President of Turkey: Wikis


Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.


From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

President of
the Republic of Turkey
Presidential Seal of the Republic of Turkey.png
Seal of the President of Turkey
Abdullah Gül
Term length Five years, renewable once
Inaugural holder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
Formation October 29, 1923

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of

Other countries · Atlas
Politics portal
Standard of the President as Commander-in-Chief of the Turkish Armed Forces

The President of Turkey (Cumhurbaşkanı) is the head of state of the Republic of Turkey. In this capacity he represents the Republic of Turkey, and the unity of the Turkish nation; he ensures the implementation of the Turkish constitution, and the organized and harmonious functioning of the organs of state. The articles from 101 to 106 of the constitution establish all the requirements, election, duties and responsibilities for the office of the President. The office of the President of Turkey was established with the proclamation of the Republic of Turkey on October 29, 1923. Current office-holder is the 11th president, Abdullah Gül since August 28, 2007.



In order to become the President of Turkey, the candidate must have completed higher education, be at least forty years of age, and be a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly or a Turkish citizen eligible to be a deputy.

The president-elect has to sever his relations, if any, with his political party, and his status as a member of the Turkish Grand National Assembly must cease.


The election of the President must begin at least 30 days before the term of office of the incumbent president expires or 10 days after the presidency falls vacant, and must be completed within 30 days of the beginning of the election. Candidates must be declared to the bureau of the parliament within the first 10 days of this period, and elections must be completed within the remaining 20 days.

Formerly, the President was elected by the members of the Turkish Parliament. According to an amendment that was drafted in 2007, the future presidents shall be elected by the citizens through a public vote. The candidates must be over forty years old and must have completed their higher education. They can either be members of the Turkish Parliament, or common Turkish citizens who fulfill these requirements and who are eligible to become members of parliament.

Term of office

TC-ANA, the Presidential jet, is an Airbus A319-115-XCJ

The president is elected for a term of office of 5 years (it was previously 7 years, but has been reduced to 5 years in 2007), and may be re-elected only once, for a second term.

The term of office of the incumbent president continues until the president-elect takes office.

On assuming office, the president takes the following oath before the parliament:

"In my capacity as President of the Republic, I swear upon my honor and repute before the great Turkish nation and before history to safeguard the existence and independence of the state, the indivisible integrity of country and nation, and the sovereignty of the nation without restriction or stipulation; to abide by the Constitution, the rule of law, democracy, the principles and reforms of Atatürk, and the principle of a secular republic; not to deviate from the ideal of all enjoying human rights and basic freedoms in peace, prosperity and in a spirit of national solidarity and justice; to preserve and enhance the glory and honor of the Republic of Turkey and to work with all my strength to perform with impartiality the functions that I have assumed."

Duties and responsibilities


Legislative functions

  • to deliver, if he deems it necessary, the opening address of the parliament on the first day of the legislative year,
  • to summon the parliament to meet, when necessary,
  • to promulgate laws,
  • to return laws to the parliament to be reconsidered,
  • to submit to referendum, if he deems it necessary, legislation regarding amendment of the constitution,
  • to appeal to the Constitutional Court for the annulment of certain provisions or the entirety of laws, decrees having the force of law, and the Rules of Procedure of the parliament on the grounds that they are unconstitutional in form or in content,
  • to call new elections for the parliament

Executive functions

  • to appoint and to accept the resignation of the prime minister,
  • to appoint and dismiss ministers upon the proposal of the prime minister,
  • to preside over the council of ministers or to call the council of ministers to meet under his chairmanship whenever he deems it necessary,
  • to accredit representatives of the Turkish State to foreign states, and to receive the representatives of foreign states appointed to the Republic of Turkey,
  • to ratify and promulgate international treaties,
  • to represent the Supreme Military Command of the Turkish Armed Forces on behalf of the Turkish Grand National Assembly,
  • to decide on the mobilization of the Turkish Armed Forces,
  • to appoint the Chief of the General Staff,
  • to call the National Security Council to meet,
  • to preside over the National Security Council,
  • to proclaim martial law or state of emergency, and to issue decrees having the force of law, upon a decision of the council of ministers meeting under his chairmanship,
  • to sign decrees,
  • to grant full or partial clemency, on grounds of chronic illness, disability, or old age, all or part of the sentences imposed on certain individuals
  • to appoint the members and the chairman of the State Supervisory Council,
  • to instruct the State Supervisory Council to carry out inquiries, investigations and inspections,
  • to appoint the members of the Higher Education Council,
  • to appoint rectors of universities.

Judiciary functions

  • to appoint the members of the Constitutional Court, one-fourth of the members of the Council of State, the Chief Public Prosecutor and the Deputy Chief Public Prosecutor of the Higher Court of Appeals, the members of the Military High Court of Appeals, the members of the Supreme Military Administrative Court and the members of the Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors.

The president performs also the duties of selection and appointment, and other duties conferred by the constitution and laws.

Accountability and non-accountability

The official Seal of the Presidency, used on documents.

All presidential decrees, except those which the president is empowered to enact on his own without the signatures of the prime minister and the minister concerned, in accordance with the provisions of the constitution and other laws, must be signed by the prime minister, and the ministers concerned. The prime minister and the ministers concerned are accountable for these decrees. The decisions and orders signed by the president on his own initiatives may not be appealed against to any judicial authority, including the Constitutional Court. The president may be impeached for high treason on the proposal of at least one-third of the total number of the members of the parliament, and by the decision of at least three-fourths of the total number of the members.

Acting president

In the event of a temporary absence of the president on account of illness, travel abroad or similar circumstances, the speaker of the parliament serves as acting president, and exercises the powers of the president until the president resumes his functions, and in the event that the presidency falls vacant as a result of death or resignation or for any other reason, until the election of a new president.

See also

External links

Simple English

This is a complete list of Presidents of Turkey. The list includes all eleven heads of state that lead the country after the Turkish War of Independence. For a list of rulers of the predecessor Ottoman Empire, see the Ottoman Dynasty.


Presidents of the Republic of Turkey (1923-Present)

# Name Picture Born - Died Took Office Left Office Background
1 Mustafa Kemal Atatürk[1] 1881 - 1938 October 29, 1923 November 10, 1938 (Died in Office) Republican People's Party
2 Mustafa İsmet İnönü[2] [[File:|60px]] 1884 - 1973 November 11, 1938 May 22, 1950 Republican People's Party
3 Mahmut Celal Bayar File:Celal 1883 - 1986 May 22, 1950 May 27, 1960 (Deposed) Democratic Party
4 Cemal Gürsel   1895 - 1966 October 10, 1961 March 28, 1966 Military
5 Cevdet Sunay   1900 - 1982 March 28, 1966 March 28, 1973 Military
6 Fahri Korutürk   1903 - 1987 April 6, 1973 April 6, 1980 Military
7 Kenan Evren   1917 - November 9, 1982 November 9, 1989 Military
8 Turgut Özal File:Turgut Özal 1927 - 1993 November 9, 1989 April 17, 1993 (Died in Office) Motherland Party
9 Süleyman Demirel File:Suleyman Demirel 1924 - May 16, 1993 May 16, 2000 True Path Party
10 Ahmet Necdet Sezer File:Ahmet Necdet 1941 - May 16, 2000 August 28, 2007 Judiciary
11 Abdullah Gül File:Abdullah Gül 1950 - August 28, 2007 Present Justice and Development Party

Acting Presidents


  1. Served four terms. Elected unanimously by parliament in 1923, 1927, 1931 and 1935.
  2. Served four terms. Elected by parliament in 1938, 1939, 1943 and 1946.



Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address