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Inauguration Day 2009 on the west steps of the U.S. Capitol.
President George W. Bush and First Lady Laura Bush lead the inaugural parade down Pennsylvania Avenue to the White House, 2005

The inauguration of the President of the United States occurs upon the commencement of a new term of a President of the United States.

The only inauguration element mandated by the United States Constitution is that the President make an oath or affirmation before that person can "enter on the Execution" of the office of the presidency. However, over the years, various traditions have arisen that have expanded the inauguration from a simple oath-taking ceremony to a day-long event, including parades, speeches, and balls.

This day, now known as Inauguration Day, was on March 4 from 1793 until 1933. Since then, Inauguration Day has occurred on January 20 (the 1933 ratification of the Twentieth Amendment changed the start date of the term).

From the presidency of Andrew Jackson through Jimmy Carter, the primary Inauguration Day ceremony took place on the Capitol's East Portico[1]. Since the 1981 inauguration of Ronald Reagan, the ceremony has been held at the Capitol's West Front. The inaugurations of William Howard Taft in 1909 and Reagan in 1985 were moved indoors at the Capitol due to cold weather.

Since Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth swore in President John Adams, no Chief Justice has missed a regularly-scheduled Inauguration Day swearing-in. When Inauguration Day has fallen on a Sunday, the Chief Justice has administered the oath to the President either on inauguration day itself or on the preceding Saturday privately and the following Monday publicly. The War of 1812 and World War II caused two inaugurations to be held at other locations in Washington, D.C.

Contents

Inaugural ceremonies

The inauguration for the first U.S. president, George Washington, was held on April 30, 1789, at Federal Hall in New York City[2] where he was sworn in by Robert Livingston, the Chancellor of the State of New York.[3] In 1801, Thomas Jefferson became the first to be sworn in as president in Washington, D.C., which only officially become the federal capital that year.[4] Inauguration day was originally on March 4, four months after election day, but this was changed to noon on January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment in 1933.[4]

The inaugural celebrations usually last ten days, from five days before the inauguration to five days after. However, in 1973, the celebrations marking Richard Nixon's second inauguration were marred by the passing of former president Lyndon Johnson two days after the inauguration. The celebrations came to an end as Washington began preparations for the state funeral for Johnson. Because of the construction work on the center steps of the East Front, Johnson's casket was taken up the Senate wing steps of the Capitol when taken into the rotunda to lie in state. When it was brought out, it came out through the House wing steps of the Capitol.[5]

Inauguration Day is a Federal holiday observed only by federal employees who work in the District of Columbia; Montgomery and Prince George's Counties in Maryland; Arlington and Fairfax Counties in Virginia, and the cities of Alexandria and Fairfax in Virginia, and who are regularly scheduled to perform non-overtime work on Inauguration Day. There is no in-lieu-of holiday for employees and students who are not regularly scheduled to work or attend school on Inauguration Day. The primary reason for the holiday is to relieve traffic congestion that occurs during this major event.

Organizers

Since 1901, all inaugural ceremonies at the United States Capitol have been organized by the Congressional Joint Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies.[6]

The U.S. military have participated in Inauguration Day ceremonies since George Washington, because the president is commander-in-chief of the armed forces. Since the first inauguration of Dwight D. Eisenhower in 1953, that participation has been coordinated by the Armed Forces Inaugural Committee (now called the Joint Task Force-Armed Forces Inaugural Committee).

The Presidential Inaugural Committee is the legal entity which raises and distributes funds for events other than the ceremony such as the balls and parade.[7]

Locations

All but one of the inaugural ceremonies were held at the building housing the United States Congress. Washington gave his first address at Federal Hall in New York City and his second address in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Adams also gave his in Congress Hall in Philadelphia. Jefferson gave both of his addresses at the United States Capitol in Washington, D.C. and all addresses since then have been given there, except for Franklin D. Roosevelt's fourth address, which he gave at the White House. Depending on the weather the ceremonial swear-in can be held outside or inside of the Capitol building.

Dates

Inuagural ceremonies have been held on five different calendar dates in the year: April 30, March 4, March 5, January 20, January 21. Washington gave his first address on April 30, 1789 and his second one on March 4, 1793, which was the commencement date for presidential terms. This March 4 date was changed to January 20 by the Twentieth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Sunday exceptions

From the years 1793 to 1933, the addresses were given on March 4 with only four exceptions. Because March 4 fell on a Sunday in each of their respective inaugural years, Monroe, Taylor, Hayes and Wilson each gave an address on Monday, March 5. Since 1937, addresses have been given on January 20 with only two exceptions (other than following a premature end to the Presidential term). Presidents Eisenhower and Reagan each gave an address on Monday, January 21. The next inauguration day that will fall on a Sunday is January 20, 2013.

Attendees

In addition to public, the attendees at the ceremony generally include Members of Congress, Supreme Court justices, high-ranking military officers, former presidents, and other dignitaries.

The outgoing president attends the inauguration, barring those cases where succession was due to his death. There have been four exceptions:

  • John Adams did not attend Jefferson's inauguration.
  • John Quincy Adams did not attend Jackson's inauguration.
  • Andrew Johnson did not attend Grant's inauguration.
  • Richard Nixon left Washington, DC before his resignation took effect, and did not attend Ford's inauguration.

Ceremony elements

Oaths of office

Since 1937, the vice president-elect takes the oath of office at the same ceremony as the president-elect; before then, the vice presidential oath was administered in the Senate. The Vice-President-elect takes the oath first. Unlike the president, the United States Constitution does not specify an oath of office for the Vice President. Several variants of the oath have been used since 1789; the current form, which is also recited by Senators, Representatives and other government officers, has been used since 1884:

I, AB, do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies, foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and faithfully discharge the duties of the office on which I am about to enter.[8]

Immediately after the vice-presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail, Columbia.

At noon, the new presidential term begins. At about that time, the president-elect takes the oath of office, traditionally administered by the Chief Justice of the United States, using the form mandated in Article II, Section 1 of the United States Constitution:

I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of President of the United States, and will to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States.

According to a single source, Washington Irving's biography of George Washington, in the first inauguration President Washington added the words "so help me God" after accepting the oath, although there is no contemporary evidence of this. However, the only contemporaneous source that fully reproduced Washington's oath completely lacks the religious codicil.[9] The first newspaper report that actually described the exact words used in an oath of office, Chester Arthur's in 1881,[10] repeated the "query-response" method where the words, "so help me God" were a personal prayer, not a part of the constitutional oath. The time of adoption of the current procedure, where both the Chief Justice and the President speak the oath, is unknown.

There is no requirement that any book, or in particular a book of sacred text, be used to administer the oath, and none is mentioned in the Constitution. With the use of the Bible being customary for oaths, at least in the 18th and 19th centuries, a Bible was generally used. Several Presidents were sworn in on the George Washington Inaugural Bible.[citation needed] On some occasions, the particular passage to which it was opened has been recorded, as below. Only one president, Franklin Pierce, is definitely known to have affirmed rather than sworn; there are conflicting reports concerning Herbert Hoover, but the use of a Bible is recorded and suggests that he swore in the usual fashion. Barack Obama used the Lincoln Bible for his swearing in.[11]

Problems listening to this file? See media help.

The presidential oath has been administered by 15 Chief Justices, one Associate Justice, and two New York state judges.

Immediately after the presidential oath, the United States Marine Band will perform four ruffles and flourishes, followed by Hail to the Chief, while simultaneously, a 21-gun salute is fired using artillery pieces from the Presidential Guns Salute Battery, 3d United States Infantry Regiment "The Old Guard".

Inaugural address

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Newly sworn-in presidents usually give a speech referred to as an inaugural address. Until William McKinley's first inaugural address in 1897, the president elect traditionally gave the address before taking the oath; McKinley requested the change so that he could reiterate the words of the oath at the close of his address. Four presidents gave no address: Tyler, Fillmore, Andrew Johnson, and Arthur. In each of these cases, the incoming President was succeeding a President who had died in office, and was not elected as president in the next election. Gerald Ford addressed the nation via broadcast after taking the oath, but he characterized his speech as "Not an inaugural address, not a fireside chat, not a campaign speech--just a little straight talk among friends."[12] Fifty-four addresses have been given by thirty-seven presidents. George Washington's second address was the shortest (135 words), and William Henry Harrison delivered the longest (8,495 words).

Religious elements

Since 1937, the ceremony has incorporated two or more prayers. Musical works and poetry readings have been included on occasion.

[13]

Other elements

Congressional luncheon

Since 1953, the president and vice president have been guests of honor at a luncheon held by the United States Congress immediately following the inaugural ceremony. Other than at State of the Union addresses, the Red Mass, and state funerals, it is the only time the president, vice president, and both houses of Congress congregate in the same location.

Parade

The Inaugural Parade on Pennsylvania Avenue passes the Presidential reviewing stand in front of the White House in January 2005.

Since Thomas Jefferson's second inaugural on March 4, 1805, it has become tradition for the president to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue from the Capitol to the White House. The only president not to parade down Pennsylvania Avenue was Ronald Reagan in his second inauguration in 1985 due to freezing cold temperatures made dangerous by high winds. Reagan paraded down Pennsylvania Avenue during his first inauguration, in 1981, amidst the celebrations that broke out across the country because of news just minutes into his term that the 52 American hostages held in Iran for the previous 444 days had been released. In 1977, Jimmy Carter walked from the Capitol to the White House, although for security reasons, subsequent presidents have only walked a part of the way.

Prayer service

A tradition of a national prayer service, usually the day after the inauguration, dates back to George Washington and since Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the prayer service has been held at the Washington National Cathedral.[14]

Security

The security for the inaugural celebrations is a complex matter, involving not only the Secret Service, but other Federal law enforcement agencies, Immigration and Customs Enforcement-Office of Federal Protective Service (ICE-FPS), all five branches of the Armed Forces, the Capitol Police, and the Metropolitan Police Department of the District of Columbia (MPDC). Federal law enforcement agencies also sometimes request assistance from various other state and local law enforcement agencies throughout the United States. One issue is the ability of protesters to engage in free speech while providing protection for the government officials at risk for assassination or bodily harm.

List of inaugural ceremonies

This is a list of the 56 inaugural ceremonies. For a list of the 72 instances when the oath of office has been taken, see Oath of office of the President of the United States.

Date President Location Administered by[15] Scripture Verse Inaugural Addresses
April 30, 1789 George Washington Balcony of Federal Hall
New York, New York
Robert Livingston
Chancellor of New York
Genesis 49:13
Washington Bible[16][17]
George Washington's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1793 George Washington Senate Chamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
William Cushing
Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Unknown[18] George Washington's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1797 John Adams House Chamber
Congress Hall
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Oliver Ellsworth Unknown[18] John Adams' Inaugural Address
March 4, 1801 Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] Thomas Jefferson's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1805 Thomas Jefferson Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] Thomas Jefferson's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1809 James Madison House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] James Madison's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1813 James Madison House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] James Madison's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1817 James Monroe In front of Old Brick Capitol
(1st & A Sts., N.E.)
now site of the Supreme Court Building
John Marshall Unknown[18] James Monroe's First Inaugural Address
March 5, 1821 James Monroe House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] James Monroe's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1825 John Q. Adams House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall None, used a book of US law instead of a Bible.[19] John Quincy Adams's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1829 Andrew Jackson East Portico, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] Andrew Jackson's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1833 Andrew Jackson House Chamber, U.S. Capitol John Marshall Unknown[18] Andrew Jackson's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1837 Martin Van Buren East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Proverbs 3:17[20][18] Martin Van Buren's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1841 William H. Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[18] William Henry Harrison's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1845 James K. Polk East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown James K. Polk's Inaugural Address
March 5, 1849 Zachary Taylor East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown Zachary Taylor's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1853 Franklin Pierce East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney None[21][22][18] Franklin Pierce's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1857 James Buchanan East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Unknown[18] James Buchanan's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1861 Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Roger B. Taney Opened at random[18] Abraham Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1865 Abraham Lincoln East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Matthew 7:1, Matthew 18:7, Revelation 16:7[23] Abraham Lincoln's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1869 Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Unknown[18] Ulysses S. Grant's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1873 Ulysses S. Grant East Portico, U.S. Capitol Salmon P. Chase Isaiah 11:1-3[24] Ulysses S. Grant's Second Inaugural Address
March 5, 1877 Rutherford B. Hayes East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Morrison R. Waite Psalms 118:11-13[24] Rutherford B. Hayes's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1881 James A. Garfield East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Proverbs 21:1[24][25] James A. Garfield's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1885 Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Morrison R. Waite Psalms 112:4-10[26] Grover Cleveland's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1889 Benjamin Harrison East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Psalms 121:1-6[24] Benjamin Harrison's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1893 Grover Cleveland East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Psalms 91:12-16 Grover Cleveland's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1897 William McKinley In front of Original Senate Wing
U.S. Capitol
Melville W. Fuller 2 Chronicles 1:10[27] William McKinley's First Inaugural Address
March 4, 1901 William McKinley East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller Proverbs 16[24] William McKinley's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1905 Theodore Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller James 1:22-23[24] Theodore Roosevelt's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1909 William H. Taft Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol Melville W. Fuller 1 Kings 3:9-11[24] William Howard Taft's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1913 Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Psalm 119[24] Woodrow Wilsons First Inaugural Address
March 5, 1917 Woodrow Wilson East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Edward D. White Psalm 46[28] Woodrow Wilson's Second Inaugural Address
March 4, 1921 Warren G. Harding East Portico, U.S. Capitol Edward D. White Micah 6:8 (Washington Bible)[24] Warren Harding's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1925 Calvin Coolidge East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft John 1[18] Calvin Coolidge's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1929 Herbert C. Hoover East Portico, U.S. Capitol William H. Taft Proverbs 29:18[24] Herbert Hoover's Inaugural Address
March 4, 1933 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes

1 Corinthians 13:13[29]

Franklin Roosevelt's First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1937 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1941 Franklin D. Roosevelt East Portico, U.S. Capitol Charles E. Hughes I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt's Third Inaugural Address
January 20, 1945 Franklin D. Roosevelt South Portico, White House Harlan F. Stone I Corinthians 13 Franklin Roosevelt's Fourth Inaugural Address
January 20, 1949 Harry S. Truman East Portico, U.S. Capitol
First inauguration to be televised[30]
Frederick M. Vinson Matthew 5:3-11 and Exodus 20:3-17[31] Harry S. Truman's Inaugural Address
January 20, 1953 Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol Frederick M. Vinson Psalm 127:1 (Washington Bible) and II Chronicles 7:14 (West Point Bible)[32] Dwight Eisenhower's First Inaugural Address
January 21, 1957 Dwight D. Eisenhower East Portico, U.S. Capitol (publicly) Earl Warren Psalm 33:12[33] (West Point Bible)[34] Dwight Eisenhower's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1961 John F. Kennedy East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[35] [36] John F. Kennedy's Inaugural Address
January 20, 1965 Lyndon B. Johnson East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Closed family Bible[37][18] Lyndon Johnson's Inaugural Address
January 20, 1969 Richard M. Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Earl Warren Isaiah 2:4[29] Richard Nixon's First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1973 Richard M. Nixon East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Isaiah 2:4[38] Richard Nixon's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1977 Jimmy Carter East Portico, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger Micah 6:8[39][40] Jimmy Carter's Inaugural Address
January 20, 1981 Ronald Reagan West Front, U.S. Capitol Warren E. Burger II Chronicles 7:14[18] Ronald Reagan's First Inaugural Address
January 21, 1985 Ronald Reagan Rotunda, U.S. Capitol (public) Warren E. Burger II Chronicles 7:14[18] Ronald Reagan's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 1989 George H. W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Matthew 5[41][18] George H. W. Bush's Inaugural Address
January 20, 1993 Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Galatians 6:8[18] Bill Clinton's First Inaugural Address
January 20, 1997 Bill Clinton West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Isaiah 58:12[42] Bill Clinton's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 2001 George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Closed family Bible[43][18] George W. Bush's First Inaugural Address
January 20, 2005 George W. Bush West Front, U.S. Capitol William Rehnquist Open family bible; same one used in 2001 and 1989 [18] George W. Bush's Second Inaugural Address
January 20, 2009 Barack Obama[44] West Front, U.S. Capitol John G. Roberts Closed Lincoln Bible[45] Barack Obama's Inaugural Address
ZZZDate ZZZPresident ZZZLocation ZZZAdministered by[15] Scripture Verse[18] Inaugural Addresses (Texts from Wikisource)

See also

References

  1. ^ http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pinotable.html
  2. ^ "Exhibit: President George Washington's inaugural address". National Archives and Records Administration. 1998-08-17. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/american_originals/inaugura.html. Retrieved 2009-01-22. "George Washington's first inauguration took place at Federal Hall in New York City [...] George Washington's first inaugural address, April 30, 1789" 
  3. ^ "President George Washington's first inaugural speech (1789)". Our documents. http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=11. Retrieved 2009-01-22. "Before the assembled crowd of spectators, Robert Livingston, Chancellor of the State of New York, administered the oath" 
  4. ^ a b "Inaugural history: inauguration 2001". PBS. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/inauguration/history.html. Retrieved 2009-01-22. "Thomas Jefferson was the first president to be sworn in as president in Washington DC, which did not officially become the US capital until 1801. [...] Inauguration Day was originally set for March 4, giving electors from each state nearly four months after Election Day to cast their ballots for president. In 1933, the day of inauguration was changed by constitutional amendment from March 4 to Jan. 20 to speed the changeover of administrations." 
  5. ^ Foley, Thomas (January 25, 1973). "Thousands in Washington Brave Cold to Say Goodbye to Johnson". The Los Angeles Times: p. A1. 
  6. ^ "Joint Congressional Committee on Inaugural Ceremonies - Official Website.". http://inaugural.senate.gov/cmte/. 
  7. ^ "PIC records". National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/guide-fed-records/groups/274.html#top. 
  8. ^ 5 U.S.C. § 3331
  9. ^ Documentary History of the First Federal Congress, Vol. 15, pages 404-405
  10. ^ "The New Administration: President Arthur Formally Inaugurated" (pdf). The New York Times. 1881-09-22. http://query.nytimes.com/mem/archive-free/pdf?res=980DE1D9103CEE3ABC4B51DFBF66838A699FDE. Retrieved 2009-01-19. 
  11. ^ "President-elect Barack Obama to be Sworn in Using Lincoln’s Bible". Presidential Inaugural Committee. 2008-12-23. http://www.pic2009.org/blog/entry/president-elect_barack_obama_to_be_sworn_in_using_lincolns_bible/. 
  12. ^ "Gerald R. Ford's Remarks on Taking the Oath of Office as President". Gerald R. Ford Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.ford.utexas.edu/LIBRARY/speeches/740001.htm. Retrieved 2008-11-18. 
  13. ^ ""Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance"". http://fpc.state.gov/40871.htm. 
  14. ^ Knowlton, Brian (2009-01-21). "On His First Full Day, Obama Tackles Sobering Challenges". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/01/22/us/politics/22obamacnd.html. Retrieved 2009-01-28. 
  15. ^ a b Individual named is the U.S. Chief Justice, unless otherwise indicated
  16. ^ Opened at random due to haste.
  17. ^ Bowen, Clarence W. The History of the Centennial Celebration of the Inauguration of George Washington, N.Y. 1892, p. 72
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y "Bibles and Scripture Passages Used by Presidents in Taking the Oath of Office". Architect of the Capitol. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/pihtml/pibible.html. 
  19. ^ "Presidential Inaugurations Past and Present: A Look at the History Behind the Pomp and Circumstance". US Department of State. 2005-01-13. http://fpc.state.gov/fpc/40871.htm. 
  20. ^ Files of the Legislative Reference Service, Library of Congress
  21. ^ Affirmed instead of swearing the oath.
  22. ^ Did not kiss Bible.
  23. ^ Wright, John. Historic Bibles in America, N.Y. 1905, p. 46
  24. ^ a b c d e f g h i j List compiled by Clerk of the Supreme Court, 1939
  25. ^ One source (The Chicago Daily Tribune, Sept. 23, 1881, p. 5) says that Garfield and Arthur used the same passage, but does not indicate which one.
  26. ^ Opened at random by Chief Justice
  27. ^ Bible given to him by Methodist church congregation
  28. ^ Senate Document 116, 65th Congress, 1st Session, 1917
  29. ^ a b "Obama picks Bible for inauguration, but what verse?". CNN. 2008-12-24. http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/12/24/inauguration.scripture/index.html. 
  30. ^ "Inauguration of the President: Facts & Firsts". U.S. Senate. http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/factsandfirsts/. Retrieved December 13, 2008. 
  31. ^ Facts on File, Jan. 16-22, 1949, p. 21.
  32. ^ New York Times, Jan. 21, 1953, p. 19
  33. ^ New York Times, Jan. 22, 1957, p. 16.
  34. ^ http://inaugural.senate.gov/history/chronology/ddeisenhower1957.cfm
  35. ^ http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/JFK+in+History/John+F.+Kennedy+and+Ireland.htm
  36. ^ New York Times, Jan. 21, 1961, p. 8, col. 1.
  37. ^ Office of the Clerk of the Supreme Court via phone July 1968
  38. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 20, 1969, p. A1.
  39. ^ "Jimmy Carter Inaugural Address". Bartelby.com. 1977-01-20. http://www.bartleby.com/124/pres60.html. 
  40. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1977, p. A17
  41. ^ Washington's Masonic Bible opened at random in the center; family Bible on top opened to Matthew 5
  42. ^ Washington Post, Jan. 21, 1997, p. A14
  43. ^ Inauguration staff. George W. Bush had hoped to use the Masonic Bible that had been used both by George Washington in 1789, and by the President's father, George H. W. Bush, in 1989. This historic Bible had been transported, under guard, from New York to Washington for the inauguration but, due to inclement weather, a family Bible was substituted instead.
  44. ^ Resworn in the Map Room of the White House to correct words transposed during the public ceremony and put to rest any concerns about the legitimacy of the oath. Shear, Michael (January 22, 2009). "Obama Sworn In Again, Using the Right Words". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/01/21/AR2009012103685.html. Retrieved 21 January 2009. 
  45. ^ "Obama chooses Lincoln's Bible for inauguration". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28366102/. 

Further reading

  • Inaugural Addresses of the Presidents of the United States. Bartleby.com. 1989. ISBN 1-58734-025-9. 

External links








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