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Peru

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Established in the Constitution of 1993, the President of Peru, officially the President of the Republic (Presidente de la República), is the chief of state of Peru and represents the republic in official international matters. The presidential term is five years. Also, Peru does not allow an incumbent President to succeed himself, so the incumbent President is barred from running in the election. (A former president may run again in subsequent presidential elections). The current president of Peru is Alan García, elected in 2006.

Contents

History

During its more than 180 years of independence, Peru has been ruled by the military leaders who fought for independence, the leaders of the War of the Pacific, representatives of the aristocracy, and democratically-elected leaders. Also, the history of the presidency has involved civil wars, coups and violence. More than once, several individuals claimed the right to be president at the same time.

Different titles have been used, such as "Protector of Peru" (used by José de San Martin), "Liberator" (used by Simón Bolivar) and "Supreme Protector" (by Andrés de Santa Cruz).

The following table contains a list of the individuals who have served as president of Peru.

Current living former presidents

  1. Francisco Morales Bermúdez (1975–1980)
  2. Alberto Fujimori (1990–2000)
  3. Alejandro Toledo (2001–2006)

Presidents of the Republic (1821–Present)

#
President Inaugurated Left office Form of Entry Title
1 Smartin.JPG José de San Martín July 28, 1821 September 20, 1822 Indirect elections Protector of Peru
2 LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro September 20, 1822 September 22, 1822 Indirect elections Interim caretaker
3 LaMar1.jpg José La Mar September 22, 1822 February 27, 1823 Elected by Congress President of the Government Junta
4 Torre Tagle.png José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle February 27, 1823 February 28, 1823
5 JRivaAguero01.jpg José de la Riva Agüero February 28, 1823 June 23, 1823 Elected by Congress
6 Jose de scure.jpg Antonio José de Sucre June 23, 1823 July 17, 1823 Elected by Congress
7 Torre Tagle.png José Bernardo de Tagle, Marquis of Torre-Tagle July 17, 1823 February 17, 1824 Elected by Congress Supreme Delegate
8 Simon Bolivar.jpg Simón Bolívar February 17, 1824 January 28, 1827 Elected by Congress Liberator of Peru
9 IMAGE Andres de Santa Cruz www.presidencia.bo.org.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz January 28, 1827 June 9, 1827 Elected by Congress President of the Government Council
10 Msalazaryb.png Manuel Salazar y Baquíjano June 9, 1827 August 22, 1827 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
11 LaMar1.jpg José La Mar August 22, 1827 June 7, 1829 Direct Elections
12 Agutierrezf.png Antonio Gutiérrez de la Fuente June 7, 1829 September 1, 1829 Coup d'état
13 Agustín Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra September 1, 1829 December 20, 1833 Elected by Congress
14 LunaPizarro1.jpg Francisco Xavier de Luna Pizarro December 20, 1833 December 21, 1833 Elected by Congress Interim caretaker
15 Orbegoso1.jpg Luis José de Orbegoso y Moncada December 21, 1833 August 11, 1836 Elected by Congress
16 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Pedro Pablo Bermúdez[1] January 4, 1833 April 24, 1834 Coup d'état Provisional Supreme Ruler
17 Salaverry2.jpg Felipe Santiago Salaverry[2] February 23, 1835 February 7, 1836 Coup d'état Supreme Legislator
18 IMAGE Andres de Santa Cruz www.presidencia.bo.org.jpg Andrés de Santa Cruz[3] August 11, 1836 August 25, 1838 Supreme Protector of the Confederation
19 Agustín Gamarra.jpg Agustín Gamarra August 25, 1838 November 18, 1841 Elected by Congress
20 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Manuel Menéndez November 18, 1841 August 16, 1842 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
21 Torrico1.jpg Juan Crisóstomo Torrico August 16, 1842 October 17, 1842 Coup d'état
22 Vidal1.jpg Juan Francisco de Vidal[4] October 17, 1842 March 15, 1843 Coup d'état
23 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Justo Figuerola March 15, 1843 March 20, 1843 Coup d'état
24 Vivanco1.jpg Manuel Ignacio de Vivanco March 20, 1843 June 17, 1844 Selfproclaimed President
25 Domingonieto.jpg Domingo Nieto March 20, 1843 February 17, 1844 Selfproclaimed President
26 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla February 17, 1844 August 10, 1844 Elected in replace of Domingo Nieto
27 Domingo Elias.jpg Domingo Elías June 17, 1844 August 10, 1844 Selfproclaimed President
'28 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Manuel Menéndez August 10, 1844 August 11, 1844 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
29 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Justo Figuerola August 11, 1844 October 7, 1844 Coup d'état
30 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Manuel Menéndez October 7, 1844 April 20, 1845 Interim caretaker President of the Government Council
31 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla April 20, 1845 April 20, 1851 Direct Elections
33 1851joseechenique.jpg José Rufino Echenique April 20, 1851 January 5, 1855 Direct Elections
34 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla January 5, 1855 October 24, 1862 Coup d'état
Direct Elections
35 Miguelsanroman.png Miguel de San Román October 24, 1862 April 3, 1863 Direct Elections
36 RamonCastilla.jpg Ramón Castilla April 3, 1863 April 9, 1863 Revolution
Selfproclaimed President
37 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Pedro Diez Canseco April 3, 1863 August 5, 1863 Interim caretaker Second Vicepresident
38 President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet August 5, 1863 April 25, 1865 First Vicepresident
39 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado April 25, 1865 June 24, 1865 Coup d'état
40 President Pezet.jpg Juan Antonio Pezet June 24, 1865 November 8, 1865
41 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Pedro Diez Canseco November 8, 1865 November 28, 1865 Interim caretaker
42 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado November 28, 1865 January 8, 1868 Direct Elections
- Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Pedro Diez Canseco January 8, 1868 August 2, 1868 Interim caretaker
43 Jose Balta.jpg José Balta August 2, 1868 July 22, 1872 Direct Elections
44 Tgutierrez.png Tomás Gutiérrez July 22, 1872 July 26, 1872 Coup d'état Supreme Leader of the Nation
45 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Francisco Diez Canseco July 26, 1872 July 27, 1872 Interim caretaker
46 HerenciaZevallos.jpg Mariano Herencia Zevallos July 27, 1872 August 2, 1872 Interim caretaker
47 Mpardol.png Manuel Pardo August 2, 1872 August 2, 1876 Direct Elections
48 Mariano Prado.jpg Mariano Ignacio Prado August 2, 1876 December 23, 1879 Direct Elections
49 Nicolas de Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola December 23, 1879 November 28, 1881 Coup d'état Commander in Chief of the State
50 Garcia Calderon.jpg Francisco García Calderón March 12, 1881 September 28, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Lima)
Provisional President of the Republic
51 LizardoMontero.jpg Lizardo Montero Flores September 28, 1881 November 6, 1881 Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Arequipa)
Provisional President of the Republic
52 Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres November 6, [[1881]] December 25, [[1882]] Selfproclaimed
Chilean Occupation
(Central Peru)
President of the Republic
53 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Miguel Iglesias November 6, [[1881]] December 25, [[1882]] Elected by Congress
Chilean Occupation
(Cajamarca)
Regenerator President of the Republic
54 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Antonio Arenas December 3, [[1885]] June 5, 1886 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
55 Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres June 5, 1886 August 10, 1890 Direct Elections Constitutional President
56 Remigio Morales Bermudez Presidente.jpg Remigio Morales Bermúdez August 10, 1890 April 1, 1894 Direct Elections Constitutional President
57 Justiniano Borgoño presidente.jpg Justiniano Borgoño April 1, 1894 August 10, 1894 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
58 Andres Caceres.jpg Andrés Avelino Cáceres August 10, 1894 March 20, 1895 Direct Elections Constitutional President
59 Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo March 20, 1895 September 8, 1895 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
60 Nicolas de Pierola.jpg Nicolás de Piérola September 8, 1895 September 8, 1899 Direct Elections Constitutional President
61 Eduardo López de Romaña September 8, 1899 September 8, 1903 Direct Elections Constitutional President
62 Manuel Candamo.jpg Manuel Candamo September 8, 1903 May 7, 1904 Direct Elections Constitutional President
63 SerapioCalderon.jpg Serapio Calderón May 7, 1904 September 24, 1904 Interim caretaker President of the Government Junta
64 Pardo y Barreda.jpg José Pardo y Barreda September 24, 1904 September 24, 1908 Direct Elections Constitutional President
65 LEGUIA.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo September 24, 1908 September 24, 1912 Direct Elections Constitutional President
66 Guillermo billinghurst.jpg Guillermo Billinghurst September 24, 1912 February 4, 1914 Direct Elections Constitutional President
67 Óscar Benavides.jpg Óscar Benavides February 4, 1914 August 18, 1915 Coup d'état
68 Pardo y Barreda.jpg José Pardo y Barreda August 18, 1915 July 4, 1919 Direct Elections Constitutional President
69 LEGUIA.jpg Augusto B. Leguía y Salcedo July 4, 1919 August 25, 1930 Direct Elections
Coup d'état
Constitutional President
70 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Manuel María Ponce Brousset August 25, 1930 August 27, 1930 Interim caretaker
71 Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro August 27, 1930 March 1, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
72 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Ricardo Leoncio Elías Arias March 1, 1931 March 5, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
73 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Gustavo Jiménez March 5, 1931 March 11, 1931 Coup d'état President of the Provisional Government Junta
74 Samanez Ocampo.jpg David Samanez Ocampo March 11, 1931 December 8, 1931 Interim caretaker President of the Southern Junta
75 Sánchez Cerro.jpg Luis Miguel Sánchez Cerro December 8, 1931 April 30, 1933 Direct Elections Constitutional President
76 Óscar Benavides.jpg Óscar Benavides April 30, 1933 December 8, 1939 Elected by Congress Constitutional President
77 President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche December 8, 1939 July 28, 1945 Direct Elections Constitutional President
78 Bustamantejoseluis.JPG José Luis Bustamante y Rivero July 28, 1945 October 29, 1948 Direct Elections Constitutional President
79 Manuel Odría October 29, 1948 June 1, 1950 Coup d'état
80 Escudo nacional del Perú.svg Zenón Noriega Agüero June 1, 1950 July 28, 1950 Interim caretaker
81 Manuel Odría July 28, 1950 July 28, 1956 Direct Elections Constitutional President
82 President Don Manuel Prado.JPG Manuel Prado y Ugarteche July 28, 1956 July 18, 1962 Direct Elections Constitutional President
83 Ricardo Pérez Godoy July 18, 1962 March 3, 1963 Coup d'état 1st President of the Military Junta
84 Nicolás Lindley March 3, 1963 July 28, 1963 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Military Junta
85 Fernando Belaúnde Terry July 28, 1963 October 3, 1968 Direct Elections Constitutional President
86 Velasco Alvarado.jpg Juan Velasco Alvarado October 3, 1968 August 30, 1975 Coup d'état 1st President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
87 Fmorber.png Francisco Morales Bermúdez August 30, 1975 July 28, 1980 Coup d'état 2nd President of the Revolutionary Government of the Armed Forces
88 Fernando Belaúnde Terry July 28, 1980 July 28, 1985 Direct Elections Constitutional President
89 Garciaalan09112006.jpg Alan García Pérez July 28, 1985 July 28, 1990 Direct Elections Constitutional President
90 FujimoriUSIP.jpg Alberto Fujimori July 28, 1990 November 22, 2000[5] Direct Elections Constitutional President
91 VPC May 2003.jpg Valentín Paniagua November 22, 2000 July 28, 2001 As President of Congress, was 3rd in the line of succession. Raised to power after the President was impeached and both VP resigned. President of Transition Government
92 Alejandro Toledo (8682).jpg Alejandro Toledo July 28, 2001 July 28, 2006 Direct Elections Constitutional President
93 Garciaalan09112006.jpg Alan García Pérez July 28, 2006 Present Direct Elections Constitutional President

See also

References

  1. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegozo in Arequipa.
  2. ^ Selfproclaimed President, Parallel government with Orbegozo in Lima.
  3. ^ The Republic of Peru and the Republic of Bolivia were united into a federal state called the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. Peru was divided in the states of North Peru and South Peru, each one of them with its own President.
  4. ^ No effective central government existed after the Coup d'état against Francisco Vidal, with several generals claiming the Presidency in different cities around the country.
  5. ^ Alberto Fujimori submitted his resignation on November 19, 2000. His resignation was rejected by the Peruvian Congress, who declared him "Morally Unfit" for the Presidency and impeached him on November 22, 2000.
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