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Prekmurian language
prekmurščina, prekmürščina, panonska slovenščina
Spoken in Slovenia, Hungary and emigrant groups in various countries
Total speakers 80,000
Language family Indo-European
Language codes
ISO 639-1 None
ISO 639-2
ISO 639-3
Slovenian Dialects.svg

Prekmurian language (also known as the Prekmurian dialect,Pannonian-Slovene language, East-Slovene language, or Wendish (Slovene: prekmurščina, prekmursko narečje, Hungarian: Vend nyelvjárás, Vend nyelv, Prekmurian: prekmürski jezik, prekmürščina, panonska slovenščina) is the easternmost dialect of Slovenian, spoken in the Prekmurje region of Slovenia and by the Hungarian Slovenes in Vas county in western Hungary. It is closely related to the Slovene dialects in neighboring Slovene Styria, as well as to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian.

Prekmurian is one of the few Slovene dialects in Slovenia that is still spoken by all strata of the local population.[1] It also had its own written standard and a literary tradition, both of which were largely neglected after World War Two. There are divergent opinions regarding the status of Prekmurje Slovenian. Some consider Prekmurje Slovenian a regional language, without denying that it is part of Slovenian. However, Prekmurian is not recognized as a language by Slovenia or Hungary, nor does it enjoy any legal protection under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. There is no significant political or cultural movement in Slovenia seeking legal protection for Prekmurian, although there has been a revival of literature in Prekmurje Slovenian since the late 1990s. Some Slovenian writers from Prekmurje, most notably Feri Lainšček, regard Prekmurian as a regional language.

Together with Resian, Prekmurian language is the only Slovene dialect with a literary standard that has had a different historical development from the rest of Slovene ethnic territory. For centuries, it was used as a language of religious education, as well as in the press and mass.[2] The historical Hungarian name for the Slovenes living within the borders of the Kingdom of Hungary (as well as for the Slovenians in general) was Vendek, or the Wends. In the 18th and 19th centuries Prekmurian authors used to designate this dialect as sztári szlovenszki jezik 'old Slovene'.

Contents

Range

The Prekmurian dialect is spoken by approximately 80,000 speakers worldwide. Most of them reside in Prekmurje, the easternmost region of Slovenia, where the dialect is used as the native language by the majority of the population. In Hungary, it is used by the Slovene-speaking minority in Vas county in and around the town of Szentgotthárd. Several speakers of the dialect live in other Hungarian towns, particularly Budapest, Szombathely, Bakony, and Mosonmagyaróvár. Traditionally, the dialect was also used in the Hungarian Slovene colony in Somogy (most notably in the village of Tarany), but it has nearly disappeared in the last two centuries.

There are some speakers in Austria, Germany, the United States, and Argentina, as well as in major towns in Slovenia, especially Maribor and Ljubljana, where significant immigrant communities from Prekmurje have settled.

Linguistic features

In the opinion of the early 20th century philologist Ágoston Pável, the "Wendish (Prekmurian) language belongs to the group of South Slavic languages. It is in fact a large, autonomous dialect of Slovene, from which it differs mostly in stress, intonation, consonant softness and – due to the lack of a significant language reform – a scarceness of vocabulary of modern terms."
Prekmurian has its own territory and literature. Some of its speakers maintain that Prekmurian is a separate language. Prominent writers in Prekmurian, such as Miklós Küzmics,[3] István Küzmics, Ágoston Pável, József Klekl Senior,[4] József Szakovics, and others maintained that Prekmurian a language, not simply a dialect. In Communist Yugoslavia, Prekmurian was looked down upon because numerous writers, such as József Klekl, were anti-communists.

Since every person – from any nation, speaking any language – has to know God's truth, shich brings salvation through the Holy Bible, and as nobody should be exluded from reaching this cognition, we must not be envious or deny anybody the tool which leads him to it. Instead we should make sure that everybody gets this tool. This is the wish of God… He also encouraged some people from these nation[5] to translate the Holy Bible into their mother tongue. It suffices to focus only on the people of Carniola and Styria, who were – we believe – together with Slovenes in Hungary in the counties Vas, Zala and Somogy the remainders of those Vandals who went to the Vlachian and Spanish states in the 5th century ad from where they sailed to Africa.

Who will disallow those Slovenes who live between the Mura and the Raba the right bank to translate these holy books into the language, in which they understand God talking to them through prophets and apostles' letters? God tells them too read these books in order to get prepared for salvation in the faith of Jesus Christ. But they cannot receive this from Trubar's (Truber), Dalmatin's, Francel's (Frencel), or other translations (versio). The language of our Hungarian Slovenes is different from other languages and unique in its own characteristics. Already in the aforementioned translations there are differences. Therefore, a man had to come who would translate the Bible and bring praise for God and salvation for his nation. God encouraged István Küzmics (Stevan Küzmics) for this work, a priest from Surd, who translated – with the help of the Holy Spirit and with great diligence – the whole New Testament (Nouvi Zákon) from Greek language into the language you are reading and hearing.

—Foreword (Predgovor) of the Nouvi Zákon (1771)[6]

Prekmurian is considered part of the Pannonian dialectic group (Slovene: panonska narečna skupina), also known as the Eastern Slovene Group (vzhodnoslovenska narečna skupina), one of eight dialect groups into which Slovenian is divided. Prekmurian shares many common features with the dialects of the sub-regions of Haloze, Slovenske Gorice, and Prlekija, with which it is completely mutually intelligible. It is also closely related to the Kajkavian dialect of Croatian, although the pronunciation differences make mutual comprehension difficult. Prekmurian language, especially its more traditional version spoken by Hungarian Slovenes, is not readily understood by speakers from central and western Slovenia, whereas the speakers of eastern Slovenia (Lower Styria) have much less difficulty understanding it.

The dialect includes many archaic words that have disappeared from modern Slovene. Some words still used in Prekmurian can be found in the Freising manuscripts from the 9th century, the oldest written record in Slovenian. Along with the three dialects spoken in Venetian Slovenia and with the Slovene dialects of eastern Carinthia, Prekmurian is considered the most conservative of all Slovene dialects with regard to vocabulary. On the other hand, many words in modern Prekmurian are borrowed from Hungarian and German.

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Phonology

The Prekmurian dialect has a specific phonology that is similar to the phonology of other dialects of the Eastern Slovene group. The vowels ü and ö (the latter is non-phonemic) are used, which do not appear in standard Slovene. For example, the people of Prekmurje would say günac 'ox' (standard Slovenian junec), ülanca 'clay' (standard Slovenian glin(ic)a, and vküp/vküper 'together' (standard Slovenian vkup). The vowels /ü/ and [ö] are particularly prominent in the northern dialects of Vendvidék and in Goričko. Older names of several settlements — ([[Budinci] (Büdinci), Beltinci (Böltinci), Turnišče (Törnišče), and Lemerje (Lömergje) — surnames (Küzmič, Šömenek, Sükič, Kürnjek, Küplen, Sűnič, and Küčan), and names of rivers and hills (Müra, Möra, Bükovnica, Törnjek) often had these phonemes.

The use of the diphthongs au or ou, unknown in standard Slovenian, is also widespread. Prekmurian speakers would thus say Baug or Boug 'God' (standard Slovene Bog), kaus or kous 'piece' (standard Slovene kos), and paut or pout 'path' (standard Slovene pot).

The preposition v 'in' appears as v or vu in Prekmurje Slovene. The v form in some dialects alternates with f as in Kajkavian. In Vendvidék 'yesterday' is fčará (Slovene: včeraj).

Lexicon

Around 50% of the vocabulary of Prekmurian differs from that of standard Slovene, although the number of specific Prekmurian words not found in other Slovene dialects is much lower. intonation, palatalization of consonants, and accentuation are also different. There are dozens of Hungarian and German loanwords. The frequent presence of German loanwords is particularly observable among Hungarian Slovenes and in northern and western Prekmurje.

Morphology

Inflections are somewhat similar to Croatian. In Prekmurian, the expression "in Hungary" is v Vogrskoj (cf. Croatian u Ugarskoj, standard Slovenian na Ogrskem). One of the reasons for this closeness to standard Croatian is the long tradition of connections between the two peoples, because before the 18th century, most Prekmurian priests and teachers (both Catholic and Protestant) were educated in Croatia, particularly in Zagreb or Varaždin. In the old Martjanci Hymnal (Sztárá martyanszka peszmarica), the influences of Croatian are clear. The 18th-century Prekmurian writers that created the Prekmurian standard language applied many features of the Kajkavian dialect. In 1833, József Kossics, who was partially of Croatian descent, wrote a grammar emphasizing the Croatian features, with much of the terminology borrowed from Kajkavian, although elements from Styrian Slovene dialects were also included.

The first printed book in the Prekmurje dialect: Cathecismus by Ferenc Temlin.

Prekmurian language, like Standard Slovene, preserves a dual number along with the singular and plural; for example, müva va 'the two of us are' (cf. Standard Slovene midva sva), vüva ta 'the two of you are' (cf. Standard Slovene vidva sta), njüva ta 'the two of them are' (cf. Standard Slovene onadva sta).

Orthography

Standard Prekmurian was not written with the Bohorič alphabet used by Slovenes in Inner Austria, but with a Hungarian-based orthography. János Murkovics's textbook (1871) was the first book to use Gaj's Latin Alphabet.

Before 1914

Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Cscs, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gygy, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Lyly, Mm, Nn, Nyny, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Őő, Pp, Rr, Szsz, Ss, Tt, Uu, Üü, Űű, Vv, Zz, Zszs

After 1914

Aa, Áá, Bb, Cc, Čč, Dd, Ee, Éé, Êê, Ff, Gg, Gjgj, Hh, Ii, Jj, Kk, Ll, Ljlj, Mm, Nn, Njnj, Oo, Ôô, Öö, Pp, Rr, Ss, Šš, Tt, Uu, Üü, Vv, Zz, Žž

Prekmurian subdialects

  • The Rába or Vendvidék subdialect (Slovene: Porabsko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovenian: Bákerski dialektuš), near the Rába River, in the Szentgotthárd district
  • The Goričko subdialect (Slovene: Goričko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovenian: Gorički dialektuš) in upper Prekmurje, Grad, north of Cankova)
  • The Ravensko subdialect (Slovene: Ravensko podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovenian: Ravénski dialektuš west of Cankova and south of Murska Sobota and Rakičan
  • The Murska Sobota subdialect (Slovene: Soboško podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovenian: Soboški dialektuš) near Murska Sobota
  • The Markovsko or Dolinsko subdialect (Slovene: dolinsko (markovsko) podnarečje, Prekmurje Slovenian: Dolénski i Markiški dialektuš) south of Rakičan, near the Mura and Ledava rivers.

The Goričko dialect includes the Slaveči subdialect spoken by Miklós and István Küzmics.

History

The Prekmurian dialect developed from the language of the Carantanian Slavs who settled around Balaton in the 9th century. Due to the political and geographical separation from other Slovene dialects (unlike most of contemporary Slovenia, which was part of the Holy Roman Empire, Prekmurje was under the authority of the Kingdom of Hungary for almost a thousand years), the Prekmurian dialect acquired many specific features. Separated from the cultural development of the remainder of ethnic Slovene territory, the Slovenes in Hungary gradually forged their own specific culture and also their own literary language. In the end of the 16th century some Slovene Protestant pastor supported breaking away from Hungary. The pastors brought along the Bible of Primož Trubar and used it in Gornji Petrovci.

The ABC-book of Miklós Küzmics. This is also the first Hungarian-Slovenian Dictionary.

The first book in the Prekmurian dialect appeared in 1715, and was written by the Lutheran pastor Ferenc Temlin. In the 18th and early 19th century, a regional literature written in Prekmurian language flourished. It comprised mostly (although not exclusively) of religious texts, written by both Protestant and Catholic clergymen. The most important authors were the Lutheran pastor István Küzmics and the Roman Catholic priest Miklós Küzmics who settled the standard for the Prekmurian regional standard language in the 18th century. Both of them were born in central Prekmurje, and accordingly the regional literary language was also based on the central sub-dialects of Prekmurian language.

Miklós Küzmics in the 1790s rejected Standard Slovene. The poet, writer, translator, and journalist Imre Augustich make approaches toward standard Slovene,[7][8] but retained the Hungarian alphabet. The poet Ferenc Sbüll also made motions toward accepting standard Slovene.

By the 16th century, a theory linking the Hungarian Slovenes to the ancient Vandals had become popular. Accordingly, Prekmurian language was frequently designated in Hungarian Latin documents as the Vandalian language (Latin: lingua vandalica, Hungarian: Vandál nyelv, Prekmurian: vandalszki jezik or vandalszka vüszta).

With the advent of modernization in mid 19th century, this kind of literature slowly declined. Nevertheless, the regional standard continued to be used in religious services. In the last decades of the 19th and 20th century, the denomination "Wends" and "Wendish language" was promoted, mostly by pro-Hungarians, in order to emphasize the difference between Hungarian Slovenes and other Slovenes, including attempts to create a separate ethnic identity.

József Kossics: Small Grammar of the Hungarian language and Vandalic language. The work of Kossics was farther form to the Prekmurian standard language.

In 1919, most of Prekmurje was assigned to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, and Slovene replaced Hungarian as the language of education and administration. Standard Slovene gradually started to replace Prekmurian in the local Roman Catholic church, while the Lutheran community continued to use the dialect in their religious services. The local press tried to combine the old Prekmurian regional standard with standard Slovene, making it completely intelligible to Slovenes from other regions. In the late 1920s and 1930s, many Slovenes from the Julian March who fled from Fascist Italy settled in Prekmurje, especially in the town of Murska Sobota, which helped spreading the use of standard Slovene among the population. The Yugoslav authorities encouraged the settlements of Slovene political immigrants from the Kingdom of Italy in Prekmurje as an attempt to reduce the influence of the Magyar element in the region; besides, the western Slovene dialects were very difficult to understand for the people of Prekmurje, thus the use of standard Slovene became almost indespensible for the mutual understaning.[9]

After World War II, the Lutheran Church also switched to standard Slovene in most of its parishes, and Prekmurian has since been relegated to an almost exclusively private use. Nevertheless, the Prekmurian dialect is, along with Resian, one of the few Slovene dialects which is still used by the majority of speakers in their respective territories in its original version, with very few influence from standard Slovene. This creates a situation of diglossy, where the dialect is used as the predominant means of communication in the private life, while the standard language is used in schools, the administration and in the media. The situation is different among Hungarian Slovenes, where standard Slovene is still very rarely used.

The stations of standard Prekmurje Slovenian

1715-1807

In Vilko Novak's opinion, Temlin's Mali Katechismus was the premise of the standard Prekmurian language, inasmuch as this is the first printed book. In 1725 print off the first Prekmurje coursebook, the Abeczedarium Szlowenszko (Slovene ABC-Book), whis create the foundation of Prekmurian grammar.
In 1742 was appear the Réd zvelicsánsztva, printed book of Mihály Szever Vanecsai (Miháo Szever zVanecsa), which was the third printed book in the Prekmurian dialect, therefore rate to subsequent ground-writing.

By the Gospel of István Küzmics (Nouvi Zákon), also his ABC-book (ABC kni'sicza, or Abecednik, 1753), and the Vöre Krsztsanske krátki Návuk likewise regulate to the Prekmurian dialect. Küzmics born into the Ravensko, in Strukovci, and here speak the slavečian vice-dialect. This speak also Miklós Küzmics.
Miklós Küzmics also wrote a ABC-book (ABC kni'snicza, 1790), a catholic catechism (Krátka summa velikoga katekizmussa, 1780) and service-book (Szlovenszki silabikár, 1780), prayer-book (Kniga molitvena, 1783), and the catholic Gospel (Szvéti evangyeliomi, 1780). István and Miklós in first recline upon but the Kajkavian dialect, and receive words by the Hungarian language (farizeus-farizeuš-pharisee).

The ABC-book of Miklós Küzmics was in binding usage in every school in Prekmurje in 1790-1868.

Farther issues of Küzmics Gospels, ABC books and prayer-books
István Küzmics's
  • Nouvi zákon ali Testamentom goszpodna nasega Jezusa Krisztusa (1817)
  • Nôvi zákon ali Testamentom Goszpodna nasega Jezusa Krisztusa. Zdaj oprvics zGrcskoga na sztári Szlovenszki jezik obrnyeni po Küzmics Stevani (1848, edit Sándor Terplán)
  • Novi zákon ali Testamentom Goszpodna nasega Jezus Krisztusa. Szlovencseni po Küzmics Stevani. V Becsi, Vödáni po angluskom i zvönésnyem tüváristvi za Biblie (1883)
  • Novi zákon ali testamentom Goszpodna nasega Jezus Krisztusa (1928), this is the last issue
Miklós Küzmics's
The Gospel of István Küzmics, first standard of the Prekmurian dialect
  • Kniga molitvena, v-steroj sze nahájajo rázlocsne ponizne molitvi, z-dvojim pridavekom (1796)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár (1821)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmusa z-szpitávanyem, i odgovárjanyem mladoszti na návuk vu czaszarszki, i králeszki dr'sányaj. (1833)
  • Kniga molitvena, v-steroj sze nahájajo razlocsne ponizne molitvi, z-dvojim pridavekom, na haszek szlovenszkoga národa na szvetloszt dána (1838)
  • Szvéti Evangyeliomi pouleg réda rimszkoga na vsze nedele i szvétesnye dni z-obcsinszkoga szvétoga piszma na szlovenszki jezik obrnyeni po V. P. goszpoudi Küzmics Miklosi, plebánusi i vice esperesti (1844)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár (1847)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár, z-steroga sze decza steti more navcsiti, z-nikimi rejesiczami, sz- prilo'senim krsztsánszkim návukom, pod prespan stampanya znouvics dani (1851, edit József Borovnják)
  • Szvéti Evangyeliomi pouleg Réda Rimszkoga na vsze Nedele i Szvétesnye Dni (1852, edit József Borovnják)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmussa z-szpitávanyem i odgovárlyanyem mladoszti na návuk vu czaszarszki, i králeszki dr'sányaj (1852)
  • Kniga molitvena, v-steroj sze nahajajo razlocsne ponizne molitvi z-dvojnim pridavekom (1853, edit József Kossics)
  • Kniga molitvena v-steroj sze nahajajo rázlocsne ponizne molitvi, z-dvójim pridavekom (1853)
  • Kniga molitvena v-steroj sze nahajajo rázlocsne ponizne molitvi, z-dvojim pridavekom (1855, edit József Kossics)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár, z-steroga sze decza steti more navesiti, z-nikimi rejcsiczami, i sz-prilo'senim krsztsanszkim návukom navkilpe, pod prespan stampanya znouvics dani (1857)
  • Szvéti evangelii za nedele i szvétke czeloga leta (1858, edit József Borovnják)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár, z-steroga sze decza steti more navcsiti (1861)
  • Kniga molitvena sztaroszlovenszka : v-steroj sze najdejo razlocsne molitvi, litanie, szv. pesmi za vszako prilozsno potrebcsino i szv. krizsna pot na haszek katolicsánskim krscsenikom (1864, edit József Borovnják)
  • Veliki katekizmus. Katolicsánszkoj mladoszti za pravi krscsánszki navuk (1864?)
  • Kniga molitvena sztaro-szlovenszka (1864, edit József Borovnják)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár, z-steroga sze decza steti more navcsiti (1864)
  • Szlovenszki ABCDAR, krsztsánszko-katolicsánszki návuk i drügi za malo decsiczo potrebne recsi (1868)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmussa z-szpitávanyem i odgovarlyanyem mladoszti na návuk vu czaszarszki, i králeszki dr'sányaj (1868)
  • Molitvena kniga sztáro-szlovenszka puna odebránih lepih molitev, litanijah, peszem, vu vszákoj dühovnoj potrebcsini kath. kerscsenika, i križna pot (1868, edit József Borovnjak)
  • Kniga molitvena sztaro-szlovenszka : v steroj sze najdejo razlocsne molitvi, litanie, szv. peszmi za vszako prilozsno potrebcsino, i Szv. krizsna pot : na haszek katolicsanszkim krscsenikom (1869), with the 12. station of Jakab Szabár (Szvéta krizna pot)
  • Szlovenszki szilabikár, z-steroga sze decza steti more navcsiti. Z-nikimi rejcsziczami, i szprilosenim krsztsánszkim návukom navküpe (1870)
  • Szlovenszki ABCDAR, krsztsánszko-katolicsánszki návuk i druge za malo decsiczo potrebne recsi (1870)
The Gospel of Miklós Küzmics, second standard of the Prekmurje dialect
  • Szlovenszki ABCDAR, krsztsánszko-katolicsánszki návuk i drüge za malo decsiczo potrebne recsi (1871?)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmusa z-szpitávanyem, i odgovárjanyem za katholicsánszke soule u-nouva vö dána od drüstva sz. Stevana (1873)
  • Kniga molitvena. Bogábojécsim düsam dána. Sztáro-szlovenszka (1877), with the work of Szabár
  • Kniga molitvena (1877)
  • Szvéti Evangeliomi za nedele i szvétke celoga leta : z navadnimi molitvami pri bozsoj szlüzsbi, pred i po poldnévi. - pridavek glavnih isztin kerscsanszkoga navuka (1877, edit Borovnják)
  • Szvéti evangeliomi za nedele i szvétke celoga leta : z navadnimi molitvami pri bozsoj szlüzsbi pred i po poldnévi. - pridavek glavnih isztin kerscsanszkoga navuka : z dovoljenyom cirkvenoga poglavarsztva (1879)
  • Krátka šumma velikoga katekizmuša spitávanyem, i odgovárjanyem za katoličánske šóle (1883)
  • Szvéti evangeliomi za nedele i szvétke celoga leta. z navadnimi molitvami pri bozsoj szlüzsbi, pred i po poldnévi. - pridavek glavnih isztin kerscsanszkoga navuka (1885, edit Borovnják)
  • Kniga molitvena bogábojécsim düsam dána : sztáro-szlovenszka (1891, edit Borovnják)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmuša spitávanyem, i odgovárjanyem za katoličánske šóle (1892)
  • Krátki krsztsánszki návuk za málo deczo (new issue of the Silábikár, in 1895)
  • Molitvena kniga (1904, edit József Szakovics)
  • Szvéti evangeliomi za nedele i szvétke celoga leta (1904)
  • Krátka summa velikoga katekizmusa z-szpitávanyem i odgovárjanyem mladoszti na návuk (1904)
  • Molitvena kniga (1907)
  • Molitvena kniga (1910)
  • Szvéti evangeliomi za nedele i szvétke celoga leta (1913)
  • Molitvena kniga (1914, two issue)
  • Sveti evangeliomi za nedele i svetke celoga leta (1920, two issue)
  • Molitvena kniga (1931)
  • Molitvena kniga, popravlena sztára szlovenszka "Molitvena kniga" (1942)
  • Molitvena kniga. Obprvim 1783. leta vödána na zapoved i sztroske Szily Janosa, prvoga szombathelyszkoga püspeka (1942)

Mihály Bakos, Slovene Lutheran pastor and writer in 1789 was make a new course-book (Szlovenszki Abecedár), and a gradual (Nouvi Gráduvál). In 1796 reform the Temlin-catechism (Győrszki Kátekizmus). Bakos above all keep going the Küzmics-literary standard.
Teacher István Szijjártó's works Mrtvecsne peszmi (1796) and Sztarisinsztvo i zvacsinsztvo (1807) consummate to the early standard Prekmurian language.

1823-1848

From 1823 begin the second standardisation. Mihály Barla issue to a new hymn-book (Krscsanszke nove peszmene knige). József Kossics, a great writer and poet from Ptrekmurje, made contact with the Slovenian linguist Oroslav Caf and thus get acquainted with the Styrian Slovenian dialect. Kossics first worked in Alsószölnök. The teacher of the village was József Vogrin (Jožef Vogrin) born into the Slovene Styria, accordingly was speak the Styrian. Kossics's father was Croatian descent, accordingly also be up in the kajkavian Croatian language. The Krátki návuk vogrszkoga jezika za zacsetníke, a Slovenian-Hungarian grammarbook and dictionary let out the standard Prekmurian. The Zobriszani Szloven i Szlovenszka med Mürov in Rábov ethic-book, what form the ethics- and linguistic-norms. Zgodbe vogerszkoga králesztva and Sztarine Zseleznih ino Szalaszkih Szlovencov is the first Prekmurje Slovenian history books. Kossics was the first writed to write non-religious poetry.

Teacher István Lülik in 1820 wrote a new course-book (Novi abeczedár), whereof born three issue (1853, 1856, 1863).
Sándor Terplán and János Kardos was wrote a psalmody (Knige 'zoltárszke), and a hymn-book (Krsztsanszke czerkvene peszmi), latter the reprint of Barla's hymn-book.

1870-1886

János Kardos was translate to numerous verses of Sándor Petőfi, János Arany and few Hungarian poet. In 1870 work to a new course-book the Nôve knige cstenyá za vesznícski sôl drügi zlôcs. Imre Augustich in 1875 was establish the first Prekmurian newspaper Prijátel (The Friend), wrote new Hungarian-Prekmurian grammar (Návuk vogrszkoga jezika, 1876) and translate the verses and romans of the Hungarian poets and writers.

In 1886 József Bagáry wrote second course-book, what apply the Gaj alphabet (Perve knige – čtenyá za katholičánske vesničke šolê).

1914-1945

In 1914-1918 so much as ethnic governor, later parliamentarian congressman in Beograd József Klekl was novelize the standard Prekmurian,[10] that's make the Croatian and Slovene language of use. In 1923, the new prayer-book's Hodi k oltarskomi svesti (Come on to the Eucharist) ortography is the Gaj and have the new likeness. Item the newspapers the catholic Novine, Marijin list, Marijin ograček, calendar Kalendar Srca Jezušovoga, the lutheran Düševni list and Evangeličanski kalendar every was cultivate and stand stentinel the prekmurian language.[11]
József Szakovics take an active part in attendance of the Prekmurje dialect, although in the schools was not already Prekmurian education. The prominent Prekmurian writer Miško Kranjec also wrote in Slovene.

János Fliszár wrote a Hungarian-Wendish dictionary in 1922. Sándor Mikola was a Hungarian physicist of Slovene descent with history falsification practise account for the Wendish-Celtic-Hungarian oneness. In 1941 the Hungarian Army seize back the Prekmurje and as 1945 be out after make an end of the Prekmurian dialect and Slovene by the help of Mikola.

After 1945, communist Yugoslavia banned the printing of religious books in the Prekmurian dialects, and only standard Slovene was used in administration and education. In Hungary the dictator Mátyás Rákosi banned every minority language and deported the Slovenes in the Hungarian Plain.

The question of the Wends or Prekmurje language

The matter of the Prekmurian dialect or language was differently worked out. First in the 16th century there was a theory that the Slovenes east of the Mura were descendants of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe of pre-Roman Empire era antiquity. The Vandal name was used as the "scientific" or ethnological term for the Slovenes, but to acknowledge that the Vandalic people were named the Szlovenci, szlovenszki, szlovenye (Slovenians).

In 1627 was issue the Protestant visitation in the country Tótság, or Slovene Circumscription (this is the historical name of the Prekmurje and Vendvidék, Prekmurian: Slovenska okroglina). Herein act a Slavic Bible in Gornji Petrovci, which as a matter of fact the Bible of Primož Trubar. From Carniola and Styria and the 16th and 17th centuries, a few Slovene protestant pastors fled to Hungary and brought with them Trubar's Bible, which helped set the standard for Slovene. Not known by accident there was work on Prekmurian.

As a rule according to the Hungarian dissenters, the Wendish (Prekmurian) language was of Danish, Sorbian, Germanic, Celtic, Eastern Romance or West Slavic extraction. But this was often false, political or exaggerated affirmations.

According to extremist Hungarian groups, the Wends were captured Turkish and Croatian troops who were later integrated into Hungarian society, and the ever popular theory by some Hungarian nationalists: the speakers of the Wendish language "in truth" were Magyar peoples, some had merged into the Slavic population of Slovenia over the last 800 years.

The prayer-book of József Szakovics in 1931. Print was János Zvér in Murska Sobota.
Pray my brothers! Prayer-book of József Szakovics in 1936. His script was written in the Slovene alphabet.

Hungarian physicist Sándor Mikola in 1920 wrote a number of books about Slovene inhabitants of Hungary and the Wends language: the Wendish-Celtic theory. Accordingly, the Wends (Slovenians in Hungary) were of Celtic extraction, not Slavic. Later Mikola already angled to, that the Wends indeed were Slavic-speaking Hungarians. In Hungary, the state's ethnonationalistic program was trying to proved his theories. Mikola also thought the Wends, Slovenes, and Croatians alike were all descendants of the Pannonian Romans, therefore they have Latin blood and culture in them as well.

During the Hungarian revolution when Hungarians rebelled against Habsburg rule, the Catholic Slovenes sided with the Catholic Habsburgs. The Lutheran Slovenians, however supported the rebel Lajos Kossuth, sided with Hungary and they pleaded for the separation of Hungary from Habsburg Austria which had its anti-Protestant policy. At that time, the reasoning that the inhabitants of the Rába Region were not Slovenes but Wends and "Wendish-Slovenes" respectively and that as a consequence their ancestral Slavic-Wendish language was not to be equated with the other Slovenes living in the Austro-Hungarian Empire was established. In the opinion of the Lutheran-Slovene priest of Hodoš the only possibility for the Lutheran Slovenes emerging from the Catholic-Slovenian population group to continue was to support Kossuth and his Hungarian culture. Hereafter the Lutheran Slovenes used their language in churches and schools in the most traditional way in order to distinguish themselves from the Catholic Slovenes and the Slovene language (i.e. pro-Hungarian or pan-Slavic Slovene literature). The Lutheran priests and believers remained of the conviction that they could only adhere to their Lutheran faith when following the wish of the Hungarians (or the Austrians) and considering themselves "Wendish-Slovenes". If they did not conform to this, then they were in danger of being assimilated into Hungarian culture.

In the years preceding World War I, the Hungarian Slovenes were swepted into the ideology of Panslavism, the national unity of all Slavic-speaking peoples of Eastern Europe. The issue was volatile in the fragmented Austro-Hungarian empire, which was defeated in the war. In the 1921 Treaty of Trianon, the southern half (not the whole) of the Prekmurje region was ceded to the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes.

The Hungarian government in Budapest after 1867 tried to assimilate the Prekmurians. In Somogy in the 19th century there was still a ban on using the Prekmurian language. József Borovnyák, Ferenc Ivanóczy, and other Slovenian politicians and writers helped safeguard the Prekmurian dialect and identity.

In the late 20th century and today, the new notion for Hungarian Slovenians is to conceive Prekmurian is in fact the Slovene language, but not dialect. Their allusions: the Küzmics Gospels, the Old Grammar- and state-run public schools, the typical Prekmurian and Rába Slovene culture, the few centuries old-long isolation in Prekmurian and continued self-preservation from the Hungarian majority. Hungarian Slovenes are more interested in being Slovenes.
Also Miklós Küzmics was so conceive of the Prekmurian and Slovene is separates, hence expedient the configuration and expansion of standard Prekmurian language. Imre Augustich make approaches to by standard Slovene, but not ply the Gaj-alphabet, accordingly henceforward thrive the difference between the Slovene and Prekmurian language. The poet Ferenc Sbüll at first was make a motion the borrowing of standard Slovene in the 1860s.

However, pseudoscientic and extremist theories continue to be propagated. Ethnological research has again looked into the "Celtic-Wends, Wendish-Magyars", "Pannonian Roman" and West Slavic theory. Tibor Zsiga, a prominent Hungarian historian in 2001 declared "The Slovene people cannot be declared Wends, neither in Slovenia, neither in Prekmurje." One may mind the Slovene/Slovenski name issue was under Pan-Slavism in the 19th-20th century, the other believes the issue was purely political in nature.

Examples

A comparison between the Lord's Prayer in standard Slovene, Prekmurian, standard Croatian, and Kajkavian Croatian. The Prekmurian version is taken from an authorized prayer book published in 1942 (Zálozso János Zvér, Molitvena Kniga, Odobrena od cérkvene oblászti, Murska Sobota, 1942, third edition). The Hungarian alphabet, used in the original, has been transliterated in to Gaj's Latin alphabet, used in the other three versions, in order to render the comparison easier.

Standard Slovene Prekmurian Standard Croatian Kajkavian
„Oče naš, ki si v nebesih,
posvečeno bodi tvoje ime,
pridi k nam tvoje kraljestvo,
zgodi se tvoja volja
kakor v nebesih tako na zemlji.
Daj nam danes naš vsakdanji kruh
in odpusti nam naše dolge,
kakor tudi mi odpuščamo svojim dolžnikom,
in ne vpelji nas v skušnjavo,
temveč reši nas hudega. Amen.”
„Oča naš, ki si vu nebésaj!
Svéti se Ime tvoje.
Pridi králestvo tvoje.
Bojdi vola tvoja,
kak na nébi, tak i na zemli.
Krüha našega vsakdanéšnjega daj nam ga dnes.
I odpüsti nam duge naše,
kak i mi odpüščamo dužnikom našim.
I ne vpelaj nas vu sküšávanje.
Nego odslobodi nas od hüdoga. Amen.”
„Oče naš, koji jesi na nebesima,
sveti se ime tvoje,
dođi kraljevstvo tvoje,
budi volja tvoja,
kako na nebu tako i na zemlji.
Kruh naš svagdanji daj nam danas,
i otpusti nam duge naše,
kako i mi otpuštamo dužnicima našim,
i ne uvedi nas u napast,
nego izbavi nas od zla. Amen.”
„Japa naš kteri si f 'nebesih,
nek sesvete ime Tvoje,
nek prihaja cesarstvo Tvoje,
nek bu volja Tvoja
kakti na nebe tak pa na zemle.
Kruhek naš sakdajni nam daj denes
ter odpuščaj nam dugi naše,
kakti mi odpuščamo dužnikom našim.
ter naj nas fpelati vu skušnje,
nek nas zbavi od sekih hudobah. Amen.”

Szlédnjo vecsérjo (The Last Supper)

Gda szo pa vecsérjali, vzeo je Jezus krüh i blagoszlovo i vlomo i dáo vucsenikom szvojim i pravo: Zemte i jejte, to je moje Telo. I vzemsi kelih hválo je dáo i ponüdo nyim je rekocs: Pijte z toga vszi. Ár je to moja krv novoga zákona, stera sze za vnoge prelejé na odpüscsenye grehov. Velim vam pa: Nebom pio od zdaj iz száda toga trsza do onoga dnéva, gda bom ono novo pio z vami vu králesztvi Ocsé mojega. I po hválodávanyi szo sli na brzeg Olinszki. Teda nyim právi Jezus: Vszi vi sze szpácsite v meni vu etoj nocsi. Ár je piszano: Pobijem pasztéra i raztepéjp sze ovcé csrede.

The Last Supper, Detail by Gospel of Miklós Küzmics (issue in 1904)

Examples for the differing words

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
pránje umivanje, pomivanje washing
skrpmeti, merkati paziti to look after
meštančar, pörgar meščan burgess
hiža/iža hiša house
odratüvati odvrniti distract, wipe out
vözvênje poizvedovanje interest
nikédig, nindrik ponekod anywhere
mértüčlivost zmernost temperateness
céntor/cintor pokopališče cementery
réditelstvo uredništvo editorial office

Examples for the concordant words

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
nepokornost nepokornost disobedience
küščar kuščar lizard
korouna korona corona
nastlati nastlati to litter
čipka čipka lace
skrivnost skrivnost secret, mystery
zdrávje zdravje health
stüdenec studenec, vodnjak (water) well
mesečen mesečen monthly
süšiti sušiti to dry

Examples for the partway differing words

Prekmurian Standard Slovene English
masou meso meat, (fruit) flesh
pridrdati pridrveti to come rushing
prigoditi se zgoditi se to happen
naprej stati nastati to arise
poküšati se preizkušati se experiment to
nágoča nagota nudity
lače hlače trousers
ládarstvo vladarstvo governance
kradlivi kradljiv sampling tube
závec zajec rabbit

Examples for the hungarian loanwords

Prekmurian Hungarian Standard Slovene English
roság ország država state
čikoš csikós konjski pastir wrangler
pajdáš pajtás tovariš buddy
lampaš lámpás svetilka small lamp
čizma csizma škorenj boot
šapká sapka kapa cap
šator sátor šotor tent
tanáč tanács svet advice
váraš város mesto town
vámoš vámos mitničar toll-keeper

The months in Prekmurje Slovenian

Standard Slovene Prekmurian Standard Croatian English
januar/prosinec
februar/svečan
marec/sušec
april/mali traven
maj/veliki traven
junij/rožnik
julij/mali srpan
avgust/veliki srpan
september/kimavec
oktober/vinotok
november/listopad
december/gruden
sečén
süšec (old szűcza)
mali tráven
velki tráven
mihálšček (old risáošček)
ivánšček
jakopšček
méšnjek
mihálšček (old miháošček)
vsesvéšček
andrejšček
prosinec
siječanj
veljača
ožujak
travanj
svibanj
lipanj
srpanj
kolovoz
rujan
listopad
studeni
prosinac
January
February
March
April
May
June
July
August
September
October
November
December

References

  1. ^ Nagy Világ →Szíjártó Imre: Muravidéki szlovén irodalom; A Muravidék történelmi útja
  2. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Poslünte, da esi prosim vas, gospoda, ka bom vam jas pravo od toga naroda” 10. 12. 14. page
  3. ^ Nagy Világ →Szíjártó Imre: A Muravidék történelmi útja
  4. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →Prekmurska jezikovna vojna, 73. page
  5. ^ Russians, Bohemians, Hungarians, Bulgarian, Bosnians, Styrians, and etc.
  6. ^ Predgovor, Nouvi Zákon, Murska Sobota 2008. English translation: Peter Lamovec
  7. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Poslünte, da esi prosim vas, gospoda ka bom vam jas pravo od toga naroda,” 19. page
  8. ^ Nagy Világ →A Muravidék történelmi útja
  9. ^ László Göncz: The Hungarians in Prekmurje 1918-1941 (A muravidéki magyarság 1918-1941)
  10. ^ Nagy Világ →A Muravidék történelmi útja
  11. ^ F. Just: Med verzuško in pesmijo →„Pride čas, i ne je daleč, gda bomo vu našem maternom jeziki čteli dobra, čedna, poštena, düši i teli hasnovita dela.” 26.-53. page

Sources

External links

See also


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