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The presidium or præsidium (from Latin præsidium meaning protection or defense, so plural presidia or præsidia) is the name for the heading organ of various legislative and organizational bodies. The members of the presidium usually sit on the tribune in front of the main members body.

In Communist states the presidium was the permanent heading body of legislative bodies such as the Supreme Soviet in the USSR. The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR existed from 1936, when the Supreme Soviet of the USSR replaced the Central Executive Committee (according to the Oxford English Dictionary, "the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee"), and from 1936 until 1991 the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the formal title of the head of state of the USSR until the office of President of the Soviet Union was introduced in 1990.

From 1952 to 1966 the Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was known as the Presidium of the Central Committee of the Communist Party but despite the similarity in name, the two Presidia were different bodies with different functions.

The Presidium is currently used by North Korea and in China.

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