of Chicago Press. p. 80. ISBN 0-2263-5117-3. 
  25. ^ "AVMA: Tularemia Outbreak Identified In Pet Prairie Dogs". http://www.avma.org/onlnews/javma/oct02/021001g.asp. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  26. ^ "Journal of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Tuesday July 1st 1806". Libtextcenter.unl.edu. http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/examples/servlet/transform/tamino/Library/lewisandclarkjournals?&_xmlsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/files/xml/1806-07-01.xml&_xslsrc=http://libtextcenter.unl.edu/lewisandclark/LCstyles.xsl#n36070116. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 

External links

Advertisements

Prairie Dog
Fossil range: Late Pliocene to Recent
File:Prairie.dog.
Black-tailed Prairie Dog
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Suborder: Sciuromorpha
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Marmotini
Genus: Cynomys
Rafinesque, 1817
Species

Cynomys gunnisoni
Cynomys leucurus
Cynomys ludovicianus
Cynomys mexicanus
Cynomys parvidens

Prairie dogs (Cynomys) are burrowing rodents native to the grasslands of North America. There are five different species of prairie dogs: black-tailed, white-tailed, Gunnison, Utah, and Mexican prairie dogs. They are a type of ground squirrel. On average, these stout-bodied rodents will grow to be between Template:Convert/– long, including the short tail and weigh between Template:Convert/–. They are found in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. In Mexico, prairie dogs are primarily found in the northern states which are the southern end of the great plains: northeastern Sonora, north and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas; in the U.S., they range primarily west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They will eat all sorts of vegetables and fruits.

Contents

Etymology

File:Prairie Dog Washington DC
Prairie dogs raise their heads from their burrows in response to disturbances

Prairie dogs are named for their habitat and warning call, which sounds similar to a dog's bark. The name was in use by at least 1774.[1] The 1804 journals of the Lewis and Clark Expedition note that in September 1804, they "discovered a Village of an animal the French Call the Prairie Dog."[2] Its genus, Cynomys, derives from the Greek for dog mouse.

In companies that use large numbers of cubicles in a common space, employees sometimes use the term prairie dogging to refer to the action of several people simultaneously looking over the walls of their cubicles in response to a noise or other distraction. This action is thought to resemble the startled response of a group of prairie dogs.[3]

Biology and behavior

Highly social, prairie dogs live in large colonies or "towns" – collections of prairie dog families that can span hundreds of acres. Families usually consist of 1 male and 2 to 4 females living in a strict social hierarchy.[4] Prairie dog pups reach sexual maturity at about 3 years of age, and after their third winter the dominant male in a given family will drive them away, forcing them to establish their own families on the edges of the colony. The dominant male will defend the family's borders against rival prairie dogs, and disputes are resolved by fighting. Prairie dogs are also aggressive against predators such as badgers and snakes. Prairie dogs are social animals, however, and often make social visits with each other, and greet each other with a sort of kiss.[5] Prairie dogs employ a complex form of communication that involves barks and rhythmic chirps.[6]

Prairie dog tunnel systems help channel rainwater into the water table to prevent runoff and erosion, and can also serve to change the composition of the soil in a region by reversing soil compaction that can be a result of cattle grazing. The tunnels usually have several chambers. Tunnels can descend vertically as much as 5 metres (16 ft), and can extend laterally as much as 30 metres (98 ft). Prairie dogs line their burrows with grass to insulate them, and the earth excavated from the burrow is piled up in mounds around the burrow's entrance. The prairie dogs use these carefully maintained mounds as observation posts.[5]

The prairie dog is well adapted to predators. Using its dichromatic color vision, it can detect predators from a far distance and then alert other prairie dogs to the danger with a special, high-pitched call. Con Slobodchikoff and others assert that prairie dogs use a sophisticated system of vocal communication to describe specific predators.[4][7] Prairie dogs also trim the vegetation around their colonies, perhaps to remove any cover for predators.[8] Their burrows generally contain several routes of escape.[4]

The prairie dog is chiefly herbivorous, though it eats some insects. It feeds primarily on grasses and, in the fall, broadleaf forbs. Prairie dogs have 1-6 pups (babies) yearly, which are born blind and furless and need about 30 days of close nurturing from their mother.

Sometimes two prairie dogs touch teeth with each other. Researchers think they do this as a way of recognizing each other.[9]

Conservation status

Ecologists consider this rodent to be a keystone species. They are an important prey species, being the primary diet in prairie species such as the Black-footed Ferret, Swift Fox, Golden Eagle, American Badger, and Ferruginous Hawk. Other species, such as the Mountain Plover and the Burrowing Owl, also rely on prairie dog burrows for nesting areas. Even grazing species such as Plains Bison, Pronghorn, and Mule deer have shown a proclivity for grazing on the same land used by prairie dogs.[10]

Nevertheless, prairie dogs are often identified as pests and exterminated from agricultural properties because they are capable of damaging crops, as they clear the immediate area around their burrows of most vegetation.[11]

forages above ground for grasses and leaves]]

As a result, prairie dog habitat has been impacted by direct removal by ranchers and farmers as well as the more obvious encroachment of urban development which has greatly reduced their populations. The removal of prairie dogs "causes undesirable spread of brush" the costs of which to livestock range may outweigh the benefits of removal.[12] The largest remaining community comprises Black-tailed Prairie Dogs.[citation needed] In spite of human encroachment, prairie dogs have adapted, continuing to dig burrows in open areas of western cities.[citation needed]

One common concern which led to the widespread extermination of prairie dog colonies was that their digging activities could injure horses[13] by fracturing their limbs. However, according to writer Fred Durso, Jr. of E Magazine, "after years of asking ranchers this question, we have found not one example."[14] Another concern is their susceptibility to bubonic plague.[15]

In 2010, Professor Con Slobodchikoff, a biologist from Northern Arizona University, has discovered that the prairie dogs can chat with advanced 'language', their distinct squeaky bark, which contains a great deal of information that can describe colours, size, directions of travel, speed and even different types of predator.[16]

In captivity

Until 2003, primarily black-tailed prairie dogs were collected from the wild for the exotic pet trade in Canada, the United States, Japan, and Europe. They were removed from their underground burrows each spring, as young pups, with a large vacuum device.[17] They are difficult to breed in captivity,[18] but it has been done on several occasions. Removing them from the wild was a far more common method of supplying the market demand.

They can be difficult pets to care for, requiring regular attention and a very specific diet of grasses and hay. Each year they go into a period called rut that can last for several months, in which their personalities can drastically change, often becoming defensive or even aggressive. Despite their needs, prairie dogs are very social animals and come to almost seem like they treat humans as members of their colony, answering barks and chirps, and even coming when called by name.[citation needed]

In mid-2003, due to cross-contamination at a Madison, Wisconsin-area pet swap from an unquarantined Gambian pouched rat imported from Ghana, several prairie dogs in captivity acquired monkeypox, and subsequently a few humans were also infected. This led the CDC to institute an outright ban on the sale, trade, and transport of prairie dogs within the United States.[19] The disease was never introduced to any wild populations. The European Union also banned importation of prairie dogs in response.[20] While largely seen by exotic pet owners[who?] and vendors[who?] as unfair, the monkeypox scare was not the only zoonosis incident associated with prairie dogs.[citation needed]

Prairie dogs are also very susceptible to bubonic plague, and many wild colonies have been wiped out by it.[21][22][23][24] Also, in 2002 a large group of prairie dogs in captivity in Texas were found to have contracted tularemia.[25] The prairie dog ban is frequently cited by the CDC as a successful response to the threat of zoonosis.[citation needed]

Prairie dogs that were in captivity at the time of the ban in 2003 were allowed to be kept under a grandfather clause, but were not to be bought, traded, or sold and transport was only permitted to and from a veterinarian under quarantined procedures.[citation needed]

On September 8, 2008, the FDA and CDC rescinded the ban making it once again legal to capture, sell, and transport prairie dogs effective immediately. Federal Register / Vol. 73, No. 174 Although the federal ban has been lifted, several States still have their own ban on prairie dogs in place.[citation needed]

Classification and first identification

The Black-tailed Prairie Dog (Cynomys ludovicianus) was first described by Lewis and Clark in 1804 during the Lewis and Clark Expedition.[2] Lewis described it in more detail in 1806, calling it the "barking squirrel."[26]

Additional images

References

External links


Simple English

Prairie dogs
File:Prairie.dog.
Black-tailed Prairie Dog
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Rodentia
Family: Sciuridae
Tribe: Marmotini
Genus: Cynomys
Rafinesque 1817

Prairie dogs are a type of mammal, but they are not dogs. They are small, burrowing rodents – a type of ground squirrel. They live in short-grass prairies and mountain plains of the western USA and Mexico. The explorers Lewis and Clark sent a prairie dog to President Thomas Jefferson during their expedition; it was quite strange to them.

Prairie dogs are found in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. In Mexico, they are mostly found in the northern states, which are the southern end of the great plains: northeastern Sonora, north and northeastern Chihuahua, northern Coahuila, northern Nuevo León, and northern Tamaulipas; in the U.S., they range primarily west of the Mississippi River, though they have also been introduced in a few eastern locales. They will eat all sorts of vegetables and fruits.

Contents

Diet

Prairie dogs are mostly herbivores (plant-eaters). They eat grasses, seeds, leaves, flowers, fruit, eggs, and some insects.

Biology and behavior

Highly social, prairie dogs live in large colonies – collections of prairie dog families that can span hundreds of acres. Families usually are made up of one male and two to four females living in a strict social hierarchy.[1] Prairie dog pups reach sexual maturity at about 3 years of age, and after their third winter the dominant male in a given family will drive them away, forcing them to establish their own families on the edges of the colony. The dominant male will defend the family's borders against rival prairie dogs, and disputes are resolved by fighting. Prairie dogs are also aggressive against predators such as badgers and snakes.

Prairie dogs are social animals, and often make social visits with each other, and greet each other with a sort of kiss.[2] Prairie dogs employ a complex form of communication that involves barks and rhythmic chirps.[3]

Prairie dog tunnel systems usually have several rooms. Tunnels can go down as far as 5 metres (16 ft), and can extend laterally as much as 30 metres (98 ft). Prairie dogs line their burrows with grass to insulate them, and the earth excavated from the burrow is piled up in mounds around the burrow's entrance. The prairie dogs use these carefully maintained mounds as observation posts.[2]

The prairie dog is well adapted to predators. They can detect predators from a far distance and alert other prairie dogs to the danger with a special, high-pitched call. Prairie dogs use different calls to identify specific predators.[1][4] Prairie dogs also trim the vegetation around their colonies, perhaps to remove any cover for predators.[5] Their burrows generally contain several routes of escape.[1]

The prairie dog is chiefly herbivorous, though it eats some insects. It feeds primarily on grasses and, in the fall, broadleaf plants. Prairie dogs have 1-6 pups (babies) yearly, which are born blind and furless and need about 30 days of close nurturing from their mother.

Sometimes two prairie dogs touch teeth with each other. Researchers think they do this as a way of recognizing each other.[6]

Predators

Prairie dogs are hunted by many animals, including wolves, dogs, coyotes, bobcats, foxes, and humans.

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 "Cognition and communication in prairie dogs," The Cognitive Animal, 257-264, MIT Press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Mondadori, Arnoldo Ed. Great book of the animal kingdom. Arch Cape Press, NY 1988 p271
  3. Walker, Matt. Burrowing US prairie dogs use complex language. BBC Earth News. 2 Feb. 2010.
  4. "Scientist: prairie dogs have own language". http://www.rednova.com/news/display/?id=108412. Retrieved 2006-04-18. 
  5. Nebraska Game and Park Commission: the Prairie Dog.
  6. The Vanishing Prairie Dog, National Geographic, April 1998


Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message