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Yugoslavia

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This is a List of Heads of State of Yugoslavia from the creation of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes in 1918 until the end of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1992.

In the history of the country, no Yugoslav head of state was democratically elected. Royal Yugoslavia was ruled as a constitutional monarchy by the House of Karađorđević from 1918 until the Second World War. Second Yugoslavia was ruled by Josip Broz, head of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia from the Second World War until his death, when the state presidency rotated until its end. With republican democratic reforms in 1990, individual republics elected their own governments, but the nation's head of state continued to rotate among unelected representatives of the republics until the county's dissolution.

Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes/Kingdom of Yugoslavia (1918-1945)

The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was created by the merger of the Kingdom of Serbia and the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs on 1 December 1918. It was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia in 1929.

King Lifespan Rule House Notes
Peter I 1844–1921 1 December 1918-
16 August 1921
Karađorđević Prince Alexander acted as regent
Alexander 1888–1934 16 August 1921-
9 October 1934
Karađorđević proclaimed King of Yugoslavia in 1929
assassinated
Peter II 1923–1970 9 October 1934-
29 November 1945
Karađorđević Prince Paul acted as regent until ousted
on 27 March 1941; Peter was exiled by
the German invasion on 17 April 1941 and
declared deposed on 29 November 1945.

Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (1945-1991)

Flag of SFR Yugoslavia (1945-1992)

After the German invasion and fragmentation of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia, partisans formed the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia (AVNOJ) in 1942. On 29 November 1943 a AVNOJ conference proclaimed the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia, while negotiations with the royal government in exile continued. After the liberation of Belgrade, the Communist-led government on 29 November 1945 declared King Petar II deposed and proclaimed the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia. In 1963, the state was renamed Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

President Lifespan Term Political Party
Ivan Ribar 1881 - 1968 29 December 1945 - 14 January 1953 Communist Party/League of Communists of Yugoslavia
Josip Broz Tito 1892 - 1980 14 January 1953 - 16 May 1974 League of Communists of Yugoslavia

Since 1974, Yugoslavia was headed by a collective presidency, consisting of representatives of the six republics, the two autonomous provinces within Serbia and (until 1988) the President of the League of Communists. The collective was first chaired by Tito, who was President for life. After his death in 1980, one member was annually elected Chairman of the Presidency and acted as head of state.

Name Lifespan Term Political Party Representing
Josip Broz Tito 1892 - 1980 16 May 1974 - 4 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia President for life
Lazar Koliševski 1914 - 2000 4 May 1980 - 15 May 1980 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia
Cvijetin Mijatović 1913 - 1993 15 May 1980 - 15 May 1981 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sergej Kraigher 1914 - 2001 15 May 1981 - 15 May 1982 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Slovenia
Petar Stambolić 1912 - 2007 15 May 1982 - 15 May 1983 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Serbia
Mika Špiljak 1916 - 2007 15 May 1983 - 15 May 1984 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Croatia
Veselin Đuranović 1925 - 1997 15 May 1984 - 15 May 1985 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Montenegro
Radovan Vlajković 1922 - 2001 15 May 1985 - 15 May 1986 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Vojvodina
Sinan Hasani 1922 - 15 May 1986 - 15 May 1987 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Kosovo
Lazar Mojsov 1920 - 15 May 1987 - 15 May 1988 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Macedonia
Raif Dizdarević 1926 - 15 May 1988 - 15 May 1989 League of Communists of Yugoslavia Bosnia and Herzegovina
Janez Drnovšek 1950 - 2008 15 May 1989 - 15 May 1990 Independent Slovenia
Borisav Jović 1928 - 15 May 1990 - 15 May 1991 League of Communists of Yugoslavia,
Socialist Party of Serbia
Serbia
Vacant (15 May 1991-16 May 1991)
Sejdo Bajramović
(acting)
1927 - 1994 16 May 1991 - 30 June 1991 Socialist Party of Serbia Kosovo
Stjepan Mesić 1934 - 30 June 1991 - 3 October 1991
(formally resigned 5 December 1991)
Croatian Democratic Union Croatia
Branko Kostić (acting) 1939 - 3 October 1991 - 15 June 1992 Democratic Party of Socialists of Montenegro Montenegro

For other leading officials of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, see List of leaders of SFR Yugoslavia.

See also

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