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President of the
United States of America
Seal Of The President Of The Unites States Of America.svg
Official seal
Incumbent
Barack Obama

since January 20, 2009
Style The Honorable
(Within the U.S.)
His Excellency
(Outside the U.S.)
Residence White House
Term length Four years, renewable once
Inaugural holder George Washington
April 30, 1789
Formation U.S. Constitution
March 4, 1789
Website whitehouse.gov/president
.The President of the United States is the head of state and head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in the United States by influence and recognition.^ Who was the second President of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidents of the United States January 1, 2002 .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The president leads the executive branch of the federal government and is one of only two nationally elected federal officers (the other being the Vice President of the United States).^ William R. King was elected vice-president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The former vice president of the United States, Al Gore.

[1]
.Among other powers and responsibilities, Article II of the U.S. Constitution charges the president to "faithfully execute" federal law, makes the president commander-in-chief of the United States armed forces, allows the president to nominate executive and judicial officers with the advice and consent of the Senate, and allows the president to grant pardons and reprieves.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is the commander of the militia, and head of the armed force.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [General Grant is now (1874) the eighteenth President of the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Due to the United States' status as the only remaining superpower, the president is generally regarded as the most powerful person in the world.^ President Musharraf is a friend of the United States.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who was the second President of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[2]
.The president is indirectly elected by the people through the Electoral College to a four-year term.^ Lincoln was elected president for two terms.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The presidential elector nominees of the party whose nominees for President and Vice President of the United States receive the highest number of votes at the general election shall be deemed the elected presidential electors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Oct 27, 1858) served as the 26th President of the US. He had been elected Vice-President under McKinley’s 2nd term.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since 1951, presidents have been limited to two terms by the Twenty-second Amendment.^ Vice president for President Reagan for two terms.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lincoln was elected president for two terms.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all, 43 individuals have served 56 four-year terms.^ I served eight years, and we all served honorably.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now lets all join hands and welcome four years of the Jimmy Carter Administration with a face lift.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ FDR was the only American president ever to serve four terms.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .On January 20, 2009, Barack Obama became the forty-fourth, and current, president.^ Tuesday, January 20, 2009 .
  • Deuce of Davenport | Sports News, Commentary, Humor, Videos: The 44th President Of The United States, Barack Hussein Obama 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.deuceofdavenport.com [Source type: General]

^ I first became aware of President Obama in 2003 when I was introduced to him in Chicago by a friend who was a campaign volunteer and former law student of his.
  • Deuce of Davenport | Sports News, Commentary, Humor, Videos: The 44th President Of The United States, Barack Hussein Obama 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.deuceofdavenport.com [Source type: General]

^ "We need a president who can reintroduce America to the world, and reintroduce America to ourselves," Leahy said, later adding, "Barack Obama represents the America we once were and want to be again."

Origin

United States

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
the United States


Other countries · Atlas
 US Government Portal
.In 1783, the Treaty of Paris left the United States independent and at peace, but with an unsettled governmental structure.^ Under the treaty, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (WUD, 1994 p.1088)(MC, 1/27/02) 1778 Feb 6, The United States won official recognition from France as the nations signed a treaty of aid in Paris.
  • Timeline 1771-1779 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (HNQ, 6/23/98) 1783 Sep 3, The Treaty of Paris between the United States and Great Britain officially ended the Revolutionary War.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Second Continental Congress had drawn up the Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent confederation, but granting to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced.^ (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12) 1775 Nov 28, The Second Continental Congress formally established the American Navy.
  • Timeline 1771-1779 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the United States each separate journal exercises but little authority, but the power of the periodical press is only second to that of the people.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I think, however, that the period is still remote at which the federal power will be entirely extinguished by its inability to protect itself and to maintain peace in the country.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.In part, this reflected the anti-monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant.^ The saddest part of all is that the American People do nothing while their jobs disappear, health care system fails, education declines and strength diminishes.
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As an anti-spam measure, there is a 24-hour waiting period after registering before new users can comment.
  • Open Left:: Obama's Admiration of Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC openleft.com [Source type: General]

^ Written as Paine took part in the Revolutionary Army‘s retreat across New Jersey in 1776, the pamphlet was ordered read to the troops in the Revolutionary encampments.
  • Timeline 1771-1779 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, during the economic depression due to the collapse of the continental dollar following the American Revolution, the viability of the American government was threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability of the Continental Congress to redeem the public obligations incurred during the war.^ Rather, it constitutes a new, post World War II, colonial order centered in Manila, and dedicated to the political and economic hegemony of the local Christian-Europhile community over the entire territory of the former American colony.
  • ellen tordesillas » Letter to President Obama 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC www.ellentordesillas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first is that Federal form of Government which the Americans have adopted, and which enables the Union to combine the power of a great empire with the security of a small State.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ (SFEC, 10/15/00, p.T12) 1775 Nov 28, The Second Continental Congress formally established the American Navy.
  • Timeline 1771-1779 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Congress also appeared unable to become a forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce and economic development.^ He began a career as an actor, first in films and later television, appearing in 52 movie productions and gaining enough success to become a household name.
  • Ronald Reagan 7 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to "regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes."
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinton addressed the World Economic Forum at Davos and urged corporate leaders to help lift the burden of debt from developing countries and to examine environmental concerns.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In response, the Philadelphia Convention was convened, ostensibly to devise amendments to the Articles of Confederation, but which instead began to draft a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the office of the president.^ What are the three branches of government that use the checks and balances system?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But he soon realized that the Nation under its Articles of Confederation was not functioning well, so he became a prime mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.
  • The Presidential Directory 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC presidentialowl.com [Source type: General]

^ This was the year he was present at and presided over the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the title "President of the United States in Congress Assembled," often shortened to "President of the United States". However, the office had little distinct executive power.^ In the exercise of the executive power the President of the United States is constantly subject to a jealous scrutiny.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 30, 1789, George Washington, standing on the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York, took his oath of office as the first President of the United States.
  • The Presidential Directory 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC presidentialowl.com [Source type: General]

^ But he soon realized that the Nation under its Articles of Confederation was not functioning well, so he became a prime mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.
  • The Presidential Directory 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC presidentialowl.com [Source type: General]

With the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, a separate executive branch was created, headed by the "President of the United States".
.A president's executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still preventing the rise of an autocrat.^ Who was the first president under the Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What are the three branches of government that use the checks and balances system?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Madison helped design the checks and balances (G 54) that operate among legislative , the executive , and the judicial branches of the government.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Powers and duties

Article I legislative role

.The first power conferred upon the president by the U.S. Constitution is the legislative power of the presidential veto.^ Who was the first president under the Constitution?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In others the legislative and judicial powers are entirely confounded; thus the Senate of New York, for instance, constitutes in certain cases the Superior Court of the State.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Reagan at Strategic Defence Initiative Symposium President Reagan at SDI conference The First Five Years ( Star Wars ) speaking in front of black background.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Presentment Clause requires any bill passed by Congress to be presented to the president before it can become law.^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
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^ It yielded the point de facto, but it remained inflexible upon the principles in question; and whilst Congress was altering the tariff law, it passed another bill, by which the President was invested with extraordinary powers, enabling him to overcome by force a resistance which was then no longer to be apprehended.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Congress passed the first excise law in 1794, placing a tax on distilled spirits, it caused a rebellion in western Pennsylvania.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Once the legislation has been presented, the president has three options:
.
  1. Sign the legislation; the bill then becomes law.
  2. Veto the legislation and return it to Congress, expressing any objections; the bill does not become law, unless each House of Congress votes to override the veto by a two-thirds vote.
  3. Take no action.^ (Legislative Documents, 21st Congress, No.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (Legislative Documents, 20th Congress, No.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .In this instance, the president neither signs nor vetoes the legislation.^ (SFC, 9/12/98, p.A13) 1996 Apr 4, President Clinton signed legislation severing the link between crop prices and government subsidies.
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    ^ (AP, 12/12/97) 1975 President Ford signed legislation opening the service academies to women applicants.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (HN, 7/11/98) 1986 Oct 22, President Reagan signed into law sweeping tax-overhaul legislation.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .After 10 days, not counting Sundays, two possible outcomes emerge:
    • If Congress is still convened, the bill becomes law.
    • If Congress has adjourned, thus preventing the return of the legislation, the bill does not become law.^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
      • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ For purposes of this subsection, the term ``legislative days'' does not include any calendar day on which both Houses of the Congress are not in session.
      • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

      ^ If the laws had made it as feeble and as circumscribed as it is in the Union, its influence would very soon become still more preponderant.
      • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

      This latter outcome is known as the pocket veto.
.In 1996, Congress attempted to enhance the president's veto power with the Line Item Veto Act.^ Feb 4, Congress overrode Pres Reagan's veto of Clean Water Act.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Clinton made the first use of the historic line-item veto approved by Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Clinton’s line item veto and restored 38 military projects.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The legislation empowered the president to sign any spending bill into law while simultaneously striking certain spending items within the bill, particularly any new spending, any amount of discretionary spending, or any new limited tax benefit.^ Bush signed a sweeping anti-terrorism bill into law.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He removed 3 narrow provisions in the new budget legislation in spending and tax bills.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ The President signs it into law.
  • The Cult of Ronald Reagan, part XIV | Jay Bookman 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

.Once a president had stricken the item, Congress could pass that particular item again.^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Same could be said of LBJ, who failed at Vietnam, yet succeeded at passing more legislation than any President other than the four terms of FDR. .
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Last year Congress passed a law to renew it, but the President put his veto upon the bill.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.If the president then vetoed the new legislation, Congress could override the veto by its ordinary means, a two-thirds vote in both houses.^ If the President vetoes the legislation, then Congress can override with a 2/3 vote.
  • The Cult of Ronald Reagan, part XIV | Jay Bookman 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A3) 2000 Mar 8, President Clinton submitted to Congress legislation to establish permanent normal trade relations with China.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Same could be said of LBJ, who failed at Vietnam, yet succeeded at passing more legislation than any President other than the four terms of FDR. .
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

In Clinton v. .City of New York, 524 U.S. 417 (1998), the U.S. Supreme Court ruled such an alteration of the veto power to be unconstitutional.^ New York City is nice in the fall too.
  • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, the U.S. Supreme Court struck down the veto as unconstitutional in 1998.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In 1904 he was graduated from Harvard University, later studying at Columbia University Law School, and he practiced for several years in New York City.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

Article II executive powers

War and foreign affairs powers

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States who successfully preserved the Union during the American Civil War.
.Perhaps the most important of all presidential powers is command of the United States armed forces as commander-in-chief.^ He is the commander of the militia, and head of the armed force.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ See also the analysis of all these charters given by Mr. Story, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Introduction to his "Commentary on the Constitution of the United States."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.While the power to declare war is constitutionally vested in Congress, the president commands and directs the military and is responsible for planning military strategy.^ The day after Japan attacked Pearl harbor, FDR asked Congress for a declaration of war against the Japanese government.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 4/19/97) 1951 Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

The framers of the Constitution took care to limit the president's powers regarding the military; Alexander Hamilton explains this in Federalist No. 69:
.The President is to be commander-in-chief of the army and navy of the United States.^ McCain will be the next president of the the United States.
  • United States President - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bush is not fit to be the president of the United States.
  • George W. Bush, Former US President: Reviews, Opinions & Approval Ratings | Political Job Approval Ratings & Public Opinions - CongressRatings.com 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC congressratings.com [Source type: Original source]

... .It would amount to nothing more than the supreme command and direction of the military and naval forces ...^ The population, which amounted to nearly 4,000,000 in 1790, had more than tripled in the space of forty years; and in 1830 it amounted to nearly 13,000,000.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It may therefore be asserted as a general proposition that nothing is more opposed to the well-being and the freedom of man than vast empires.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Carter was nothing more than an incompetent lightweight caught up in the realities of the real world...
  • Was Ronald Reagan an Even Worse President Than George W. Bush? | Politics | AlterNet 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

while that [the power] of the .British king extends to the DECLARING of war and to the RAISING and REGULATING of fleets and armies, all [of] which ...^ Before Pearl Harbor the Navy didn’t talk to the Army, the War Department didn’t talk to -- was there a lack of coordination on all the security information we've had?

^ It declares that the judicial power of the Supreme Court shall extend to all cases in law and equity arising under the laws of the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The American republics have no standing armies to intimidate a discontented minority; but as no minority has as yet been reduced to declare open war, the necessity of an army has not been felt.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

would appertain to the legislature.[4] [Emphasis in the original.]
.Congress, pursuant to the War Powers Resolution, must authorize any troop deployments more than 60 days in length.^ They saw that they must renounce their religious influence, if they were to strive for political power; and they chose to give up the support of the State, rather than to share its vicissitudes.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The day after Japan attacked Pearl harbor, FDR asked Congress for a declaration of war against the Japanese government.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (A) The principal campaign committee of a candidate shall notify the Secretary or the Commission, and the Secretary of State, as appropriate, in writing, of any contribution of $1,000 or more received by any authorized committee of such candidate after the 20th day, but more than 48 hours before, any election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, Congress provides a check to presidential military power through its control over military spending and regulation.^ Major parties Each political party shall have the power to provide for the method of nomination of presidential electors (Washington Revised Code Annotated, Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In return, the U.S. military provided protection and stability around the globe through deficit financing.
  • The Cult of Ronald Reagan, part XIV | Jay Bookman 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC blogs.ajc.com [Source type: General]

^ Message to the Congress on the Continuation of the National Emergency Concerning Export Control Regulations .

.Along with the armed forces, the president also directs U.S. foreign policy.^ (HN, 11/23/98) 1933 Dec 28, President Franklin D. Roosevelt stated, "The definite policy of the U.S. from now on is one opposed to armed intervention."
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Harry S. Truman relied heavily on Dean Acheson for his most significant foreign policy achievements.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (TMC, 1994, p.1950)(AP, 1/31/98) 1950 Mar 30, President Truman denounced Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Through the Department of State and the Department of Defense, the president is responsible for the protection of Americans abroad and of foreign nationals in the United States.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidents of the United States January 1, 2002 .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The president decides whether to recognize new nations and new governments, and negotiates treaties with other nations, which become binding on the United States when approved by two-thirds vote of the Senate.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidents of the United States January 1, 2002 .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Although not constitutionally provided, presidents also sometimes employ "executive agreements" in foreign relations.^ To entrust the execution of the laws of the Union to tribunals instituted by these political bodies would be to allow foreign judges to preside over the nation.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Executive Order 12653 - Amending Executive Order 11183, Relating to the President's Commission on White House Fellowships .

^ It is chiefly in its foreign relations that the executive power of a nation is called upon to exert its skill and its vigor.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Frequently, these agreements regard the orientation of executive discretion in the administration of matters germane to executive power; for example, the extent to which either country presents an armed presence in a given area, how each country will enforce copyright treaties, or how each country will process foreign mail.^ This action of individual exertions, joined to that of the public authorities, frequently performs what the most energetic central administration would be unable to execute.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The administrative power in the United States presents nothing either central or hierarchical in its constitution, which accounts for its passing, unperceived.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The county assembly has the right of taxing the inhabitants to a certain extent; and in this respect it enjoys the privileges of a real legislative body: at the same time it exercises an executive power in the county, frequently directs the administration of the townships, and restricts their authority within much narrower bounds than in Massachusetts.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, the 20th century witnessed a vast expansion of the use of executive agreements, and critics have challenged the extent of that use as supplanting the treaty process and removing constitutionally prescribed checks and balances over the executive in foreign relations.^ Madison helped design the checks and balances (G 54) that operate among legislative , the executive , and the judicial branches of the government.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is chiefly in its foreign relations that the executive power of a nation is called upon to exert its skill and its vigor.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ What are the three branches of government that use the checks and balances system?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Supporters counter that the agreements offer a pragmatic solution when the need for swift, secret, and/or concerted action arises.

Administrative powers

The president is the chief executive of the United States, putting him at the head of the executive branch of the government, whose responsibility is to "take care that the laws be faithfully executed." To carry out this duty, the president is given control of the four million employees of the federal executive branch.
.Presidents make numerous executive branch appointments: an incoming president may make up to 6,000 before he takes office and 8,000 more during his term.^ Somebody shoot this coon before he gets innaugurated, we still got a couple months to make sure no porch monkey sits in the oval office.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I research my decisions thoroughly before making them, and I take into account several sources when researching.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I of course want to make more and I am tryin and working my way up and I like to think that when I get there the fucking goverment will let me benifit from my work and not the people who can't or won't take care of thhemselves.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.Ambassadors, members of the Cabinet, and other federal officers, are all appointed by a president with the "advice and consent" of a majority of the Senate.^ All the men nominated by the president for Cabinet posts were approved by the Senate.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsection (d) of this section shall apply only to officers appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, prior to the time of the death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, of the President pro tempore, and only to officers not under impeachment by the House of Representatives at the time the powers and duties of the office of President devolve upon them.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ An employee of the Federal Election Commission (except one appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), may not request or receive from, or give to, an employee, a Member of Congress, or an officer of a uniformed service a political contribution.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Appointments made while the Senate is in recess are temporary and expire at the end of the next session of the Senate.^ Recess Appointments of and Intention To Nominate United States Representatives and Alternate Representatives to the 36th Session of the General Assembly of the United Nations .

.The power of a president to fire executive officials has long been a contentious political issue.^ When a monarchy is being gradually transformed into a republic, the executive power retains the titles, the honors, the etiquette, and even the funds of royalty long after its authority has disappeared.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Calvin Coolidge issued an executive order declaring Oakland an official port of entry.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To entrust the execution of the laws of the Union to tribunals instituted by these political bodies would be to allow foreign judges to preside over the nation.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Generally, a president may remove purely executive officials at his discretion.^ Not long after the President is through using it for Official purposes, it is removed by the same Agent and replaced back into the case and taken to a secured location.

^ It also acts as the great executive council of the nation; the treaties which are concluded by the President must be ratified by the Senate, and the appointments he may make must be definitely approved by the same body.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The names of the candidates for President and Vice President may be added to the party name, but the names of the candidates for President and Vice President shall not be printed on the official ballot without their written consent.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[5] .However, Congress can curtail and constrain a president's authority to fire commissioners of independent regulatory agencies and certain inferior executive officers by statute.^ As the officers are everywhere elected or appointed for a certain period, it has been impossible to establish the rules of a dependent series of authorities; there are almost as many independent functionaries as there are functions, and the executive power is disseminated in a multitude of hands.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The term ``Federal office'' means the office of President or Vice President, or of Senator or Representative in, or Delegate or Resident Commissioner to, the Congress.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress passed and sent to President Clinton long-awaited legislation giving federal law officers new powers to use against terrorism.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[6]
.The president possesses the ability to direct much of the executive branch through executive orders.^ MR. GIBBS: I think the President has been very candid about the fact that what we were in possession of in different places and what ultimately was not analyzed up through the chains in order to make the necessary connections to prevent and disrupt this from happening.

^ In 2008 Pres George W. Bush issued an executive order that stripped the board of much of its authority.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 10/5/01) 1981 Dec 4, President Reagan broadened the power of the CIA by allowing spying in the U.S. This was Executive Order on Intelligence No 12333.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.To the extent the orders are grounded in federal statute or executive power granted in the U.S. Constitution, these orders have the force of law.^ Almost all these questions are connected with the interpretation of the law of nations, and in this respect they essentially interest the Union in relation to foreign powers.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all the confederations which had been formed before the American Constitution of 1789 the allied States agreed to obey the injunctions of a Federal Government; but they reserved to themselves the right of ordaining and enforcing the execution of the laws of the Union.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In studying the constitutions of these different countries, the politician is surprised to observe that the powers with which they invested the Federal Government are nearly identical with the privileges awarded by the American Constitution to the Government of the United States.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Thus, executive orders are reviewable by federal courts or can be rendered null through legislative changes to statute.^ Executive Order 12291 - Federal Regulation .

^ Executive Order 12612 - Federalism .

^ Executive Order 12407 - Federal Regional Councils .

Juridical powers

.The president also has the power to nominate federal judges, including members of the United States courts of appeals and the Supreme Court of the United States.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, these nominations do require Senate confirmation and this can provide a major obstacle for presidents who wish to orient the federal judiciary toward a particular ideological stance.^ The Secretary of State certifies to the judges of probate of the several counties the names of all candidates for President and Vice President who are nominated by a national convention (ibid.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When the convention opened, it appeared that Kennedy’s only serious challenge for the nomination would come from the Senate majority leader, Lyndon B. Johnson of Texas.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Harrison was deeply religious, a believer in divine providence, and thought himself an object of its particular care.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

.However, when nominating judges to U.S. district courts, presidents often respect the long-standing tradition of Senatorial courtesy.^ The Secretary of State certifies to the judges of probate of the several counties the names of all candidates for President and Vice President who are nominated by a national convention (ibid.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ District delegates and alternate district delegates to a national convention at which a person is to be nominated for the office of President of the United States shall be elected at the spring primary held in the year of any such convention.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The presidential electors shall deliver one certificate to the Chief Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Maine (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Presidents may also grant pardons and reprieves, as is often done just before the end of a presidential term.^ On February 27, five days before his term as President expired, he "went to the Theater in the evening."
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At a presidential preference primary, qualified electors may vote for candidates for nomination for President of the United States from among the candidates of one political party only.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ President Reagan on Star Wars 03:05:10 - 03.05.40 Reagan - talks about the security Star wars technology gives - current technology - may not be achieved before the end of the century.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Executive privilege gives a president the ability to withhold information from Congress and federal courts in matters of national security.^ But it has been allowed, from the origin of society, that every nation has the right of deciding by its own courts those questions which concern the execution of its own laws.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To entrust the execution of the laws of the Union to tribunals instituted by these political bodies would be to allow foreign judges to preside over the nation.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An employee of the Federal Election Commission (except one appointed by the President, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate), may not request or receive from, or give to, an employee, a Member of Congress, or an officer of a uniformed service a political contribution.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.George Washington first claimed privilege when Congress requested to see Chief Justice John Jay's notes from an unpopular treaty negotiation with Great Britain.^ Washington denied a House request for documents on the Jay Treaty.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Adams also appointed John Marshall to Chief Justice of the United States (G 378-379).
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (HN, 11/23/98) #1 George Washington (1789-1797) 1731 Jun 2, Martha Dandridge, the first First Lady of the United States, was born.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While not enshrined in the Constitution, or any other law, Washington's action created the precedent for the privilege.^ B. The State Democratic Party body may take such action with respect to the challenge or other related matter as it is authorized to take under state law and state party rules.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The law carefully prescribes a circle of action to each of these magistrates; and within that circle they have an entire right to perform their functions independently of any other authority.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For candidates for the nomination of any other party, the payment and filing must be made at least 70 days preceding the date set by law for the primary election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

When Richard Nixon tried to use executive privilege as a reason for not turning over subpoenaed evidence to Congress during the Watergate scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in United States v. .Nixon, 418 U.S. 683 (1974), that executive privilege did not apply in cases where a president was attempting to avoid criminal prosecution.^ The same rule shall apply in the case of the death, resignation, removal from office, or inability of an individual acting as President under this subsection.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ United-States-v-Nixon.html) 1974 May 29, President Nixon agreed to turn over 1,200 pages of edited Watergate transcripts.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 5/2/97) 1974 May 9, The House Judiciary Committee opened hearings on whether to recommend the impeachment of President Nixon.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

When President Bill Clinton attempted to use executive privilege regarding the Lewinsky scandal, the Supreme Court ruled in Clinton v. Jones, 520 U.S. 681 (1997), that the privilege also could not be used in civil suits. .These cases established the legal precedent that executive privilege is valid although the exact extent of the privilege has yet to be clearly defined.^ Nothing can be more fictitious than a purely legal inferiority; nothing more contrary to the instinct of mankind than these permanent divisions which had been established between beings evidently similar.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In Spain certain provinces had the right of establishing a system of custom-house duties peculiar to themselves, although that privilege belongs, by its very nature, to the national sovereignty.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But in this case the majority entertains very strong prejudices against the blacks, and the magistrates are unable to protect them in the exercise of their legal privileges."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Legislative facilitator

.While the president cannot directly introduce legislation, he can play an important role in shaping it, especially if a president's political party has a majority in one or both houses of the Congress.^ What legislation did President Kennedy introduce?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Kennedy also introduced Civil Rights legislation to Congress.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While executive branch officials are prohibited from simultaneously holding seats in the Congress, and vice versa, those executive officials often draft legislation and rely upon Senators and Representatives to introduce it for them.^ All former Democratic Presidents, all former Democratic Vice Presidents, all former Democratic Leaders of the U.S. Senate, all former Democratic Speakers of the U.S. House of Representatives and Democratic Minority Leaders, as applicable, and all former Chairs of the Democratic National Committee.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The nominations of the candidates for electors of President and Vice President of the United States, together with the names of the candidates for President and Vice President, and for United States Senator, Representative in Congress, Governor and all other State offices shall be certified to the State Election Commissioner by the presiding officer and secretary of the State convention or committee of each political party eligible to place candidates upon the ballot.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The president can further influence the legislative branch through constitutionally mandated, periodic reports to Congress.^ (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A3) 2000 Mar 8, President Clinton submitted to Congress legislation to establish permanent normal trade relations with China.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Further reading of the 20th Amendment reveals that Congress may also determine if the vice-president is qualified.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ See in the Legislative Documents, already quoted in speaking of the Indians, the letter of the President of the United States to the Cherokees, his correspondence on this subject with his agents, and his messages to Congress.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.These reports may be either written or oral, but in modern times are given as the State of the Union address, which often outlines the president's legislative proposals for the coming year.^ See also the analysis of all these charters given by Mr. Story, Judge of the Supreme Court of the United States, in the Introduction to his "Commentary on the Constitution of the United States."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Representatives is named by the people, the Senate by the legislators of each State; the former is directly elected, the latter is elected by an elected body; the term for which the representatives are chosen is only two years, that of the senators is six.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The legislators of the States frequently yielded to these democratic propensities, which were invariably and courageously resisted by the founders of the Union.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Pursuant to Article II, Section 3, Clause 2 of the Constitution, the president may convene either or both houses of the Congress.^ Does the President believe the Nebraska clause is constitutional if it meets the -- .

^ Further reading of the 20th Amendment reveals that Congress may also determine if the vice-president is qualified.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Conversely, if both houses cannot agree on a date of adjournment, the president may appoint a date for the Congress to adjourn.^ Further reading of the 20th Amendment reveals that Congress may also determine if the vice-president is qualified.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The third expedient was therefore adopted, and it was agreed that the votes should be transmitted sealed to the President of the Senate, and that they should be opened and counted in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Selection process

George Washington, the first President of the United States of America

Eligibility

.Article II, Section 1, Clause 5 of the Constitution sets the principal qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of president.^ Does the President believe the Nebraska clause is constitutional if it meets the -- .

^ One of two alternatives must then be resorted to: the people must alter the constitution, or the legislature must repeal the law.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If more than one list of presidential electors is filed with the Secretary of State by any write-in candidates for the offices of President and Vice President of the United States, the first list filed shall be considered the valid list, provided that this list meets the additional requirements of this section (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

A president must:
A person who meets the above qualifications is still disqualified from holding the office of president under any of the following conditions:
.
  • Under the Twenty-second Amendment, no eligible person can be elected president more than twice.^ No president ever signed an amendment.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Same could be said of LBJ, who failed at Vietnam, yet succeeded at passing more legislation than any President other than the four terms of FDR. .
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Twenty-second Amendment also specifies that if any eligible person who serves as president or acting president for more than two years of a term for which some other eligible person was elected president, the former can only be elected president once.^ Pierce is the only elected president (as of 2007) not to be renominated by his party for a second term.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Who has our president been for the last 8 years?
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President who will be serving this country for you for the next four years.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Scholars disagree whether anyone no longer eligible to be elected president could be elected vice president, pursuant to the qualifications set out under the Twelfth Amendment.^ Or it could have been also the first female vice president!
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ William R. King was elected vice-president.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [8]
  • .
  • Under Article I, Section 3, Clause 7, upon conviction in impeachment cases the Senate has the option of disqualifying convicted individuals from holding other federal offices, including the Presidency.^ Subsection (d) of this section shall apply only to officers appointed, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, prior to the time of the death, resignation, removal from office, inability, or failure to qualify, of the President pro tempore, and only to officers not under impeachment by the House of Representatives at the time the powers and duties of the office of President devolve upon them.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (A) The reporting individual shall, within thirty days after a qualified blind trust is approved by his supervising ethics office, file with such office a copy of-- (i) the executed trust instrument of such trust (other than those provisions which relate to the testamentary disposition of the trust assets), and (ii) a list of the assets which were transferred to such trust, including the category of value of each asset as determined under subsection (d) of this section.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Representative in Congress, a Delegate to Congress, or the Resident Commissioner from Puerto Rico; and (II) the Secretary of the Senate, in the case of a Senator, an officer or employee of the Congress whose compensation is disbursed by the Secretary of the Senate, an officer or employee of the General Accounting Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, or the Office of the Attending Physician (including any individual terminating service, under section 101(e) [5 U.S.C. App.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    [9]
  • .
  • Under Section 3 of the Fourteenth Amendment, the Constitution prohibits an otherwise eligible person from becoming president if that person swore an oath to support the Constitution, and later rebelled against the United States.^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
    • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Who wrote the United States Constitution?
    • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
    • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    However, the Congress, by a two-thirds vote of each house, can remove the disqualification.

Campaigns and nomination

.The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections, which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates in advance of their national nominating conventions, where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.^ Most of the delegates to the national nominating conventions are elected at the presidential primary in a separate election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Minor and new parties Candidates for President and Vice President may be nominated by a national convention or other like assembly of any political party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential electors may be nominated by political parties in Alaska (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Typically, the party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee, and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.^ All candidates are required to accompany their notice of candidacy with a nomination petition unless the candidate is either a nominee of a political party for the office of presidential elector when such party has held a national convention and nominated candidates for President and Vice President of the United States, or the nomineee of a political party nominated in a primary held by such party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ To be entitled to have its nominees for President and Vice President of the United States placed on the general election ballot in a particular presidential election year, a political party must hold a presidential primary election in this State if: (1) in the presidential election year, the party is required by this code to nominate its candidates for State and county offices by primary election; (2) a presidential primary election is authorized under national party rules; and (3) before January 1, of the presidential election year, the national party has determined that it will hold a national presidential nominating convention that year (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If candidates for presidential electors are nominated by petitioners instead of by a convention of a political party, the petitioners shall certify with the list of names of electors: (1) the names of their nominees for President and Vice President of the United States; and (2) the state of which each nominee is a resident.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Nominees participate in nationally televised debates, and while the debates are usually restricted to the Democratic and Republican nominees, third party candidates may be invited, such as Ross Perot in the 1992 debates.^ Ross Perot, the presidential nominee of the Reform Party, launched his campaign with a speech in which he criticized the Republican and Democratic parties as captives of special interests.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 9/12/00) 1960 Oct 7, Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy and Republican opponent Richard M. Nixon held the second of their broadcast debates, in Washington, DC. (AP, 10/7/08) 1960 Nov 8, Massachusetts Sen.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And to no people can this inquiry be more vitally interesting than to the French nation, which is blindly driven onwards by a daily and irresistible impulse towards a state of things which may prove either despotic or republican, but which will assuredly be democratic.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Nominees campaign across the country to explain their views, convince voters and solicit contributions.^ And it has staged a half dozen "faith forums" in New Hampshire, where voters, local clergy, and campaign staff trade views on the proper role of faith in public life.
  • Open Thread : IntentBlog 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

.Much of the modern electoral process is concerned with winning swing states through frequent visits and mass media advertising drives.^ The Greek government ran into a storm of opposition and media criticism for failing to prevent a rampage through Athens by leftists hostile to visiting President Clinton.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ State Visit of PM Thatcher to United States - State Dinner & Thatcher Toast Thatcher speech: names other British PMs in office through two consecutive US presidencies.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even though the States have discretion in choosing electors, the Supreme Court has recognized a Federal interest in protecting the integrity of the Electoral College process.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

Election and oath

A map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes allocated to each state; 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 overall.
.Presidents are elected indirectly in the United States.^ His father was twice elected President of the United States, the Rev. Mr.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Musharraf is a friend of the United States.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1802 was elected to the United States Senate.

.A number of electors, collectively known as the Electoral College, officially select the president.^ When the new Constitution was ratified, the Electoral College unanimously elected Washington President.
  • The Presidential Directory 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC presidentialowl.com [Source type: General]

^ Accordingly, the President came up with the above idea of a small number of personal Christmas presents to a select few Sections of the White House.

^ Roosevelt became the 32nd president with about 87% of the Electoral College.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On Election Day, voters in each of the states and the District of Columbia cast ballots for these electors.^ Dec 3, US state electors met and cast their ballots for the presidency.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When the affiliation of electors has polled for any one of its candidates for any public office in the electoral district at least one percent of the total vote cast in the electoral district for candidates for: (A) Presidential elector at the last general election at which candidates for President and Vice President of the United States were listed on the ballot; or (B) Any single state office to be voted upon in the state at large for which nominations by political parties are permitted by law at the most recent election at which a candidate for the office was elected to a full term (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Minor parties A limited political party may be organized for the purpose of selecting candidates for electors of President and Vice President of the United States by filing a petition with the Lieutenant Governor at least 90 days before a presidential general election signed by qualified voters of the State equaling in number at least one percent of the number of voters who cast ballots for President at the last presidential election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both Houses of Congress combined.^ The Democrats won a majority in both houses of Congress.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 3/17/98) 1988 Mar 22, Both houses of Congress overrode President Reagan's veto of a sweeping civil rights bill.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Stephens, who served in the U.S. House of Representatives from 1843 to 1859, was a delegate at the Montgomery meeting that formed a new union of the seceded states.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Generally, the ticket that wins the most votes in a state wins all of that state's electoral votes and thus has its slate of electors chosen to vote in the Electoral College.^ Since the slate of electors chosen in each state generally vote for and are often bound by party pledges, required by many state laws or state party rules, to vote for the candidates chosen by their own political party, the political party whose candidate won the most electors in the November election would probably select the next President, notwithstanding the ``faithless elector'' problem.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Certificates of nomination of presidential electors and all nominating petitions shall be filed with the Secretary of State during the period beginning on the first Tuesday in August and ending at 5:00 p.m.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A state's share of the population is based on its number of electoral votes (using the 1990 Census).
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The winning slate of electors meet at its state's capital on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December, about six weeks after the election, to vote.^ The electoral votes of 4 States were disputed.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The electors shall convene at the State capitol at noon on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor in the State Capitol on the first Monday after the second Wednesday in December next following their election for the purpose of casting their ballots.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.They then send a record of that vote to Congress.^ By the way, the Dems have only controlled the Congress for the past two years, and they have not had enough votes to stop the Republicans from invoking the filibuster whenever they tried to get anything done.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It seems to me that this country was so tired of the last 8 years under GW that they turned out in RECORD numbers to vote and elect someone who would turn it around.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress may determine the Time of choosing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The vote of the electors is opened by the sitting vice president, acting in his capacity as President of the Senate and read aloud to a joint session of the incoming congress, which was elected at the same time as the president.^ William R. King was elected vice-president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each candidate for elector shall declare which candidate for President and Vice President he intends to vote for if elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The candidates for electors are nominated to vote for the party's candidates for President and Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Pursuant to the Twentieth Amendment, the president's term of office begins at noon on January 20 of the year following the election.^ Friday in January in a presidential election year.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The 20th Amendment required the terms of the president and vice-president to begin at noon on January 20, while congressional terms begin on January 3.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon the ratification of the Twentieth Amendment on January 23, 1933 concerning the commencement of the terms of the President, Vice President and Members of Congress, the precedent of the Vice President becoming President was further established and clarified by the provision stating: ``If, at a time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President-elect shall have died, the Vice President-elect shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This date, known as Inauguration Day, marks the beginning of the four-year terms of both the president and the vice president.^ Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as vice president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Same could be said of LBJ, who failed at Vietnam, yet succeeded at passing more legislation than any President other than the four terms of FDR. .
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For purposes of this subsection, the term ``legislative days'' does not include any calendar day on which both Houses of the Congress are not in session.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

Before executing the powers of the office, a president is constitutionally required to take the presidential oath:
.I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve, protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.^ Dollar limits on expenditures by candidates for office of President of the United States.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[10]
Although not required, presidents have traditionally used a Bible to take oath of office and suffixed "So help me God!" to the end of the oath. Further, though no law requires that the oath of office be administered by any specific person, presidents are traditionally sworn in by the Chief Justice of the United States.

Tenure and term limits

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected to four terms before the adoption of the Twenty-second Amendment.
.The term of office for president and vice president is four years.^ Same could be said of LBJ, who failed at Vietnam, yet succeeded at passing more legislation than any President other than the four terms of FDR. .
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section one provides: ``In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ For purposes of this subsection, expenditures from personal funds made by a candidate of a major, minor, or new party for the office of Vice President shall be considered to be expenditures by the candidate of such party for the office of President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.George Washington, the first president, set an unofficial precedent of serving only two terms, which subsequent presidents followed until 1940. Before Franklin D. Roosevelt, attempts at a third term were encouraged by supporters of Ulysses S. Grant and Theodore Roosevelt; neither of these attempts succeeded, however.^ Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as vice president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated for his 3rd term.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scott, not Ulysses S. Grant, was the first to hold this rank since George Washington.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1940, Franklin Roosevelt declined to seek a third term, but allowed his political party to "draft" him as their presidential candidate and was subsequently elected to a third term.^ Franklin D. Roosevelt was inaugurated for his 3rd term.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minor parties A ``minor political party'' is one whose candidate for specified offices received between 2% and 10% of the total votes cast for the office (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Each candidate upon filing his qualifying petition shall pay a filing fee that is prescribed by his political party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

In 1941, the U.S. became involved in World War II, which later led voters to elect Roosevelt to a fourth term in 1944.
.After the war, and in response to Roosevelt's shattering of precedent, the Twenty-second Amendment was ratified, barring anyone from being elected president more than twice, or once if that person served more than half of another president's term.^ What was your president doing after being elected?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is more to our President than being intellectually cool.
  • The American Spectator : President Spock 9 February 2010 13:44 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are advantages to being elected President.
  • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Harry S. Truman, who was president when the amendment was adopted, and so by the amendment's provisions exempt from its limitation, also briefly sought a third (a second full) term before withdrawing from the 1952 election.^ Harry S. Truman to be vice president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First, before the Revolution; second, after the Revolution; third, while he was President, and fourth, after his second term as ended.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Years later, this prediction came true, when President Harry S. Truman called upon Herbert Hoover to help reorganize the government.

.Since the amendment's ratification, four presidents have served two full terms: Dwight D. Eisenhower, Ronald Reagan, Bill Clinton and George W. Bush.^ It was Nell Reagan that made Ronald Reagan president.
  • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan and VP George Bush walking.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Steven Hayward, journalist and writer "Along with Abraham Lincoln, Harry Truman, and Dwight Eisenhower, Mr. Reagan had the good fortune to be consistently underestimated by his adversaries.
  • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

.Jimmy Carter and George H. W. Bush sought a second term, but were defeated.^ Bush some more, then sweet talk your dumbass into a second term.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Ronald Reagan, much to his credit, took a second look and when he did, he turned to his opponent George Bush and asked him to be his running mate.

^ Since George Washington’s second term, Inauguration Day had been March 4 of the year following the election.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Richard Nixon was elected to a second term, but resigned before completing it.^ (AP, 9/16/08) 1968 Nov 5, Richard M. Nixon was elected the 37th US President with Spiro Agnew as vice-president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (MC, 1/19/02) 1957 Jan 20, President Eisenhower and Vice President Nixon were sworn in for their second terms of office in a private Sunday ceremony.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lyndon B. Johnson was the only president under the amendment to be eligible to serve more than two terms in total, having served for only fourteen months following John F. Kennedy's assassination.^ More than anything else, the children of John Kennedy served to personalize and humanize the man.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jackson only needed two more votes to become president.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was the first time any US president had been elected for more than two terms.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, Johnson withdrew from the 1968 Democratic Primary, surprising many Americans by stating 'I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president'.^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Many republicans almost appear to consider Reagan ‘untouchable’ in a sense and, as you stated, this is also true of some groups of democrats.
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don’t understand why many American consider Reagan a great president.
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gerald Ford sought a full term, after serving out the last two years and five months of Nixon's second term, but was not elected.^ Cummings served 5 years and 10 months.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The House of Representatives is named by the people, the Senate by the legislators of each State; the former is directly elected, the latter is elected by an elected body; the term for which the representatives are chosen is only two years, that of the senators is six.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Vacancy or disability

.Vacancies in the office of president may arise under several possible circumstances: death, resignation and removal from office.^ Vice President would become President in the case of the death, resignation or removal from office of the President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ That provision failed to provide for the logistics of filling a vice presidential vacancy which has occurred 16 times for a total of 37 years during which the United States did not have a Vice President.\26\ Clause 6 grouped the contingencies of a permanent nature, such as death, resignation, or removal from office, with inability which may be a contingency of a temporary nature.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Article II, Section 4 of the Constitution allows the House of Representatives to impeach high federal officials, including the president, for "treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."^ Article II., Section 4, of the Constitution of the United States runs thus:—"The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Suppose, for instance, that the President of the United States has committed the crime of high treason; the House of Representatives impeaches him, and the Senate degrades him; he must then be tried by a jury, which alone can deprive him of his liberty or his life.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Republicans on the House Judiciary Committee lined up one by one in favor of impeaching President Clinton; Democrats vowed opposition after lawyers clashed in closing arguments over alleged "high crimes and misdemeanors."
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Article I, Section 3, Clause 6 gives the Senate the power to remove impeached officials from office, given a two-thirds vote to convict.^ The third expedient was therefore adopted, and it was agreed that the votes should be transmitted sealed to the President of the Senate, and that they should be opened and counted in the presence of the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Section 2, "shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Article II., Section 4, of the Constitution of the United States runs thus:—"The President, Vice-President, and all civil officers of the United States shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors."
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The House has thus far impeached two presidents: Andrew Johnson in 1868 and Bill Clinton in 1998. Neither was subsequently convicted by the Senate; however, Johnson was acquitted by just one vote.^ He was impeached (and is the first president to be so) but found innocent by only one vote.
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The House of Representatives impeached President Andrew Johnson following his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton; the Senate later acquitted Johnson.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 5/16/97)(HNPD, 5/16/99) 1868 May 26, The Senate impeachment trial of President Andrew Johnson ended with his acquittal as the Senate fell one vote short of the two-thirds majority required for conviction.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Under Section 3 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the president may transfer the presidential powers and duties to the vice president, who then becomes acting president, by transmitting a statement to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate stating the reasons for the transfer.^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section one provides: ``In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section 1, which was ratified on Feb.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Upon such determination, the Vice President is to assume the powers and duties of the office as acting-President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The president resumes the discharge of the presidential powers and duties when he transmits, to those two officials, a written declaration stating that resumption.^ Until the media unearthed two letters Obama wrote to state officials urging them to grant extra funds for Rezko's project.
  • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

^ The President would then be permitted to resume the powers and duties of the office upon his written declaration that no disability existed unless the Vice President and a majority of the principal officers of the executive department, or such other body as Congress may by law provide, submit a written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.This transfer of power may occur for any reason the president considers appropriate; in 2002 and again in 2007, President George W. Bush briefly transferred presidential authority to Vice President Dick Cheney.^ (SFC, 5/24/02, p.A1) 2002 May 24, Presidents Bush and Putin signed the Treaty of Moscow, an agreement to reduce nuclear stockpiles by two-thirds over the next 10 years.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In that Patty Presock had served President Bush as his private secretary during his 8 years as Vice President as well as the 4 years of his Presidential Incumbency, this made the above Gift to Raleigh DeGeer Amyx especially significant.

^ GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: And now the Iraqi leaders are working together to enact a government that reflects the will of the people.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.In both cases, this was done to accommodate a medical procedure which required Bush to be sedated; Bush returned to duty later the same day.^ In both cases the right is the same, but the exercise of the right is different; and this alteration produced the most momentous consequences.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The same day, a pretaped radio address by Bush was broadcast in which the president warned Iraq: "Time is running out."
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (AP, 9/13/01) 1991 Nov 9, President Bush returned from a four-day European trip that included a NATO summit.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[11]
.Under Section 4 of the Twenty-fifth Amendment, the vice president and a majority of the Cabinet may transfer the presidential powers and duties from the president to the vice president once they transmit to the Speaker of the House and the president pro tempore of the Senate a statement declaring the president's incapacity to discharge the presidential powers and duties.^ Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.If this occurs, then the vice president will assume the presidential powers and duties as acting president; however, the president can declare that no such inability exists and resume the discharge of the presidential powers and duties.^ Upon such determination, the Vice President is to assume the powers and duties of the office as acting-President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the capacity in which the Vice President acted and his duties in the event of presidential incapacity were uncertain.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Eisenhower, however, groomed his vice-president for active duty.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

.If the vice president and cabinet contest this claim, it is up to Congress, which must meet within two days if not already in session, to decide the merit of the claim.^ If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the Twentieth Amendment, the old Congress expires every other January 3, and the new Congress meets on the same day.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Further reading of the 20th Amendment reveals that Congress may also determine if the vice-president is qualified.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Constitution mentions the resignation of the president but does not regulate the form of such a resignation or the conditions for its validity.^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McCain will be the next president of the the United States.
  • United States President - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By Act of Congress, the only valid evidence of the president's decision to resign is a written instrument declaring the resignation signed by the president and delivered to the office of the Secretary of State.^ The Declaration of Independence was signed by president of Congress John Hancock and secretary Charles Thomson.
  • Timeline 1771-1779 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (HN, 5/28/98) 1830 Andrew Jackson, seventh President of the US, signed the Indian Removal Act of 1830.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .On August 9, 1974, facing likely impeachment in the midst of the Watergate scandal, Richard Nixon became the only president ever to resign from office.^ He succeeded Abraham Lincoln and was the only president to face impeachment proceedings.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He became president upon Richard Nixon's resignation from office.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.The Constitution states that the vice president becomes president upon the removal from office, death or resignation of the preceding president.^ The Twenty-fifth Amendment, section one provides: ``In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ He was also the first vice-president to succeed to office on the death of a president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Vice President would become President in the case of the death, resignation or removal from office of the President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.If the offices of president and vice president both are either vacant or have a disabled holder of that office, the next officer in the presidential line of succession, the Speaker of the House, becomes acting president.^ He would continue in the office until either the House has elected a President or the Senate a Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It also provided that if the office of the President pro tempore of the Senate was vacant, the Speaker of the House was to act as President ``until the disability be removed or a president shall be elected.''
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ When the House does elect the President, then the Vice President, who was acting-President, would then become the Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The line then extends to the president pro tempore of the Senate, followed by every member of the cabinet in a set order.^ The House of Representatives impeached President Andrew Johnson following his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton; the Senate later acquitted Johnson.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Members of Congress demanded a larger role in US Gulf policy following President Bush’s decision to send more US troops to the region.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Also aboard the ship was President John Tyler, additional cabinet members and hundreds of distinguished guests.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Compensation

Presidential pay history
Date established Salary Salary in 2009
dollars
September 24, 1789 $25,000 $566,000
March 3, 1873 $50,000 $865,000
March 4, 1909 $75,000 $1,714,000
January 19, 1949 $100,000 $906,000
January 20, 1969 $200,000 $1,175,000
January 20, 2001 $400,000 $487,000
Sources:[13][14][15]
.The president earns a $400,000 annual salary, along with a $50,000 annual expense account, a $100,000 non-taxable travel account and $19,000 for entertainment.^ (SFC, 12/21/98, p.A3) 1865 May 2, President Johnson offered a $100,000 reward for the capture of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Obama's proposal would increase federal income tax on families earning more than $250,000 annually" -Wall Street Journal .
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[16][17] The most recent raise in salary was approved by Congress and President Bill Clinton in 1999 and went into effect in 2001.
.The White House in Washington, D.C. serves as the official place of residence for the president; he is entitled to use its staff and facilities, including medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and security services.^ He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SC, 3/4/02) 1893 Sep 9, Frances Cleveland, wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in the White House.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White House lawn, Marine Band, President & Mrs. Reagan announced & walk out in sun w/ crowd watching.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Naval Support Facility Thurmont, popularly known as Camp David, is a mountain based military camp in Frederick County, Maryland used as a country retreat and for high alert protection of the president and his guests.^ I was around while Reagan was president, and remember well the continual stream of scandals, as well as the mind-blowingly ignorant things Reagan used to embarrass his country with.
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ NOTE: Broadcast live at 12:06 pm from Camp David, Maryland.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the bounds of this immense tract of country there are neither high mountains nor deep valleys.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Blair House, located adjacent to the Old Executive Office Building at the White House Complex and Lafayette Park, is a complex of four connected townhouses exceeding 70,000 square feet of floor space which serves as the president's official guest house and as a secondary residence for the president if needed.^ He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (SC, 3/4/02) 1893 Sep 9, Frances Cleveland, wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in the White House.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ White House lawn, Marine Band, President & Mrs. Reagan announced & walk out in sun w/ crowd watching.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18]
.For ground travel, the president uses the presidential state car, which is an armored limousine built on a heavily modified Cadillac-based chassis.^ (HN, 3/20/98) 1965 Apr 6, President Lyndon B. Johnson authorized the use of ground troops in combat operations.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Limousine arrival seen from ground or camera platform w/ cars past & parking.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The President of the United States is in the possession of almost royal prerogatives, which he has no opportunity of exercising; and those privileges which he can at present use are very circumscribed.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[19] .One of two identical Boeing VC-25 aircraft, which are extensively modified versions of Boeing 747-200B airliners, serve as long distance travel for the president, and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board.^ Modifying Air Force aircraft for display.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force One taxis.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two long chains of mountains divide it from one extreme to the other; the Alleghany ridge takes the form of the shores of the Atlantic Ocean; the other is parallel with the Pacific.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[20][21] .The president also uses a United States Marine Corps helicopter, designated Marine One when the president is aboard.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Musharraf is a friend of the United States.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the United States is elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The United States Secret Service is charged with protecting the sitting president and his family.^ Mr President...welcome to the United States.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ President Musharraf is a friend of the United States.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President of the United States is elected.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.As part of their protection, presidents, first ladies, their children and other immediate family members, and other prominent persons and locations are assigned Secret Service codenames.^ He was more along the lines of don't judge others, let the person without sin cast the first stone, treat others how you would like to be treated.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nov 1, Mamie Eisenhower (b.1896), former first lady, died at a family farm in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also appropriate that children receive their first Communion on one or other of the Sundays of Easter.

[22] .The use of such names was originally for security purposes and dates to a time when sensitive electronic communications were not routinely encrypted; today, the names simply serve for purposes of brevity, clarity and tradition.^ You may use this eBook for nearly any purpose such as creation of derivative works, reports, performances and research.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This originates in the old Babylonian, Greek, and Roman culture and we use it today without giving any thought to what it really means.
  • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And while I simply do not have enough free time to justly write such a piece today, I nonetheless feel as though I would be truly remiss if I were not to share just a bit of dulia for Julia today.

[23][24]

Post-presidency

Group portrait of five presidential men in dark suits and ties
Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama (incumbent), George W. Bush, Bill Clinton, and Jimmy Carter in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.
.Beginning in 1959, all living former presidents were granted a pension, an office and a staff.^ The dedication of the Richard Nixon Library in Yorba Linda 1991 was attended by all five living presidents.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Within a month President Ford granted Nixon a full pardon for all crimes he may have committed during his administration.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (HN, 2/11/97) 1910 Mar 21, The U.S. Senate granted ex-President Teddy Roosevelt a pension of $10,000 yearly.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The pension has increased numerous times with Congressional approval. .Retired presidents now receive a pension based on the salary of the current administration's cabinet secretaries, which is $191,300 as of 2008.[25] Some former presidents have also collected congressional pensions.^ He approved massive defense increases in 1981, even though a majority of his cabinet was opposed and former presidents Nixon and Ford were advising him to cut spending.
  • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If this is not enough, will you now still defend a President who made such a momentous decision as war based on lies?
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Secretary of State shall certify to the election administrator the names of the candidates for President and Vice President of the several political parties, which shall be printed on the ballot.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

[26] .The Former Presidents Act, as amended, also provides former presidents with travel funds and franking privileges.^ "As a former president, Bill Clinton has been making millions annually giving speeches and traveling the globe.
  • Open Thread : IntentBlog 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

.Until 1997, all former presidents, and their families, were protected by the Secret Service until the president's death.^ All McCain did last night was talk about his family, praise President Bush and his wife, former president Bush and his wife, and then talk about his experience as a POW, in which case, he was hardly harmed because of his father's ranking.
  • Perez Hilton: The Next President Of The United States???? 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC perezhilton.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Herbert Hoover was denied the courtesy of Secret Service protection traditionally accorded an outgoing president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We have to ensure, and I think the President will strive to do so, to reassure the American people that all that can be done is and will be done in order to protect them.

.The last president to have lifetime Secret Service protection is Bill Clinton; George W. Bush and all subsequent presidents will be protected by the Secret Service for a maximum of ten years after leaving office.^ Thank you George Bush for the worst 8 years of any president in history.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ George Bush is ten times the president Roosevelt was.
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who has our president been for the last 8 years?
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Some presidents have had significant careers after leaving office.^ Some of you will say it is congress, those of us who actually care about this all year around will tell you IT IS NOT CONGRESS! The president holds the highest office in the land.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence, it is natural that this Church should leave its impress upon the people of the United States and upon some of its statesmen, as it did upon Andrew Jackson, the seventh President.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Some presidents such as Jefferson are ranked on the high side on the strength of their entire careers.
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

.Prominent examples include William Howard Taft's tenure as Chief Justice of the United States and Herbert Hoover's work on government reorganization after World War II.^ Republican William Howard Taft (72), 27th president of the United States (1909-1913), served as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1921 until illness forced him to resign in 1930.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Rutherford Birchard Hayes was President of the United States, it was said by his enemies that he was ruled by his wife, who was, in fact, the Chief Executive.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ GEORGE W. BUSH, PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES: And now the Iraqi leaders are working together to enact a government that reflects the will of the people.
  • CNN.com - Transcripts 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC transcripts.cnn.com [Source type: Original source]

.Grover Cleveland, whose bid for reelection failed in 1888, was elected president again four years later in 1892. Two former presidents served in Congress after leaving the White House; John Quincy Adams was elected to the House of Representatives, serving there for seventeen years, and Andrew Johnson returned to the Senate in 1875. John Tyler served in the provisional Congress of the Confederate States during the Civil War and was elected to the Confederate House of Representatives, but died before it convened.^ The House of Representatives impeached President Andrew Johnson following his attempt to dismiss Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton; the Senate later acquitted Johnson.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (HNQ, 5/31/01) 1831 Dec 5, Former President John Quincy Adams took his seat as a member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was elected vice president under two presidents, John Quincy Adams in 1824 and Andrew Jackson in 1828.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.More recently, Richard Nixon made multiple foreign trips to countries including China and Russia, and was lauded as an elder statesman.^ Nixon made public the secret talks from May 31, 1971, that included a cease-fire-in-place, US withdrawal, and the return of prisoners from North Vietnam.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ (WSJ, 2/5/96, p.A-19) 1970 Oct 12, President Richard Nixon announced the pullout of 40,000 more American troops in Vietnam by Christmas.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Oh, and by the by, England has a MUCH more liberal immigration policy when it comes to EDUCATED (meaning, not you) people from around the world, including people from many African countries.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

[28] .Jimmy Carter has become a global human rights campaigner, international arbiter and election monitor, and a recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize.^ He won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1919.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ GB2626: Carter made the top 10 most controversial nobel prize winners .
  • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (AP, 12/20/99) 1995 Feb 23, Former U.S. President Jimmy Carter arrived in Haiti to help prepare for peaceful elections.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Bill Clinton has taken on some work as an 'elder statesman', most notable for his involvement in the negotiations that led to the release of two American Journalists, Laura Ling and Euna Lee from North Korea.^ I think you’ll agree that America’s growth into the superpower it is today is because its citizens are some of the most hard-working in the world.
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Clinton administration and North Korea issued a joint communique asserting a decision to "fundamentally improve" their relations.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Clinton signed the federal minimum wage bill for an increase of .90 cents per hour in two steps to $5.15 per hour over 13 months.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.Bill Clinton has also been active politically since his presidential term ended, working with his wife, Hillary Clinton on her presidential bid.^ Arkansas Gov. Bill Clinton and his wife Hillary set up their 50-50 Whitewater venture with Mr. Mrs.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Clinton, accompanied by his wife, Hillary, traveled to Merida, Mexico, for talks with Pres.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ He found it refreshing, but plans to vote for Bill Richardson, the New Mexico governor and Democratic presidential candidate, whom he views as more politically experienced.
  • Open Thread : IntentBlog 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

Currently there are four living former presidents:

Presidential libraries

.Each president since Herbert Hoover has created a repository known as a presidential library for preserving and making available his papers, records and other documents and materials.^ Jun 14, The Republican National Convention in Kansas City nominated Herbert Hoover for president on the first ballot.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Secretary of State shall provide such presidential electors with the necessary blanks, forms, certificates, or other papers or documents required to enable them to properly perform their duties.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Bear in mind the LAST President to raise taxes during a recession was Herbert Hoover, the man largely responsible for getting American INTO the Great Depression.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

.Completed libraries are deeded to and maintained by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA); the initial funding for building and equipping each library must come from private, non-federal sources.^ The 21-million-dollar library and museum was built with private funds.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1876, President Ulysses S. Grant authorized the funds to complete the construction--but without the ornate building and classical statue.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (AP, 8/8/01) 2000 Aug 23, The Clinton administration released guidelines for federally funded scientists to conduct research on human embryonic stem cells.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

[citation needed] There are currently thirteen presidential libraries in the NARA system. .There are also a number of presidential libraries maintained by state governments and private foundations, such as the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum, which is run by the State of Illinois.^ (MC, 4/10/02) 1892 Feb 12, Illinois made President Lincoln's birthday a state holiday.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lincoln said: "You can fool some of the people all of the time, & some of the people some of time, but you can't fool all of the people all of time" (HN, 5/29/98)(SC, 5/29/02) 1854 Oct 4, Abraham Lincoln made his 1st political speech at Illinois State Fair.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But if the relative position of the two races which inhabit the United States is such as I have described, it may be asked why the Americans have abolished slavery in the North of the Union, why they maintain it in the South, and why they aggravate its hardships there?
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Criticism of the presidency

.During America's history, there has been criticism not only of particular presidents and their policies, but also of the presidency itself.^ The Alliance for Progress and President Kennedy’s particular concern for democratic institutions brought the United States renewed popularity in Latin America.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The necessity of a national Government was less imperiously felt in the conduct of the internal policy of society; but there are certain general interests which can only be attended to with advantage by a general authority.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ No matter what his plans for America were, he could have very well died of old age during his term and Palin would be our president.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

Each of these criticisms generally fall into one of the following categories:
.
  • Presidency is too powerful. Most of the nation's Framers expected Congress, which was described first in the Constitution, to be the dominant branch of government; they did not want or expect a strong executive.^ Almost all these questions are connected with the interpretation of the law of nations, and in this respect they essentially interest the Union in relation to foreign powers.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President Eisenhower signed into law the first civil rights bill to pass Congress since Reconstruction.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In all the confederations which had been formed before the American Constitution of 1789 the allied States agreed to obey the injunctions of a Federal Government; but they reserved to themselves the right of ordaining and enforcing the execution of the laws of the Union.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    [29] .However, numerous critics describe the presidency today as too powerful,[30][31] unchecked and unbalanced[32] and "monarchist" in nature.^ (TMC, 1994, p.1950)(AP, 1/31/98) 1950 Mar 30, President Truman denounced Senator Joe McCarthy as a saboteur of U.S. foreign policy.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (AP, 12/30/97) 1992 Dec 31, President Bush visited Somalia, where he saw firsthand the famine racking the east African nation.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (HN, 12/30/98) 1862 Dec 31, President Lincoln signed an act admitting West Virginia to the Union.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [33] Critic Dana D. Nelson believes presidents over the past thirty years have worked towards "undivided presidential control of the executive branch and its agencies."[34] She criticizes proponents of the unitary executive for expanding "the many existing uncheckable executive powers -- such as executive orders, decrees, memorandums, proclamations, national security directives and legislative signing statements -- that already allow presidents to enact a good deal of foreign and domestic policy without aid, interference or consent from Congress."[34] Constitutional scholars have criticized excessive presidential power[35] and described presidents as "constitutional dictators" with "an incentive to declare emergencies" to assume "quasi-dictatorial powers."[36] David Sirota sees a pattern that "aims to provide a jurisprudential rationale for total White House supremacy over all government."[37][38] Another critic wrote that the expanded presidency was "the greatest threat ever to individual freedom and democratic rule."[39]
  • Images and public relations. .Some argue that images of the presidency have a tendency to be manipulated by administration public relations officials as well as by presidents themselves.^ He presents the evidence of private citizens, as well as of public men who knew the great President and were familiar with his religious views.
    • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I think, though, that President Clinton did some impressive things as well, and of course Obama isn't going to emphasize those while running against his wife.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The night before he announced his candidacy for president in February, Obama withdrew an invitation to Wright to give the public invocation, a decision that did not sit well with some other Chicago pastors.
    • Open Thread : IntentBlog 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

    One critic described the presidency as "propagandized leadership" which has a "mesmerizing power surrounding the office";[40] another described the aura surrounding the presidency with the word "cult."[38] Administration public relations managers staged carefully-crafted photo-ops of smiling presidents with smiling crowds for television cameras; in one instance of a televised photo-op, viewers were influenced by images and not by the story.[41] .One critic wrote the image of John F. Kennedy was described as carefully framed "in rich detail" which "drew on the power of myth" regarding the incident of PT 109[42] and claimed that Kennedy understood how to use images to further his presidential ambitions.^ I never understood how crazy white racists who claim to have the monopoly on being the "real americans".
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts announced his candidacy for the Democratic presidential nomination.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ John Parton, one of the best of Jackson's biographers, describes the circumstances under which he joined the Church, as they were related to him by the Rev. Dr.
    • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    [43] Even presidential funerals are staged affairs with high production values to give an impression of "regal grandeur".[44] As a result, Americans have unrealistic expectations of presidents, who are expected to "drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees."[45]
  • Deficit spending. .Few presidents over the past hundred years have been adept at keeping spending within limits.^ His work as a president for the past years speaks for it self.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Q Over the past few months, though, around the jobs report, the President has had events, either the jobs summit or the Allentown event.

    ^ Hundreds of thousands of people filed past the coffin of the slain president.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Presidents who promised to rein in spending had difficulty controlling budgets.^ (AP, 2/5/00) 1995 Feb 6, President Clinton unveiled his $1.61 trillion budget for 1996, mixing mild tax relief and spending reductions.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [46] .The long-term historical pattern has been for the nation to have had moderate surpluses except during recessions or wars, and this pattern lasted until the 1980s.^ US Casualties from war during term: .
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ The lobbying, fraud, bankruptcy, and endless war are what we are now reaping from a failed philosophy of greed that was sewn during the Gipper’s term.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [47] .Reagan increased substantial deficits without a recession or war, and budget deficits as a percent of GDP climbed from 1.6% in 1979 to 4.0% to 6.0% for most of the 1980s,[48] although there was a four-year period of surpluses beginning 1998 during the tenures of Clinton and Bush.^ There is appropriated to the fund for each fiscal year, out of amounts in the general fund of the treasury not otherwise appropriated, an amount equal to the amounts so designated during each fiscal year, which shall remain available to the fund without fiscal year limitation.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Certificates of nomination of presidential electors and all nominating petitions shall be filed with the Secretary of State during the period beginning on the first Tuesday in August and ending at 5:00 p.m.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And all of them, excluding Reagan, advanced welfare programs substantially – especially Bush II. Being on welfare for 10 years for no good reason is not excusable and not even the most compassionate Christian would continue to give money to them.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    After 9/11, spending returned under Bush and remained high.[48] .In 2009, the budget office estimated total federal debt would reach $12 trillion, including interest payments of $565 billion, or 4 percent of GDP.^ Whenever the Commission submits any budget estimate or request to the President or the Office of Managment and Budget, it shall concurrently transmit a copy of such estimate or request to the Congress.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Took over 50 years for our debt to reach 5 trillion.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Independent analysis has shown than 95 percent of families with children would see federal income taxes go down."
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    [49] .In the first decade of 2000, $632 billion was added to the budget.^ Clinton proposed a $1.73 trillion fiscal 1999 budget and projected a $10 billion surplus, the first year without a deficit since 1969.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [50] .In 2009, the United States may be forced to borrow nearly $9.3 trillion over the next ten years, according to one estimate.^ Login or register to reply Gee isn't that what everyone was saying Tue, 06/03/2008 - 16:59 — Done (not verified) Gee isn't that what everyone was saying about Hillary a year ago..."You are looking at the next President of the United States..."?
    • Barack Obama : The Next President Of The United States | Crooks and Liars 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC crooksandliars.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Whenever a law which the judge holds to be unconstitutional is argued in a tribunal of the United States he may refuse to admit it as a rule; this power is the only one which is peculiar to the American magistrate, but it gives rise to immense political influence.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Interestingly, he is constantly ranked alongside the likes of George Washington and FDR as one of the greatest presidents of the United States.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [51] A critic and senator warned this "clearly creates a scenario where the country's going to go bankrupt."[51] Obama inherited a budget deficit in 2009 of a staggering 10% of GDP.[48] The high levels of federal employment brought about by Roosevelt's New Deal have held steady relative to increased economic output and population. .In 1962, for example, there were 13.3 federal workers per 1000 population, while in 2007 there were only 8.7 federal workers per 1000 population, an overall decline of about one million employees.^ Canada contains only a million of inhabitants, and its population is divided into two inimical nations.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Phil Brennan There is one thing about campaigning.
    • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Clinton signed the federal minimum wage bill for an increase of .90 cents per hour in two steps to $5.15 per hour over 13 months.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [52] .Nevertheless, total federal personnel in 2007 numbered 4,127,000 who work in a long list of federal agencies.^ "It is proper to the Paschal festivity that the whole Church rejoice at the forgiveness of sins, which is not only for those who are reborn in Holy Baptism, but also for those who have long been numbered among the adopted children".

    ^ Someday they will and they, more than anyone, will be able to remember the human side of the man who worked so long and hard for his country.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (AP, 12/27/06) 2007 Jan 2, US markets and federal agencies closed in respect for funeral rites for former Pres.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .In addition, employees for state and local governments have doubled since the 1960s.^ A State or local officer or employee retains the right to vote as he chooses and to express his opinions on political subjects and candidates.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Either the State or local officer or employee or the State or local agency employing him, or both, are entitled to appear with counsel at the hearing under section 1504 of this title, and be heard.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He again called for the sharing of federal revenues with state and local governments.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    [52]
Federal government spending 1940–present
Decade Spending as % of GDP Surplus(+) or deficit(-)?
1940s -9.67 Deficit
1950s -0.39 Deficit
1960s -0.79 Deficit
1970s -2.37 Deficit
1980s -3.93 Deficit
1990s -2.16 Deficit
2000s -1.62 Deficit
Note: Largest deficit was for WW2. 1998-2002 had surpluses. .For brevity, annual numbers were combined into ten-year averages.^ Excerpt: Ms. [Patti] Davis revealed earlier this year that her father, crippled by Alzheimers disease for ten years, had not been able to recognise Mrs Reagan for a number of years.
  • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Every ten years Congress fixes anew the number of representatives which each State is to furnish.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ [The number of foreign immigrants into the United States in the last fifty years (from 1820 to 1871) is stated to be 7,556,007.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

Source: US Government statistics.[47]
.
  • Legislative and budgetary powers. Some critics charge that presidents have usurped important legislative and budgetary powers that should normally belong to Congress.^ (SFC, 2/7/00, p.A3) 2000 Mar 8, President Clinton submitted to Congress legislation to establish permanent normal trade relations with China.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ If a Democrat, in a Democratic primary is going to cite Reagan, there should be some caveats about just how horrible his presidency was for the country.
    • Open Left:: Obama's Admiration of Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC openleft.com [Source type: General]

    ^ See in the Legislative Documents, already quoted in speaking of the Indians, the letter of the President of the United States to the Cherokees, his correspondence on this subject with his agents, and his messages to Congress.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Presidents control a vast array of agencies that can make regulations with little oversight from Congress.^ In any case, Obama will now be my President, the Dems will have control of Congress, and I will do my part to support their efforts.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Message to the Congress Transmitting the Annual Report of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency .

    ^ Message to the Congress on the Continuation of the National Emergency Concerning Export Control Regulations .

    .One critic charged that presidents could appoint a "virtual army of 'czars' -- each wholly unaccountable to Congress yet tasked with spearheading major policy efforts for the White House".[53] Presidents have been criticized for making signing statements when signing congressional legislation about how they understand a bill or plan to execute it, and commentators have described this practice as against the spirit of the Constitution.^ Otherwise they (we) simply don't deserve the white house or congress.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And yet you claim they understand you.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ House, which is contrary to the spirit of constitutional government.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    [54] .Signing statements "tip the balance of power between Congress and the White House a little more in favor of the executive branch"[55] and have been used by the past four presidents.^ Not only in the White House, but in the Congress as well.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I used to think that Tricky Dick Nixon was the worst president in the last 50 years until G.W. Bush came into power.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Things that Bill Clinton did in the white house as president that has lead to the prelude of his impeachment, was so bad, I do not even know how to explain it to my 6 year old.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    [56][57] .This practice has been criticized by the American Bar Association as unconstitutional.^ Statement by Assistant to the President for Press Relations Fitzwater on the American Bar Association's Bating of Supreme Court Nominee Anthony M. Kennedy .

    ^ Statement on the American Bar Association's Rating of Supreme Court Nominee Robert H. Bork .

    ^ Remarks at the Annual Convention of the American Bar Association .

    [58] .One critic, George F. Will, sees an "increasingly swollen executive branch" and "the eclipse of Congress". He argued that this process has been continuing "for decades"[59] and criticized the "marginalization" of Congress.^ From a decade spent in school, to his time "organizing" and to his elevation to the US Senate, one sees a common thread.
    • The American Spectator : President Spock 9 February 2010 13:44 UTC spectator.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The review process will be a dynamic one where the President and John will continue to ensure that agencies are implementing their plans for correcting what was identified in each of those reviews.

    [59]
  • Abuse of power. Presidents have sometimes resorted to illegal and extra-legal activities, particularly during wartime. .Lincoln suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War;[60] Wilson imprisoned suspected communists without trial during the Palmer Raids;[60] and Roosevelt interned over a hundred thousand Japanese-Americans during World War II.^ Lincoln's policies led to the Civil War.
    • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The major American legal and moral conflict during Kennedy’s three years in office was in the area of civil rights.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (AP, 12/1/00) 1944 Jun 22, President Roosevelt signed the GI Bill of Rights, authorizing a broad package of benefits for World War II veterans.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [60] .FDR used federal investigators to study tax and financial records of opposition politicians.^ Bush’s tax cut would increase the federal budget deficits and voiced opposition.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ A Force bill was passed after this uprising, and this bill gave the president the authority to use troops to collect federal taxes.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    [61] .In an effort to prevent terrorism, George W. Bush authorized warrantless wiretaps which were later ruled unconstitutional[62] as well as torture and denying detainees due process.^ He later became vice-president under George H.W. Bush (1988-1992).
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Obama and the youthful bloggers who support him don't seem to understand that speaking well of Reagan now, is like speaking well of George Bush jr. .

    ^ Third, W: If Teapot Dome is a reason for rating Harding as worst, well enough … but then George W Bush ranks far beyond worst.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [63] .Nixon broke numerous laws by asking operatives to burglarize the offices of a political opponent's psychiatrist as well as the Democratic National Committee then tried to cover up White House involvement with hush money in what became the Watergate scandal.^ Not only in the White House, but in the Congress as well.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ When you see all that rhetorical smoke billowing up from the Democrats, well, ladies and gentleman, Id follow the example of their nominee: dont inhale.
    • Ronald Reagan: Poet and Poetry, a Tribute, Retrospective and Memorial 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thehypertexts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But he soon realized that the Nation under its Articles of Confederation was not functioning well, so he became a prime mover in the steps leading to the Constitutional Convention at Philadelphia in 1787.
    • The Presidential Directory 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC presidentialowl.com [Source type: General]

    [64] .Nixon's actions were, in a way, predicted by Tocqueville in Democracy in America (1835).^ 'I think Ronald Reagan changed the trajectory of America in a way that Richard Nixon did not and in a way that Bill Clinton did not.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ I ask what the heck this means: I think Ronald Reagan changed the trajectory of America in a way that Richard Nixon did not and in a way that Bill Clinton did not.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ "I think Ronald Reagan changed the trajectory of America in a way that Richard Nixon did not and in a way that Bill Clinton did not."
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    .Tocqueville argued that the re-electability of presidents was a grave cause for concern, since presidents running for re-election were tempted to not only lose their impartiality but use the vast machinery of the State to further their re-election.^ (AP, 9/13/99) 1994 Oct 21, President Clinton conceded in a news conference that Democrats would lose seats in the upcoming election.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (AP, 2/6/02) 1992 Feb 12, President Bush formally announced his bid for re-election.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ The only comment I would make about Hoover is that I sure wish he could run for President now.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [65] Tocqueville warned:
.
The President ... no longer governs for the interest of the .State, but for that of his re-election; he does homage to the majority, and instead of checking its passions, as his duty commands him to do, he frequently courts its worst caprices ...^ He no longer governs for the interest of the State, but for that of his re-election; he does homage to the majority, and instead of checking its passions, as his duty commands him to do, he frequently courts its worst caprices.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhodes,\6\ the Court struck down Ohio's election laws, which effectively limited access to the ballot to electors of the two major political parties.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If you’re at work, he needs to know what to do and I’m sure he does after you got it all into him tonight!
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

.Intrigue and corruption are the natural defects of elective government; but when the head of the State can be re-elected these evils rise to a great height, and compromise the very existence of the country.^ But in elective Governments this evil is far greater.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Intrigue and corruption are the natural defects of elective government; but when the head of the State can be re-elected these evils rise to a great height, and compromise the very existence of the country.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the head of the executive power is re-eligible, it is the State which is the source of intrigue and corruption—The desire of being re-elected the chief aim of a President of the United States—Disadvantage of the system peculiar to America—The natural evil of democracy is that it subordinates all authority to the slightest desires of the majority—The re-election of the President encourages this evil.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.When a simple candidate seeks to rise by intrigue, his manoeuvres must necessarily be limited to a narrow sphere; but when the chief magistrate enters the lists, he borrows the strength of the Government for his own purposes.^ When a simple candidate seeks to rise by intrigue, his manoeuvres must necessarily be limited to a narrow sphere; but when the chief magistrate enters the lists, he borrows the strength of the government for his own purposes.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ You have the typical blinkers that only government can be oppressive and thus must be limited so we can be shafted even more by the “free market”.
  • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The certificate and affidavit, or petition and affidavit, must be filed with the Secretary of the State within the same time limits as State office candidates, and for the purposes of the presidential preference primary only, political parties may file certificates for more than one presidential candidate.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.In the former case the feeble resources of an individual are in action; in the latter, the State itself, with all its immense influence, is busied in the work of corruption and cabal.^ In the former case the feeble resources of an individual are in action; in the latter, the State itself, with all its immense influence, is busied in the work of corruption and cabal.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Americans of the United States already exercise a very considerable moral influence upon all the peoples of the New World.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In aristocracies rulers sometimes endeavor to corrupt the people—In democracies rulers frequently show themselves to be corrupt—In the former their vices are directly prejudicial to the morality of the people—In the latter their indirect influence is still more pernicious.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

[65]
  • Starting wars without a declaration from Congress. Some critics charge that the executive branch has usurped Congress's Constitutionally defined task of declaring war.^ President Woodrow Wilson, delivered his message before a joint session of Congress and recommended that a state of war be declared between the United States and the imperial German government.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The resolution, which amounted to a declaration of war, was repealed by Congress on January 13, 1971.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ That same afternoon Polk and his cabinet had decided to ask Congress for a declaration of war against Mexico.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [66][67][68] .While historically presidents initiated the process for going to war, they asked for and got formal war declarations from Congress for the War of 1812, the Mexican–American War, the Spanish–American War, World War I, and World War II.^ (MC, 12/5/01) 1946 Dec 31, President Truman officially proclaimed the end of hostilities in World War II. (HN, 12/31/98)(AP, 12/31/97) 1947 Jan 8, Gen.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (AP, 4/19/97) 1951 Jul 9, President Truman asked Congress to formally end the state of war between the United States and Germany.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
    • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    [69][70] .However, presidents did not get official declarations for other military actions, including Theodore Roosevelt's military move into Panama in 1903,[69] the Korean War,[69] the Vietnam War,[69] the invasions of Grenada[71] and Panama (1990).^ Theodore Roosevelt was inaugurated as vice president.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ President Taylor did not share the fear, held by Clay, Fillmore, and others who favored compromise, that the Union was threatened.
    • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [72] However, while not getting an official declaration of war, presidents got Congressional approval in the first Iraq war (1991)[73][74] and second Iraq War (2003)[75][76] In 1993, one critic wrote "Congress's war power has become the most flagrantly disregarded provision in the Constitution."[77]
  • Election advantages of incumbent presidents. .Presidents, in office, and seeking a second term have an advantage over challengers,[78] and critics have charged that this is unfair.^ Hayes refused to seek a second term.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ President Woodrow Wilson was elected for a second term largely because he had successfully kept America out of the war that was raging in Europe since 1914.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Citing national divisions over the war in Vietnam, Johnson declares that "I shall not seek, and I will not accept, the nomination of my party for another term as your president."
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Since 1936, in the thirteen presidential elections where there was an incumbent, incumbents won ten times, challengers only three times (see table).^ Third, there is the eschatological lens in which we see that it was the Father who offered the Son to Himself, fulfilling the three parts of sacrifice.

    ^ There are statutory provisions for a statewide presidential preference primary to be conducted concurrently with the statewide primary on the second Tuesday in June of every general election year (June 9, 1992) (Sec.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet in the face of this, it is a strange fact that prior to the election of Benjamin Harrison, in 1888, there had not been one President who was unquestionably a member of an orthodox Church at the time of his election.
    • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Incumbent presidents seeking re-election enjoy advantages that challengers lack, including the power to command greater media coverage and influence events as well as dispense government grants.^ The legislators of the Union acknowledged that the executive power would be incompetent to fulfil its task with dignity and utility, unless it enjoyed a greater degree of stability and of strength than had been granted to it in the separate States.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The President wants to know where the systemic failure happened and what we're going to do to ensure that we can do everything in our power to make sure it doesn't happen again.

    ^ He no longer governs for the interest of the State, but for that of his re-election; he does homage to the majority, and instead of checking its passions, as his duty commands him to do, he frequently courts its worst caprices.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    [79] .One reporter noted "nearly all incumbents raise far more (money) than do their challengers" which brings an advantage to incumbents.^ But, like all instinctive passions, this kind of patriotism is more apt to prompt transient exertion than to supply the motives of continuous endeavor.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The certificate of nomination for presidential electors may contain the names of more than one nominee (Sec.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We shall see hereafter that in America the real strength of the country is vested in the provincial far more than in the Federal Government.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    [80] .PACs give most of their money to incumbents because they are more likely to win.^ I was more interested in the other one because she had bigger boobs but I liked talking to her.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Whence I naturally infer that they must often spend the money of the people to no purpose, or consume more of it than is really necessary to their undertakings.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Furthermore, women drive down wages because they provide more competition to men in the workplace.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [81] .One political forecaster suggested incumbency added 5 percentage points to a candidate's likely re-election results, although circumstances such as economic growth and inflation could influence the outcome.^ We're not liking ANY of the candidates solutions.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Minor parties A ``minor political party'' is one whose candidate for specified offices received between 2% and 10% of the total votes cast for the office (Sec.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A minor political party may have the names of its candidates for President and Vice President printed, and independent candidates for President and Vice President may have their names printed, on the general election ballots if a petition is signed by one percent of the registered electors of this State, as shown by the compilation by the Department of State for the last preceding general election.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    [82][83]
Presidential elections since 1936 with one incumbent
Year Candidate Votes Candidate Votes Winner Notes
1936 Roosevelt 523 Landon 8 Incumbent [84]
1940 Roosevelt 449 Willkie 82 Incumbent [85]
1944 Roosevelt 432 Dewey 99 Incumbent [85]
1948 Truman 303 Dewey 189 Incumbent [85]
1956 Eisenhower 457 Stevenson 73 Incumbent [85]
1964 Johnson 486 Goldwater 52 Incumbent [85]
1972 Nixon 520 McGovern 17 Incumbent [85]
1976 Carter 297 Ford 240 Challenger [85]
1980 Reagan 489 Carter 49 Challenger [85]
1984 Reagan 525 Mondale 13 Incumbent [85]
1992 Clinton 370 GHW Bush 168 Challenger [85]
1996 Clinton 379 Dole 159 Incumbent [85]
2004 GW Bush 286 Kerry 252 Incumbent [86]
.Note: elections with no incumbent and third party candidates were excluded.^ A political party may have a ``no preference'' column added on the primary election ballot (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The secretary of state shall certify the names and party affiliations of the candidates to be placed on the presidential primary election ballots fifty days before such election is to be held.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Arizona Revised Statutes, that is, a party whose candidate for presidential electors received in the last election not less than 5% of the votes cast.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Numbers are Electoral College votes.^ Yes 904, I repeat SUCK ON IT :) We won the Electoral College AND the POPULAR VOTE (52% - 46%) with a full 600,000 MORE VOTES for Obama than Pres.
  • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Reagan beat Mondale in the landslide of 1984 with 97.6% of the Electoral College and over 58% of the popular vote.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ Wilson beat Charles Evans Hughes, a former Supreme Court Justice with an electoral college vote of 277-254.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For further information: see election results.
  • Misusing the power to pardon. Presidents have been criticized for abusing this power. .For example, Ford pardoned the person who had earlier chosen him to be vice president, Nixon; Ford's decision was criticized as a misuse of the pardon power.^ Richard Nixon was vice president.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified; and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.
    • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I used to think that Tricky Dick Nixon was the worst president in the last 50 years until G.W. Bush came into power.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [87] .Presidents have been criticized for other pardon decisions as well, including an official suspected of hiding notes relating to the Iran-Contra scandal,[88] issuing 140 pardons on the last day in office,[89] pardoning fugitives[89] and prominent campaign contributors.^ Hill My leading opponent the other day said that he thought the Republicans had better ideas than Democrats the last 10 to 15 years.
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Mar 4, President Reagan addressed the nation on the Iran-Contra affair.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ "I want us to have a broad-based history" taught in schools, he said, even including more on "the Holocaust as well as other issues of oppression" around the world.
    • Open Thread : IntentBlog 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.intentblog.com [Source type: General]

    [89] .A president commuted the sentence of a staffer who had covered up administration complicity in the Valerie Plame Wilson matter.^ Unlike the tape recordings by earlier Presidents, his secret recordings of White House conversations were revealed and subpoenaed and showed details of his complicity in the cover-up.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Mar 1, A grand jury in Washington, DC, concluded that President Nixon was indeed involved in the Watergate cover-up.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Two White House officials soon called at least 6 Washington journalists and told them that Wilson’s wife, Valerie Plame, was a undercover CIA agent who had worked in Niger.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [90][91]
  • .
  • Foreign policy management.^ Nixon at least managed some competent policies (mostly in foreign policy) and it’s apparent that Nixon’s main flaw was his paranoia and insecurity.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Since there is no requirement that presidential candidates have foreign policy or military or diplomatic expertise, and presidents manage foreign policy, the quality of decision-making has varied from president to president.^ It appeared that there would not be enough Senators opposed to President Johnson to make out a case.
    • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Eventually sombodys has to do something over there we can’t continue with a foreign policy of f it.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Nixon at least managed some competent policies (mostly in foreign policy) and it’s apparent that Nixon’s main flaw was his paranoia and insecurity.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Assessments by foreign policy experts list both successes and failures in the past half-century.^ No objective observer can claim W was anything but a complete disaster from both a foreign and domestic policy standpoint.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Important successes within the last half century included the breakup of the Soviet Union and avoiding World War III[92] as well as the handling of the Cuban missile crisis in 1962.[93] But numerous presidential decisions have been criticized, including the Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba,[94] specific military choices,[95] trading arms for hostages with Iran,[96] and decisions about initiating wars.^ (HN, 3/25/98) 1961 Apr 24, President Kennedy accepted "sole responsibility" following Bay of Pigs invasion of Cuba.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Everybody knows full well why the Soviet Union collapsed.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So, you really believe that the Afghanistan war is what brought the Soviet Union down?
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    [96][97][98] The occupation following the Iraq War was criticized as being "catastrophically unplanned" and overall strategy with Iraq was called a "self-defeating alienation of allies."[99] One critic noted a trend of the "militarization of U.S. foreign policy."[100] Presidents have been accused of supporting dictators such as the Shah of Iran,[101] Musharraf of Pakistan,[102] and Marcos of the Philippines.[103] .Overall strategy regarding the Middle East has been criticized[104] as well as the handling of North Korea[104] and Iran.^ It is just that with regard to Iran and North Korea, and Pakistan certainly doesn’t seem the most stable of Nuclear Capable societies at the moment yet the US sees no need to invade there.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He [Saddam] certainly presented less of a menace to World Peace than North Korea, Iran and even Israel.” .
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bush singled out Iran, Iraq and North Korea as an "axis of evil."
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    [105] .Critics have charged that partisan politics have interfered with foreign policy.^ Culture Domestic Policy Foreign Policy Media Miscellaneous Politics Sports .

    [106]

See also

References

  1. ^ Our Government • The Executive Branch, The White House
  2. ^ Michael Noer and Nicole Perlroth (11 November 2009). "The World's Most Powerful People". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/2009/11/11/worlds-most-powerful-leadership-power-09-people_land.html. Retrieved 2009-11-15. 
  3. ^ "The Executive Branch". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/our_government/executive_branch/. Retrieved 2009-01-27. . Grover Cleveland served two non-consecutive terms and is counted as both the 22nd and the 24th president. Because of this, all presidents after the 23rd have their official listing increased by one.
  4. ^ Hamilton, Alexander. The Federalist #69 (reposting). Retrieved June 15, 2007.
  5. ^ Shurtleff v. United States, 189 U.S. 311 (1903); Myers v. United States, 272 U.S. 52 (1926).
  6. ^ Humphrey's Executor v. United States, 295 U.S. 602 (1935) and Morrison v. Olson, 487 U.S. 654 (1988), respectively.
  7. ^ Foreign-born Americans who were citizens at the time the Constitution was adopted were also eligible to become president, provided they met the age and residency requirements. However, this allowance has since become obsolete.
  8. ^ See: Peabody, Bruce G.; Gant, Scott E. (1999). "The Twice and Future President: Constitutional Interstices and the Twenty-Second Amendment". Minnesota Law Review (Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Law Review) 83 (565). ; alternatively, see: Albert, Richard (2005). "The Evolving Vice Presidency". Temple Law Review (Philadelphia, PA: Temple University of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education) 78 (811, at 856–9). 
  9. ^ See GPO Annotated U.S. Constitution, 2002 Ed., at 611 & nn.772–73.
  10. ^ U.S. Const. art. II, § 1, cl. 8.
  11. ^ Guardian, "Bush colonoscopy leaves Cheney in charge", July 20, 2007
  12. ^ 3 U.S.C. § 20
  13. ^ Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries "Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries, 1789+". University of Michigan. http://www.lib.umich.edu/node/11736/ Presidential and Vice Presidential Salaries. Retrieved 2009-10-07. 
  14. ^ Relative Value in US Dollars. Measuring Worth. Retrieved May 30, 2006.
  15. ^ Dept. of Labor Inflation Calculator. Inflation Calculator. Retrieved August 10, 2009.
  16. ^ "How much does the U.S. president get paid?". Howstuffworks. Retrieved July 24, 2007.
  17. ^ Salaries of Federal Officials: A Fact Sheet. United States Senate website. Retrieved August 6, 2009.
  18. ^ "President's Guest House (includes Lee House and Blair House), Washington, DC". http://www.gsa.gov/Portal/gsa/ep/buildingView.do?pageTypeId=17109&channelPage=/ep/channel/gsaOverview.jsp&channelId=-25241&bid=724. Retrieved 2009-09-30. 
  19. ^ New Presidential Limousine enters Secret Service Fleet US Secret Service Press Release (January 14, 2009) Retrieved on 2009-01-20
  20. ^ Air Force One. White House Military Office. Retrieved June 17, 2007.
  21. ^ Any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the president will use the call sign "Air Force One." Similarly, "Navy One", "Army One", and "Coast Guard One" are the call signs used if the president is aboard a craft belonging to these services. "Executive One" becomes the call sign of any civilian aircraft when the president boards.
  22. ^ "Junior Secret Service Program: Assignment 7. Code Names". National Park Service. http://www.nps.gov/archive/eise/secret16.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-18. 
  23. ^ "Candidate Code Names Secret Service Monikers Used On The Campaign Trail". CBS. 2008-09-16. http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/16/earlyshow/main4452073.shtml?source=RSSattr=Politics_4452073. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  24. ^ "Obama's Secret Service Code Name revealed". Eurweb. 2008-09-16. http://www.eurweb.com/story/eur48530.cfm. Retrieved 2008-11-12. 
  25. ^ "Former Presidents Act (FPA)". U.S. Senate. 1958. http://www.senate.gov/reference/resources/pdf/98-249.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-05. 
  26. ^ "Former presidents cost U.S. taxpayers big bucks". Toledo Blade. 2007-01-07. http://toledoblade.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20070107/NEWS09/70107004. Retrieved 2007-05-22. 
  27. ^ 18 U.S.C. § 3056
  28. ^ Biography of Richard M. Nixon, The White House
  29. ^ MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer) (July 6, 2007). "Unchecked and Unbalanced". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/06/books/06book.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "the founding fathers had 'scant affection for strong executives' like England’s king, and ... Bush White House’s claims are rooted in ideas “about the ‘divine’ right of kings” ... and that certainly did not find their 'way into our founding documents, the 1776 Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of 1787.'" 
  30. ^ "The Conquest of Presidentialism". The Huffington Post. August 22, 2008. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-sirota/the-conquest-of-president_b_120582.html. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  31. ^ interview by David Schimke (September-October 2008). "Presidential Power to the People -- Author Dana D. Nelson on why democracy demands that the next president be taken down a notch". Utne Reader. http://www.utne.com/2008-09-01/Politics/Presidential-Power-to-the-People.aspx. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  32. ^ Ross Linker (2007-09-27). "Critical of Presidency, Prof. Ginsberg and Crenson unite". The Johns-Hopkins Newsletter. http://media.www.jhunewsletter.com/media/storage/paper932/news/2007/09/27/NewsFeatures/Critical.Of.Presidency.Prof.Ginsberg.And.Crenson.Unite-2997235.shtml. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "presidents slowly but surely gain more and more power with both the public at large and other political institutions doing nothing to prevent it." 
  33. ^ MICHIKO KAKUTANI (book reviewer) (July 6, 2007). "Unchecked and Unbalanced". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/06/books/06book.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "UNCHECKED AND UNBALANCED: Presidential Power in a Time of Terror By Frederick A. O. Schwarz Jr. and Aziz Z. Huq (authors)" 
  34. ^ a b By Dana D. Nelson (October 11, 2008). "Opinion–The 'unitary executive' question -- What do McCain and Obama think of the concept?". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-nelson11-2008oct11,0,224216.story. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  35. ^ Sanford Levinson (February 5, 2009). "“Wartime Presidents and the Constitution: From Lincoln to Obama” -- speech by Sanford Levinson at Wayne Morse Center". Wayne Morse Center for Law and Politics. http://www.uoregon.edu/~morse/democracy.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  36. ^ ANAND GIRIDHARADAS (September 25, 2009). "Edging Out Congress and the Public". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/26/us/26iht-currents.html. Retrieved 2009-10-10. 
  37. ^ David Sirota (January 18, 2009). "U.S. moving toward czarism, away from democracy". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2009/01/18/INGP158S4G.DTL&type=printable. Retrieved 2009-09-21. 
  38. ^ a b David Sirota (August 22, 2008). "Why cult of presidency is bad for democracy". San Francisco Chronicle. http://www.sfgate.com/cgi-bin/article.cgi?f=/c/a/2008/08/21/EDCQ12G3M0.DTL. Retrieved 2009-09-20. 
  39. ^ SCOTT SHANE (September 25, 2009). "A Critic Finds Obama Policies a Perfect Target". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/09/26/us/politics/26activist.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "There is the small, minority-owned firm with deep ties to President Obama’s Chicago backers, made eligible by the Federal Reserve to handle potentially lucrative credit deals. 'I want to know how these firms are picked and who picked them,' Mr. Wilson, the group’s president, tells his eager researchers." 
  40. ^ Rachel Dykoski (November 1, 2008). "Book note: Presidential idolatry is "Bad for Democracy"". Twin Cities Daily Planet. http://www.tcdailyplanet.net/article/2008/10/29/book-note-presidential-idolatry-quotbad-democracyquot.html?mini=eventcalendar/2009/02/all. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "Dana D. Nelson's book makes the case that we've had 200+ years of propagandized leadership..." 
  41. ^ John Neffinger (April 2, 2007). "Democrats vs. Science: Why We're So Damn Good at Losing Elections". Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/john-neffinger/democrats-vs-science-why-_b_44733.html. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "...back in the 1980s Lesley Stahl of 60 Minutes ran a piece skewering Reagan's policies on the elderly ... But while her voiceover delivered a scathing critique, the video footage was all drawn from carefully-staged photo-ops of Reagan smiling with seniors and addressing large crowds ... Deaver thanked ... Stahl...for broadcasting all those images of Reagan looking his best." 
  42. ^ Dana D. Nelson (2008). "Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people". U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816656776. http://books.google.com/books?id=qgAWphms5oMC&pg=PA57&lpg=PA57&dq=kennedy+image+nelson+%22bad+for+democracy%22&source=bl&ots=BQX6dXpTNw&sig=qbo2XZA-Exl28hYrX2vuwm532BI&hl=en&ei=ZMr6Spr3K8_anAfxk8X9DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CA8Q6AEwAg#v=snippet&q=kennedy&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "in rich detail how Kennedy drew on the power of myth as he framed his experience during World War II, when his PT boat was sliced in half by a Japanese..." 
  43. ^ Dana D. Nelson (2008). "Bad for democracy: how the Presidency undermines the power of the people". U of Minnesota Press. ISBN 9780816656776. http://books.google.com/books?id=qgAWphms5oMC&dq=kennedy+image+nelson+%22bad+for+democracy%22&q=kennedy#v=snippet&q=kennedy&f=false. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "Even before Kennedy ran for Congress, he had become fascinated, through his Hollywood acquaintances and visits, with the idea of image... (p.54)" 
  44. ^ ALESSANDRA STANLEY (June 10, 2004). "THE 40TH PRESIDENT: CRITIC'S NOTEBOOK; A Pageant Over 2 Decades in the Making". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/06/10/us/the-40th-president-critic-s-notebook-a-pageant-over-2-decades-in-the-making.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "If anyone is to be credited for providing regal grandeur to the ceremony it is Mrs. Reagan, who, with the help of the loyal aide Michael K. Deaver, had always managed the stagecraft of her husband's political career." 
  45. ^ Lexington (2009-07-21). "The Cult of the Presidency". The Economist. http://www.economist.com/blogs/lexington/2009/07/the_cult_of_the_presidency.cfm. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Gene Healy argues that because voters expect the president to do everything ... When they inevitably fail to keep their promises, voters swiftly become disillusioned. Yet they never lose their romantic idea that the president should drive the economy, vanquish enemies, lead the free world, comfort tornado victims, heal the national soul and protect borrowers from hidden credit-card fees." 
  46. ^ Justin Ewers (April 28, 2009). "Why Obama Is Leaving the Reagan Era Behind When It Comes to Economic Policy". US News & World Report. http://www.usnews.com/articles/news/2009/04/28/why-obama-is-leaving-the-reagan-era-behind-when-it-comes-to-economic-policy.html?PageNr=2. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Despite his years of lip service to balancing the budget, total discretionary spending had climbed almost 16 percent by the time he left office, dwarfing the Carter budgets he had once criticized. Revenues, limited by Reagan's tax cuts, were never able to keep pace. The result was a spiraling national debt that nearly tripled during his two terms, hitting $2.7 trillion." 
  47. ^ a b United States Government (2009). "Historical Tables–Budget of the United States Government–Fiscal Year 2009". United States Government. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2009/pdf/hist.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-15. "see pages 11-12, 25-26, 28-29, 30-31, 333-334 The traditional pattern of running large deficits only in times of war or economic downturns was broken during much of the 1980s. In 1982, partly in response to a recession, large tax cuts were enacted. However, these were accompanied by substantial increases in defense spending. Although reductions were made to nondefense spending, they were not sufficient to offset the impact on the deficit. As a result, deficits averaging $206 billion were incurred between 1983 and 1992. These unprecedented peacetime deficits increased debt held by the public from $789 billion in 1981 to $3.0 trillion (48.1% of GDP) in 1992.(from p.11)" 
  48. ^ a b c Timothy Taylor (November 14, 2009). "The deficit doves". Minneapolis–St. Paul Star Tribune. http://www.startribune.com/opinion/commentary/70009157.html?elr=KArksc8P:Pc:U0ckkD:aEyKUiacyKUzyaP37D_MDua_eyD5PcOiUr. Retrieved 2009-12-15. "The Congressional Budget Office projects that the accumulation of government debt from 2009 to 2012, relative to the size of the economy, will outstrip the accumulation of debt in Reagan's first term of office." 
  49. ^ Peter S. Goodman (July 7, 2009). "Staggering Budget Gap and a Reluctance to Fill It". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/07/08/business/economy/08deficit.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-12-15. "The deficit has grown in part because of the $787 billion spending package championed by the Obama administration to aid states, generate jobs and increase benefits for the jobless. But these expenditures landed atop huge deficits run up by the Bush administration, which had cut taxes and prosecuted an expensive war in Iraq. The Congressional Budget Office projects federal spending will exceed revenues by $1.7 trillion this year, or about 12 percent of the nation’s annual economic output — the largest deficit since World War II." 
  50. ^ NICK GILLESPIE (JANUARY 24, 2009). "Bush Was a Big-Government Disaster". Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB123275512887811775.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Mr. Bush ... increased the size and scope of the federal government to unprecedented levels ... he added a whopping $345 billion (in constant dollars) to the federal budget ... added ... an additional $287 billion on top of that ... Mr. Bush has massively expanded the government" 
  51. ^ a b Lori Montgomery (March 21, 2009). "Deficit Projected To Swell Beyond Earlier Estimates". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/03/20/AR2009032001820.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Tax collections, meanwhile, would lag well behind spending, producing huge annual budget deficits that would force the nation to borrow nearly $9.3 trillion over the next decade -- $2.3 trillion more than the president predicted when he unveiled his budget request just one month ago." 
  52. ^ a b United States Government (2009). "Historical Tables–Budget of the United States Government–Fiscal Year". United States Government. http://www.whitehouse.gov/omb/budget/fy2009/pdf/hist.pdf. Retrieved 2009-12-15. "Table 17.5—GOVERNMENT EMPLOYMENT AND POPULATION: 1962–2007 (page 339)" 
  53. ^ Eric Cantor (July 30, 2009). "Obama's 32 Czars". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/07/29/AR2009072902624.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  54. ^ Dana D. Nelson (October 11, 2008). "The 'unitary executive' question". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/la-oe-nelson11-2008oct11,0,224216.story. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  55. ^ Christopher Lee (January 2, 2006). "Alito Once Made Case For Presidential Power". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/01/AR2006010100788.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  56. ^ Dan Froomkin (March 10, 2009). "Playing by the Rules". Washington Post. http://voices.washingtonpost.com/white-house-watch/bush-rollback/playing-by-the-rules.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  57. ^ Charlie Savage (March 16, 2009). "Obama Undercuts Whistle-Blowers, Senator Says". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/03/17/us/politics/17signing.html. Retrieved 2009-10-04. 
  58. ^ Transcript -- Ray Suarez and others (July 24, 2006). "President's Use of 'Signing Statements' Raises Constitutional Concerns". PBS Online NewsHour. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/white_house/july-dec06/signing_07-24.html. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "The American Bar Association said President Bush's use of "signing statements," which allow him to sign a bill into law but not enforce certain provisions, disregards the rule of law and the separation of powers. Legal experts discuss the implications." 
  59. ^ a b George F. Will -- op-ed columnist (December 21, 2008). "Making Congress Moot". The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/12/19/AR2008121902929.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  60. ^ a b c Albert Gore (CQ Transcripts Wire) (JANUARY 16, 2006). "Transcript: Former Vice President Gore's Speech on Constitutional Issues". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/01/16/AR2006011600779.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "GORE: President Lincoln, of course, suspended habeas corpus during the Civil War, and some of the worst abuses prior to those of the current administration were committed by President Wilson during and after World War I, with the notorious red scare and "Palmer Raids."" 
  61. ^ Grigg, William Norman (Jun 16, 2003). "FDR's patriot purge. (Cover Story History)". The New American. http://www.thefreelibrary.com/FDR%27s+patriot+purge.+(Cover+Story+History).(Franklin+Delano+Roosevelt)-a0103088435. Retrieved 2009-10-29. "federal investigators 'were free to devote a great deal of energy and attention to the tax records and finances of politicians who sought to use anti-Semitic appeals to attack the Roosevelt administration'" 
  62. ^ Dan Eggen and Dafna Linzer (August 18, 2006). "Judge Rules Against Wiretaps–NSA Program Called Unconstitutional". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/08/17/AR2006081700650.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "U.S. District Judge Anna Diggs Taylor ordered a halt to the wiretap program, secretly authorized by President Bush in 2001, but both sides in the lawsuit agreed to delay that action until a Sept. 7 hearing." 
  63. ^ Staff writer (July 15, 2008). "Book World: 'The Dark Side': The Inside Story of How The War on Terror Turned into a War on American Ideals (by Jane Mayer)". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/discussion/2008/07/10/DI2008071001458.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Since embarking upon its global war on terror, the United States has blatantly disregarded the Geneva Conventions. It has imprisoned suspects, including U.S. citizens, without charge, holding them indefinitely and denying them due process. It has created an American gulag in which thousands of detainees, including many innocent of any wrongdoing, have been subjected to ritual abuse and humiliation." 
  64. ^ Richard Zoglin (Aug. 08, 1994). "TELEVISION: Nixon Without Nostalgia". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,981225,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "paranoid Nixon White House of the early '70s, so obsessed with political foes that it had a psychiatrist's office burglarized to get dirt on Daniel Ellsberg (who had released the Pentagon papers) and ordered the fateful break-in at the offices of the Democratic National Committee." 
  65. ^ a b Alexis de Tocqueville, translated by Henry Reeve (1899). "Democracy in America, Volume 1". Google Books. http://books.google.com/books?id=r-oJAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22alexis+de+tocqueville%22+%22democracy+in+america%22&printsec=frontcover&source=bl&ots=5AbnvNh-dk&sig=eFUrf2nQbROBV7aJ9cVg8C_4h8Q&hl=en&ei=TKErS93kMcarlAfcxPyVBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6&ved=0CCMQ6AEwBQ#v=snippet&q=reelection&f=false. Retrieved 2009-12-18. ".Intrigue and corruption are the natural defects of elective government; but when the head of the State can be re-elected these evils rise to a great height, and compromise the very existence of the country.^ But in elective Governments this evil is far greater.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Intrigue and corruption are the natural defects of elective government; but when the head of the State can be re-elected these evils rise to a great height, and compromise the very existence of the country.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When the head of the executive power is re-eligible, it is the State which is the source of intrigue and corruption—The desire of being re-elected the chief aim of a President of the United States—Disadvantage of the system peculiar to America—The natural evil of democracy is that it subordinates all authority to the slightest desires of the majority—The re-election of the President encourages this evil.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    .When a simple candidate seeks to rise by intrigue, his manoeuvres must necessarily be limited to a narrow sphere; but when the chief magistrate enters the lists, he borrows the strength of the Government for his own purposes.^ When a simple candidate seeks to rise by intrigue, his manoeuvres must necessarily be limited to a narrow sphere; but when the chief magistrate enters the lists, he borrows the strength of the government for his own purposes.
    • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You have the typical blinkers that only government can be oppressive and thus must be limited so we can be shafted even more by the “free market”.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The certificate and affidavit, or petition and affidavit, must be filed with the Secretary of the State within the same time limits as State office candidates, and for the purposes of the presidential preference primary only, political parties may file certificates for more than one presidential candidate.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    "
     
  66. ^ Dana D. Nelson (October 11, 2008). "The 'unitary executive' question". Los Angeles Times. http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE5406CF20090501. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  67. ^ Steve Holland (May 1, 2009). "Obama revelling in U.S. power unseen in decades". Reuters UK. http://uk.reuters.com/article/idUKTRE5406CF20090501. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  68. ^ "The Law: The President's War Powers". Time Magazine. Jun. 01, 1970. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878290,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  69. ^ a b c d "The Law: The President's War Powers". Time Magazine. Jun. 01, 1970. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,878290,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  70. ^ ALISON MITCHELL (May 2, 1999). "The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/02/weekinreview/the-world-only-congress-can-declare-war-really-it-s-true.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Presidents have sent forces abroad more than 100 times; Congress has declared war only five times: the War of 1812, the Mexican War, the Spanish-American War, World War I and World War II." 
  71. ^ ALISON MITCHELL (May 2, 1999). "The World; Only Congress Can Declare War. Really. It's True.". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1999/05/02/weekinreview/the-world-only-congress-can-declare-war-really-it-s-true.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "President Reagan told Congress of the invasion of Grenada two hours after he had ordered the landing. He told Congressional leaders of the bombing of Libya while the aircraft were on their way." 
  72. ^ MICHAEL R. GORDON (1990-12-20). "U.S. TROOPS MOVE IN PANAMA IN EFFORT TO SEIZE NORIEGA; GUNFIRE IS HEARD IN CAPITAL". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1220.html#article. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "It was not clear whether the White House consulted with Congressional leaders about the military action, or notified them in advance. Thomas S. Foley, the Speaker of the House, said on Tuesday night that he had not been alerted by the Administration." 
  73. ^ Stuart Taylor Jr. (September 4, 2002). "An Invasion of Iraq Requires the Approval of Congress". The Atlantic. http://www.theatlantic.com/politics/nj/taylor2002-09-04.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Bush may eventually ask for a congressional vote. That would clearly be the wiser course, politically. And that's what Bush's father did in early 1991—notwithstanding his insistence then that he did not need congressional approval as a legal matter and his subsequent boast, "I didn't have to get permission from some old goat in Congress to kick Saddam Hussein out of Kuwait."" 
  74. ^ Andrew Rosenthal (1991-02-28). "Bush Halts Offensive Combat; Kuwait Freed, Iraqis Crushed". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/0227.html. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "The Speaker of the House, Thomas S. Foley, said: 'The majority in Congress voted to give the President the authority, and he has taken that authority and I think conducted this operation brilliantly.'" 
  75. ^ DAVID E. SANGER with JOHN F. BURNS (March 20, 2003). "Bush Declares Start of Iraq War; Missile Said to Be Aimed at Hussein". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2003/03/20/international/worldspecial/20IRAQ.html?pagewanted=all. Retrieved 2009-11-09. "Mr. Bush formally informed Congress in... a seven-page message to Congress, he argued that force was now the only way to 'adequately protect the national security of the United States' and that topping the Iraqi government was 'a vital part' of a broader war against terrorism. The message was required under a statute passed last fall explicitly authorizing war against Iraq after the president determined that a diplomatic solution was impossible." 
  76. ^ "Time Essay: Where's Congress?". Time Magazine. May. 22, 1972. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,879072-1,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  77. ^ Michael Kinsley (Mar. 15, 1993). "The Case for a Big Power Swap". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,977990,00.html. Retrieved 2009-09-28. 
  78. ^ David R. Francis (September 2, 2008). "Will pocketbooks pick the president?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/Money/2008/0902/p25s20-wmgn.html. Retrieved 2009-12-18. "Nonetheless, after recognizing that an incumbent president has an advantage, the two models depend on the economic numbers for their results and have done better than many sophisticated political analysts in their predictive ability." 
  79. ^ Schantz (editor), Harvey L. (1996). American Presidential Elections: Process, Policy, and Political Change. Albany: State University of New York Press. pp. 41. ISBN 0-7914-2864-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=eorXke-cHKIC&pg=PA41&lpg=PA41&dq=%22advantages+of+incumbency%22+%22elections%22+president%3F&source=bl&ots=_HyZymEGUX&sig=dfgg14FjbtKvCAMED7M_ZFunF8c&hl=en&ei=s5j4SoiwAsy9lAf81a3xCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CCQQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q=%22advantages%20of%20incumbency%22%20%22elections%22%20president%3F&f=false. "The advantages of incumbency are many: presidents have the aura and experience of the office; they command media coverage; they are able to influence events; and they are able to dispense government grants. (p.41)" 
  80. ^ Richard E. Cohen (August 12, 1990). "PAC Paranoia: Congress Faces Campaign Spending - Politics: Hysteria was the operative word when legislators realized they could not return home without tougher campaign finance laws.". Los Angeles Times. http://articles.latimes.com/1990-08-12/opinion/op-739_1_campaign-finance-laws. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  81. ^ Joseph A. Califano Jr. (May 27, 1988). "PAC's Remain a Pox". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1988/05/27/opinion/pac-s-remain-a-pox.html. Retrieved 2009-10-02. 
  82. ^ Peter Passell (November 28, 1990). "Economic Scene; George Bush's Secret Weapon". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/28/business/economic-scene-george-bush-s-secret-weapon.html. Retrieved 2009-12-18. "The election game presented by Mr. Fair is so easy that anyone with a pencil can play. In the latest version of the formula, derived from what statisticians call regression analysis, a Democrat starts with a presumptive claim to 48 percent ofthe two-party vote. If he is an incumbent, add five percentage points; if he is running against an incumbent Republican, subtract five." 
  83. ^ Peter Passell (November 28, 1990). "Economic Scene; George Bush's Secret Weapon". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/1990/11/28/business/economic-scene-george-bush-s-secret-weapon.html. Retrieved 2009-12-18. "Mr. Fair, who has just updated his remarkably accurate statistical model for explaining Presidential election results to include the Bush-Dukakis contest, suggests that nothing much can change the predisposition of voters to elect Republicans (especially incumbent Republicans) except parlous economic times." 
  84. ^ Staff writer (October 13, 1987). "Alf Landon, G.O.P. Stand-Bearer, Dies at 100". NEW YORK TIMES. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/bday/0909.html. Retrieved 2009-11-12. "523 Electoral Votes to 8 Roosevelt, running for his second term, won 27,747,636 votes to 16,679,543 for his Republican rival. Mr. Landon received 8 electoral votes to Roosevelt's 523." 
  85. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k MATTHEW ERICSON (November 3, 2004). "THE 2004 ELECTIONS: THE PAST; Electoral College Shifts, In Red and Blue". NEW YORK TIMES. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0DE6DE163CF930A35752C1A9629C8B63. Retrieved 2009-11-12. "The coloring indicates which party's candidate received electoral votes in the state. Darker shades indicate that a different party captured the state than in the previous election. E.V.: Electoral votes received by a candidate P.V.: Share of the popular vote received by a candidate" 
  86. ^ Mike Allen (November 3, 2004). "Bush Aides Pushed to Declare Victory". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A21604-2004Nov3.html. Retrieved 2009-11-12. "Even before receiving a concession call from his opponent, President Bush scheduled a victory announcement in Washington today, with officials of his reelection campaign asserting that he has won at least 286 electoral votes" 
  87. ^ DAVID JOHNSTON (1992-12-24). "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1224.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "But not since President Gerald R. Ford granted clemency to former President Richard M. Nixon for possible crimes in Watergate has a Presidential pardon so pointedly raised the issue of whether the President was trying to shield officials for political purposes." 
  88. ^ DAVID JOHNSTON (1992-12-24). "Bush Pardons 6 in Iran Affair, Aborting a Weinberger Trial; Prosecutor Assails 'Cover-Up'". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/learning/general/onthisday/big/1224.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "The prosecutor charged that Mr. Weinberger's efforts to hide his notes may have 'forestalled impeachment proceedings against President Reagan' and formed part of a pattern of 'deception and obstruction.'... In light of President Bush's own misconduct, we are gravely concerned about his decision to pardon others who lied to Congress and obstructed official investigations." 
  89. ^ a b c Peter Eisler (2008-03-07). "Clinton-papers release blocked". USA TODAY. http://www.usatoday.com/news/washington/2008-03-06-clinton-library-foia_N.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Former president Clinton issued 140 pardons on his last day in office, including several to controversial figures, such as commodities trader Rich, then a fugitive on tax evasion charges. Rich's ex-wife, Denise, contributed $2,000 in 1999 to Hillary Clinton's Senate campaign; $5,000 to a related political action committee; and $450,000 to a fund set up to build the Clinton library." 
  90. ^ Johanna Neuman (August 19, 2009). "Robert Novak dies at 78; syndicated columnist and TV commentator". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/news/obituaries/la-me-robert-novak19-2009aug19,0,4381837.story. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "President George W. Bush later commuted Libby's 2 1/2 -year sentence." 
  91. ^ SHERYL GAY STOLBERG (July 3, 2007). "For President, Libby Case Was a Test of Will". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/07/03/washington/03bush.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Indeed, to administration critics, the commutation was a subversion of justice, an act of hypocrisy by a president who once vowed that anyone in his administration who broke the law would 'be taken care of.'" 
  92. ^ Philip D. Zelikow (2009-11). "The Suicide of the East? 1989 and the Fall of Communism". Foreign Affairs Magazine. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/65628/philip-d-zelikow/the-suicide-of-the-east. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "There was no World War III ... The Soviet Union and Poland held limited elections in early 1989 ... By the end of 1991, the Soviet empire had disintegrated. Although there had been some bloodshed in China and Romania, there had been no great war." 
  93. ^ "Essay: The Lessons of the Cuban Missile Crisis". Time Magazine. Sep. 27, 1982. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925769,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-11. "Kennedy assembled a task force of advisers. Some of them wanted to invade Cuba. In the end, Kennedy chose a course of artful restraint; he laid down a naval quarantine. After six days, Khrushchev announced that the Soviet missiles would be dismantled." 
  94. ^ "Essay: BAY OF PIGS REVISITED: Lessons from a Failure". Time Magazine. Jul. 30, 1965. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,834040,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "U.S.-sponsored Bay of Pigs invasion that had ended in disaster about a year and a half before." 
  95. ^ David Ignatius (June 8, 2004). "Protean Leader". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23587-2004Jun7.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "But after suicide bombers destroyed the U.S. Embassy and Marine barracks there in 1983, Reagan decided to cut his losses and evacuate American troops ... The pullout from Lebanon was either an amoral retreat under fire or a prudent exercise of realpolitik, depending on your perspective." 
  96. ^ a b David Ignatius (June 8, 2004). "Protean Leader". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A23587-2004Jun7.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "A somewhat more dubious example of the Reagan administration's realpolitik in the Middle East was the decision to trade arms to Iran to secure the release of U.S. hostages in Lebanon. When the secret deal became public, Reagan managed the political fallout partly by insisting he had done nothing of the sort." 
  97. ^ Dennis Ross (2005-01). "The Middle East Predicament". Foreign Affairs Magazine. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/60427/dennis-ross/the-middle-east-predicament. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "Iraq is a mess--from which the United States cannot easily extricate itself." 
  98. ^ "Chuck Hagel–Biography". New York Times. 2009-11-08. http://topics.nytimes.com/topics/reference/timestopics/people/h/chuck_hagel/index.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "A staunch conservative and a Vietnam veteran, Senator Chuck Hagel of Nebraska is best known as the most outspoken Republican critic of President Bush's policies in Iraq." 
  99. ^ JACOB WEISBERG (August 29, 2004). "All the President's Critics". New York Times: Books. http://www.nytimes.com/2004/08/29/books/review/29WEISBER.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "But these are largely stand-ins for their opposition to the Bush administration's catastrophically unplanned occupation of Iraq, its self-defeating alienation of allies..." 
  100. ^ Robert G. Kaiser (October 27, 2008). "Iraq Aside, Nominees Have Like Views on Use of Force". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/10/26/AR2008102602179.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "Bacevich, who has endorsed Obama, is a stern critic of what he considers the militarization of U.S. foreign policy, and he regards this consensus as "far more important than any apparent differences" between the candidates and their advisers." 
  101. ^ "The Mystic Who Lit The Fires of Hatred". Time Magazine. Jan. 7, 1980. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,923854,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "But the U.S. saw the Shah as a stable and valuable ally. ... the U.S. lent the Shah its all-out support. President Richard Nixon and Secretary of State Henry Kissinger allowed him to buy all the modern weapons he wanted. Washington also gave its blessing to a flood of American business investment in Iran and dispatched an army of technocrats there." 
  102. ^ Michael Abramowitz and Robin Wright (November 21, 2007). "Bush More Emphatic In Backing Musharraf". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/11/20/AR2007112002304.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "President Bush yesterday offered his strongest support of embattled Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf, saying the general 'hasn't crossed the line' and 'truly is somebody who believes in democracy.'" 
  103. ^ Henry Grunwald (May. 12, 1986). "Essay: Marcos, Baby Doc - Why Not the Rest?". Time Magazine. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,961354,00.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "Some critics blame the U.S. for the existence of just about all the world's non-Communist dictatorships. While it is true that many of these receive U.S. support, the forces that lead to dictatorship are usually beyond American control." 
  104. ^ a b Joshua Micah Marshall (2003-11). "Remaking the World: Bush and the Neoconservatives". Foreign Affairs Magazine. http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/59380/joshua-micah-marshall/remaking-the-world-bush-and-the-neoconservatives. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "In Israel ... After giving a low priority to the peace process during his first two years in office, George W. Bush pushed the 'road map' for peace while relegating Yasir Arafat to the sidelines ... Finding himself stymied, the new Palestinian prime minister, Mahmoud Abbas, resigned; Arafat faces death or expulsion while being lionized among his constituents; bombings continue; and the region is as volatile and violent as ever." 
  105. ^ "Iran's Nuclear Program". New York Times. Oct. 21, 2009. http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/iran/nuclear_program/index.html. Retrieved 2009-11-10. "American officials and international inspectors are concerned that Iran seems to have made significant progress in the three technologies necessary to field an effective nuclear weapon: enriching uranium to weapons grade; developing a missile capable of reaching Israel and parts of Western Europe; and designing a warhead that will fit on the missile." 
  106. ^ Eric M. Weiss and Charles Lane (July 14, 2006). "Vice President Sued by Plame And Husband". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/13/AR2006071301092.html. Retrieved 2009-11-08. "Plame and Wilson say that, after Wilson accused Bush of twisting intelligence about Iraq's pursuit of weapons of mass destruction, Cheney, Rove and Libby conspired to 'discredit, punish and seek revenge against the plaintiffs that included, among other things, disclosing to members of the press Plaintiff Valerie Plame Wilson's classified CIA employment.'" 

Further reading

  • Bumiller, Elisabeth (January 2009). "Inside the Presidency". National Geographic 215 (1): 130–149. .http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/01/president/bumiller-text. 
  • Couch, Ernie.^ (SFC,11/1/97, p.A3)(http://tinyurl.com/3nxt8d) 1973 Mar 21, Dean told Nixon: "There is a cancer growing on the Presidency."
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Election dates: http://uselectionatlas.org/INFORMATION/INFORMATION/dates.php Presidents of the US: http://www.potus.com .
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ FireDogLake http://firedoglake.com/2008/01/23/late-nite-fdl-obama-suggests-his-supporters-wont-vote-for-hillary/ =============================================== From Daily Kos...
    • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

    Presidential Trivia. Rutledge Hill Press. March 1, 1996. ISBN 1-55853-412-1
  • Lang, J. Stephen. The Complete Book of Presidential Trivia. Pelican Publishing. .September 2001. ISBN 1-56554-877-9
  • Leonard Leo, James Taranto, and William J. Bennett.^ James D. Watkins secretary of energy and former education secretary William J. Bennett drug czar.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Presidential Leadership: Rating the Best and the Worst in the White House. Simon and Schuster, June, 2004, hardcover, 304 pages, ISBN 0-7432-5433-3
  • Presidential Studies Quarterly, published by Blackwell Synergy, is a quarterly academic journal on the President.
  • Waldman, Michael, and George Stephanopoulos.^ Presidential party enter White House.
    • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (SC, 3/4/02) 1893 Sep 9, Frances Cleveland, wife of President Cleveland, gave birth to a daughter, Esther, in the White House.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ White House lawn, Marine Band, President & Mrs. Reagan announced & walk out in sun w/ crowd watching.
    • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .My Fellow Americans: The Most Important Speeches of America's Presidents, from George Washington to George W. Bush. Sourcebooks Trade.^ President Reagan takes podium, Communist representative heckles, asks questions re American military in Central America.
    • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Interestingly, he is constantly ranked alongside the likes of George Washington and FDR as one of the greatest presidents of the United States.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Most of you probably still defend George Bush.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    September 2003. ISBN 1-4022-0027-7
  • Winder, Michael K. Presidents and Prophets: The Story of America's Presidents and the LDS Church. Covenant Communications. September 2007. ISBN 1-59811-452-2

External links

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

Official

.
  • "Executive Office of the President".^ (To date, Cleveland is the only president to marry in the Executive Mansion while in office.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.whitehouse.gov/president/.^ TOPIC_ID=183 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=58 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=175 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=154 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=60 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=144 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=310 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=231 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=209 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=334 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=342 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=262 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Election dates: http://uselectionatlas.org/INFORMATION/INFORMATION/dates.php Presidents of the US: http://www.potus.com .
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Retrieved 2005-10-07.
     
  • "White House".^ (AP, 1/4/98) 1974 Jan 10, An Advisory Panel on White House Tapes determined that an 18-m gap in Watergate tape was due to erasure and of no consequence.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Leroy Coon in the White House - November 5, 2008 10:34 AM .
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    .http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/eop/.^ TOPIC_ID=183 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=58 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=175 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=154 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=60 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=144 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=310 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=231 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=209 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=334 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=342 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=262 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=344 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=254 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=290 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=269 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=282 http://www.greenough.wa.gov.au/_forum/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=256 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2009-01-21
    . 

Presidential histories

.
  • A New Nation Votes: American Election Returns, 1787–1825 – Presidential Election Returns including town and county breakdowns.
  • "Life Portraits of the American Presidents".^ The Commission, the national committee of any political party, and individuals eligible to vote for President are authorized to institute such actions, including actions for declaratory judgment or injunctive relief, as may be appropriate to implement or construe any provision of this chapter.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the first Tuesday in January of the year in which the election will be held, the Secretary of State shall notify all nationally recognized candidates for President that their names are to be placed on the Tennessee presidential preference primary ballot.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In presidential elections, the names of the candidates for President and Vice President shall be used on the ballot in lieu of the names of the presidential electors, and the votes cast for President and Vice President of each political party shall be counted for the presidential electors and alternates nominated by each political party (Sec.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    C-SPAN. .http://www.americanpresidents.org/.^ EMERSON, LAKE & PALMER 1 http://www.shio.org/music/ELP/cover.html .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ LOU REED 6 (vinyl) http://www.elhauslero.org/VU_cover_archive/LR_Vinyl_archive.htm .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=876 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=843 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=907 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=850 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=839 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=842 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    .Retrieved 2005-10-07.
      – A companion website for the C-SPAN television series: American Presidents: Life Portraits
  • "Presidential Documents from the National Archives".^ There are two video links below to my detailed explanation of why I picked these men as the 10 worst Presidents of American history.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (AP, 10/24/07) 1952 Nov 4, Dwight D. Eisenhower (Ike) was elected president the 34th president, defeating Democrat Adlai Stevenson in presidential elections.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Americans voted for electors who, a month later, chose George Washington to be the nation's first president.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.footnote.com/us-presidents.php.^ FAIRPORT CONVENTION 1 http://www.pinkrobert.com/FairportDennyArtwork.html .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ ELVIS 1 http://www.cdrs.dial.pipex.com/list/titles.elv.shtml .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ VAN MORRISON http://www.angelfire.com/ct2/vls/vcd/vcd.html (VCD covers!
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    .Retrieved 2007-03-21.
      – A collection of letters, portraits, photos, and other documents from the National Archives
  • "The American Presidency Project".^ Bush won more votes than any other president in American history.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ (AP, 11/30/00) 1990 Dec 3, President Bush began a five-nation South American tour as he arrived in Brazil.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ Minor and new parties Candidates for President and Vice President may be nominated by a national convention or other like assembly of any political party (Sec.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    UC Santa Barbara. .http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/.^ DAVE MATTHEWS BAND 3 http://www.wam.umd.edu/~balynch/index.htm .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ (AP, 8/31/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=30049) 1978 Dec 1, Pres.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    ^ JIMI HENDRIX 10 http://www.me.umn.edu/~kgeisler/albums.html .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2005-10-07
    .  – A collection of over 67,000 Presidential documents

Miscellaneous

  • "All the President's Roles". Ask Gleaves. .http://www.gvsu.edu/hauenstein/index.cfm?id=600041AC-93E7-4378-305E5A2BF6EC3C57.^ GRATEFUL DEAD 3 http://www.eurodead.net/covers/index.htm .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ CLASH 1 http://www.geocities.com/j-blokhed/index.html .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    ^ QUEENSRYCHE 2 http://www.geocities.com/qrbootlegs/index.html .
    • CD Artwork Index 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.ravaz.net [Source type: General]

    .Retrieved 2006-10-20.
      – An article analyzing the president's many hats.
  • "Allpresidents.org".^ (SFC, 5/20/96, p.A-6) 1846 Aug 10, President James Polk signed a measure establishing the Smithsonian Institution.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (Econ, 6/20/09, p.82)(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bonus_Bill) 1936 Feb 7, President Roosevelt authorized a flag for the office of the vice president.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ (HN, 10/20/98) 1820 Mar 6, The Missouri Compromise was enacted by Congress and signed by President James Monroe.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Hauenstein Center for Presidential Studies. .http://www.gvsu.edu/hauenstein/.^ Slip666 wrote: http://www.cwrl.utexas.edu/~syverson/309- spring96/studentwork/project1/curtiss/THE_HOLOCAUST_NEVER_HA_377.html YOU GOTTA READ THIS!!
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Retrieved 2006-10-18.
      – An educational site on the American presidency.
  • "Presidents' Occupations".^ There are two video links below to my detailed explanation of why I picked these men as the 10 worst Presidents of American history.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Darlene - September 03, 2006-22:10:18 tWo...soCALgal and I am a DORK! YEAH! .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ (HN, 2/10/97) 1915 Dec 18, President Wilson, widowed the year before, married Edith Bolling Galt at her Washington home.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .http://www.factmonster.com/ipka/A0768854.html.^ The best, short downloadable book on the subject is called, “Giant with feet of clay,” by Jurgan Graf: http://www.666ismoney.com/HolocaustAds.html http://vho.org/GB/Books/Giant/ Best wishes, Raquel.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The story is here: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/08/AR2008060802255.html?nav=rss_email/components .
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only one of interest is the Gospel Of Thomas which is linked at my website here: http://www.666ismoney.com/EunuchQueens.html My next live show will be August 20.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Retrieved 2007-08-20.
      Listing of every President's occupation(s) before and after becoming the Commander in Chief
  • "Presidential Rankings".^ (SFEC, 5/7/00, p.T8) 1801 Jan 20, US Secretary of State John Marshall was nominated by President Adams to be chief justice.
    • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ You are fucking ANTI-AMERICAN if you don't support OUR president...How could you possibly be so ANTI-AMERICAN as to complain about a duly elected commander in chief?
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Interesting to think that Mr. Obama is the president elect and soon to be commander and chief of the armed forces.
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Wall Street Journal.^ [Another presidential poll was conducted by The Wall Street Journal in 2005, with James Lindgren of Northwestern University Law School for the Federalist Society.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "Obama's proposal would increase federal income tax on families earning more than $250,000 annually" -Wall Street Journal .
    • The Superficial - Barack Obama is the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC thesuperficial.com [Source type: Original source]

    .http://www.opinionjournal.com/hail/print_rankings.html.^ The best, short downloadable book on the subject is called, “Giant with feet of clay,” by Jurgan Graf: http://www.666ismoney.com/HolocaustAds.html http://vho.org/GB/Books/Giant/ Best wishes, Raquel.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The story is here: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/08/AR2008060802255.html?nav=rss_email/components .
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The only one of interest is the Gospel Of Thomas which is linked at my website here: http://www.666ismoney.com/EunuchQueens.html My next live show will be August 20.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Retrieved 2005-10-07.
      – Opinion poll of how great each President is believed to be.
  • The Great Republic: Presidents and States of the United States of America, and Comments on American History Classical liberal perspective of Presidential history.
  • "The Masonic Presidents Tour".^ But how do you define “presidential greatness”?
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    ^ President of the United States is elected.
    • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

    The Masonic Library and Museum of Pennsylvania. .http://www.pagrandlodge.org/mlam/presidents/index.html.^ The best, short downloadable book on the subject is called, “Giant with feet of clay,” by Jurgan Graf: http://www.666ismoney.com/HolocaustAds.html http://vho.org/GB/Books/Giant/ Best wishes, Raquel.
    • Lettersto666 23 September 2009 2:02 UTC www.666ismoney.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The story is here: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/06/08/AR2008060802255.html?nav=rss_email/components .
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ (AP, 8/31/97)(SFEC, 3/7/99, Z1 p.6)(www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=30049) 1978 Dec 1, Pres.
    • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

    .Retrieved 2005-10-07.
      – Brief histories of the Masonic careers of Presidents who were members of the Freemasons.
  • "The Presidents".^ Yet in the face of this, it is a strange fact that prior to the election of Benjamin Harrison, in 1888, there had not been one President who was unquestionably a member of an orthodox Church at the time of his election.
    • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the long run, this might create healthier local communities who then would be able to take over the job of caring for its members away from the impersonal bureaucracy of government.
    • 20 Great Quotes From Ronald Reagan - Listverse 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are two video links below to my detailed explanation of why I picked these men as the 10 worst Presidents of American history.
    • Top 10 Worst US Presidents - Listverse 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC listverse.com [Source type: Original source]

    American Experience. .http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/presidents/.^ TOPIC_ID=876 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=843 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=907 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=850 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=839 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=842 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=380 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=298 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=342 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=294 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=366 http://www.dahuk.org/discuss/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=334 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    ^ TOPIC_ID=663 http://www.mp-discussion.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=684 http://www.mp-discussion.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=633 http://www.mp-discussion.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=641 http://www.mp-discussion.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=594 http://www.mp-discussion.org/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=764 .
    • NBC.com > Ross Mathews - BLOGtastic! 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC blog.nbc.com [Source type: General]

    Retrieved 2007-03-04
    .  – A PBS site on the American presidency.
  • Presidents of the United States: Resource Guides from the Library of Congress

Source material

Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

←Wikisource:United States President of the United States
This is an index of works related to various Presidents of the United States.
See also the following subcategories:
  • Wikisource:Speeches by United States Presidents
    • Wikisource:U.S.A. Presidential Inaugural Speeches
    • Wikisource:U.S.A. State of the Union Speeches
  • Wikisource:United States presidential veto messages
  • Wikisource:Executive Orders
              

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

Template:Sprotect
President of
the United States

Official seal
Incumbent
George W. Bush
Conceiver George Washington
Formation April 30, 1789
Website whitehouse.gov/president
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|}
.The President of the United States of America (sometimes abbreviated as POTUS)[1] is the head of state and head of government of the United States.^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served for thirty days as President of the United States of the America.
  • President of the United States of America - Wikiality, the Truthiness Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC wikiality.wikia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The president is at the head of the executive branch of the federal government, whose role is to enforce national law as given in the Constitution and written by Congress.^ Q: What is the executive branch of our government?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Controls the executive branch of government.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What is the executive branch of our government?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

.Article Two of the Constitution establishes the president as commander-in-chief of the armed forces and enumerates powers specifically granted to the president, including the power to sign into law or veto bills passed by both houses of Congress.^ Bush signed a sweeping anti-terrorism bill into law.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

^ In addition, the president has the weighty role of commander in chief of the armed forces.
  • About the President and the President's Cabinet 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC usgovinfo.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He is the commander of the militia, and head of the armed force.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.The president also has the power to create a Cabinet of advisors and to grant pardons or reprieves.^ Power to grant reprieve s or pardon s (except in the case of impeachment).
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In reaction to some pardons granted by his predecessor, President Bush promises to apply the, highest of high standards, to future pardons.
  • About the President and the President's Cabinet 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC usgovinfo.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite the constitutional provision that "all legislative powers" granted to the federal government are vested in the U.S. Congress , the president, as the chief formulator of public policy, has a major legislative role.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

.Finally, with the "advice and consent" of the Senate, to make treaties, appoint federal officers, ambassadors, and federal judges, including Justices of the Supreme Court.^ Presidential nomination of federal judges, including members of the Supreme Court , is subject to confirmation by the Senate.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They also nominate all judges of the federal judiciary, including the members of the Supreme Court .
  • presidency of the United States of America (United States government) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ What US Presidents appointed the current Supreme Court justices and when?
  • WikiAnswers - US Presidents Questions including "Who was the first President of the United States" 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As with officials in the other branches of the United States government, the Constitution restrains the president with a set of checks and balances designed to prevent any individual or group from taking absolute power.^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Presidents of the United States - 8364 results .
  • Presidents of the United States: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Q: Who elects the president of the United States?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

.The president is elected indirectly through the United States Electoral College to a four year term, with a limit of two terms imposed by the Twenty-second Amendment to the Constitution, ratified in 1951. Under this system, each state is allocated a number of electoral votes, equal to the size of the state's delegation in both houses of Congress combined.^ George W Bush is elected to his second term as President with 286 electoral votes to John Kerry 's 254.
  • George W Bush 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.rotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington was the first president elected under the Constitution.
  • First President of the United States 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • First President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The electoral votes of 4 States were disputed.
  • U. S. Electoral College 17 September 2009 2:12 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Academic]
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The District of Columbia is also granted electoral votes, per the Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution.^ Each of these third parties had candidates on the ballot in enough states to have a chance of winning the 270 electoral votes needed to be elected president.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Cleveland's second administration, a Sunday law was introduced for the District of Columbia, as was also the "Christian amendment," placing God in the Constitution and making Christianity the official religion of the State.
  • The Religious Beliefs Of Our Presidents 15 September 2009 3:13 UTC www.infidels.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There she introduces a constitutional amendment lowering the federal voting -- and office-holding -- age to 14.
  • Fictional Presidents as Antagonists in American Motion Pictures 9 February 2010 13:44 UTC www.americansc.org.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Voters in nearly all states choose a presidential candidate through the plurality voting system, whom then receives all of that state's electoral votes.^ The voter chooses the candidate by name.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In all but two states, the ticket that wins a plurality of the votes wins all of that state's electors.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential electoral votes by state.
  • Ronald Reagan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A simple majority of electoral votes is needed to become president; if no candidate receives that many votes, the election is thrown to the House of Representatives, which votes by state delegation.^ I voted for President Bush in the first election.

^ To be elected to the presidency, a candidate must receive an absolute majority (270) of the electoral votes.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus every state in the House of Representative gets one vote."
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

.While in office, the White House in Washington serves as the place of residence for the president; he is entitled to use its staff and facilities, including medical care, recreation, housekeeping, and security services.^ After leaving office as President, served in House of Representatives; only President to have done so.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ He is the only president who never resided in the White House.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The President is in the White House working, and purchases a set of "Win the War" stamps to help symbolically to support the war effort.
  • The Presidents On the Fourth of July 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC gurukul.american.edu [Source type: General]

.One of two Boeing VC-25 aircraft, which are extensively modified versions of Boeing 747-200B airliners, serve as long distance travel for the president, and are referred to as Air Force One while the president is on board.^ Modifying Air Force aircraft for display.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Air Force One taxis.
  • Footage Farm: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.footagefarm.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to historian Garry Wills, in 1983 Reagan told the Israeli prime minister he had served in an Air Force unit that had filmed Nazi death camps.
  • Ronald Reagan: Forever young - Roger Simon - POLITICO.com 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.politico.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A salary of $400,000, along with other benefits, is paid to the president annually.^ Learn about the salary and benefits paid to the President.
  • About the President and the President's Cabinet 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC usgovinfo.about.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since 2001 , the President has earned a salary of $400,000 a year.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 250,000 people waited up to ten hours in lines that often stretched 40 blocks paid their respects to the slain president.
  • About.com US Liberal Politics: Most Popular Articles 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC usliberals.about.com [Source type: News]

[2]
.Since the adoption of the Constitution, forty-two individuals have been elected or succeeded into the presidency, the first being George Washington, serving forty-three presidencies altogether.^ Washington was the first president elected under the Constitution.
  • First President of the United States 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • First President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ First Republican to be elected President.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ President (which included George Washington).
  • First President of the United States 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • First President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]

.The current president is George W. Bush, inaugurated on January 20, 2001 to a first term and on January 20, 2005 to a second.^ In Office: January 20, 2001-January 20, 2009 .
  • The Presidents of the United States at Costume SuperCenter 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.costumesupercenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I voted for President Bush in the first election.

^ In 1817, his first term as president began.
  • Presidents of the United States - EnchantedLearning.com 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Presidents of the United States, In the order in which they served - EnchantedLearning.com 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC www.enchantedlearning.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His term expires at noon on January 20, 2009, after which he will be replaced by the winner of the 2008 presidential election.^ In Office: January 20, 2001-January 20, 2009 .
  • The Presidents of the United States at Costume SuperCenter 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.costumesupercenter.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ January 18, 2008 7:20 AM .

^ January 22, 2008 2:20 PM .
  • The Swamp: Clintons lying about Obama's Reagan remark? 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.swamppolitics.com [Source type: General]

.From the middle of the twentieth century, the United States' status as a superpower has led the American president to become one of the world's most well-known and influential public figures.^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McCain will be the next president of the the United States.
  • United States President - Associated Content - Topic 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC www.associatedcontent.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidents of the United States - 8364 results .
  • Presidents of the United States: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.U.S. presidential elections are regarded by many as events of international as well as national significance and are closely followed in many places around the world.^ On Monday, November 25, 1963, John F. Kennedy was laid to rest in Arlington National Cemetery, with full military honors, and with many of the world’s leaders in attendance.
  • US Presidents | Essays & Term Papers Online 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC onlineessays.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A number of factors are taken into consideration when designating an event as a National Special Security Event including anticipated attendance by dignitaries and the size and significance of the event.
  • Remembering Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC nyjtimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Because of the vast array of presidential roles and responsibilities, coupled with a conspicuous presence on the national and international scene, political analysts have tended to place great emphasis on the president's powers.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Origin

.The Treaty of Paris left the United States independent and at peace but with an unsettled governmental structure.^ Under the treaty, Great Britain recognized the independence of the United States.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War : In Paris , the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France , signalling official recognition of the new republic.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 6| Bob Marley, Waitaingi, Saint Dorothy, St Dorothy, Dorothea, Martyrs of Nagasaki, New Zealand 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ The United States were the first among the nations to recognize her independence, and have always desired to be on terms of amity and good neighborhood with her.
  • USA-Presidents.Info - James Knox Polk Third State of the Union Address 16 September 2009 14:27 UTC www.usa-presidents.info [Source type: Original source]

.The Second Continental Congress had drawn up Articles of Confederation in 1777, describing a permanent confederation but granting to the Congress—the only federal institution—little power to finance itself or to ensure that its resolutions were enforced.^ The Congress shall have the power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Major party voters can only affect the election a little, being lost in a vast sea of fellow voters, but we third party voters, few as we are, have the power to decide the election all by ourselves!
  • The 44th President of the United States « Whatever 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

.In part this reflected the anti-monarchy view of the Revolutionary period, and the new American system was explicitly designed to prevent the rise of an American tyrant to replace the British King.^ American Revolutionary War : In Paris , the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France , signalling official recognition of the new republic.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 6| Bob Marley, Waitaingi, Saint Dorothy, St Dorothy, Dorothea, Martyrs of Nagasaki, New Zealand 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ While technically accurate this hyphenated American designation usually means that one is the descendant of slaves brought to the North American continent in the early days of the British colonies.
  • Think Progress » Obama becomes first African-American nominee for President. 9 February 2010 13:44 UTC thinkprogress.org [Source type: General]

^ There were periods of boom and recession, but the country's financial system did not suffer from the kinds of shocks that have upset the American economy in recent years.
  • THE RONALD REAGAN MYTH . . . The Progressive Review 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC prorev.com [Source type: Original source]

George Washington, the first American president (1789–1797)
.However, during the economic depression that followed the Revolutionary War the viability of the American government was threatened by political unrest in several states, efforts by debtors to use popular government to erase their debts, and the apparent inability of the Continental Congress to redeem the public obligations incurred during the war.^ Continental marines had existed during the Revolutionary War, but had since been discontinued.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ American Revolutionary War : In Paris , the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce were signed by the United States and France , signalling official recognition of the new republic.
  • *�*  Wilson's Almanac free daily ezine | Book of Days | February 6| Bob Marley, Waitaingi, Saint Dorothy, St Dorothy, Dorothea, Martyrs of Nagasaki, New Zealand 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC www.wilsonsalmanac.com [Source type: General]

^ However, he took advantage of the House of Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) investigation into the Hollywood Motion Picture Industry during the late 1940s to reposition himself as a staunch Cold War warrior.
  • Ronald Reagan and the Cold War - The Education Forum 28 January 2010 1:46 UTC educationforum.ipbhost.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Congress also appeared unable to become a forum for productive cooperation among the States encouraging commerce and economic development.^ He began a career as an actor, first in films and later television, appearing in 52 movie productions and gaining enough success to become a household name.
  • Ronald Reagan 7 January 2010 5:44 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Clause 3 of Article I, Section 8 empowered Congress to "regulate Commerce with foreign nations, among the several states, and with the Indian Tribes."
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clinton addressed the World Economic Forum at Davos and urged corporate leaders to help lift the burden of debt from developing countries and to examine environmental concerns.
  • Timeline US Presidents to GW Bush 20 September 2009 6:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: News]

.In response a Constitutional Convention was convened, ostensibly to reform the Articles of Confederation but that subsequently began to draft a new system of government that would include greater executive power while retaining the checks and balances thought to be essential restraints on any imperial tendency in the office of the president.^ The greater your wealth, the greater your responsibility to the government.
  • Conservative media take note: Reagan preached tax cut gospel to America’s students | Media Matters for America 7 January 2010 5:44 UTC mediamatters.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Congress and The Constitution The Constitution gives many powers to the Congress to check the President.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Comparing the "powers" that Hanson had as President under the Articles of Confederation to the "powers" that Presidents have had under the Constitution would be unfair.
  • First President of the United States 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • First President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]

.Before the 1788 ratification of the Constitution, there was no comparable figure with executive authority.^ Those articles made no provision for an executive branch or head of state, leaving a weak one-house Congress as the only source of Federal Authority.
  • First President of the United States 20 September 2009 4:57 UTC cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]
  • First President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.cojoweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ There is also no formal opposition which can bully and check the executive.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Certain undertakings are of importance to the whole State; but they cannot be put in execution, because there is no national administration to direct them.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.Individuals who presided over the Continental Congress during the Revolutionary period and under the Articles of Confederation had the title "President of the United States of America in Congress Assembled", often shortened to "President of the United States". They had no important executive power.^ Q: Who was the president during the Civil War?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Under the protection of the United States.
  • President Ahmadinejad: The transcript - Nightly News- msnbc.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.msnbc.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidents of the United States - 8364 results .
  • Presidents of the United States: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The president's executive authority under the Constitution, tempered by the checks and balances of the judicial and legislative branches of the federal government, was designed to solve several political problems faced by the young nation and to anticipate future challenges, while still preventing the rise of an autocrat over a nation wary of royal authority.^ Q: What is the judicial branch of our government?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Q: What is the executive branch of our government?
  • Naturalization Test Questions and Answers 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.hooyou.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Controls the executive branch of government.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

Qualifications

.Article Two of the Constitution sets the qualifications required to become president.^ After becoming President, Saddam S. Hussein set up a dictatorship in Iraq, eliminating all manifestations of opposition.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He publicly spoke in favor of a line-item veto , a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget , and repealing the 22nd Amendment , which prohibits a President from serving more than two terms.
  • Ronald Reagan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Section One of Article II of the U.S. Constitution establishes the requirements one must meet in order to become President.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

Presidents must be:
  • natural-born citizens of the United States
  • at least thirty-five years old
  • must have been resident in the United States for at least fourteen years
.Citizens at the time of adoption of the Constitution were also eligible to become president, provided they met the age and residency requirements.^ On the night he was elected president, Reagan turned to his brother, Neil, and said, "I'll bet they're having a hot time in Dixon tonight."
  • Actor, Governor, President, Icon (washingtonpost.com) 16 September 2009 2:28 UTC www.washingtonpost.com [Source type: News]

^ Prominent public officials that are barred from the presidency because they were not born U.S. citizens include California Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger , born in Austria ; Florida Sen.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ No person except a natural born citizen, or a citizen of the United States at the time of the adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the office of President neither shall any person be eligible to that office who shall not have attained to the age of thirty five years, and been fourteen Years a resident within the United States."
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

.While not an official requirement, the vast majority of presidents had prior experience as vice presidents, members of Congress, governors, or generals; in addition, thirty-one of forty-two presidents served in the military, all but one of them, James Buchanan, as an officer.^ Served as Vice president to Jackson.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.nyise.org [Source type: News]

^ One served as a corporal in the Coast Guard while vice president.
  • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > People > Officers & Staff > Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate) 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Forty-one years, two Democratic presidents.
  • The Blog of Death: Ronald Reagan 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.blogofdeath.com [Source type: Original source]

.During the electoral process, experience or lack thereof is often given as a point in a presidential candidate's campaign.^ Unfortunately, much of the work on presidential horoscopes must be considered as theoretical, since accurate birth data for this group is often lacking.
  • American Presidents and Least-aspected Saturn:Astrology 20 September 2009 20:020 UTC www.dominantstar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additionally, items sent to the White House are often significantly delayed and can be irreparably harmed during the security screening process.
  • http://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/ 16 September 2009 1:46 UTC www.whitehouse.gov [Source type: News]

^ The modern Presidential election process begins with the primary elections , during which the major parties (currently the Democrats and the Republicans ) each select a nominee to unite behind; the nominee in turn selects a running mate to join him on the ticket as the Vice Presidential candidate.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

.Candidates usually must receive the backing of a major political party.^ Minor parties A ``minor political party'' is one whose candidate for specified offices received between 2% and 10% of the total votes cast for the office (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Each candidate upon filing his qualifying petition shall pay a filing fee that is prescribed by his political party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ They have to be from the same political party and meet the usual Senatorial rules laid out in the Constitution to be eligible for appointment.
  • President of the United States of America@Everything2.com 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.This is not strictly required in order to be considered a serious candidate.^ C. All candidates considered for district-level alternate positions must meet the same requirements as candidates for district-level delegate positions, except that the state may allow candidates who were to chosen at the delegate level to be considered at the alternate level.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ B. If a state requires the payment of a fee in order to place a presidential candidate's name on the ballot in connection with the Democratic presidential nominating process, such fee shall not exceed $2,500.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Third-party candidate Ross Perot received nearly 19% of the vote in the 1992 election.^ Major party voters can only affect the election a little, being lost in a vast sea of fellow voters, but we third party voters, few as we are, have the power to decide the election all by ourselves!
  • The 44th President of the United States « Whatever 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC whatever.scalzi.com [Source type: General]

^ This negative margin of victory has only one precedent: the 1876 election of Rutherford B. Hayes, who received 200,000 votes fewer than his opponent.
  • George W Bush 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.rotten.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although John Adams ran as Jefferson's main opponent in the general election, running-mates Jefferson and Burr received the same number of electoral votes.
  • U. S. Electoral College 17 September 2009 2:12 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Academic]

Election

Main article: United States presidential election
A map of the United States showing the number of electoral votes currently allocated to each state; 270 electoral votes are required for a majority out of 538 overall
.Unlike most other countries using the presidential system, presidents are elected indirectly in the United States.^ The President of the United States is elected by the Electoral College and not directly by the population.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of electors, collectively known as the United States Electoral College, select the president instead.^ The President of the United States is elected by the Electoral College and not directly by the population.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ McKinley was the 25th President of the United States .
  • Autographs of the President of the United States 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ehistorybuff.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who is the vice president of the United States?
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each state is allocated a number of electors, equal to the size of its delegation in both houses of Congress combined.^ In the event the political party does not choose by its constitution, bylaws or its State convention the method of selecting its delegates and alternates to the national convention, it shall, at its State party convention, meeting in the even nonpresidential years, choose the method of selection from the alternatives as follows: (a) the slate of delegates and alternates receiving the highest number of votes shall be declared elected; (b) the total number of delegates and an equal number of alternates to the national convention shall be allocated between the two leading slates of the political party, and the same proportion of the total vote each slate received bears to the total combined votes of both slates.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Housing: The DNCC shall design and implement a fair and equitable system by which hotel facilities shall be allocated to eligible state delegations and to presidential candidates.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ If such rules provide that such delegates are to be chosen from districts, the chairman shall also certify the number of delegates allocated to each district and the number to be selected at large, if any.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.Additionally, the Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution grants electors to the District of Columbia as if it were a state, with the restriction that it may not have more representation than the least populated state.^ Constitution, and by the Congress for the District of Columbia in accordance with the Twenty-third Amendment.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ May 1964 , Washington, District of Columbia, USA more Contact: .
  • Stephen Colbert 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.imdb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He publicly spoke in favor of a line-item veto , a constitutional amendment requiring a balanced budget , and repealing the 22nd Amendment , which prohibits a President from serving more than two terms.
  • Ronald Reagan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Electoral apportionment is adjusted every ten years, in alignment with the census.^ The qualified voters of the Commonwealth shall choose the Commonwealth electors for President and Vice President at the general election in November 1996, and every fourth year thereafter.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The ease and economy of this service caused the value of goods reaching New Orleans to double every ten years from 1820 to 1860.
  • President National Historic Landmark Nomination 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.cr.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The electors of President and Vice President shall be appointed, in each State, on the Tuesday next after the first Monday in November, in every fourth year succeeding every election of a President and Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.State legislatures are constitutionally empowered to appoint electors, however, all of the fifty states have established their popular selection.^ Certificates of nomination of presidential electors and all nominating petitions shall be filed with the Secretary of State during the period beginning on the first Tuesday in August and ending at 5:00 p.m.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ John Q. Adams received fewer electoral votes and fewer popular votes than Andrew Jackson, but won the election in the House of Representatives, with 13 State delegations voting for John Q. Adams, 7 voting for Jackson and 3 voting for Crawford.
  • U. S. Electoral College 17 September 2009 2:12 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Reagan won a record 525 electoral votes, the most so of any candidate in United States history,[119] and received 58.8% of the popular vote to Mondale's 40.6%.

History

.Article Two of the Constitution originally established the method of presidential election.^ Return to the original method of Senatorial election as spelled out by the Constitution of the United States in which Senators are chosen by the Legislature of their respective States.
  • Vote for the 'President of Us' | Lynchburg News Advance 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC www2.newsadvance.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Now I know of only two methods of establishing equality in the political world; every citizen must be put in possession of his rights, or rights must be granted to no one.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In America, it acts by elections and decrees; in France it proceeds by revolutions; but notwithstanding the different constitutions of these two countries, public opinion is the predominant authority in both of them.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

.It also used an electoral college, but there was a major difference in the voting system.^ Sufficient votes by the Electoral College.
  • Judge David O carter, Obama not president, January 20, 2009, US Constitution, 20th Amendment, Joe Biden president, Obama not qualified, Chief Justice, John Roberts, US Supreme Court, Oath of office « Citizen Wells 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC citizenwells.wordpress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He invented the 1787 electoral college system "to break the tyranny of the majority."
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If other bands do this using different apps, then you have to run each one separately and you lose out on the benefit of a central control system for all your music.
  • Band Puts All Its Music (Plus More) Into A $3 iPhone App | Techdirt 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.techdirt.com [Source type: General]

.Each elector cast two votes, with the intention that one would be used for a presidential and the other for a vice presidential candidate.^ The candidates for electors are nominated to vote for the party's candidates for President and Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A vote for the candidates for President and Vice President are votes for the electors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A vote for a presidential and vice presidential candidate is considered a vote for the electors representing that party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The candidate with the highest number of votes would become the president, with the second-place candidate becoming the vice president.^ Under the system then in place, votes for Vice President were not differentiated from votes for President.
  • U. S. Electoral College 17 September 2009 2:12 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ The candidates for electors are nominated to vote for the party's candidates for President and Vice President.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The one coming in second would be vice president.
  • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > People > Officers & Staff > Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate) 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

.However, the 1796 and 1800 elections highlighted flaws in the electoral system in use at the time.^ Smartmatic admits that the 2010 May elections is the first time that they are using the PCOS system in a nationwide election.
  • ellen tordesillas » US President Barack Obama’s inaugural speech 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC www.ellentordesillas.com [Source type: Original source]
  • ellen tordesillas » Letter to President Obama 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC www.ellentordesillas.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of the results of the presidential preference primary election by the political parties in their delegation selection systems is discretionary and is to be determined by party rules (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ It had ceased to be a communist system in any meaningful sense from the time of the state-wide contested elections of the spring of 1989.
  • THE RONALD REAGAN MYTH . . . The Progressive Review 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC prorev.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Ronald Reagan Myth 25 January 2010 0:24 UTC www.thirdworldtraveler.com [Source type: Original source]

.In particular, the tie in the electoral vote that resulted from the lack of separation between presidential and vice presidential votes in the latter election was an issue.^ The term ``presidential election'' means the election of presidential and vice-presidential electors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ A vote for the candidates for President and Vice President are votes for the electors.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential electoral votes by state.
  • Ronald Reagan - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 15 January 2010 9:09 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Democratic-Republican Party's candidates, who won the election, were tied with each other, and as a result, the election was thrown to the House of Representatives in the outgoing Federalist Party-controlled 6th Congress.^ The Republicans are the representatives of the old Federalists, and the Democrats of the old Republicans.—Trans.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a result, Madison turned against the Federalist Party and with Jefferson formed the Democratic-Republican Party .
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the Republican Party had not split, they would have won the Presidential Election.
  • Presidents of the United States 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.lahc.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Federalist representatives attempted to elect Aaron Burr, the Democratic-Republican candidate for vice president, over Thomas Jefferson, the presidential candidate.^ The Republicans are the representatives of the old Federalists, and the Democrats of the old Republicans.—Trans.
  • Democracy in America, Part I. by Alexis de Tocqueville 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.gutenberg.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thomas Jefferson, loosing Presidential candidate for Presidency (DR) Confirmed Illuminati .
  • United States Presidents and The Illuminati / Masonic Power Structure 28 January 2010 1:18 UTC www.theforbiddenknowledge.com [Source type: Original source]

^ William R. King was elected vice-president.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Jefferson eventually won after Alexander Hamilton managed to swing one state delegation's vote to him.^ The Formation of a National Government The disagreements between early cabinet members Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton are presented at this Netherlands University page.
  • The First Administration [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Furthermore, Washington identified the three leaders (Thomas Jefferson as secretary of state, Alexander Hamilton of the treasury, and Henry Knox of war) as his personal "cabinet" of advisers, thus underscoring the executive's domain.
  • The First Administration [ushistory.org] 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.ushistory.org [Source type: Academic]

^ His first cabinet included Thomas Jefferson, Alexander Hamilton as first secretary of the Treasury, Henry Knox, and Edmund Randolph.
  • Timeline US Presidents to JFK 2 February 2010 18:54 UTC timelines.ws [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a result, Congress proposed the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution in 1803, and it was ratified in 1804. This amendment created the electoral system used today.^ This stalemate led to adoption of the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution in 1804.
  • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > People > Officers & Staff > Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate) 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Within four years of this deadlocked election, Congress had passed, and the necessary number of states had ratified, the Twelfth Amendment to the Constitution, instituting the present system wherein electors cast separate ballots for president and for vice president.
  • U.S. Senate: Art & History Home > People > Officers & Staff > Vice President of the United States (President of the Senate) 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC www.senate.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ The ratification of Amendment XII in 1804 changed the electoral process by directing the electors to use separate ballots to vote for the President and Vice President.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

Campaign

Main articles: United States presidential primary, United States presidential nominating convention, and United States presidential election debates
.The modern presidential campaign begins before the primary elections, which the two major political parties use to clear the field of candidates in advance of their national nominating conventions, where the most successful candidate is made the party's nominee for president.^ Most of the delegates to the national nominating conventions are elected at the presidential primary in a separate election.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Minor and new parties Candidates for President and Vice President may be nominated by a national convention or other like assembly of any political party (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

^ Presidential electors may be nominated by political parties in Alaska (Sec.
  • http://purl.access.gpo.gov/GPO/LPS5356 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC purl.access.gpo.gov [Source type: Original source]

.The party's presidential candidate chooses a vice presidential nominee and this choice is rubber-stamped by the convention.^ The conventions may have been reduced to rubber stamps, but they still fulfill a vital function in the life of the political parties.
  • How to Become the US President: A Step-by-Step Guide - 2008 Election - ProCon.org 24 January 2010 19:10 UTC 2008election.procon.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The modern Presidential election process begins with the primary elections , during which the major parties (currently the Democrats and the Republicans ) each select a nominee to unite behind; the nominee in turn selects a running mate to join him on the ticket as the Vice Presidential candidate.
  • The Ultimate President of the United States - American History Information Guide and Reference 28 January 2010 1:41 UTC www.historymania.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the polls are accurate, then for only the second time in 30 years are the most loyal partisans in the Out-of-Power political party and their most partisan opponents in the In-Power party backing the same candidate to be the ne