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Predate redirects here. The verb "predate" may mean "[have a] date earlier than": see wikt:predate.
A juvenile Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole
Meat-eater ants feeding on a cicada; some species can prey on individuals of far greater size, particularly when working cooperatively
.In ecology, predation describes a biological interaction where a predator (an organism that is hunting) feeds on its prey, (the organism that is attacked).^ However, ecologically, predation is defined as any interaction between two organisms that results in a flow of energy between them [1] .
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To our knowledge this is the first evidence for aquatic vertebrate prey actively secreting an alarm pheromone in response to predator attack.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[1] .Predators may or may not kill their prey prior to feeding on them, but the act of predation always results in the death of the prey, and is never to its benefit.^ Each type of predation can by categorized based on whether or not it results in the death of the prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[2] .The other main category of consumption is detritivory, the consumption of dead organic material (detritus).^ Insectivores eat insects Detritivores eat detritus, which is dead, decaying material.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviors[1], for example where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse.^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ In any event, what was thought to be an example of Batesian mimicry (where a palatable species mimics an unpalatable one) has been show to actually be Mellerian mimicry, where two equally unpalatable species converge on a common color pattern to make it easier for predators to learn which organisms to avoid.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In two of the six species, carbaryl became even more lethal when combined with predatory stress (up to 46 times more lethal).
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The key characteristic of predation however is the predator's direct impact on the prey population.^ The key characteristic of predation however is the predator's direct impact on the prey population.
  • Prey 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC www.infovisual.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • BBC - Wildlife Finder - Predator (video, facts and news) 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ The direct effect predators have on their prey is to kill them.
  • Predation Linked To Evolution, Study Suggests 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Do predators affect prey populations ?

.On the other hand, detritivores simply eat what is available and have no direct impact on the "donor" organism(s).^ While this is an essential protocol to rapidly identify the direct impacts of pesticides on organisms, it prevents an assessment of direct and indirect pesticide effects on organisms embedded in their natural ecological contexts.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, it appears that crab-eating zorros in Brazil are a persistent minor nuisance through their depredations on chickens (D. Macdonald, pers.

^ God is not the presupposition, but rather the endpoint when no other explanation is available.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Selective pressures imposed on one another has led to an evolutionary arms race between prey and predator, resulting in various antipredator adaptations.^ This continues in an evolutionary predator-prey cycle.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible that the tiny amounts of highly specific attractants are evolutionary adaptations of the females to predation risk, given that predators are probably under much lower selection pressure than the conspecific males to find the signalling females scattered in space [6] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.The unifying theme in all classifications of predation is the predator lowering the fitness of its prey, or put another way, it reduces its prey's chances of survival, reproduction, or both.^ The predation hypothesis states that predators reduce prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The unifying theme in all classifications of predation is the predator lowering the fitness of its prey, or put another way, it reduces its prey's chances of survival, reproduction, or both.
  • Prey 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC www.infovisual.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adaptations that both predators and prey have will also be illustrated.
  • Kids DO Science: Predator-Prey Interactions 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.uga.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Ways of classifying predation surveyed here include grouping by trophic level or diet, by specialization, and by the nature of the predator's interaction with prey.^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The presence of the predator threat (via chemical cues from the caged predators) reduced both the mouth width and tail length in the two prey species to pre-competition levels.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

Contents

Functional classification

.Classification of predators by the extent to which they feed on and interact with their prey is one way ecologists may wish to categorize the different types of predation.^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Classification of predators by the extent to which they feed on and interact with their prey is one way ecologists may wish to categorize the different types of predation.
  • Prey 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC www.infovisual.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each type of predation can by categorized based on whether or not it results in the death of the prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.Instead of focusing on what they eat, this system classifies predators by the way in which they eat, and the general nature of the interaction between predator and prey species.^ The interaction between predation and competition .
  • Access : The interaction between predation and competition : Nature 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.nature.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The relationship between predator and prey is one which is beneficial to the predator, and detrimental to the prey species.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Two factors are considered here: How close the predator and prey are physically (in the latter two cases the term prey may be replaced with host).^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, whether or not the prey are directly killed by the predator is considered, with the first and last cases involving certain death.^ First consider the prey population’s graph.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The direct effect predators have on their prey is to kill them.
  • Predation Linked To Evolution, Study Suggests 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Each type of predation can by categorized based on whether or not it results in the death of the prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

True predation

Lion and cub eating a Cape Buffalo
.A true predator is one which kills and eats another organism.^ Predation is a natural process whereby one animal, the predator, kills and eats another animal, the prey.
  • WEC141/UW135: Interpreting the Physical evidence of predation on Domestic Livestock 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC edis.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The killing and eating of an individual of one species by an individual of another species.
  • What is predation? – A definition of predation from the ecomii science dictionary 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ecomii.com [Source type: News]

^ Predator an organism that catches, kills, and consumes another organism .
  • Predation � Chapter 20 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.bio.mtu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Whereas other types of predator all harm their prey in some way, this form results in their certain death.^ Each type of predation can by categorized based on whether or not it results in the death of the prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a study of a small pack of wolves in the availability of a third type of "prey," human refuse, might also influence patterns of predation on livestock.

^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Predators may hunt actively for prey, or sit and wait for prey to approach within striking distance, as in ambush predators.^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Males are usually more active than females [6] and numerous studies have demonstrated that predators and parasitoids are attracted by mating signals of their male prey [3] and references therein.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some predators kill large prey and dismember or chew it prior to eating it, such as a jaguar, while others may eat their (usually much smaller) prey whole, as does a bottlenose dolphin or any snake, or a duck or stork swallowing a frog.^ Predator eats prey.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This may be because predators and prey may escape each other in the field.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Potential prey of such predators includes, e.g.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some predation entails venom which subdues a prey creature before the predator ingests the prey by killing, which the box jellyfish does, or disabling it, found in the behavior of the cone shell.^ In a companion paper, I quantified predator-induced behavioral and morphological responses in six species of larval anurans across five different predator environments and found that these responses were prey- and predator-specific.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predation does not necessarily affect long term measures of prey numbers.

^ Using multivariate analyses, I found that predation risk had no significant effect on how a given prey responds to predators, although there were significant univariate behavioral effects; higher predation risk was related to greater decreases in activity and greater spatial avoidance.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In some cases the venom, as in rattlesnakes and some spiders, contributes to the digestion of the prey item even before the predator begins eating.^ A. All predator-prey pairs with significant results and at least 10 prey items ( n = 60).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The combination of sex-selective predation and narrow spectra of prey is even more common in parasitoids, in which the impact of sex-selective parasitism is similar to predation (Berec and Boukal, unpublished work).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Instead, both prey damage and predator digestion of conspecific tissues appear to be important for communicating predatory risk to phenotypically plastic anuran prey.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.In other cases, the prey organism may die in the mouth or digestive system of the predator.^ Summary of the dynamics of the predator-prey system (4).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This may be because predators and prey may escape each other in the field.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

.Baleen whales, for example, eat millions of microscopic plankton at once, the prey being broken down well after entering the whale.^ We usually use the terms predator and carnivore interchangeably, but in a real sense herbivores are predators as well; the difference being their prey are plants.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The remainder of this web page will look at the adaptations that predators have to help them capture and consume their prey, as well as the adaptations that prey have to avoid being captured.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This estimate can be broken down to 57.4 (52.1-63.1) million mammals, 27.1 (25.1-29.2) million birds, 4.8 (4.1-5.6) million reptiles and amphibians and 2.8 (2.3-3.4) million other items.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Seed predation is another form of true predation, as seeds represent potential organisms.^ Accelerated germination dynamics Another mechanism to cope with the effects of predation is to accelerate germination rates after seed damage.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Predation can be viewed broadly as to include all situations where one animal eats another organism (parasites do not consume the entire organism).
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Predators of this classification need not eat prey entirely, for example some predators cannot digest bones, while others can.^ This type of predator need not eat its prey entirely, for example some predators cannot digest bone s, while others can.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Examples of predator-prey adaptations in coloration: .

^ Predators of this classification need not eat prey entirely, for example some predators cannot digest bones , while others can.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some may merely eat only part of an organism, as in grazing (see below), but still consistently cause its direct death.^ Likewise, small rodents frequently eat entire small seeds but remove only parts of large seeds (Mendoza, 2005 ).
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ You will be transported to a "room" where you will see many objects formed from 3 parts each one representing a symbol and emitting some sort of green energy.
  • PreyWalkthrough - IGNFAQs 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: General]

^ The wolves may begin eating the cow before it has bled to death.

Grazing

.Grazing organisms may also kill their prey species, but this is seldom the case.^ Even though individual cells are ingested and do not survive to reproduce, the remaining clonal prey population may benefit from reduced grazing pressure.
  • PLoS ONE: Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In those cases where a short respite from predation allows a prey species to "escape" the predator's control, a temporary reduction may be all that is needed.

^ For example, polygyny often implies more conspicuous males and may thus lead to male-biased predation, while females are more conspicuous in polyandrous species and thus more likely to be preyed upon.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.While some herbivores like zooplankton live on unicellular phytoplankton and have no choice but to kill their prey, many only eat a small part of the plant.^ Published 10/27/2008 More topics: Prey Feeding a Pet Snake: Is Live Prey or Pre-Killed Food Best?

^ The only hopeful sign was in 1995 during a conference on repellents (42) where a paper was given supporting the use of baits that successfully mimicked live prey.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Healthy and unimpaired predators were simply allowed to kill and consume live prey in large enclosures to demonstrate that they were able and willing to engage in normal predatory behavior.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Grazing livestock may pull some grass out at the roots, but most is simply grazed upon, allowing the plant to regrow once again.^ Grazing livestock may pull some grass out at the roots, but most is simply grazed upon, allowing the plant to regrow once again.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some may merely eat only part of an organism, as in grazing, but still consistently cause its direct death.

^ While a grazing species such as an elephant may travel many kilometers in a single day, grazing on many plants in the process, parasites form very close associations with their hosts, usually having only one or at most a few in their lifetime.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Kelp is frequently grazed in subtidal kelp forests, but regrows at the base of the blade continuously to cope with browsing pressure. .Animals may also be 'grazed' upon; female mosquitos land on hosts briefly to gain sufficient proteins for the development of their offspring.^ If you are following an aggressive rotational grazing program, with flocks in several paddocks at the same time, you may need a guard animal for each paddock.

^ If the llama's aggressive attitude is not sufficient to scare off the predator, the llama may become prey itself, because it is about as defenseless as the animals it is guarding.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ May Safely Graze: Protecting Livestock Against Predators by Eugene Fytche, which has several chapters on different guard animals.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Starfish may be grazed on, being capable of regenerating lost arms.^ Whatever solution is used, it is important to inject it into several areas of the starfish in order to make sure that it does not reject a damaged arm and regenerate it.
  • Acanthaster planci 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.sbg.ac.at [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Parasitism

Parasites can at times be difficult to distinguish from grazers. .Their feeding behavior is similar in many ways, however they are noted for their close association with their host species.^ Their feeding behavior is similar in many ways, however they are noted for their close association with their host species.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some species however have more loose associations with their hosts.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This close living arrangement may be described by the term symbiosis, 'living together,' but unlike mutualism the association significantly reduces the fitness of the host.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While a grazing species such as an elephant may travel many kilometers in a single day, grazing on many plants in the process, parasites form very close associations with their hosts, usually having only one or at most a few in their lifetime.^ It is the only place on earth where on many days you will have the chance to see multiple predatory events.
  • Book your Shark Cage Diving in South Africa 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.apexpredators.com [Source type: General]

^ One possible experiment would be to test for preadaptation by using only one opposing warrior to test against for many generations and then change the opponent.
  • Evolving Warriors 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.koth.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Only after repeated pairings of signal and punishment do animals resolve the learning task and form an accurate association.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This close living arrangement may be described by the term symbiosis, 'living together,' but unlike mutualism the association significantly reduces the fitness of the host. Parasitic organisms range from the macroscopic mistletoe, a parasitic plant, to microscopic internal parasites such as cholera. .Some species however have more loose associations with their hosts.^ Some species however have more loose associations with their hosts.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, the cover-up probably has more to do with the protection of wealthy and prominent men (pedophiles) who were customers and/or associates of the human-traffickers and child -killers.

^ Donkeys also are social animals that will associate with other species of livestock in the absence of other donkeys; however, it can take a donkey four to six weeks to fully bond with a sheep flock.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lepidoptera (butterfly and moth) larvae may feed parasitically on only a single plant, or they may graze on several nearby plants.^ If you are following an aggressive rotational grazing program, with flocks in several paddocks at the same time, you may need a guard animal for each paddock.

^ These observations suggest that females may become less receptive to male courtship when they perceive that predators are present nearby.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ May Safely Graze: Protecting Livestock Against Predators by Eugene Fytche, which has several chapters on different guard animals.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is therefore wise to treat this classification system as a continuum rather than four isolated forms.^ It is therefore wise to treat this classification system as a continuum rather than four isolated forms.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Four Days' War In September 2266, Starfleet held its largest war games in more than two decades in the Wolf 359 system.
  • The Starfleet Museum - Avenger Class and Predator Class 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.starfleet-museum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As noted above, compensation without confirmation of canid depredation can lead to abuse; perhaps people are reacting to abuse of the system, rather than justified claims for compensation?

Parasitoidism

Parasitoids are organisms living in or on their host and feeding directly upon it, eventually leading to its death. .They are much like parasites in their close symbiotic relationship with their host or hosts.^ They are much like parasites in their close symbiotic relationship with their host or hosts.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, carnivores that prey on other carnivores, herbivores feeding on plants, and even parasites attacking their host organisms are sometimes considered to have the same relationship, and so to be predator-prey systems.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Parasites, such as head-lice and tapeworms, do not always kill their host organism, but they do have negative effects, and will often have serious consequences for the survival and reproductive success of the host.
  • BBC - British Isles - A User's Guide To Natural History 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.open2.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Like the previous two classifications parasitoid predators do not kill their hosts instantly.^ Like Alien Resurrection , this score lacks the ingenuity of the previous trilogy and the Predator scores, which all shared a strong sense of rhythm in place of thematic content.
  • SoundtrackNet : Alien vs. Predator Soundtrack 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.soundtrack.net [Source type: General]

^ It’s not the first time the studio has pillaged the Predator franchise (excluding Predator 2 ) - they have previously cheapened the original by making two Alien Vs Predator movies.
  • Predator Remake… Er… Reboot In The Works! - Screen Rant 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC screenrant.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When stock is killed or missing, it is most likely that the predator responsible is either a coyote or a dog.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, unlike parasites, they are very similar to true predators in that the fate of their prey is quite inevitably death.^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Predators are not, however, uniquely responsible for fluctuations in prey numbers.

^ Importantly, however, real predators affect larval prey via several mechanisms beyond simple induction.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A well known example of a parasitoids are the ichneumon wasps, solitary insects living a free life as an adult, then laying eggs on or in another species such as a caterpillar.^ For instance, in large-seeded species, small predators such as insect larvae often consume the attacked seed only partially.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ I think traveling is one of the best ways to open the minds of the young, too bad they lived such a shrouded life when on their missions.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Adults of most arctic nesting waterfowl are very attentive to their nests (Thompson and Raveling 1987), especially after egg laying, and eggs are concealed with down and nest material when the parents leave the nest.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Its larva(e) feed on the growing host causing it little harm at first, but soon devouring the internal organs until finally destroying the nervous system resulting in prey death.^ Its larva(e) feed on the growing host causing it little harm at first, but soon devouring the internal organs until finally destroying the nervous system resulting in prey death.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, carnivores that prey on other carnivores, herbivores feeding on plants, and even parasites attacking their host organisms are sometimes considered to have the same relationship, and so to be predator-prey systems.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It can at times be difficult to separate the two feeding behaviors, for example where parasitic species prey on a host organism and then lay their eggs on it for their offspring to feed on its decaying corpse.
  • BBC - Wildlife Finder - Predator (video, facts and news) 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: General]

.By this stage the young wasp(s) are developed sufficiently to move to the next stage in their life cycle.^ By this stage the young wasp(s) are developed sufficiently to move to the next stage in their life cycle.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So the next stage is finding a writer and director to come in and work with us to bring it to life.
  • moviefans.de !!! Predator / Predators... 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.moviefans.de [Source type: General]

^ At some point in their development, they will settle on some suitable surface and grow through the next stages of development.
  • Fouling & Predation | BC Shellfish Growers Association 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.bcsga.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Though limited mainly to the insect order Hymenoptera, Diptera and Coleoptera parasitoids make up as much as 10% of all insect species.^ The new “10(j)” rule widens a loophole in the Endangered Species Act that permits the killing of hundreds of wolves even though the animals are considered at risk of extinction.

^ In these species, removal of up to 10% of seed biomass did not affect their germination dynamics.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Species in this group apparently maintain their specific germination characteristics even after loss of up to 10% of their mass.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

[3][4]

Degree of specialization

An opportunistic Alligator swims with a deer.
.Among predators there is a large degree of specialization.^ Among predators there is a large degree of specialization.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Further information: Generalist and specialist species Among predators there is a large degree of specialization.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There, they faced the most brutal lineup of predators in the world, including lions, leopards, hyenas, and possibly wild dogs in large packs.
  • Early Hominid Predation - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many predators specialize in hunting only one species of prey.^ In many cases predation prevents a prey species from becoming too abundant.
  • Ecological features of the Caledonian Forest - Predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.treesforlife.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relationship between predator and prey is one which is beneficial to the predator, and detrimental to the prey species.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are many strategies for hunting prey.
  • Ecological features of the Caledonian Forest - Predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.treesforlife.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Others are more opportunistic and will kill and eat almost anything (examples: humans, leopards, and dogs).^ Dogs will kill a chicken and often not eat it.

^ I don't think PREDATORS eat humans, they kill humans as trophies, not as sides of beef.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, if ants return with more nectar in the evening versus other times, do ants also return with more prey in the evening versus other times?

.The specialists are usually particularly well suited to capturing their preferred prey.^ The specialists are usually particularly well suited to capturing their preferred prey.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We usually use the terms predator and carnivore interchangeably, but in a real sense herbivores are predators as well; the difference being their prey are plants.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the interval between capture and death disemboweled prey is usually experiencing little if any pain due to severe shock.
  • Competition, Predation and Other Natural Threats 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.bio.davidson.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prey in turn, are often equally suited to escape that predator.^ The prey in turn, are often equally suited to escape that predator.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this life and death game of hide and seek, the scent of urine is often the only warning a prey has that a predator is nearby.
  • Predator Urine - Free Shipping- Coyote urine, fox, wolf, urines, bobcat pee, Animal, Pet , Attractants, Boot Waterproofing 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.predatorpee.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

This is called an evolutionary arms race and tends to keep the populations of both species in equilibrium. .Some predators specialize in certain classes of prey, not just single species.^ Some predators specialize in certain classes of prey, not just single species.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand the prey species may be able to survive if the predator has no alternative prey - in this case its population will necessarily crash following the decline in prey, allowing some small proportion of prey to survive.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To determine whether these hunters were biased towards certain types of prey, the scientists compared how often a prey species appeared in the wild with how often it turned up in the diets of the predators.
  • A No Brainer: Predators Prefer Dimwitted Prey | LiveScience 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC www.livescience.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Almost all will switch to other prey (with varying degrees of success) when the preferred target is extremely scarce, and they may also resort to scavenging or a herbivorous diet if possible.^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Repellents largely do not confer protection to prey unless they can be continually and perfectly applied to target prey.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We thus may predict that in species within this group, intraspecific variation in seed size may affect germination success.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Trophic level

Mantis eating a bee.
.Predators are often another organism's prey, and likewise prey are often predators.^ Predators are often another organism's prey, and likewise prey are often predators.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Predation is an interaction between organisms (animals) in which one organism (predator) captures and feeds upon another (prey).
  • Predation in Organisms 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.springer.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In this life and death game of hide and seek, the scent of urine is often the only warning a prey has that a predator is nearby.
  • Predator Urine - Free Shipping- Coyote urine, fox, wolf, urines, bobcat pee, Animal, Pet , Attractants, Boot Waterproofing 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.predatorpee.com [Source type: General]

.Though blue jays prey on insects, they may in turn be prey for cats and snakes, which, in the latter's case, may themselves be the prey of hawks.^ Qualifications include the following: The prey brought home by cats should be representative of the total and variety of prey they actually kill.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ To estimate the order of magnitude of the total numbers of animals that may be brought home by cats in Britain, we first estimated the population of cats likely to bring home prey of each group.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In common with previous investigators, we have assumed that the numbers of prey brought home by the cats was closely related to the numbers and variety of prey they actually kill.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

One way of classifying predators is by trophic level. .Organisms which feed on autotrophs, the producers of the trophic pyramid, are known as herbivores or primary consumers; those that feed on heterotrophs such as animals are known as secondary consumers.^ However, the latter two salmonids are known to reproduce abundantly and feed on chum salmon in some rivers of Hokkaido, such as the Nishibetsu River (Fig.
  • Predation on Juvenile Chum Salmon 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.lib.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Various freshwater fishes, such as sculpins, gobiids and Japanese dace ( Tribolodon hakonensis ) are known to feed on released chum salmon juveniles.
  • Predation on Juvenile Chum Salmon 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.lib.noaa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Plants and animals synthesize a broad range of secondary metabolites that are deterrent or toxic to their consumers, thus functioning as defense compounds.
  • PLoS ONE: Marine Biofilm Bacteria Evade Eukaryotic Predation by Targeted Chemical Defense 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Secondary consumers are a type of carnivore, but there are also tertiary consumers eating these carnivores, quartary consumers eating them, and so forth. .Because only a fraction of energy is passed on to the next level, this hierarchy of predation must end somewhere, and very seldom goes higher than five or six levels, and may go only as high as three trophic levels (for example, a lion that preys upon large herbivores such as wildebeest which in turn eat grasses).^ I only understood what was going on towards the end.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ In a companion paper, I quantified predator-induced behavioral and morphological responses in six species of larval anurans across five different predator environments and found that these responses were prey- and predator-specific.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.A predator at the top of any food chain (that is, one that is preyed upon by no organism) is called an apex predator; examples include the orca, sperm whale, anaconda, Komodo dragon, tiger, Lion, bald eagle, and Nile crocodile -- and even omnivorous humans and grizzly bears.^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Other occasional predators include bears ( Ursus spp.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ I think one of the great examples in the book is where Dawkins says "as horrible as sexual abuse no doubt ..
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.An apex predator in one environment may not retain this position as a top predator if introduced to another habitat, such as a dog among alligators or a snapping turtle among jaguars; a predatory species introduced into an area where it faces no predators, such as a domestic cat or a pig in some insular environments, can become an apex predator by default.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ This implies that the A signal itself is not required for predation, but that other genes under the control of AsgA and AsgC, such as asgE , are involved in predatory behaviours.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Many organisms (of which humans are prime examples) eat from multiple levels of the food chain and thus make this classification problematic.^ Thus, it can serve as a good system from which to draw examples of the importance of integrating multiple plastic traits.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ It is possible that no vertebrates, including humans, ever made a fully conscious decision concerning the foods they prefer to eat.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A carnivore may eat both secondary and tertiary consumers, and its prey may itself be difficult to classify for similar reasons.^ For compounds that may be consumed by non-target species, registration may be difficult because of food and drug regulations.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ If the llama's aggressive attitude is not sufficient to scare off the predator, the llama may become prey itself, because it is about as defenseless as the animals it is guarding.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus, it is unlikely that a single compound will be effective for any major group of egg-eating predator in the PPR. CTA may be especially difficult to establish with red foxes.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Organisms showing both carnivory and herbivory are known as omnivores.^ Organisms showing both carnivory and herbivory are known as omnivores .
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Even such herbivores such as the giant panda may supplement their diet with meat. .Scavenging of carrion provides a significant part of the diet of some of the most fearsome predators.^ The data in Table I show clearly that the percentage loss of domestic livestock to canid predation is, for the most part, small.

^ It also provides specific information on the typical killing patterns for most of the predator species.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cold-turkey evangelism provides the shortest, most non-committal conversion offer of any Western religion -- which, I suspect, is part of the appeal.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Carnivorous plants would be very difficult to fit into this classification, producing their own food but also digesting anything that they may trap.^ They're walking into a trap!
  • Predator 2 Script - transcript from the screenplay and/or Danny Glover movie 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.script-o-rama.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Live trap boxes which catch the animal unharmed may be effective for dogs or bobcats; they are not effective for coyote.

^ Furthermore predators must be maintained in captivity to be conditioned before they may be released, but CTA can be produced merely by distributing treated baits into the field, as you will see.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Organisms which eat detritivores or parasites would also be difficult to classify by such a scheme.

Predation as competition

.An alternative view offered by Richard Dawkins is of predation as a form of competition: the genes of both the predator and prey are competing for the body (or 'survival machine') of the prey organism.^ The presence of the predator threat (via chemical cues from the caged predators) reduced both the mouth width and tail length in the two prey species to pre-competition levels.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ This assay can be used to follow up on the dynamic and the structure of both predators and the molecular forms of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ This breakdown suggests several major patterns for both predator-prey pairs and studies.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[5] This is best understood in the context of the gene centered view of evolution.

Ecological role

.Predators may increase the biodiversity of communities by preventing a single species from becoming dominant.^ For example, grazers of a grassland may prevent a single dominant species from taking over.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many cases predation prevents a prey species from becoming too abundant.
  • Ecological features of the Caledonian Forest - Predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.treesforlife.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Specialization in predation - - - Effect on community structure .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.Such predators are known as keystone species and may have a profound influence on the balance of organisms in a particular ecosystem.^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The device may be adapted to reduce predation by various bird species, and to operate in different environments.
  • Autonomous bird predation reduction device - Patent 7052348 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ For instance, in large-seeded species, small predators such as insect larvae often consume the attacked seed only partially.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.Introduction or removal of this predator, or changes in its population density, can have drastic cascading effects on the equilibrium of many other populations in the ecosystem.^ Such predators are often also keystone species , and as such may have a profound influence on the balance of organisms in a particular ecosystem ; introduction or removal of this predator, or changes in its population density, can have drastic cascading effects on the equilibrium of many other populations in the ecosystem.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Change is also inevitable in predator populations.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The rate of change in the predator population is: .
  • BIOL 4120 L14 Predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, grazers of a grassland may prevent a single dominant species from taking over.^ For example, grazers of a grassland may prevent a single dominant species from taking over.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Predators may increase the biodiversity of communities by preventing a single species from becoming dominant.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prevention and Control of Wildlife Damage—1994 has separate chapters on more than 90 species of wildlife that may cause damage to crops or livestock.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.The elimination of wolves from Yellowstone National Park had profound impacts on the trophic pyramid.^ Wolves are one of the main attractions for visitors at Yellowstone National Park.

^ Research in Wyoming outside Yellowstone National Park .

^ The wolf population reintroduced into Yellowstone National Park has grown steadily since 1995, expanding in both numbers and geographic distribution.

.Without predation, herbivores began to over-graze many woody brow species, affecting the area's plant populations.^ Seed predators and plant population dynamics.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In this study we assessed the impact of a range of levels of partial seed predation (i.e., seed damage that does not affect the embryo) on germination and seedling survival of 11 woody species from a Mexican tropical rain forest.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ We analyzed the germination dynamics of 11 tropical woody species subject to increasing levels of simulated seed predation (0–10% seed mass removal).
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.Additionally, wolves often kept animals from grazing in riparian areas, which protected beavers from having their food sources encroached upon.^ Although the outcome of this second observation is unknown because the animals went out of sight into thick willows, the wolves appeared to successfully protect their pups.

^ A territorial dog can do a good job as a guard, as long as the flock doesn't move to a new grazing area while the dog is protecting the old turf.

^ One of the wolves came up behind the bear and bit it on its hind end, and eventually two wolves escorted the bear out of the den area, with two additional wolves following.

.The removal of wolves had a direct effect on beaver populations, as their habitat became territory for grazing.^ Continued conflicts between wolves and livestock and potential effects of wolves on big game populations remain key management issues.

^ Grazing and haying effects on habitats of upland nesting birds.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Grazing of protozoa and its effect on populations of aquatic bacteria.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[7] Furthermore, predation keeps hydrological features such as creeks and streams in normal working order. .Increased browsing on willows lenr and conifers along Blacktail Creek due to a lack of predation resulted in channel incision because those species helped slow the water down and hold the soil in place.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator inspection behavior might account for this discrepancy between our results and those of previous studies.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that in this species, females may be more sensitive to predation risk than males are.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[7]

Adaptations and behavior

.The act of predation can be broken down into a maximum of four stages: Detection of prey, attack, capture and finally consumption.^ These factors include prey population demographic dynamics, nonhuman predator prey selection patterns, carcass consumption patterns by both humans and other carnivores, human carcass element transport variation, and postdepositional processes acting differentially on skeletal elements.
  • Neanderthal diet at Vindija and Neanderthal predation: The evidence from stable isotopes — PNAS 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pnas.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, carnivores that prey on other carnivores, herbivores feeding on plants, and even parasites attacking their host organisms are sometimes considered to have the same relationship, and so to be predator-prey systems.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The predator cannot detect a decrease in prey immediately, but must experience the greater difficulty of finding prey and the starvation which results with the passage of time.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

[8] .The relationship between predator and prey is one which is typically beneficial to the predator, and detrimental to the prey species.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ FIG. 3 is a trajectory diagram depicting typical paths traversed by one embodiment of the predation reduction device 2 .
  • Autonomous bird predation reduction device - Patent 7052348 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.freepatentsonline.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Mammalian predators that do not discriminate between the taste and scent cues of treated baits and those of untreated live prey avoid both on the basis of taste and scent alone.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Sometimes, however, predation has indirect benefits to the prey species,[9] though the individuals preyed upon themselves do not benefit.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

[10] .This means that, at each applicable stage, predator and prey species are in an evolutionary arms race to maximize their respective abilities to obtain food or avoid being eaten.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Having witnessed more than 5450 predatory events in the last 14 years we have a considerable respect and field knowledge for both predator and prey.
  • Book your Shark Cage Diving in South Africa 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.apexpredators.com [Source type: General]

^ Both species prey on nesting ducks, but because foxes are particularly severe predators of upland-nesting ducks and eggs (Sargeant et al.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This interaction has resulted in a vast array of adaptations in both groups.^ This interaction has resulted in a vast array of adaptation s in both groups.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This interaction has resulted in a vast array of adaptations in both groups.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Camouflage of the dead leaf mantis makes it less visible to both its predators and prey.
.One adaptation helping both predators and prey avoid detection is camouflage, a form of crypsis where species have an appearance which helps them blend into the background.^ If not important, prey will have no special adaptations for avoiding predation.
  • BIOL 4120 L14 Predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.tnstate.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The relationship between predator and prey is one which is beneficial to the predator, and detrimental to the prey species.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Once a predator has detected its prey, one would expect it to pursue it.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Camouflage consists of not only color, but also shape and pattern.^ Camouflage consists of not only color, but also shape and pattern.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seed size is not the only factor that differs between hybrid and wild seed; as noted, seeds of the two types also differ in coloration and patterning of the seed coat.
  • Seed size variation and predation of seeds produced by wild and crop-wild sunflowers -- Alexander et al. 88 (4): 623 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.The background upon which the organism is seen can be both its environment (e.g.^ The background upon which the organism is seen can be both its environment (e.g.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .praying mantis to the right resembling dead leaves) other organisms (e.g.^ On the other hand, a number of organisms feed on scorpions, note the army ants carrying off a scorpion to the right.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The katydid above resembles dead leaves found on the forest floor.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

zebras' stripes blend in with each other in a herd, making it difficult for lions to focus on a single target). .The more convincing camouflage is, the more likely it is that the organism will go unseen.^ The more convincing camouflage is, the more likely it is that the organism will go unseen.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With a subscription you get excellent articles like this one, and the photos that go with it, and hunting news, and a whole lot more.
  • » Wolf Predation: More Bad News Wildlife and People 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC westinstenv.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I've been to a couple of MLM meetings with friends; it's like going to a fundie church to worship making more money.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

Mimicry in Automeris io.
Mimicry is a related phenomenon where an organism has a similar appearance to another species. .One such example is the drone fly, which looks a lot like a bee, yet is completely harmless as it cannot sting at all.^ The first looked kinda startled and said something like “I don’t believe there is such a thing as actual atheists”.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ Although, at an Opus Dei residence, it was creepy as hell and felt like the kind of "love" one can get from Slaanesh or such ;-) Brrrrr...
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

^ This creature that looks like a green spider(or tarantula)when is faced upside down in Tommy's hand and press "Attack" Tommy rips one leg and throws it.
  • PreyWalkthrough - IGNFAQs 18 September 2009 14:35 UTC faqs.ign.com [Source type: General]

Another example of batesian mimicry is the io moth, (Automeris io), which has markings on its wings which resemble an owl's eyes. .When an insectivorous predator disturbs the moth, it reveals its hind wings, temporarily startling the predator and giving it time to escape.^ When an insectivorous predator disturbs the moth, it reveals its hind wings, temporarily startling the predator and giving it time to escape.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organisms may also try to escape or flee from their predators by using a startle response or indirection .
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The date at which a transmitter first indicated disturbance was used as the time of predation.
  • The Influence of Stand Structure, Proximity to Human Activity, and Forest Fragmentation of the Risk of Predation to Nests of Marbled Murrelets on the Olympic Peninsula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.onrc.washington.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Predators may also use mimicry to lure their prey, however.^ Predators may also use mimicry to lure their prey, however.
  • Predation.eu 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC predation.eu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, carnivores that prey on other carnivores, herbivores feeding on plants, and even parasites attacking their host organisms are sometimes considered to have the same relationship, and so to be predator-prey systems.
  • Predator-prey cycles - Encyclopedia of Earth 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

.Female fireflies of the genus Photuris, for example, copy the light signals of other species, thereby attracting male fireflies which are then captured and eaten (see aggressive mimicry).^ Males are usually more active than females [6] and numerous studies have demonstrated that predators and parasitoids are attracted by mating signals of their male prey [3] and references therein.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Brightly colored males occur in many species of animals, where their conspicuous coloration can be advantageous in attracting potential mates (Andersson, 1994 ).
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that in this species, females may be more sensitive to predation risk than males are.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

[11]

Predator

A South China Tiger as the predator feeding on the blesbuck, the prey.
.While successful predation results in a gain of energy, hunting invariably involves energetic costs as well.^ A measure of the loss: this involves assessment of the costs of predation.

^ Used in conjunction with woodpecker or other distressed bird call sounds, it will greatly increase your odds of success in your predator hunts.
  • Varmint, Coyote and Predator Calls 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.gamecalls.net [Source type: General]

.When hunger is not an issue, most predators will generally not seek to attack prey since the costs outweight the benefits.^ To our knowledge this is the first evidence for aquatic vertebrate prey actively secreting an alarm pheromone in response to predator attack.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predators that consume poorly constructed baits that do not have the same taste and scent cues as live prey will form an aversion to the baits but continue to attack and consume untreated live prey (3, 74).
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, if predators take sickly individuals, the cost of their predation must be devalued by what it would have cost to nurture the ailing prey.

.For instance, a large predatory fish like a shark that is well fed in an aquarium will typically ignore the smaller fish swimming around it (while the prey fish take advantage of the fact that the apex predator is apparently uninterested).^ Fish that had inspected the predator (or whose partner had inspected it) were much less likely to depress their mating activity than fish that had not inspected.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ An advantage of large seed size: tolerating rather than succumbing to seed predators.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, in large-seeded species, small predators such as insect larvae often consume the attacked seed only partially.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.Surplus killing represents a deviation from this type of behaviour.^ Cats belonging to households participating in the survey should exhibit behaviour representative of the killing behaviour of cats in general.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.The treatment of consumption in terms of cost-benefit analysis is known as optimal foraging theory, and has been quite successful in the study of animal behavior.^ Optimal foraging theory: a critical review.

^ The treatment of consumption in terms of cost-benefit analysis is known as optimal foraging theory , and has been quite successful in the study of animal behavior .
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies of phenotypic plasticity frequently demonstrate functional trade-offs between alternative phenotypes by documenting environment-specific costs and benefits.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Costs and benefits are generally considered in energy gain per unit time, though other factors are also important, such as essential nutrients that have no caloric value but are necessary for survival and health.^ Costs and benefits are generally considered in energy gain per unit time, though other factors are also important, such as essential nutrients that have no caloric value but are necessary for survival and health.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some cases, Upstart's lower operating costs and high load factors allow it to survive and even prosper; in other cases, too many passengers decide that the new lower fares offered by Incumbent, combined with other amenities such as better schedules, frequent flier programs, passenger lounges and in-flight service, are a better value than Upstart offers.
  • Predation In the Airline Industry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But we would also be concerned if the avoidable costs of any unit of output exceeded the revenues it generates.
  • Predation In the Airline Industry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.justice.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social Predation offers the possibility of predators to kill creatures larger than those that members of the species could overpower singly.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Responses to predators were always larger under low competition than under high competition.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that in this species, females may be more sensitive to predation risk than males are.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Lions, hyenas, wolves, dholes, African wild dogs, and piranhas can kill large herbivores that single animals of the same species could never dispatch.^ Our understanding of phenotypic plasticity is largely based upon observations from single species responding to two different environments and measuring a single plastic trait.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ We investigated factors influencing predation rates and which might be the focus of experimental work to evaluate strategies for minimising the numbers of wild animals killed by cats.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Although llamas are good guardians against single coyotes and some other predators, they (like other guard animals) can be killed by packs of coyotes or dogs, or even a single neighborhood dog that is not intimidated by the guard animal's aggressive attitude.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Social predation allows some animals to organize hunts of creatures that would easily escape a single predator; thus chimpanzees can prey upon colobus monkeys, and harrier hawks can cut off all possible escapes for a doomed rabbit.^ Prey Tips for Hunting Predators Hunting predators is much different from hunting prey animals.

^ In terms of the unscaled model (1), the maximum strength θ of the mate-finding Allee effect allowing for stable predator-prey coexistence levels off asymptotically at highly male-biased predation for unlimited polygyny ( Fig.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Although llamas are good guardians against single coyotes and some other predators, they (like other guard animals) can be killed by packs of coyotes or dogs, or even a single neighborhood dog that is not intimidated by the guard animal's aggressive attitude.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Extreme specialization of roles is evident in some hunting that requires co-operation between predators of very different species: humans with the aid of falcons or dogs, or fishing with cormorants or dogs.^ Resource competition has been demonstrated between species undergoing divergent selection in some cases including seed-eating rodents [ 3 ], gerbil species [ 4 ], and sticklebacks [ 5 ].
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Marked differences between arctic and prairie ecosystems affect the potential utility of strategies to manage predation on nesting waterfowl.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In all cases, predation was decreased by between 62 and 85 % of wild-type, which strongly suggests a role for tactic behaviour in predation.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Social predation is often very complex behavior, and not all social creatures (for example, domestic cats) perform it.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These were from the same species complex ( saxatilis ) as the natural predators, and resembled them in morphology and behavior (W. Leibel, personal communication).
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Predation management is a complex, often emotional subject for which there are no easy solutions or pat answers (Berryman 1972).
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Even without complex intelligence but instinct alone, some ant species can destroy much-larger creatures.^ Thus, the protection afforded by P. clavata is probably enhanced by other species of ants, and a comparison of trees with presence versus absence of a normal complement of predatory ants would likely yield an even larger difference in herbivory.

^ Any without the capacity to accurately identify prey at some distance would be at a severe competitive disadvantage against any with even the rudiments of this capability.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Size-selective predation involves predators preferring prey of a certain size.^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Many prey species exhibit sexual dimorphism in appearance, physiology and behaviour, while predators often prefer prey with certain size, conspicuousness, morphology or habits [2] – [4] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On the other hand, female-biased predation is often related to prey traits shaped by fecundity selection.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Large prey may prove troublesome for a predator, while small prey might prove hard to find and in any case provide less of a reward.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, in large-seeded species, small predators such as insect larvae often consume the attacked seed only partially.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In support of our findings, however, several authors have suggested that feeding birds may reduce susceptibility to predation in two ways.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This has led to a correlation between the size of predators and their prey.^ Habitat size: a factor determining the opportunity for encounters between mosquito larvae and aquatic predators.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ A repellent like hot sauce, on the other hand, is a noxious substance that presents a barrier between the predator and the prey the predator still wishes to consume.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many prey species exhibit sexual dimorphism in appearance, physiology and behaviour, while predators often prefer prey with certain size, conspicuousness, morphology or habits [2] – [4] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

[12] .Size may also act as a refuge for large prey, for example adult elephants are generally safe from predation by lions, but juveniles are vulnerable.^ Moose are usually not vulnerable to cougar predation due to their large size.

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ May Safely Graze: Protecting Livestock Against Predators by Eugene Fytche has a chapter on predator control fencing.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.It has been observed that well-fed predator animals in a lax captivity (for instance, pet or farm animals) will usually differentiate between putative prey animals who are familiar co-inhabitants in the same human area from wild ones outside the area.^ Ferret Wild Animal Attacks Which is more dangerous the predator or the prey?

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ We investigated factors influencing predation rates and which might be the focus of experimental work to evaluate strategies for minimising the numbers of wild animals killed by cats.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.This interaction can range from peaceful coexistence to close companionship; motivation to ignore the predatory instinct may result from mutual advantage or fear of reprisal from human masters who have made clear that harming co-inhabitants will not be tolerated.^ This interaction can range from peaceful coexistence to close companionship; motivation to ignore the predatory instinct may result from mutual advantage or fear of reprisal from human masters who have made clear that harming co-inhabitants will not be tolerated.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has been observed that well-fed predator animals in a lax captivity (for instance, pet or farm animals) will usually differentiate between putative prey animals who are familiar co-inhabitants in the same human area from wild ones outside the area.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Negative conditioning may be the only way that predatory attacks on humans can be minimized.
  • Publisher's View: Bear Predation (Commentary) @ Backpacking Light 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.backpackinglight.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Pet cats and pet mice, for example, may live together in the same human residence without incident as companions.^ This suggests that high levels of cat activity may deplete the numbers of otherwise common species, such as wood mice, in local areas.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Where several cats lived in the same house, it was not always possible to separate the items brought home by individual cats.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Pet cats and pet dogs under human mastership often depend on each other for warmth, companionship, and even protection, particularly in rural areas.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In some instances guard dogs may injure the stock they are guarding or attack other animals, such as pets that enter their territory.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Wolves, once common throughout North America, are protected under the ESA because human persecution nearly eliminated them from the contiguous United States.

Antipredator adaptations

.Antipredator adaptations have evolved in prey populations due to the selective pressures of predation over long periods of time.^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Predation does not necessarily affect long term measures of prey numbers.

^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

Aggression

.Predatory animals often use their usual methods of attacking prey to inflict or to threaten grievous injury to their own predators.^ Ferret Wild Animal Attacks Which is more dangerous the predator or the prey?

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Dog attacks usually cause more slashing and ripping wounds and the mutilation of legs, ears, tails, and hindquarters, on both the dead and surviving animals.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The electric eel uses the same electrical current to kill prey and to defend itself against animals (anacondas, caimans, jaguars, egrets, cougars, giant otters, humans, and dogs) that ordinarily prey upon fish similar to an electric eel in size; the electric eel thus remains an apex predator in a predator-rich environment.^ The predator bomb greatly reduces the chance that human scent will be detected before a shot opportunity presents itself.
  • Varmint, Coyote and Predator Calls 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.gamecalls.net [Source type: General]

^ If prey densities are low, then predators may exert a controlling effect upon their numbers (Peterson 1977).

^ Thus, sneaky matings (thrusts without sigmoid displays) were not more frequent when fish were exposed to predators.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many non-predatory prey animals, such as a zebra, can give a strong kick that can maim or kill, while others charge with tusks or horns.^ This implies that the A signal itself is not required for predation, but that other genes under the control of AsgA and AsgC, such as asgE , are involved in predatory behaviours.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This interest is particularly strong in aquatic systems where many non-target organisms experience pesticides.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Clearly, it is essential that an experimental approach be taken to identify which of the factors we have identified as influencing prey capture rates are causally related to the numbers of wild animals killed.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Mobbing behavior

.Mobbing behavior occurs when members of a species drive away their predator by cooperatively attacking or harassing it.^ These were from the same species complex ( saxatilis ) as the natural predators, and resembled them in morphology and behavior (W. Leibel, personal communication).
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For instance, in large-seeded species, small predators such as insect larvae often consume the attacked seed only partially.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

^ To examine the relation between species traits and performance, we first assessed behavioral responses of two larval anurans to three predator species in the laboratory.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Most frequently seen in birds, mobbing is also seen in other social animals.^ Donkeys also are social animals that will associate with other species of livestock in the absence of other donkeys; however, it can take a donkey four to six weeks to fully bond with a sheep flock.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Research shows that de-clawing cats and bell collars do not prevent them from killing birds and other small animals.
  • Conservation Library 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC library.fws.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because most of them defend their territories aggressively, there are few incursions by birds from one territory to any other and so experimental events that occur in one territory are assuredly independent of other such territories.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For example, nesting gull colonies are widely seen to attack intruders, including humans.^ Human disturbance in nesting colonies is likely to increase predation of eggs and young (see King and Derksen 1986, Pamplin 1986).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Grand and Flint (1997) likewise found increased nest success in mainland colonies of spectacled eiders when mew gull ( Larus canus ) populations were reduced.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[8] .Costs of mobbing behavior include the risk of engaging with predators, as well as energy expended in the process, but it can aid the survival of members of a species.^ Predation risk as a cost of reproduction.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Predation risk affects male mating behavior as well as male coloration.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This is the process whereby native species are threatened by occasional predation by a large population of introduced predators that is sustained by abundant introduced prey species that are in turn well adapted to high predation pressure.
  • The Mammal Society: Mammal Fact Sheets 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.abdn.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.While mobbing has evolved independently in many species, it tends to be present only in those whose young are frequently preyed on, especially birds.^ Many prey species exhibit sexual dimorphism in appearance, physiology and behaviour, while predators often prefer prey with certain size, conspicuousness, morphology or habits [2] – [4] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Female-biased predation is common only in systems with crustacean prey and birds feeding on invertebrates and fish ( Table 2 ).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Perhaps the most frequently studied canid/prey systems are those including wolves, caribou, and moose.

It may complement cryptic behavior in the offspring themselves, such as camouflage and hiding. Mobbing calls may be made prior to or during engagement in harassment.
.Mobbing can be an interspecies activity: it is common for birds to respond to mobbing calls of a different species.^ Our understanding of phenotypic plasticity is largely based upon observations from single species responding to two different environments and measuring a single plastic trait.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ In areas where common predators coexist with rarer animals, nonspecific lethal controls result in what can only be called reckless endangerment of the rare or vulnerable species.

.Many birds will show up at the sight of mobbing and watch and call, but not participate.^ Many birds will show up at the sight of mobbing and watch and call, but not participate.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While mobbing has evolved independently in many species, it only tends to be present in those whose young are frequently preyed on, especially birds.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Experts believe that many hunters never see the predators coming to their calls because they pick up their scent from too great a distance.
  • Varmint, Coyote and Predator Calls 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.gamecalls.net [Source type: General]

.It should also be noted that some species can be on both ends of a mobbing attack.^ Three misfit actors who are filming in some jungle are attacked by a monster they think is just a special effect.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Crows are frequently mobbed by smaller songbirds as they prey on eggs and young from these birds' nests, but these same crows will cooperate with smaller birds to drive away hawks or larger mammalian predators.^ Responses to competition were larger under low predation risk when predation and competition induced traits in the same direction, but larger under high predation risk when predation and competition induced traits in opposite directions.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predators certainly prey on a variety of small aquatic invertebrates but not much is known about the diet of these predators in larval sites of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These conditioning treatments produced dramatic differences in size and shape: tadpoles from ponds with predators were smaller and had relatively short bodies and deep tail fins.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.On occasion, birds will mob animals that pose no threat.^ On occasion, birds will mob animals that pose no threat.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you believe that windows in general pose a serious threat to birds, you're perfectly right.

Advertising unprofitability

Thomson's Gazelles exhibit stotting behavior.
.A Thomson's Gazelle seeing a predator approach may start to run away, but then slow down and stot.^ Then Gary Busey comes running out with those whacked out eyes and chompers of his and start baptizing the Predator in holy Jesus fire.
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bolder fish may be more inclined to approach the predator and also less inclined to depress their mating activity in response to predation risk.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Night lighting Lighting corrals at night may serve to frighten some predators away, but may also attract roaming dogs to the stock.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Stotting is jumping into the air with the legs straight and stiff, and the white rear fully visible. .Stotting is maladaptive for outrunning predators; evidence suggests that stotting signals an unprofitable chase.^ Nonetheless, evidence suggests that females are sensitive to predation risk and change their mating decisions with levels of risk.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, cheetahs abandon more hunts when the gazelle stots, and in the event they do give chase, they are far less likely to make a kill.^ For example, cheetahs abandon more hunts when the gazelle stots, and in the event they do give chase, they are far less likely to make a kill.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elephants, for example, are vegetarians and, even though they are large (thus experiencing less loss of heat), must spend more than half their waking hours harvesting and eating, and they cannot do any hopping or jumping.
  • Nature is known to be "red in tooth and claw" and the quotes above point out the emotional difficulty this creates for humans 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.christian-thinktank.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although other hypotheses have been put forward, evidence supports the proposition that they stot to signal an unprofitable chase.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13]
.Aposematism, where organisms are brightly colored as a warning to predators, is the antithesis of camouflage.^ This shift is presumed to benefit the brightly colored male, whose intense courting activity might otherwise increase his risk of detection and attack by predators.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Some organisms pose a threat to their predators—for example they may be poisonous, or able to harm them physically.^ These observations suggest that females may become less receptive to male courtship when they perceive that predators are present nearby.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This suggests that some wood frog populations are adapted to the local conditions of their natal pond and that localized selection by predation and competition may be the underlying mechanism.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, polygyny often implies more conspicuous males and may thus lead to male-biased predation, while females are more conspicuous in polyandrous species and thus more likely to be preyed upon.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.Aposematic coloring involves bright, easily recognizable and unique colors and patterns.^ Aposematic coloring involves bright, easily recognizable and unique colors and patterns.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Many of them incorporate the milkweed's defensive chemicals into their own bodies, and they warm potential predators of their chemical defense through the use of bright colors and bold patterns.
  • Predation, Crypsis & Mimicry 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.marietta.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to the success of aposematic organisms, organisms that are not noxious, and therefore vulnerable to predation, may exhibit similar coloring patterns to aposematic organisms, in order to falsly repel their predators.
  • Ecology/Predation and Herbivory - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: Academic]

.Upon being harmed (e.g.^ Upon being harmed (e.g.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

stung) by their prey, the appearance in such an organism will be remembered as something to avoid.

Terrain Fear Factor

.The "terrain fear factor" is an idea which assesses the risks associated with predator/prey encounters.^ Alternatively, if inspection increases the perception of risk, then inspection by one or both guppies will be associated with increased effects of predation risk on mating activity.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, we review the status of waterfowl populations, adaptations of waterfowl that minimize impacts of predation, and the underlying factors specific to the breeding areas that influence predation risk for waterfowl.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Habitat size: a factor determining the opportunity for encounters between mosquito larvae and aquatic predators.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.This idea suggests that prey will change their usual habits to adjust to the terrain and its effect on the species' predation.^ Males are usually more active than females [6] and numerous studies have demonstrated that predators and parasitoids are attracted by mating signals of their male prey [3] and references therein.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This breakdown suggests several major patterns for both predator-prey pairs and studies.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These results suggest that in this species, females may be more sensitive to predation risk than males are.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.For example, a species may forage in a terrain with a lower predation risk as opposed to one with high predation risk.^ Although this ratio may be lower (e.g., one-half) in less timbered or rugged country, it is indicative of a consistent underpayment of ranchers with wolf depredations occurring on their allotment.

^ Responses to competition were larger under low predation risk when predation and competition induced traits in the same direction, but larger under high predation risk when predation and competition induced traits in opposite directions.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

[14]

Population dynamics

.It is fairly clear that predators tend to lower the survival and fecundity of their prey, but on a higher level of organization, populations of predator and prey species also interact.^ Predator-prey interactions - - Parasite-host interactions .
  • community ecology :: Predation -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ It is fairly clear that predators tend to lower the survival and fecundity of their prey, but on a higher level of organization, populations of predator and prey species also interact.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand the prey species may be able to survive if the predator has no alternative prey - in this case its population will necessarily crash following the decline in prey, allowing some small proportion of prey to survive.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is obvious that predators depend on prey for survival, and this is reflected in predator populations being affected by changes in prey populations.^ It is obvious that predators depend on prey for survival, and this is reflected in predator populations being affected by changes in prey populations.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not so obvious, however, that predators affect prey populations.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Change is also inevitable in predator populations.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.It is not so obvious, however, that predators affect prey populations.^ The key characteristic of predation however is the predator's direct impact on the prey population.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is obvious that predators depend on prey for survival, and this is reflected in predator populations being affected by changes in prey populations.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is not so obvious, however, that predators affect prey populations.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Eating a prey organism may simply make room for another if the prey population is approaching its carrying capacity.^ When we furthermore include a carrying capacity for the prey in this simplified model with unbiased predation ( Text S2 ), we recover a model describing the feedback between hunting effort and population density of the hunted species under open-access exploitation [23] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ While this approach is useful in establishing which prey taxa respond to predators, the approach is limited because it makes it difficult to identify potential contraints.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Unfortunately, this approach neglects the role that functionally different predator species (with divergent selection pressures) may play in maintaining inducible defenses in prey populations and overlooks the dynamic nature of prey responses and prey vulnerability over development.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.The population dynamics of predator-prey interactions can be modelled using the Lotka–Volterra equations.^ Stability of the predator-prey equilibrium E 2 in model (4).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Summary of the dynamics of the predator-prey system (4).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Seed predators and plant population dynamics.
  • Simulated seed predation reveals a variety of germination responses of neotropical rain forest species -- Vallejo-Marín et al. 93 (3): 369 -- American Journal of Botany 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.amjbot.org [Source type: Academic]

.These provide a mathematical model for the cycling of predator and prey populations.^ Stability of the predator-prey equilibrium E 2 in model (4).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Predators certainly prey on a variety of small aquatic invertebrates but not much is known about the diet of these predators in larval sites of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ These conditions included moderate food deprivation, the expectancy to feed among the predators, and lengthy close contact with otherwise totally defenseless live prey.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Evolution of predation

.Predation appears to have become a major selection pressure shortly before the Cambrian period—around 550 million years ago—as evidenced by the almost simultaneous development of calcification in animals and algae,[15] and predation-avoiding burrowing.^ We predict that such hypothetical components are likely turned on soon after SdeK and CsgA become active, since it appears that the earlier a regulator functions in development, the more severe the predation defect.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In surveys where a large proportion of "kills" are unverified, a great majority of animals "killed" by predators may have died from other causes.

^ Some food preferences among adult animals appear to be based upon foods with which they had become familiar as juveniles.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, predators had been grazing on micro-organisms since at least 1,000 million years ago.^ However, to their crews and to Starfleet, the AVENGER and PREDATOR classes truly lived up to the description applied to a class of destroyer 300 years ago on Earth: "magnificent in appearance, majestic in movement, menacing in disposition."
  • The Starfleet Museum - Avenger Class and Predator Class 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.starfleet-museum.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The annual crop of lambs is approximately 900,000 individuals, and the value of each lamb is U.S. $50, resulting in a mean loss to ranchers of U.S. $0.9 to U.S. $3.6 million per annum from predation.

[16][16][17][18][19]

Humans and predation

As predators

.In much of the world, humans are the largest, best-organized, most cunning, and most powerful predators.^ It is important for producers to combine the management techniques best suited to their operations with the most effective predator control methods for their circumstances.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Development and human activities, even in the most remote areas, can have a profound impact on predator-prey interactions.

^ In practice, predator-reduction is much the most common approach and, on first principles, much the least promising.

.The closest rival to humans in those characteristics in most of the world, the dog, is far more likely a collaborator than a competitor or a menace.^ When stock is killed or missing, it is most likely that the predator responsible is either a coyote or a dog.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This defect was even more severe than those for the A – mutants.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Prevention cannot be stressed enough, because after predators kill once they are more than likely to return and kill again.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Humans are omnivorous and clever exploiters of tools from snares, clubs, spears, fishing gear, firearms to boats and motor vehicles in hunting other animals.^ Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CTA has been produced in invertebrates as different as sea anemones and gastropods and in a bewildering variety of other animals, including humans (5, 6) .
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The animal is believed to have died as a result of (other than human-caused) activity, possibly in a confrontation with an elk or deer.

.Humans even use other animals (dogs, cormorants, and falcons) in hunting or fishing and such non-predatory animals as horses, camels, and elephants in getting approaches to prey.^ Shyness and boldness in humans and other animals.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ This implies that the A signal itself is not required for predation, but that other genes under the control of AsgA and AsgC, such as asgE , are involved in predatory behaviours.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It uses routines enabling it to improve its performance through learning, and so we and other animals can change the way we respond to and view the world on this basis.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Humans have reshaped huge expanses of the world as ranges and farms for the raising of livestock, poultry, and fish to be eaten as meat.

As prey

.A lone naked human is at a physical disadvantage to other comparable apex predators in areas such as speed, bone density, weight, and physical strength, and humans lack innate weaponry such as claws.^ This implies that the A signal itself is not required for predation, but that other genes under the control of AsgA and AsgC, such as asgE , are involved in predatory behaviours.
  • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Incubation behavior of emperor geese compared with other geese: interactions of predation, body size, and energetics.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The Predator IS DUTCH! He's been made King Gladiator of the Predators (or some such) by the race after they captured him again following PREDATOR. And the prize the human gets for winning the arena?
  • Ain't It Cool News: The best in movie, TV, DVD, and comic book news. 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC www.aintitcool.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Without crafted weapons, society, or cleverness, a lone human can easily be defeated by fit predatory animals, such as wild dogs, big cats and bears.^ Guard animals (dogs and llamas) seem, however, to deter small predators such as coyotes and the potential and the limits of their usefulness should be pursued.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Captive studies of black bears, domestic cats, ferrets, cougars, hawks and other predators had all demonstrated that these animals could easily form CTA (6) , but the most relevant were Gustavsons captive studies of wolves and coyotes.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In some instances guard dogs may injure the stock they are guarding or attack other animals, such as pets that enter their territory.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There are even recorded instances of lone humans being preyed upon by large carnivores (see Man-eater). .However humans are not solitary creatures; they are social animals with highly developed social behaviors.^ Donkeys also are social animals that will associate with other species of livestock in the absence of other donkeys; however, it can take a donkey four to six weeks to fully bond with a sheep flock.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because of the abnormal behavior of the animal, it was determined that it was an escaped pet wolf or hybrid, and livestock owners in the area were told that they could shoot the animal if they had the opportunity.

^ Bring Horse Behavior: How to Teach Your Horse to Pick Up His Feet Being prey animals, certain horses may need to develop trust in their human before they decide to pick up a leg.

.Further humans and their ancestors (such as Homo erectus) have been using stone tools and weapons for well over a million years.^ The use of new technologies such as GPS telemetry collars will advance our ability to understand the carnivore community and its interactions, as well as its impact on prey populations.

.Anatomically modern humans have been apex predators since they first evolved, and many species of carnivorous megafauna actively avoid interacting with humans; the primary environmental competitor for a human is other humans.^ Many species assess predation risk through chemical cues, but the tissue source, chemical nature, and mechanisms of production or action of these cues are often unknown.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ DiabloSport engineers spend many hours on the dyno, street and track to ensure the tunes provided with the Predator are the best they can be.

^ To our knowledge this is the first evidence for aquatic vertebrate prey actively secreting an alarm pheromone in response to predator attack.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

In conservation

Predators are an important consideration in matters relating to conservation. .Introduced predators may prove too much for populations which have not coevolved with them, leading to possible extinction.^ This suggests that some wood frog populations are adapted to the local conditions of their natal pond and that localized selection by predation and competition may be the underlying mechanism.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ For example, polygyny often implies more conspicuous males and may thus lead to male-biased predation, while females are more conspicuous in polyandrous species and thus more likely to be preyed upon.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Finally, we combine an evolutionary and population-dynamical argument to provide one more possible explanation of the observed skew towards male-biased predation.
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

.This will depend largely on how well the prey species can adapt to the new species, and whether or not the predator can turn to alternative food sources when prey populations fall to minimal levels.^ This will depend largely on how well the prey species can adapt to the new species, and whether or not the predator can turn to alternative food sources when prey populations fall to minimal levels.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand the prey species may be able to survive if the predator has no alternative prey - in this case its population will necessarily crash following the decline in prey, allowing some small proportion of prey to survive.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For instance, a large predatory fish like a shark that is well fed in an aquarium will typically ignore the smaller fish swimming around it (while the prey fish take advantage of the fact that the apex predator is apparently uninterested).
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a predator can use an alternative prey instead, it may shift its diet towards that species, while still eating the last remaining prey organisms.^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Predators certainly prey on a variety of small aquatic invertebrates but not much is known about the diet of these predators in larval sites of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Both species prey on nesting ducks, but because foxes are particularly severe predators of upland-nesting ducks and eggs (Sargeant et al.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.On the other hand the prey species may be able to survive if the predator has no alternative prey—in this case its population will necessarily crash following the decline in prey, allowing some small proportion of prey to survive.^ This may be because predators and prey may escape each other in the field.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A repellent like hot sauce, on the other hand, is a noxious substance that presents a barrier between the predator and the prey the predator still wishes to consume.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These results suggest that in this species, females may be more sensitive to predation risk than males are.
  • Male mating strategies under predation risk: do females call the shots? -- Dill et al. 10 (4): 452 -- Behavioral Ecology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC beheco.oxfordjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

.Introduction of an alternative prey may well lead to the extinction of prey, as this constraint is removed.^ Introduction of an alternative prey may well lead to the extinction of prey, as this constraint is removed.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Introduced predators may prove too much for populations which have not coevolved with them, leading to possible extinction .
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ 'Trap neuter and release' programs allow cats to continue to predate on endangered species and 'trap and remove' may be a better alternative.
  • Cat Predation - WSAVA 2008 Congress 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.vin.com [Source type: Academic]

.Predators are often the species endangered themselves, especially apex predators who are often in competition with humans.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Many prey species exhibit sexual dimorphism in appearance, physiology and behaviour, while predators often prefer prey with certain size, conspicuousness, morphology or habits [2] – [4] .
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All species of livestock are susceptible to predation, especially young animals, but sheep and goats suffer most.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Competition for prey from other species could prove the end of a predator—if their ecological niche overlaps completely with that of another the competitive exclusion principle requires only one can survive.^ The presence of the predator threat (via chemical cues from the caged predators) reduced both the mouth width and tail length in the two prey species to pre-competition levels.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In four years I only ended up having one pleasant conversation with somebody who wanted me to take up religion.
  • Evangelism = predation : Pharyngula 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC scienceblogs.com [Source type: General]

.Loss of prey species may lead to coextinction of their predator.^ Male-biased predation leads to a stable predator-prey equilibrium E 2 (thin dashed curve; Λ = 2); female-biased predation leads to increasing oscillations prone to collapse (thick curve; Λ = 0.5).
  • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Both species prey on nesting ducks, but because foxes are particularly severe predators of upland-nesting ducks and eggs (Sargeant et al.
  • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Loss of wetlands and fragmentation of grasslands have concentrated ducks and predators in the remaining patches of suitable habitat and likely have reduced the abundance of alternative prey species (Cowardin et al.
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

.In addition, because predators are found in higher trophic levels, they are less abundant and much more vulnerable to extinction.^ In addition, because predators are found in higher trophic levels, they are less abundant and much more vulnerable to extinction.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In many species of lizards (especially among juveniles), tails are brightly colored and/or very conspicuous, evidently functioning as a lure to attract a potential predator's attack away from the more vulnerable and less dispensible parts of the animal.
  • http://uts.cc.utexas.edu/~varanus/predation.html 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC uts.cc.utexas.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Because only a fraction of energy is passed on to the next level, this hierarchy of predation must end somewhere, and very seldom goes higher than five or six levels.
  • Animal predatory behavior - Psychology Wiki 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC psychology.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Biological pest control

.Predators may be put to use in conservation efforts to control introduced species.^ Predator control often is opposed by the public, even to protect endangered species, and will be difficult to implement because of social constraints (Goodrich and Buskirk 1995).
  • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ May Safely Graze: Protecting Livestock Against Predators by Eugene Fytche has a chapter on predator control fencing.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the aim in this situation is to remove the introduced species entirely, keeping its abundance down is often the only possibility. .Predators from its natural range may be introduced to control populations, though in some cases this has little effect, and may even cause unforeseen problems.^ The natural population control of caribou.
  • Predation, Food and Feeding Habits, Nutrition Studies< 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Predator species may vary across a prey species' range [ 27 ] but we emphasize that predators manipulated in our experiment probably represent the key predators of An.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The patterns in larger, open-canopy ponds provided little evidence of competitive effects on species richness, though there were patterns consistent with competitive effects in small, closed-canopy ponds.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

.Besides their use in conservation biology, predators are also important for controlling pests in agriculture.^ Therefore, when predators strike, it is important to be aware of all options available for their control and to act at once.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most successful predator control programs use an integrated approach—combining good husbandry with effective control methods.
  • Predator Control for Sustainable and Organic Livestock Production 23 January 2010 1:57 UTC attra.ncat.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the various natural ecologic forces controlling vector populations, predation seems to be the most important.
  • Evidence for divergent selection between the molecular forms of Anopheles gambiae: role of predation 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov [Source type: Academic]

.Natural predators are an environmentally friendly and sustainable way of reducing damage to crops, and are one alternative to the use of chemical agents such as pesticides.^ Diversity of natural chemical defenses against predation.
  • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moreover, short-term predation trials demonstrated that the phenotype induced by one predator had higher survival with that predator than any alternative phenotype but lower survival with a different predator species (i.e., survival trade-offs).
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ The widespread application of pesticides has attracted the attention of ecologists as we struggle to understand the impacts of these chemicals on natural communities.
  • Abstract List 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.pitt.edu [Source type: Academic]

See also


References

  1. ^ a b Begon, M., Townsend, C., Harper, J. (1996). Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities (Third edition). Blackwell Science, London. ISBN 086542845X, ISBN 0632038012, ISBN 0632043938.
  2. ^ Encyclopedia Britannica: "predation"
  3. ^ Godfray, H.C.J. (1994). Parasitoids: Behavioral and Evolutionary Ecology. Princeton University Press, Princeton. ISBN 0691033250, ISBN 0691000476. P. 20.
  4. ^ Feener, Jr., Donald H.; Brian V. Brown (January 1997). "Diptera as Parasitoids". Annual Review of Entomology 42: 73–97. doi:10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.73. http://arjournals.annualreviews.org/doi/pdf/10.1146/annurev.ento.42.1.73. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  5. ^ Dawkins, R. (1976). The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-286092-5.
  6. ^ Botkin, D. and E. Keller (2003). Enrivonmental Science: Earth as a living planet. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0-471-38914-5. P.2.
  7. ^ a b William J. Ripple and Robert L. Beschta. "Wolves and the Ecology of Fear: Can Predation Risk Structure Ecosystems?" 2004.
  8. ^ a b Alcock, J. (1998). Animal Behavior: An Evolutionary Approach (6th edition). Sunderland, Mass.: Sinauer Associates, Inc. ISBN 0-87893-009-4.
  9. ^ Bondavalli, C., and Ulanowicz, R.E. (1999). Unexpected effects of predators upon their prey: The case of the American alligator. Ecosystems, 2: 49–63.
  10. ^ Dawkins, R. (2004). The Ancestor's Tale. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0618005838.
  11. ^ Lloyd, J.E. (1965). Aggressive Mimicry in Photuris: Firefly Femmes Fatales. Science 149:653–654.
  12. ^ a b Molles, Manuel C., Jr. (2002). Ecology: Concepts and Applications (International Edition ed.). New York: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ISBN 0-07-112252-4. 
  13. ^ Caro, T. M. (1986). The functions of stotting in Thomson's gazelles: Some tests of the predictions. Animal Behaviour 34:663–684.
  14. ^ Ripple, William J., and Robert L. Beschta. "Wolves and the ecology of fear: Can predation risk structure ecosystems?" BioScience 54: 755–66.
  15. ^ Grant, S. W. F.; Knoll, A. H.; Germs, G. J. B. (1991). "Probable Calcified Metaphytes in the Latest Proterozoic Nama Group, Namibia: Origin, Diagenesis, and Implications". Journal of Paleontology (JSTOR) 65 (1): 1–18. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-3360(199101)65%3A1%3C1%3APCMITL%3E2.0.CO%3B2-R. 
  16. ^ a b Bengtson, S. (2002), "Origins and early evolution of predation", in Kowalewski, M., and Kelley, P.H. (Free full text), The fossil record of predation. The Paleontological Society Papers 8, The Paleontological Society, pp. 289–317, http://www.nrm.se/download/18.4e32c81078a8d9249800021552/Bengtson2002predation.pdf, retrieved 2007-12-01 
  17. ^ McNamara, K.J. (20 December 1996). "Dating the Origin of Animals". Science 274 (5295): 1993–1997. doi:10.1126/science.274.5295.1993f. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/full/274/5295/1993f. Retrieved 2008-06-28. 
  18. ^ Awramik, S.M. (19 November 1971). "Precambrian columnar stromatolite diversity: Reflection of metazoan appearance" (abstract). Science 174 (4011): 825–827. doi:10.1126/science.174.4011.825. PMID 17759393. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/174/4011/825. Retrieved 2007-12-01. 
  19. ^ Stanley (2008). "Predation defeats competition on the seafloor" (extract). Paleobiology 34: 1. doi:10.1666/07026.1. http://paleobiol.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/extract/34/1/1. 

Further reading

  • Barbosa, P. and I. Castellanos (eds.) (2004). .Ecology of predator-prey interactions.^ Given our theoretical results, it seems plausible that the skew reflects the evolutionary history of sex-selective predator-prey interactions.
    • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ We have already mentioned one of the reasons: most predator-prey pairs are embedded in larger food webs and their population dynamics are affected by interactions with other species.
    • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Research and monitoring, include investigating areas with and without recent fire and with and without wolves, will try to identify ecosystem-level habitat and predator-prey interactions.

    .New York: Oxford University Press.^ The Ronald Press Company, New York.
    • NPWRC :: Prairie Duck Populations and Predation Management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Raven Press, New York.
    • Predation, Food and Feeding Habits, Nutrition Studies< 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.albany.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Oxford University, New York, New York, USA. .
    • NPWRC :: Predation on Waterfowl in Arctic Tundra and Prairie Breeding Areas: A Review 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.npwrc.usgs.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0195171209.
  • Curio, E. (1976). The ethology of predation. .Berlin; New York: Springer-Verlag.^ New York: Springer.
    • Mutations affecting predation ability of the soil bacterium Myxococcus xanthus -- Pham et al. 151 (6): 1865 -- Microbiology 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC mic.sgmjournals.org [Source type: Academic]

    ISBN 0387077200.

External links

.
  • Wolfram Demonstrations Project: Predator-Prey Equations by Eric W. Weisstein
  • Predators, three articles by Olivia Judson, NY Times, Sept.^ Males are usually more active than females [6] and numerous studies have demonstrated that predators and parasitoids are attracted by mating signals of their male prey [3] and references therein.
    • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Among the 81 predator-prey pairs found in the literature, male bias in predation is 2.3 times as common as female bias.
    • PLoS ONE: Does Sex-Selective Predation Stabilize or Destabilize Predator-Prey Dynamics? 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.plosone.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Healthy and unimpaired predators were simply allowed to kill and consume live prey in large enclosures to demonstrate that they were able and willing to engage in normal predatory behavior.
    • Predation politics: wolves, conditioned taste aversion & wildlife management 1 February 2010 3:43 UTC www.conditionedtasteaversion.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    & Oct., 2009

Simple English

For other meanings of predator and prey, see Predator (disambiguation) and Prey (disambiguation).
Simple English Wiktionary has word meanings for:
File:MNP Python at
Indian Python swallowing a full grown Chital deer at Mudumalai National Park
File:Hawk eating
A young Red-tailed Hawk eating a California Vole
File:Ants eating cicada, jjron 22.11.
Meat ants eating a cicada; some species can prey on much bigger than they are, particularly when working cooperatively

In ecology, predation describes a relationship and actions between two creatures. A predator attacks and eats its prey.[1] Predators may or may not kill their prey before eating them. But the act of predation always causes the death of its prey and taking in the prey's body parts into the predators body.[2] A true predator can be thought of as one which both kills and eats another animal.

References

  1. Begon, M., Townsend, C., Harper, J. (1996). Ecology: Individuals, populations and communities (Third edition). Blackwell Science, London. ISBN 0-86542-845-X, ISBN 0-632-03801-2, ISBN 0-632-04393-8.
  2. Encyclopedia Britannica: "predation"



Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Predation, which are similar to those in the above article.








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