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Guatemala

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Politics and government of
Guatemala



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The title of President of Guatemala has been the usual title of the leader of Guatemala since 1839, when that title was assumed by Mariano Rivera Paz. Earlier, Guatemala had been a state within the United Provinces of Central America since 1823, before that part of the Mexican Empire under Agustín de Iturbide, and before 1821 ruled by the Captain General of Guatemala, a Spanish colonial official owing allegiance to the Viceroy of New Spain and the King of Spain, back to the Spanish conquest of the region in the early 16th century.

The title of "President" has been used by democratically elected leaders and appointed heads of state, as well as by dictators who took power by military coup.

List of Presidents of Guatemala (1839-Present)

Term start Term end Name Political Party
3 December 1839 25 February 1842 Mariano Rivera Paz (1st time) Liberal Party
14 December 1841 14 May 1842 José Venancio López Requena (acting for Rivera Paz to 25 February 1842) Liberal Party
14 May 1842 14 December 1844 Mariano Rivera Paz (2nd time) Liberal Party
14 December 1844 16 August 1848 José Rafael Carrera Turcios (1st time) Conservative Party
16 August 1848 28 November 1848 Juan Antonio Martínez (interim) Conservative Party
28 November 1848 3 January 1849 José Bernardo Escobar (interim) Conservative Party
3 January 1849 6 November 1851 Mariano Peredes (interim) Liberal Party
6 November 1851 14 April 1865 José Rafael Carrera Turcios (2nd time) (styled Perpetual President from 21 October 1854) Conservative Party
14 April 1865 24 May 1865 Pedro de Aycinena y Piñol (acting) Conservative Party
24 May 1865 29 June 1871 Vicente Cerna Sandoval Liberal Party
29 June 1871 4 June 1873 Miguel García Granados Zavala (in rebellion from 3 June 1871) Liberal Party
4 June 1873 2 April 1885 Justo Rufino Barrios Auyón Liberal Party
2 April 1885 5 April 1885 Alejandro M. Sinibaldi (acting) Liberal Party
6 April 1885 15 March 1892 Manuel Lisandro Barillas Bercián (acting to 15 March 1886) Conservative Party
15 March 1892 8 February 1898 José María Reina Barrios Conservative Party
8 February 1898 15 April 1920 Manuel José Estrada Cabrera (acting to 2 October 1898) Liberal Party
15 April 1920 10 December 1921 Carlos Herrera y Luna (acting to 15 September 1920; Head of State from 13 June 1921) Unionist Party
10 December 1921 26 September 1926 José María Orellana Pinto (Head of State to 14 January 1922; acting to 4 March 1922) Liberal Party
26 September 1926 12 December 1930 Lázaro Chacón González (acting to 18 December 1926) Unionist Party
12 December 1930 17 December 1930 Baudilio Palma (acting) Unionist Party
17 December 1930 2 January 1931 Manuel María Orellana Contreras (acting) Unionist Party
2 January 1931 14 February 1931 José María Reina Andrade (acting) Liberal Party
14 February 1931 1 July 1944 Jorge Ubico y Castañeda Liberal Party
1 July 1944 4 July 1944 Military Triumvirate
composed of:
Federico Ponce Vaides
Eduardo Villagrán Ariza
Buenaventura Pineda
Military
4 July 1944 20 October 1944 Juan Federico Ponce Vaides Liberal Party
20 October 1944 15 March 1945 Revolutionary Government Junta
composed of:
Francisco Javier Arana
Jacobo Arbenz Guzman
Jorge Toriello Garrido
Military
15 March 1945 15 March 1951 Juan José Arévalo Bermejo Revolutionary Action Party
15 March 1951 27 June 1954 Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán Revolutionary Action Party
27 June 1954 28 June 1954 Carlos Enrique Díaz de León (provisional) Military
28 June 1954 29 June 1954 Government Junta I
composed of:
Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre
Jose Angel Sanchez
Carlos Enrique Díaz de León
Military
29 June 1954 3 July 1954 Government Junta II
composed of:
Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre
Jose Luis Cruz Salazar
Mauricio Dubois
Military
3 July 1954 7 July 1954 Government Junta III
composed of:
Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre (junta chairman)
Carlos Castillo Armas
Jose Luis Cruz Salazar
Enrique Trinidad Oliva
Mauricio Dubois
Military
7 July 1954 1 September 1954 Government Junta IV
composed of:
Carlos Castillo Armas (junta chairman)
Enrique Trinidad Oliva
Elfego Hernán Monzón Aguirre<
Military
1 September 1954 26 July 1957 Carlos Castillo Armas Military
27 July 1957 23 October 1957 Luis Arturo González López (acting) National Progress Party
23 October 1957 26 October 1957 Government Junta
composed of:
Óscar Mendoza Azurdia (chairman of military junta)
Roberto Lorenzana Salazar
Gonzalo Yurrita Nova<
Military
26 October 1957 2 March 1958 Guillermo Flores Avendaño (acting) Military
2 March 1958 30 March 1963 José Miguel Ramón Ydígoras Fuentes Military/National Democratic Reconciliation/Redemption Party
30 March 1963 1 July 1966 Alfredo Enrique Peralta Azurdia (Head of government to 5 May 1966 and then Head of State) Military
1 July 1966 1 July 1970 Julio César Méndez Montenegro Revolutionary Party
1 July 1970 1 July 1974 Carlos Manuel Arana Osorio Military/National Liberation Movement
1 July 1974 1 July 1978 Kjell Eugenio Laugerud García Military/National Liberation Movement/Institutional Democratic Party
1 July 1978 23 March 1982 Fernando Romeo Lucas García Military/Institutional Democratic Party/Revolutionary Party
23 March 1982 9 June 1982 Government Junta
composed of:
José Efraín Ríos Montt (chairman of military junta)
Horacio Egberto Maldonado Schaad
Francisco Luis Gordillo Martínez<
Military
9 June 1982 8 August 1983 José Efraín Ríos Montt (Chief of State) Military
8 August 1983 14 January 1986 Óscar Humberto Mejía Victores (Chief of State) Military
14 January 1986 14 January 1991 Marco Vinicio Cerezo Arévalo Guatemalan Christian Democratic Party
14 January 1991 5 June 1993 Jorge Antonio Serrano Elías Solidarity Action Movement
6 June 1993 14 January 1996 Ramiro de León Carpio Non-party Elected by Congress
14 January 1996 14 January 2000 Álvaro Enrique Arzú Irigoyen National Advancement Party
14 January 2000 14 January 2004 Alfonso Antonio Portillo Cabrera Guatemalan Republican Front
14 January 2004 14 January 2008 Óscar Berger Perdomo Grand National Alliance
14 January 2008 Present Álvaro Colom Caballeros National Unity of Hope

Latest election

e • d  Summary of the 9 September and 4 November 2007 Guatemalan presidential election results
Candidates — Parties 1st round 2nd round
Votes % Votes %
Álvaro ColomNational Unity of Hope (UNE) 926,244 28.23% 1,449,153 52.82
Otto Pérez MolinaPatriotic Party (PP) 771,175 23.51% 1,294,645 47.18
Alejandro Giammattei — Grand National Alliance (GANA) 565,270 17.23%
Eduardo Suger — Social Action Centre (CASA) 244,448 7.45%
Luis Rabbé — Guatemalan Republican Front (FRG) 239,208 7.29%
Mario Estrada — Nationalist Change Union (UCN) 103,603 3.16%
Rigoberta MenchúEncounter for Guatemala (EG) 101,316 3.09%
Fritz García-Gallont — Unionist Party (PU) 95,743 2.92%
Óscar Castañeda — National Advancement Party (PAN) 83,826 2.56%
Miguel Ángel Sandoval — Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity–MAIZE (URNG–MAIZ) 70,080 2.14%
Manuel Conde Orellana — Democratic Union (UD) 24,971 0.76%
Pablo Monsanto — New Nation Alliance (ANN) 19,377 0.59%
Héctor Rosales — Authentic Integral Development (DIA) 18,819 0.57%
Vinicio Cerezo Blandón — Guatemalan Christian Democracy (DCG) 16,529 0.50%
Valid votes (turnout 60.5%/48.3%) 3,280,609 100.0 2,743,798 100.0
Blank votes 132,983 50,601
Invalid votes 208,260 101,214
Total votes 3,621,852 2,895,613
Source: Tribunal Supremo Electoral

See also

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